SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS

)
y=k²x PROBLEM 1 What number exceeds its square by the maximum amount? Solution: 2x ² k = 0 Let x=½k x = the number and x2 = the square of the number y=k-½k y = the difference between x and x2 y=½k z = x3 + y2 y = x ² x2 z = (½ k)2 + (½ k)2 y' = 1 ² 2x = 0 z = ½ k2 x = ½ answer Problem 4 From Equation (1) Problem 2 What positive number added to its reciprocal gives the minimum sum? Solution: x and y = the numbers Let z = sum of their cubes x = the required positive number and k=x+y 1/x = the reciprocal of the number y=k²x y = sum of x and 1/x y = 1.1315 y = x + 1/x z = x3 + y3 y = x + x-1 z = x3 + (k ² x)3 y' = 1 - x-2 = 0 dz/dx = 3x2 + 3(k - x)2(-1) = 0 x = 1 answer x2 ² (k2 ² 2kx + x2) = 0 x=½k Problem 3 y=k-½k The sum of two numbers is k. Find the minimum value of the sum of their squares. Solution: z = (½ k)3 + (½ k)3 Let z = ¼ k3 x and y = the numbers z = sum of their squares z = xy2 k=x+y x=a²y x+y=a y=½k Problem 6 Find two numbers whose sum is a, if the product of one to the square of the other is to be a minimum. Solution: Let x and y = the numbers z = 1.9354 answer z = 0.86853 + 1.13152 y = (3/2)(0.8685)2 use x = 0.8685 x = 0.8685 & ²1.5352 The sum of two numbers is k. Find the minimum value of the sum of their cubes. Solution: Let x + (3/2) x2 = 2 2x + 3x2 = 4 3x2 + 2x ² 4 = 0 y = (3/2) x2 3x2 + 2y(²1) = 0 Equation (2) y· = ²1 x+y=2 1 + y· = 0 Equation (1) Let x and y = the numbers z = x2 + y2 z = x2 + (k ² x)2 dz/dx = 2x + 2(k - x)(-1) = 0 Solution 5 Problem 5 The sum of two positive numbers is 2. Find the smallest value possible for the sum of the cube of one number and the square of the other.

dz/dx = 3x2 + 2y y· = 0

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
z = (a ² y) y2 z = ay2 ² y3 dz/dy = 2ay ² 3y2 = 0 y = 2/3 a z = x2 y3 dz/dx = x2 (3y2 y·) + 2xy3 = 0 x = a ² 2/3 a x = 1/3 a The numbers are 1/3 a, and 2/3 a. answer Problem 7 Find two numbers whose sum is a, if the product of one by the cube of the other is to be a maximum. Solution: Let x and y the numbers x+y=a x=a²y x = 2/3 (3/5 a) x = 2/5 a The numbers are 2/5 a and 3/5 a. answer Problem 9 z = xy3 z = (a ² y) y3 z = ay3 ² y4 Solution: dz/dy = 3ay2 ² 4y3 = 0 Area: y2 (3a ² 4y) = 0 A=xy y = 0 (absurd) and 3/4 a (use) 0=xy·+y y·=²yx x = a - 3/4 a Solution: x = 1/4 a Total cost: Perimeter: The numbers are 1/4 a and 3/4 a. answer P=2x+2y Problem 8 dPdx=2+2y·=0 Find two numbers whose sum is a, if the product of the square of one by the cube of the other is to be a maximum. Solution: A=xy Let x and y the numbers 1+(²yx)=0 y=x (a square) answer k²(m+n)x=2ny y=k2nï2nm+nx Area: k=mx+2ny+nx k=mx+n(2y+x) A rectangular lot is to be fenced off along a highway. If the fence on the highway costs m dollars per yard, on the other sides n dollars per yard, find the area of the largest lot that can be fenced off for k dollars. Problem 11 What should be the shape of a rectangular field of a given area, if it is to be enclosed by the least amount of fencing? Perimeter: P=x+2y dPdx=1+2y·=0 1+2(²yx)=0 y=21x width = ½ × length answer 2/3 y + y = a 5/3 y = a y = 3/5 a 3x(²1) + 2y = 0 x = 2/3 y Solution: Area: A=xy 0=xy·+y y·=²yx 1 + y· = 0 y = ²1 Problem 10 A rectangular field of given area is to be fenced off along the bank of a river. If no fence is needed along the river, what is the shape of the rectangle requiring the least amount of fencing?

A=xk2nï2nm+nx x+y=a

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
y·=²yx A=k2nxï2nm+nx2 dxdA=k2nïnm+nx=0 k2n=nm+nx x=k2(m+n) y=k2nï2nm+nk2(m+n) y=k4n A=k2(m+n)k4n A=k28n(m+n) yard2 answer Problem 12 A rectangular field of fixed area is to be enclosed and divided into three lots by parallels to one of the sides. What should be the relative dimensions of the field to make the amount of fencing minimum? Fence: P=2x+6y dPdx=2+6y·=0 2+6(²yx)=0 Solution: y=31x V=(9²2x)2x width =31 length answer V=81x²36x2+4x3 Problem 14 dxdV=81²72x+12x2=0 A rectangular lot is bounded at the back by a river. No fence is needed along the river and there is to be 24-ft opening in front. If the fence along the front costs $1.50 per foot, along the sides $1 per foot, find the dimensions of the largest lot which can be thus fenced in for $300. 4x2²24x+27=0

using quadratic formula a=4;b=²24;c=27

Solution Solution Area: A=xy 0=xy·+y y·=²yx Area: Fence: P=2x+4y dPdx=2+4y·=0 2+4(²yx)=0 y=21x dxdA=168²15x=0 x=112ft width = ½ × length Problem 13 Do Ex. 12 with the words ´three lotsµ replaced by ´five lotsµ. Solution Area: A=xy 0=xy·+y A box is to be made of a piece of cardboard 9 inches square by cutting equal squares out of the corners and turning up the sides. Find the volume of the largest box that can be made in this way. answer y=168²075(112) y=84ft Dimensions: 84 ft × 112 ft answer Problem 15 A=xy A=x(168²075x) A=168x²075x2 Total cost: 300=2y+15(x²24) y=168²075x

x=2aïbb2ï4ac x=2(4)ï(ï24)(ï24)2ï4(4)(27) x=82412 x=45 and 15 use x = 1.5 inches Maximum volume: V=[9²2(15)]2(15) V=54 in2 answer Problem 16 Find the volume of the largest box that can be made by cutting equal squares out of the corners of a piece of cardboard of dimensions 15 inches by 24 inches, and then turning up the sides.

Solution: V=(24²2x)(15²2x)x V=360x²78x2+4x3 dxdV=360²156x+12x2=0 x2²13x+30=0

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
(x²10)(x²3)=0 x=10 (meaningless) and 3 Vmax=[24ï2(3)][15²2(3)]3 Vmax=486 in3 answer Problem 17 Find the depth of the largest box that can be made by cutting equal squares of side x out of the corners of a piece of cardboard of dimensions 6a, 6b, (b ” a), and then turning up the sides. To select that value of x which yields a maximum volume, show that (a+b+a2ïab+b2)3b Use x=a+bïa2ïab+b2 answer Problem 18 x=b ok

The strength of a rectangular beam is proportional to the breadth and the square of the depth. Find the shape of the largest beam that can be cut from a log of given size.

Solution: Diameter is given (log of given size), thus D is constant b2+d2=D2 2bdddb+2d=0 dddb=ïbd

Stiffness: Solution: V=(6a²2x)(6b²2x)x V=36abx²12(a+b)x2+4x3 dVdx=36ab²24(a+b)x+12x2=0 x2²2(a+b)x+3ab=0 A=1;B=²2(a+b);C=3ab x=2AïBB2ï4AC x=2(1)2(a+b)4(a+b)2ï4(1)(3ab) x=22(a+b)2(a2+2ab+b2)ï3ab x=(a+b)+a2ïab+b2 and x=(a+b)ïa2ïab+b2 Solution: 3bd2+d3ïbd=0 Diameter is given (log of given size), thus D is constant b2+d2=D2 2bdddb+2d=0 dddb=ïbd Strength: S=bd2 dddS=b(2d)+d2dddb=0 2bd+d2ïbd=0 2bd=bd3 If a = b: From x=(a+b)+a2ïab+b2 x=(b+b)+b2ïb2+b2 x=3b (x is equal to ½ of 6b - meaningless) From x=(a+b)ïa2ïab+b2 x=(b+b)ïb2ïb2+b2 2b2=d2 d=2b depth =2 breadth Problem 19 The stiffness of a rectangular beam is proportional to the breadth and the cube of the depth. Find the shape of the stiffest beam that can be cut from a log of given size. answer 3bd2=bd4 3b2=d2 d=3b depth =3 breadth Problem 20 Compare for strength and stiffness both edgewise and sidewise thrust, two beams of equal length, 2 inches by 8 inches and the other 4 inches by 6 inches (See Problem 18 and Problem 19 above). Which shape is more often used for floor joist? Why? answer k=bd3 dddk=b(3d2)+d3dddb=0

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
Solution: Strength, S = bd2 Stiffness, k = bd3 For 2" × 8": Oriented such that the breadth is 2" S = 8(22) = 32 in3 k = 8(23) = 64 in4 Oriented such that the breadth is 8" Problem 22 S = 2(82) = 128 in3 k = 2(83) = 1024 in4 If the hypotenuse of the right triangle is given, show that the area is maximum when the triangle is isosceles. Total Area: For 4" × 6": Oriented such that the breadth is 6" S = 6(42) = 96 in3 k = 6(43) = 384 in4 Oriented such that the breadth is 4" S = 4(62) = 144 in3 k = 4(63) = 864 in4 Strength wise and stiffness wise, 4" × 6" is more preferable. Economic wise, 2" × 8" is more preferable. Problem 21 Find the rectangle of maximum perimeter inscribed in a given circle. Solution: x2+y2=c2 2x+2yy·=0 y·=²xy Area: A=21xy Problem 24 dAdb=21[xy·+y]=0 xy·+y=0 x(²xy)+y=0 y=x2y y2=x2 y=x The triangle is an isosceles right triangle answer Solution: Problem 23 Diameter D is constant (circle is given) x2+y2=D2 2x+2yy·=0 y·=²xy Find the most economical proportions for a covered box of fixed volume whose base is a rectangle with one side three times as long as the other. Solution: Given Volume: V=x(3x)y V=3x2y 0=3x2y·+6xy y·=²2yx Area: A=3x2+2(3xy)+2(xy) A=3x2+8xy Solve Problem 23 if the box has an open top. AT=2(3x2)+2(3xy)+2(xy) AT=6x2+8xy dATdx=12x+8(xy·+y)=0 12x+8[x(²2yx)+y]=0 12x+8[²2y+y]=0 12x=8y y=23x altitude = 3/2 × shorter side of base answer y·=²2yx Perimeter P=2x+2y dPdx=2+2y·=0 2+2(²xy)=0 y=x The largest rectangle is a square answer See also the solution using trigonometric function. Solution: Given Volume: V=x(3x)yV=3x2y 0=3x2y·+6xy

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
dAdx=6x+8(xy·+y)=0 6x+8[x(²2yx)+y]=0 6x+8[²2y+y]=0 6x=8y y=43x altitude = 3/4 × shorter side of base answer Problem 25 dddA=21d+ddddh+h=0 Find the most economical proportions of a quart can. 21d+ddddh+h=0 Solution: 21d+dïd2h+h=0 Perimeter: 21d=h P=2y+x But ½ d = radius, r 0=2y·+1 r=h y·=²12=²05 radius = height Solution: Volume: V=41d2h= 1 quart 41d2dddh+2dh=0 dddh=ïd2h Total area (closed both ends): AT=2(41d2)+dh AT=21d2+dh dddAT=d+ddddh+h=0 dddddh+h=0 d+dïd2h+h=0 d=h diameter = height Problem 26 Find the most economical proportions for a cylindrical cup. answer Solution: Volume: V=x2y 0=x2y·+2xy y·=²2yx Area: A=x2+4xy dAdx=2x+4(xy·+y)=0 2x+4[x(²2yx)+y]=0 2x²8y+4y=0 2x=4y Problem 27 A=21xh Find the most economical proportions for a box with an open top and a square base. From the figure: h=y2ï025x2 A=21xy2ï025x2 dxdA=21x2yyï05x2y2ï025x2+y2ï025x2=0 2y2ï025x22(xyyï025x2)+y2ï025x2=0 multiply both sides of the equation by y2ï025x2 xyy²025x2+y2²025x2=0 xy(²05)²05x2+y2=0 y2²05xy²05x2=0 2y2²xy²x2=0 Solving for y by quadratic formula: a = 2; b = ²x; c = ²x2 y=2aïbb2ï4ac y=2(2)ï(ïx)x2ï4(2)(ïx2) y=4xx2+8x2 y=4x3x y=x and ï21x answer Area: Solution: Volume: V=41d2h 0=41d2dddh+2dh dddh=ïd2h Area (open one end): A=41d2+dh x=2y side of base = 2 × altitude Problem 28 The perimeter of an isosceles triangle is P inches. Find the maximum area. answer

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
For 2x = 0; x = 0 (meaningless) y = -½ x is absurd, thus use y = x Therefore P=2x+x=3x x=y=31P h=y2ï025x2 h=(31P)2ï41(31P)2 h=91P2ï136P2 h=112P2 h=123P A=21xh Amax=21(31P)(123P) Amax=1123P2 Amax=112333P2 [math]Amax=363P2 Problem 29 The sum of the length and girth of a container of square cross section is a inches. Find the maximum volume. answer Solution: From the figure: D2=d2+h2 Problem 30 Find the proportion of the circular cylinder of largest volume that can be inscribed in a given sphere. Solution: Convex surface area (shaded area): A=dh dddA=ddddh+h=0 ddddh+h=0 From Solution to Problem 30 above, dh/dd = -d/h dïdddh+h=0 h=hd2 h2=d2 d=h diameter = height Problem 32 0=2d+2hdddh Find the dimension of the largest rectangular building that can be placed on a right-triangular lot, facing one of the perpendicular sides. answer For a - 6x = 0; x = 1/6 a y=aï4(61a) y=31a Vmax=(31a)2(31a) Vmax=1108a3 in3 answer Problem 31 In Problem 30 above, find the shape of the circular cylinder if its convex surface area is to be a maximum.

dddh=ïhd Volume of cylinder: Solution: a=4x+y y=a²4x Volume V=x2y V=x2(a²4x) V=ax2²4x3 dVdx=2ax²12x2=0 2x(a²6x)=0 V=41d2h dhdV=4d2dddh+2dh=0 ddddh+2h=0 Solution: dïhd+2h=0 Area: 2h=hd2 A=xy d2=2h2 From the figure: d=2h yaïx=ab diameter =2 height answer y=ab(aïx)

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
A=xab(aïx) A=bxïabx2 dxdA=bïa2bx=0 a2bx=b x=21a y=ab(aï21a) y=21b dimensions: ½ a Problem 33 A lot has the form of a right triangle, with perpendicular sides 60 and 80 feet long. Find the length and width of the largest rectangular building that can be erected, facing the hypotenuse of the triangle. Dimensions: ab2a2+b22a2+b2 Problem 35 A page is to contain 24 sq. in. of print. The margins at top and bottom are 1.5 in., at the sides 1 in. Find the most economical dimensions of the page. answer × ½b answer x=24 feet y=100²1225(24) y=50 feet dimensions: 50 ft × 24 ft Problem 34 Solve Problem 34 above if the lengths of the perpendicular sides are a, b. answer y=aba2+b2abïab2a2+b2a2+b2 y=aba2+b2abï2ab y=aba2+b22ab y=2a2+b2 dxdA=aba2+b2abï2xa2+b2=0 2xa2+b2=ab x=ab2a2+b2

Solution: Area: A=xy By similar triangle: cot=rx=ab r=abx Solution: Area: cot=sx=ba A=xy s=bax By similar triangle: cot=rx=8060 r+y+s=a2+b2 r=43x abx+y+bax=a2+b2 cot=sx=6080 y+aba2+b2x=a2+b2 s=34x y=a2+b2ïaba2+b2x r+y+s=100 y=ababa2+b2ï(a2+b2)x 43x+y+34x=100 y=aba2+b2abïxa2+b2 y=100ï1225x Thus, A=x(100ï1225x) Thus, A=100xï1225x2 A=xaba2+b2abïxa2+b2 dxdA=100ï1250x A=aba2+b2abxïx2a2+b2 x=100(5012

Solution: Print Area: (x²2)(y²3)=24 y=24xï2+3

Page area: A=xy A=x24xï2+3 A=24xxï2+3x dxdA=(xï2)2(xï2)24ï24x(1)+3=0 ï48(xï2)2+3=0 ²48+3(x²2)2=0 x=483+2 x=6 in

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
Volume: dbdA=82(ï4)b+bdbdh+h=0 y=246ï2+3 y=9 in 41bïbï41b+h=0 h=b breadth = height dimensions: Problem 36 A Norman window consists of a rectangle surmounted by a semicircle. What shape gives the most light for the given perimeter? 6 in × 9 in answer Problem 37 Solve Problem 36 above if the semicircle is stained glass admitting only half the normal amount of light. Solution: From Solution of Problem 36 dbdh=ï41 r=21b k=m(2rh+r2)+21m(r2) k=2mrh+23mr2 drdk=2mrdrdh+h+3mr=0 Half amount of light is equivalent to half of the area. A=41r2+b(h²r) Solution: Given perimeter: P=b+2(h²r)+r P=b+2h²2r+r Where: b = 2r[/math] thus, r = ½ b 2h=3r A=41(21b)2+b(h²21b) h=23r A=116b2+bh²21b2 A=116(ï8)b2+bh dbdA=216(ï8)b+bdbdh+h=0 81bïbï41b+h=0 ï(1+81)b+h=0 h=(1+81)b height=(1+81)breadth P=b+2h²b+21b P=2h+21b 0=2dbdh+21 dbdh=ï41 Problem 38 A cylindrical glass jar has a plastic top. If the plastic is half as expensive as glass, per unit area, find the most economical proportion of the jar. answer height = 3/2 × radius of base answer Problem 39 A trapezoidal gutter is to be made from a strip of tin by bending up the edges. If the cross-section has the form shown in Fig. 38, what width across the top gives maximum carrying capacity? 2rdrdh+h+3r=0 2rïr2h+h+3r=0 answer V=r2h 0=r2drdh+2rh drdh=ïr22rh drdh=ïr2h Let m = price per unit area of glass ½ m = price per unit area of plastic k = total material cost per jar

Light is most if area is maximum: A=21r2+b(h²r) A=21(21b)2+b(h²21b) A=81b2+bh²21b2 A=81(ï4)b2+bh Solution:

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
In Problem 39, if the strip is L in. wide, and the width across the top is T in. (T < L), what base width gives the maximum capacity?

Solution: h2+2bïa2=a2 Solution: Solution: h2+2Tïa2=2Lïa2 h=214a2ï(bïa)2 Capacity is maximum if area is maximum: A=21(b+a)h A=21(b+a)214a2ï(bïa)2 A=41(b+a)4a2ï(bïa)2 that a is constant) (take note h=4(Lïa)2ï4(Tïa)2 h=21(Lïa)2ï(Tïa)2 h=21L2ï2La+a2ïT2+2Taïa2 h=21L2ïT2ï2(LïT)a Area: A=21(a+T)h A=21(a+T)21L2ïT2ï2(LïT)a dbdA=41(b+a)ï2(bïa)24a2ï(bïa)2+4a2ï (bïa)2=0 A=41(a+T)L2ïT2ï2(LïT)a L and T are constant) (note that sin45=h214ïa h=214ïasin45 h=214ïa12 h=2214ïa Area: A=A1+2A2 A=ah+2(21h2) A=a2214ïa+2214ïa2 A=7a2ïa222+8(14ïa)2 dadA=72ïa2ï414ïa=0 72ïa2ï27+4a=0 41ï12a=27ï72 a=317 in Problem 43 A ship lies 6 miles from shore, and opposite a point 10 miles farther along the shore another ship lies 18 miles offshore. A boat from the first ship is to land a passenger and then proceed to the other ship. What is the least distance the boat can travel? answer

h=a2ï4(bïa)2

4a2ï(bïa)2=b2ïa24a2ï(bïa)2

dadA=41(a+T)ï2(LïT)2L2ïT2ï2(LïT)a+L2ïT 2ï2(LïT)a=0 L2ïT2ï2(LïT)a=(a+T)(LïT)L2ïT2ï2(LïT)a

4a2ï(bïa)2=b2ïa2 4a2²b2+2ab²a2=b2²a2 2b2²2ab²4a2=0 b2²ab²2a2=0 (b+a)(b²2a)=0

L2²T2²2(L²T)a=(a+T)(L²T) L2²T2²2La+2Ta=La²Ta+TL²T2 L2²TL=3La²3Ta 3(L²T)a=L(L²T) a=31L base = 1/3 × length of strip Problem 42 answer

For b + a = 0; b = -a (meaningless) For b - 2a = 0; b = 2a (ok)

From a strip of tin 14 inches a trapezoidal gutter is to be made by bending up the sides at an angle of 45°. Find the width of the base for greatest carrying capacity.

use b = 2a Problem 41

answer

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
Solution: D1=x2+62=x2+36 D2=(10ïx)2+182=(10ïx)2+324 Total Distance: D=D1+D2 D=x2+36+(10ïx)2+324 dxdD=2x2x2+36+2(10ïx)(ï1)2(10ïx)2+324 =0 xx2+36=10ïx(10ïx)2+324 x(10ïx)2+324=(10ïx)x2+36 x2[(10²x)2+324]=(10²x)2(x2+36) x2(10²x)2+324x2=x2(10²x)2+36(10²x)2 324x2=36(100²20x+x2) 9x2=100²20x+x2 8x2+20x²100=0 2x2+5x²25=0 (2x²5)(x+5)=0 x(15ïx)2+144=(15ïx)x2+64 x2[(15²x)2+144]=(15²x)2(x2+64) x2(15²x)2+144x2=x2(15²x)2+64(15²x)2 144x2=64(225²30x+x2) 9x2=4(225²30x+x2) For 2x - 5 = 0; x = 5/2 For x + 5 = 0; x = -5 (meaningless) Use x = 5/2 = 2.5 mi D=252+36+(10ï25)2+324 D=26 mi Problem 44 Two posts, one 8 feet high and the other 12 feet high, stand 15 ft apart. They are to be supported by wires attached to a single stake at ground level. The wires running to the tops of the posts. Where should the stake be placed, to use the least amount of wire? answer 5x2+120x²900=0 x2+24x²180=0 (x+30)(x²6)=0 For x + 30 = 0; x = ²30 (meaningless) For x - 6 = 0; x = 6 (ok) use x = 6 ft location of stake: 6 ft from the shorter post answer Problem 45 A ray of light travels, as in Fig. 39, from A to B via the point P on the mirror CD. Prove that the length (AP + PB) will be a minimum if and only if = . xx2+64=15ïx(15ïx)2+144 S=x2+a2+(cïx)2+b2 dxdS=2x2x2+a2+2(cïx)(ï1)2(cïx)2+b2 xx2+a2=cïx(cïx)2+b2 x(cïx)2+b2=(cïx)x2+a2 x2[(c²x)2+b2]=(c²x)2(x2+a2) x2(c²x)2+b2x2=x2(c²x)2+a2(c²x)2 b2x2=a2(c2²2cx+x2) b2x2=a2c2²2a2cx+a2x2 (a2²b2)x2²2a2cx+a2c2=0 By Quadratic Formula: A = a2 ² b2; B = ²2a2c; C = a2c2 x=2AïBB2ï4AC x=2(a2²b2)2a2c4a4c2ï4(a2²b2)(a2c2) x=2(a2²b2)2a2c4a4c2ï4a4c2+4a2b2c2 x=2(a2²b2)2a2c2abc x=ac(ab)(aïb)(a+b) For x=ac(a+b)(aïb)(a+b) x=acaïb For x=ac(aïb)(aïb)(a+b) x=aca+b ok meaningless if a > b dxdL=2x2x2+64+2(15ïx)(ï1)2(15ïx)2+144= 0 Total length of wire: L=L1+L2 L=x2+64+(15ïx)2+144 Solution: S1=x2+a2 S2=(cïx)2+b2 Total distance traveled by light: S=S1+S2 Solution: L1=x2+82=x2+64 L2=(15ïx)2+122=(15ïx)2+144

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SOLVED PROBLEMS IN MAXIMA AND MINIMA (DIFFIRENTIAL CALCULUS)
d=(xï0)2+(yïk)2 Use x=aca+b when S is minimum: cïx=cïaca+b cïx=a+b(a+b)cïac cïx=a+bac+bcïac cïx=bca+b tan=xa tan=aaca+b tan=ca+b tan=bcïx tan=bbca+b tan=ca+b tan thus, = tan = (ok!) Problem 47 Find the point on the curve a2 y = x3 that is nearest the point (4a, 0). d=x2+(yïk)2 d=a2+y2+(yïk)2 dydd=2y+2(yïk)2a2+y2+(yïk)2=0 2y+2(yïk) 2y=k y=21k y2=41k2 Nearest Distance: d=a2+41k2+(21kïk)2 d=a2+21k2 answer the nearest point is (a, a) answer by trial and error: x=a y=a2a3=a

Problem 46 Given point on the conjugate axis of an equilateral hyperbola, find the shortest distance to the curve.

Solution: d=(xï4a)2+(yï0)2 d=(xï4a)2+y2 from Solution: Standard equation: x2a2ïb2y2=1 For equilateral hyperbola, b = a. x2a2ïa2y2=1 x2²y2=a2 x2=a2+y2 3x5+a4x²4a5=0 Distance d: a2y=x3 y=x3a2 y2=x6a4 d=(xï4a)2+x6a4 dxdd=2(xï4a)+a46x5/2(xï4a)2+x6a4=0 (xï4a)+a43x5=0

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