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Miyamoto - The Book of Five Rings

Miyamoto - The Book of Five Rings

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  • Source: Wikipedia
  • Note: This book is brought to you by Feedbooks
  • It is now during the first ten days of the tenth month in the twentieth
  • After that I went from province to province dueling with strategist of
  • There are various Ways. There is the Way of salvation by the law of
  • Even if a man has no natural ability he can be a warrior by sticking as-
  • In China and Japan practitioners of the Way have been known as
  • "masters of strategy". Warriors must learn this Way
  • Kantori shrines of the province Hitachi received instruction from the
  • In olden times strategy was listed among the Ten Abilities and Seven
  • If we look at the world we see arts for sale. Men use equipment to sell
  • Second is the Way of the merchant. The wine maker obtains his in-
  • The Way of the warrior is to master the virtue of his weapons. If a gen-
  • The comparison with carpentry is through the connection with houses
  • The foreman carpenter must know the architectural theory of towers
  • Straight un-knotted timber of good appearance is used for the revealed
  • The foreman carpenter allots his men work according to their ability
  • The Way is shown as five books concerning different aspects. These
  • The body of the Way of Strategy from the viewpoint of my Ichi school
  • Third is the Fire book. This book is about fighting. The spirit of fire is
  • Fourthly the Wind book. This book is not concerned with my Ichi
  • I intend to show how to follow the true Way according to nature in the
  • book of the Void
  • "Nito Ichi Ryu" shows the advantages of using both swords
  • The spear and the halberd are weapons which are carried out of doors
  • Students of the Ichi school Way of Strategy should train from the start
  • It is better to use two swords rather than one when you are fighting a
  • Masters of the long sword are called strategists. As for the other milit-
  • "strategy by means of the long sword". If he attains the virtue of the long
  • Way broadly you will see it in everything. Men must polish their partic-
  • There is a time and place for use of weapons
  • The halberd is inferior to the spear on the battlefield. With the spear
  • You should not have a favourite weapon. To become over-familiar
  • There is timing in everything. Timing in strategy cannot be mastered
  • You win battles with the timing in the Void born of the timing of cun-
  • All the five books are chiefly concerned with timing. You must train
  • Void. This is the way for men who want to learn my strategy:
  • 1. Do not think dishonestly
  • 2. The Way is in training
  • 3. Become acquainted with every art
  • 4. Know the Ways of all professions
  • 5. Distinguish between gain and loss in worldly matters
  • 6. Develop intuitive judgement and understanding for everything
  • 7. Perceive those things which cannot be seen
  • 8. Pay attention even to trifles
  • Water Book explains methods of victory as the long-sword form of the
  • The principles of strategy are written down here in terms of single
  • Strategy is different from other things in that if you mistake the Way
  • If you merely read this book you will not reach the Way of Strategy
  • In strategy your spiritual bearing must not be any different from nor-
  • Small people must be completely familiar with the spirit of large
  • Ways of different arts one by one. When you cannot be deceived by men
  • The wisdom of strategy is different from other things. On the battle-
  • You must research this well
  • The gaze should be large and broad. This is the twofold gaze
  • "Perception and Sight". Perception is strong and sight week
  • In strategy it is important to see distant things as if they were close and
  • It is necessary in strategy to be able to look to both sides without mov-
  • Grip the long sword with a rather floating feeling in your thumb and
  • The grip for combat and for sword-testing is the same. There is no
  • So-called "Yin-Yang foot" is important in the Way. Yin-Yang foot
  • Left Side and Right Side attitudes are fluid. Left and Right attitudes
  • The essence of the Way is this. To understand attitude you must thor-
  • Knowing the Way of the long sword means we can wield with two fin-
  • 1. The first approach is the Middle attitude. Confront the enemy with
  • The five approaches are this kind of thing. You must train repeatedly
  • In this method there are various changes in timing and spirit. You will
  • This is the Way of the long sword. Through this method you win by
  • This method is essential for knowing the Way of the long sword well
  • I cannot describe in detail how to use these five approaches. You must
  • "Attitude No-Attitude" means that there is no need for what are know
  • However you hold the sword it must be in such a way that it is easy to
  • The principle of this is called "Existing Attitude - Nonexisting
  • Attitude"
  • The primary thing when you take a sword in your hands is your inten-
  • Attitude in strategy on a larger scale is called "Battle Array". Such atti-
  • One Timing"
  • This is the most important method of hitting. It is often used. You
  • The "Flowing Water Cut" is used when you are struggling blade to
  • You must practice this cut; it is often used. With detailed practice you
  • Cut The Fires and Stones Cut means that when the enemy's long
  • Also "the long sword in place of the body". Usually we move the body
  • The Chinese Monkey's Body is the spirit of not stretching out your
  • The spirit of "Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body" is to stick to the en-
  • "Entanglement" is that stickiness is firm and entanglement is weak. You
  • The Body Strike means to approach the enemy through a gap in his
  • There are three methods to parry a cut:
  • These are the three methods of parrying. You must bear in mind that
  • You must learn this through repetitive practice
  • By "smacking parry" is meant that when you clash swords with the en-
  • "There are many enemies" applies when you are fighting one against
  • Oral tradition: "The true Way of Strategy is revealed in the long
  • You can win with certainty with the spirit of "one cut". It is difficult to
  • You must train diligently
  • The spirit of "Direct Communication" is how the true Way of the Ni To
  • Ichi school is received and handed down
  • Oral tradition: "Teach your body strategy."
  • Step by step walk the thousand-mile road
  • Study strategy over the years and achieve the spirit of the warrior
  • Today is victory over yourself of yesterday; tomorrow is your victory
  • In this the Fire Book of the Ni To Ichi school of strategy I describe fight-
  • You cannot profit from small techniques particularly when full armour
  • Any man who wants to master the essence of my strategy must re-
  • This is the practical result of strategy
  • Examine your environment
  • The first is to forestall him by attacking. This is called Ken No Sen (to
  • Another method is to forestall him as he attacks. This is called Tai No
  • Sen (to wait for the initiative)
  • The other method is when you and the enemy attack together. This is
  • There are no methods of taking the lead other than these three. Be-
  • This is the Tai No Sen principle
  • This is Tai Tai No Sen
  • These things cannot be clearly explained in words. You must research
  • "To Hold Down a Pillow" means not allowing the enemy's head to rise
  • In contests of strategy it is bad to be led about by the enemy. You must
  • The important thing in strategy is to suppress the enemy's useful ac-
  • In strategy also it is important to "cross at a ford". Discern the enemy's
  • "To know the times" means to know the enemy's disposition in battle
  • Is it flourishing or waning? By observing the spirit of the enemy's men
  • You must sufficiently study this
  • "Treading" does not simply mean treading with the feet. Tread with
  • "To become the enemy" means to think yourself in the enemy's posi-
  • In single combat also you must put yourself in the enemy's position. If
  • "To release four hands" is used when you and the enemy are contend-
  • "To move the shade" is used when you cannot see the enemy's spirit
  • "Holding down a shadow" is use when you can see the enemy's attack-
  • Void spirit
  • In large-scale strategy it is important to cause loss of balance. Attack
  • Get the feel of this
  • In large-scale strategy you can frighten the enemy not just by what
  • When you have come to grips and are striving together with the en-
  • In battles involving large numbers as well as in fights with small num-
  • "injure the corners"
  • This means making the enemy lose resolve
  • In large-scale strategy we can use our troops to confuse the enemy on
  • There? Like that? Like this? Slow? Fast?". Victory is certain when the en-
  • This is an important fighting method for one man against many. Strike
  • What is meant by "mingling" is the spirit of advancing and becoming
  • This means to crush the enemy regarding him as being weak
  • You must learn the spirit of crushing as if with a hand-grip
  • You must research this deeply
  • The "mountain-sea" spirit means that it is bad to repeat the same thing
  • It is necessary to consider how "to renew" also applies in large-scale
  • This is one of the essences of strategy. It is necessary that the warrior
  • "The commander knows the troops" applies everywhere in fights in
  • There are various kinds of spirit involved in letting go the hilt. There is
  • When you have mastered the Way of Strategy you can suddenly make
  • You will not be moved. Oral tradition
  • What is recorded above is what has been constantly on my mind about
  • This book is a spiritual guide for the man who wishes to learn the
  • Way
  • My heart has been inclined to the Way of Strategy from my youth on-
  • The true Way of sword fencing is the craft of defeating the enemy in a
  • "interior"
  • That none of these are the true Way I show clearly in the interior of
  • I have recorded the unsatisfactory point of other schools one by one in
  • Some other schools have a liking for extra-long swords. From the point
  • I expect there is a case for the school in question liking extra-long
  • It is difficult for these people to cut the enemy when at close quarters
  • From olden times it has been said: "Great and small go together.". So
  • Your strategy is of no account if when called on to fight in a confined
  • You should not speak of strong and weak long swords. If you just
  • Without the correct principle the fight cannot be won. The spirit of my
  • Using a shorter long sword is not the true Way to win
  • Way of Strategy
  • The sure Way to win thus is to chase the enemy around in confusing
  • The Way of Strategy is straight and true. You must chase the enemy
  • Placing a great deal of importance on the attitudes of the long sword is
  • In duels of strategy you must move the opponent's attitude. Attack
  • Take advantage of the enemy's rhythm when he is unsettled and you can
  • In large-scale strategy we deploy our troops for battle bearing in mind
  • The spirit of attacking first is completely different from the spirit of be-
  • Some schools maintain that the eyes should be fixed on the enemy's
  • People such as master musicians have the music score in front of their
  • In large-scale strategy the area to watch is the enemy's strength
  • "Perception" and "sight" are the two methods of seeing. Perception con-
  • In single combat you must not fix the eyes on the details. As I said be-
  • I dislike floating foot because the feet always tend to float during the
  • Springing foot causes a springing spirit which is indecisive
  • Carrying the feet is important also in large-scale strategy. This is be-
  • Speed is not part of the true Way of Strategy. Speed implies that things
  • Some people can walk as fast as a hundred or a hundred and twenty
  • What is known as speed is especially bad in the Way of Strategy. The
  • Still less will you be able to cut quickly if you have a long sword in this
  • There is no "interior" nor "surface" in strategy
  • The artistic accomplishments usually claim inner meaning and secret
  • "interior" and "gate"
  • Accordingly I dislike passing on my Way through written pledges and
  • The method of teaching my strategy is with a trustworthy spirit
  • You must train diligently. I have tried to record an outline of the
  • I have shown the general tendencies of other schools on nine points. If
  • In my Ichi school of the long sword there is neither gate nor interior
  • There is no inner meaning in sword attitudes. You must simply keep
  • The Ni To Ichi Way of Strategy is recorded in this the Book of the Void
  • What is called the spirit of the void is where there is nothing. It is not
  • To attain the Way of Strategy as a warrior you must study fully other
  • Teruro Magonojo
  • The Tao Te Ching is fundamental to the Taoist school of Chinese
  • The Art of War is a Chinese military treatise that was written during
  • The Art of War is one of the oldest books on military strategy in the
  • Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public
  • "Machiavellian" into wide usage as a pejorative term. It has also been
  • 380 BC. It is one of the most influential works of philosophy and political
  • Whether it is true or not that not more than twelve persons in all the
  • The Kama Sutra is the oldest and most notable of a group of texts known
  • Kama Shastra or "Discipline of Kama" is attributed to Nandi the sacred
  • The Book of Tea was written by Okakura Kakuzo in the early 20th cen-
  • book is accessibile to Western audiences because Kakuzo was taught at a
  • Sein und Zeit was inspired — although Heidegger remains silent on this
  • "Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future" (Vorspiel einer Philosophie der
  • Siddhartha is an allegorical novel by Hermann Hesse which deals with
  • Walden (also known as Life in the Woods) by Henry David Thoreau is
  • Thoreau called it an experiment in simple living

The Book of Five Rings

Miyamoto, Musashi
Published: 1644
Type(s): Non-Fiction, Philosophy, Essay, Biography
Source: http://ninjamarket.com/a-book-of-five-rings
1
About Miyamoto:
Miyamoto Musashi (c.1584–June 13 (Japanese calendar: May 19), 1645),
also known as Shinmen Takezō, Miyamoto Bennosuke, or by his
Buddhist name Niten Dōraku was a famous Japanese samurai, and is
considered by many to have been one of the most skilled swordsmen in
history. Musashi, as he is often simply known, became legendary
through his outstanding swordsmanship in numerous duels, even from a
very young age. He is the founder of the Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū or Niten-
ryū style of swordsmanship and the author of The Book of Five Rings, a
book on strategy, tactics, and philosophy that is still studied today.
Source: Wikipedia
Note: This book is brought to you by Feedbooks.
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Strictly for personal use, do not use this file for commercial purposes.
2
Introduction
I have been many years training in the Way of Strategy, called Ni Ten
Ichi Ryu, and now I think I will explain it in writing for the first time.
It is now during the first ten days of the tenth month in the twentieth
year of Kanei (1645). I have climbed mountain Iwato of Higo in Kyushu
to pay homage to heaven, pray to Kwannon, and kneel before Buddha. I
am a warrior of Harima province, Shinmen Musashi No Kami Fujiwara
No Genshin, age sixty years. From youth my heart has been inclined to-
ward the Way of Strategy.
My first duel was when I was thirteen, I struck down a strategist of the
Shinto school, one Arima Kihei. When I was sixteen I struck down an
able strategist Tadashima Akiyama. When I was twenty-one I went up to
the capital and met all manner of strategists, never once failing to win in
many contests.
After that I went from province to province dueling with strategist of
various schools, and not once failed to win even though I had as many as
sixty encounters. This was between the ages of thirteen and twenty-eight
or twenty-nine. When I reached thirty I looked back on my past. The pre-
vious victories were not due to my having mastered strategy. Perhaps it
was natural ability, or the order of heaven, or that other schools' strategy
was inferior.
After that I studied morning and evening searching for the principle,
and came to realize the Way of Strategy when I was fifty. Since then I
have lived without following any particular Way. Thus with the virtue of
strategy I practice many arts and abilities - all things with no teacher. To
write this book I did not use the law of Buddha or the teachings of Con-
fucius, neither old war chronicles nor books on martial tactics. I take up
my brush to explain the true spirit of this Ichi school as it is mirrored in
the Way of heaven and Kwannon. The time is the night of the tenth day
of the tenth month, at the hour of the tiger (3-5 a.m.)
3
Chapter 1
THE GROUND BOOK
Strategy is the craft of the warrior. Commanders must enact the craft,
and troopers should know this Way. There is no warrior in the world
today who really understands the Way of Strategy.
There are various Ways. There is the Way of salvation by the law of
Buddha, the Way of Confucius governing the Way of learning, the Way
of healing as a doctor, as a poet teaching the Way of Waka, tea, archery,
and many arts and skills. Each man practices as he feels inclined. It is
said the warrior's is the twofold Way of pen and sword, and he should
have a taste for both Ways.
Even if a man has no natural ability he can be a warrior by sticking as-
siduously to both divisions of the Way. Generally speaking, the Way of
the warrior is resolute acceptance of death. Although not only warriors
but priests, women, peasants and lowlier folk have been known to die
readily in the cause of duty or out of shame, this is a different thing. The
warrior is different in that studying the Way of Strategy is based on
overcoming men. By victory gained in crossing swords with individuals,
or enjoining battle with large numbers, we can attain power and fame for
ourselves or our lord. This is the virtue of strategy.
The Way of Strategy
In China and Japan practitioners of the Way have been known as
"masters of strategy". Warriors must learn this Way.
Recently there have been people getting on in the world as strategists,
but they are usually just sword-fencers. The attendants of the Kashima
Kantori shrines of the province Hitachi received instruction from the
gods, and made schools based on this teaching, traveling from country to
country instructing men. This is the recent meaning of strategy.
In olden times strategy was listed among the Ten Abilities and Seven
Arts as a beneficial practice. It was certainly an art but as a beneficial
4
practice it was not limited to sword-fencing. The true value of sword-
fencing cannot be seen within the confines of sword-fencing technique.
If we look at the world we see arts for sale. Men use equipment to sell
their own selves. As if with the nut and the flower, the nut has become
less than th flower. In this kind of Way of Strategy, both those teaching
and those learning the way are concerned with colouring and showing
off their technique, trying to hasten the bloom of the flower. They speak
of "This Dojo" and "That Dojo". They are looking for profit. Someone
once said "Immature strategy is the cause of grief". That was a true
saying.
There are four Ways in which men pass through life: as gentlemen,
farmers, artisans and merchants.
The Way of the farmer. Using agricultural instruments, he sees springs
through to autumns with an eye on the changes of season.
Second is the Way of the merchant. The wine maker obtains his in-
gredients and puts them to use to make his living. The Way of the mer-
chant is always to live by taking profit. This is the Way of the merchant.
Thirdly the gentleman warrior, carrying the weaponry of his Way.
The Way of the warrior is to master the virtue of his weapons. If a gen-
tleman dislikes strategy he will not appreciate the benefit of weaponry,
so must he not have a little taste for this? Fourthly the Way of the artisan.
The Way of the carpenter is to become proficient in the use of his tools,
first to lay his plans with a true measure and then perform his work ac-
cording to plan. Thus he passes through life. These are the four Ways of
the gentleman, the farmer, the artisan and the merchant.
Comparing the Way of the Carpenter to Strategy
The comparison with carpentry is through the connection with houses.
Houses of the nobility, houses of warriors, the Four houses, ruin of
houses, thriving of houses, the style of the house, the tradition of the
house, and the name of the house. The carpenter uses a master plan of
the building, and the Way of Strategy is similar in that there is a plan of
campaign. If you want to learn the craft of war, ponder over this book.
The teacher is as a needle, the disciple is as thread. You must practice
constantly.
Like the foreman carpenter, the commander must know natural rules,
and the rules of the country, and the rules of houses. This is the Way of
the foreman.
5
The foreman carpenter must know the architectural theory of towers
and temples, and the plans of palaces, and must employ men to raise up
houses. The Way of the foreman carpenter is the same as the Way of the
commander of a warrior house. In the construction of houses, choice of
woods is made.
Straight un-knotted timber of good appearance is used for the revealed
pillars, straight timber with small defects is used for the inner pillars.
Timbers of the finest appearance, even if a little weak, is used for the
thresholds, lintels, doors, and sliding doors, and so on. Good strong tim-
ber, though it be gnarled and knotted, can always be used discreetly in
construction. Timber which is weak or knotted throughout should be
used as scaffolding, and later for firewood.
The foreman carpenter allots his men work according to their ability.
Floor layers, makers of sliding doors, thresholds and lintels, ceilings and
so on. Those of poor ability lay the floor joists, and those of lesser ability
carve wedges and do such miscellaneous work. If the foreman knows
and deploys his men well the finished work will be good. The foreman
should take into account the abilities and limitations of his men, circulat-
ing among them and asking nothing unreasonable. He should know
their morale and spirit, and encourage them when necessary. This is the
same as the principle of strategy.
The Way of Strategy
Like a trooper, the carpenter sharpens his own tools. He carries his
equipment in his tool box, and works under the direction of his foreman.
He makes columns and girders with an axe, shapes floorboards and
shelves with a plane, cuts fine openwork and carvings accurately, giving
as excellent a finish as his skill will allow. This is the craft of the car-
penters. When the carpenter becomes skilled and understands measures
he can become a foreman.
The carpenter's attainment is, having tools which will cut well, to
make small shrines, writing shelves, tables, paper lanterns, chopping
boards and pot-lids. These are the specialties of the carpenter. Things are
similar for the trooper. You ought to think deeply about this.
The attainment of the carpenter is that his work is not warped, that the
joints are not misaligned, and that the work is truly planed so that it
meets well and is not merely finished in sections. This is essential. If you
want to learn this Way, deeply consider the things written in this book
one at a time. You must do sufficient research.
6
Outline of the Five Books of this Book of Strategy
The Way is shown as five books concerning different aspects. These
are Ground, Water, Fire, Wind (tradition), and Void (the illusionary
nature of worldly things)
The body of the Way of Strategy from the viewpoint of my Ichi school
is explained in the Ground book. It is difficult to realize the true Way just
through sword-fencing. Know the smallest things and the biggest things,
the shallowest things and the deepest things. As if it were a straight road
mapped out on the ground, the first book is called the Ground book.
Second is the Water book. With water as the basis, the spirit becomes
like water. Water adopts the shape of its receptacle, it is sometimes a
trickle and sometimes a wild sea. Water has a clear blue colour. By the
clarity, things of Ichi school are shown in this book. If you master the
principles of sword-fencing, when you freely beat one man, you beat any
man in the world. The spirit of defeating a man is the same for ten mil-
lion men. The strategist makes small things into big things, like building
a great Buddha from a one foot model. I cannot write in detail how this
is done. The principle of strategy is having one thing, to know ten thou-
sand things. Things of Ichi school are written in this the Water book.
Third is the Fire book. This book is about fighting. The spirit of fire is
fierce, whether the fire be small or big; and so it is with battles. The Way
of battles is the same for man to man fights and for ten thousand a side
battles. You must appreciate that spirit can become big or small. What is
big is easy to perceive: what is small is difficult to perceive. In short, it is
difficult for large numbers of men to change position, so their move-
ments can be easily predicted. An individual can easily change his mind,
so his movements are difficult to predict. You must appreciate this. The
essence of this book is that you must train day and night in order to
make quick decisions. In strategy it is necessary to treat training as part
of normal life with your spirit unchanging. Thus combat in battle is de-
scribed in the Fire book.
Fourthly the Wind book. This book is not concerned with my Ichi
school but with other schools of strategy. By Wind I mean old traditions,
present-day traditions, and family traditions of strategy. Thus I clearly
explain the strategies of the world. This is tradition. It is difficult to know
yourself if you do not know others. To all Ways there are side-tracks. If
you study a Way daily, and your spirit diverges, you may think you are
obeying a good Way but objectively it is not the true Way. If you are
7
following the true way and diverge a little, this will later become a large
divergence. You must realize this. Other strategies have come to be
thought of as mere sword-fencing, and it is not unreasonable that this
should be so. The benefit of my strategy, although it includes sword-fen-
cing, lies in a separate principle. I have explained what is commonly
meant by strategy in other schools in the Tradition (Wind) book.
Fifthly, the book of the Void. By void I mean that which has no begin-
ning and no end. Attaining this principle means not attaining the prin-
ciple. The Way of strategy is the Way of nature. When you appreciate the
power of nature, knowing rhythm of any situation, you will be able to hit
the enemy naturally and strike naturally. All this is the Way of the Void.
I intend to show how to follow the true Way according to nature in the
book of the Void.
The Name Ichi Ryu Ni To (One school - two swords)
Warriors, both commanders and troopers, carry two swords at their
belt. In olden times these were called the long sword and the sword;
nowadays they are known as the sword and the companion sword. Let it
suffice to say that in our land, whatever the reason, a warrior carries two
swords at his belt. It is the Way of the warrior.
"Nito Ichi Ryu" shows the advantages of using both swords.
The spear and the halberd are weapons which are carried out of doors.
Students of the Ichi school Way of Strategy should train from the start
with the sword and the long sword in either hand. This is a truth: when
you sacrifice your life, you must make fullest use of your weaponry. It is
false not to do so, and to die with a weapon yet undrawn.
If you hold a sword with both hands, it is difficult to wield it freely to
left and right, so my method is to carry the sword in one hand. This does
not apply to large weapons such as the spear or halberd, but swords and
companion swords can be carried in one hand. It is encumbering to hold
a sword in both hands when you are on horseback, when running on un-
even roads, on swampy ground, muddy rice fields, stony ground, or in a
crowd of people. To hold the long sword in both hands is not the true
Way, for if you carry a bow or spear or other arms in your left hand you
have only one hand free for the long sword. However, when it is difficult
to cut an enemy down with one hand, you must use both hands. It is not
difficult to wield a sword in one hand; the Way to learn this is to train
with two long swords, one in each hand. It will seem difficult at first, but
everything is difficult at first. Bows are difficult to draw, halberds are
8
difficult to wield; as you become accustomed to the bow so your pull
will become stronger. When you become used to wielding the long
sword, you will gain the power of the Way and wield the sword well.
As I will explain in the second book, the Water Book, there is no fast
way of wielding the long sword. The long sword should be wielded
broadly and the companion sword closely. This is the first thing to
realize.
According to this Ichi school, you can win with a long weapon, and
yet you can also win with a short weapon. In short, the Way of the Ichi
school is the spirit of winning, whatever the weapon and whatever its
size.
It is better to use two swords rather than one when you are fighting a
crowd, and especially if you want to take a prisoner.
These things cannot be explained in detail. From one thing, know ten
thousand things. When you attain the Way of Strategy there will not be
one thing you cannot see. You must study hard.
The Benefit of the Two Characters Reading "Strategy"
Masters of the long sword are called strategists. As for the other milit-
ary arts, those who master the bow are called archers, those who master
the spear are called spearmen, those who master the gun are called
marksmen, those who master the halberd are called halberdiers. But we
do not call masters of the Way of the long sword "longswordsmen", nor
do we speak of "companion swordsmen". Because bows, guns, spears
and halberds are all warriors' equipment they are certainly part of
strategy. To master the virtue of the long sword is to govern the world
and oneself, thus the long sword is the basis of strategy. The principle is
"strategy by means of the long sword". If he attains the virtue of the long
sword, one man can beat ten men. Just as one man can beat ten, so a hun-
dred men can beat a thousand, and a thousand can beat ten thousand. In
my strategy, one man is the same as ten thousand, so this strategy is the
complete warrior's craft.
The Way of the warrior does not include other Ways, such as Con-
fucianism, Buddhism, certain traditions, artistic accomplishments and
dancing. But even though these are not part of the Way, if you know the
Way broadly you will see it in everything. Men must polish their partic-
ular Way.
9
The Benefit of Weapons in Strategy
There is a time and place for use of weapons.
The best use of the companion sword is in a confined space, or when
you are engaged closely with an opponent. The long sword can be used
effectively in all situations.
The halberd is inferior to the spear on the battlefield. With the spear
you can take the initiative; the halberd is defensive. In the hands of one
of two men of equal ability, the spear gives a little extra strength. Spear
and halberd both have their uses, but neither is very beneficial in con-
fined spaces. They cannot be used for taking a prisoner. They are essen-
tially weapons for the field.
Anyway, if you learn "indoor" techniques, you will think narrowly
and forget the true Way. Thus you will have difficulty in actual
encounters.
The bow is tactically strong at the commencement of battle, especially
battles on a moor, as it is possible to shoot quickly from among the
spearmen. However, it is unsatisfactory in sieges, or when the enemy is
more than forty yards away. For this reason there are nowadays few tra-
ditional schools of archery. There is little use nowadays for this kind of
skill.
From inside fortifications, the gun has no equal among weapons. It is
the supreme weapon on the field before the ranks clash, but once swords
are crossed the gun becomes useless. One of the virtues of the bow is that
you can see the arrows in flight and correct your aim accordingly,
whereas gunshot cannot be seen. You must appreciate the importance of
this.
Just as a horse must have endurance and no defects, so it is with
weapons. Horses should walk strongly, and swords and companion
swords should cut strongly. Spears and halberds must stand up to heavy
use, bows and guns must be sturdy. Weapons should be hardy rather
than decorative.
You should not have a favourite weapon. To become over-familiar
with one weapon is as much a fault as not knowing it sufficiently well.
You should not copy others, but use weapons which you can handle
properly. It is bad for commanders and troopers to have likes and dis-
likes. These are things you must learn thoroughly.
Timing in Strategy
10
There is timing in everything. Timing in strategy cannot be mastered
without a great deal of practice.
Timing is important in dancing and pipe or string music, for they are
in rhythm only if timing is good. Timing and rhythm are also involved in
the military arts, shooting bows and guns, and riding horses. In all skills
and abilities there is timing. There is also timing in the Void.
There is timing in the whole life of the warrior, in his thriving and de-
clining, in his harmony and discord. Similarly, there is timing in the Way
of the merchant, in the rise and fall of capital. All things entail rising and
falling timing. You must be able to discern this. In strategy there are vari-
ous timing considerations. From the outset you must know the applic-
able timing and the inapplicable timing, and from among the large and
small things and the fast and slow timings find the relevant timing, first
seeing the distance timing and the background timing. This is the main
thing in strategy. It is especially important to know the background tim-
ing, otherwise your strategy will become uncertain.
You win battles with the timing in the Void born of the timing of cun-
ning by knowing the enemies' timing, and thus using a timing which the
enemy does not expect.
All the five books are chiefly concerned with timing. You must train
sufficiently to appreciate this.
If you practice day and night in the above Ichi school strategy, your
spirit will naturally broaden. Thus is large scale strategy and the strategy
of hand to hand combat propagated in the world. This is recorded for the
first time in the five books of Ground, Water, Fire, Tradition (Wind), and
Void. This is the way for men who want to learn my strategy:
1. Do not think dishonestly.
2. The Way is in training.
3. Become acquainted with every art.
4. Know the Ways of all professions.
5. Distinguish between gain and loss in worldly matters.
6. Develop intuitive judgement and understanding for everything.
7. Perceive those things which cannot be seen.
8. Pay attention even to trifles.
9. Do nothing which is of no use.
11
It is important to start by setting these broad principles in your heart,
and train in the Way of Strategy. If you do not look at things on a large
scale it will be difficult for you to master strategy. If you learn and attain
this strategy you will never lose even to twenty or thirty enemies. More
than anything to start with you must set your heart on strategy and earn-
estly stick to the Way. You will come to be able to actually beat men in
fights, and to be able to win with your eye. Also by training you will be
able to freely control your own body, conquer men with your body, and
with sufficient training you will be able to beat ten men with your spirit.
When you have reached this point, will it not mean that you are
invincible?
Moreover, in large scale strategy the superior man will manage many
subordinates dextrously, bear himself correctly, govern the country and
foster the people, thus preserving the ruler's discipline. If there is a Way
involving the spirit of not being defeated, to help oneself and gain hon-
our, it is the Way of strategy.
12
Chapter 2
THE WATER BOOK
The spirit of the Ni Ten Ichi school of strategy is based on water, and this
Water Book explains methods of victory as the long-sword form of the
Ichi school. Language does not extend to explaining the Way in detail,
but it can be grasped intuitively. Study this book; read a word then pon-
der on it. If you interpret the meaning loosely you will mistake the Way.
The principles of strategy are written down here in terms of single
combat, but you must think broadly so that you attain an understanding
for ten-thousand-a-side battles.
Strategy is different from other things in that if you mistake the Way
even a little you will become bewildered and fall into bad ways.
If you merely read this book you will not reach the Way of Strategy.
Absorb the things written in this book.Do not just read, memorise or im-
itate, but so that you realize the principle from within your own heart
study hard to absorb these things into your body.
Spiritual Bearing in Strategy
In strategy your spiritual bearing must not be any different from nor-
mal. Both in fighting and in everyday life you should be determined
though calm. Meet the situation without tenseness yet not recklessly,
your spirit settled yet unbiased. Even when your spirit is calm do not let
your body relax, and when your body is relaxed do not let your spirit
slacken. Do not let your spirit be influenced by your body, or your body
be influenced by your spirit. Be neither insufficiently spirited nor over
spirited. An elevated spirit is weak and a low spirit is weak. Do not let
the enemy see your spirit.
Small people must be completely familiar with the spirit of large
people, and large people must be familiar with the spirit of small people.
Whatever your size, do not be misled by the reactions of your own body.
With your spirit open and unconstricted, look at things from a high point
13
of view. You must cultivate your wisdom and spirit. Polish your wis-
dom: learn public justice, distinguish between good and evil, study the
Ways of different arts one by one. When you cannot be deceived by men
you will have realized the wisdom of strategy.
The wisdom of strategy is different from other things. On the battle-
field, even when you are hard-pressed, you should ceaselessly research
the principles of strategy so that you can develop a steady spirit.
Stance in Strategy
Adopt a stance with the head erect, neither hanging down, nor looking
up, nor twisted. Your forehead and the space between your eyes should
not be wrinkled. Do not roll your eyes nor allow them to blink, but
slightly narrow them. With your features composed, keep the line of
your nose straight with a feeling of slightly flaring your nostrils. Hold
the line of the rear of the neck straight: instill vigour into your hairline,
and in the same way from the shoulders down through your entire body.
Lower both shoulders and, without the buttocks jutting out, put strength
into your legs from the knees to the tips of your toes. Brace your abdo-
men so that you do not bend at the hips. Wedge your companion sword
in your belt against your abdomen, so that your belt is not slack - this is
called "wedging in".
In all forms of strategy, it is necessary to maintain the combat stance in
everyday life and to make your everyday stance your combat stance.
You must research this well.
The Gaze in Strategy
The gaze should be large and broad. This is the twofold gaze
"Perception and Sight". Perception is strong and sight week.
In strategy it is important to see distant things as if they were close and
to take a distanced view of close things. It is important in strategy to
know the enemy's sword and not to be distracted by insignificant move-
ments of his sword. You must study this. The gaze is the same for single
combat and for large-scale strategy.
It is necessary in strategy to be able to look to both sides without mov-
ing the eyeballs. You cannot master this ability quickly. Learn what is
written here; use this gaze in everyday life and do not vary it whatever
happens.
14
Holding the Long Sword
Grip the long sword with a rather floating feeling in your thumb and
forefinger, with the middle finger neither tight nor slack, and with the
last two fingers tight. It is bad to have play in your hands.
When you take up a sword, you must feel intent on cutting the enemy.
As you cut an enemy you must not change your grip, and your hands
must not "cower". When you dash the enemy's sword aside, or ward it
off, or force it down, you must slightly change the feeling in your thumb
and forefinger. Above all, you must be intent on cutting the enemy in the
way you grip the sword.
The grip for combat and for sword-testing is the same. There is no
such thing as a "man-cutting grip".
Generally, I dislike fixedness in both long swords and hands. Fixed-
ness means a dead hand. Pliability is a living hand. You must bear this in
mind.
Footwork
With the tips of your toes somewhat floating, tread firmly with your
heels. Whether you move fast or slow, with large or small steps, your
feet must always move as in normal walking. I dislike the three walking
methods know as "jumping-foot", "floating-foot" and "fixed-steps".
So-called "Yin-Yang foot" is important in the Way. Yin-Yang foot
means not moving only one foot. It means moving your feet left-right
and right-left when cutting, withdrawing, or warding off a cut. You
should not move on one foot preferentially.
The Five Attitudes
The five attitudes are: Upper, Middle, Lower, Right Side, and Left
Side. These are the give. Although attitude has these five divisions, the
one purpose of all of them is to cut the enemy. There are none but these
five attitudes.
Whatever attitude you are in, do not be conscious of making the atti-
tude; think only of cutting. Your attitude should be large or small ac-
cording to the situation. Upper, Lower and Middle attitudes are decisive.
Left Side and Right Side attitudes are fluid. Left and Right attitudes
should be used if there is an obstruction overhead or to one side. The de-
cision to use Left or Right depends on the place.
15
The essence of the Way is this. To understand attitude you must thor-
oughly understand the middle attitude. The middle attitude is the heart
of attitudes. If we look at strategy on a broad scale, the Middle attitude is
the seat of the commander, with the other four attitudes following the
commander. You must appreciate this.
The Way of the Long Sword
Knowing the Way of the long sword means we can wield with two fin-
gers the sword we usually carry. If we know the path of the sword well,
we can wield it easily. If you try to wield the long sword quickly you
will mistake the Way. To wield the long sword well you must wield it
calmly.
If you try to wield it quickly, like a folding fan or a short sword, you
will err by using "short sword chopping". You cannot cut down a man
with a long sword using this method.
When you have cut downwards with the longsword, lift it straight up-
wards; when you cut sideways, return the sword along a sideways path.
Return the sword in a reasonable way, always stretching the elbows
broadly. Wield the sword strongly. This is the Way of the longsword.
If you learn to use the five approaches of my strategy, you will be able
to wield a sword well. You must train constantly.
The Five Approaches
1. The first approach is the Middle attitude. Confront the enemy with
the point of your sword against his face. When he attacks, dash his
sword to the right and "ride" it. Or, when the enemy attacks, deflect the
point of his sword by hitting downwards, keep your long sword where it
is, and as the enemy renews his attack cut his arms from below. This is
the first method.
The five approaches are this kind of thing. You must train repeatedly
using a long sword in order to learn them. When you master my Way of
the long sword, you will be able to control any attack the enemy makes. I
assure you, there are no attitudes other than the five attitudes of the long
sword of Ni To.
2. In the second approach with the long sword, from the Upper atti-
tude cut the enemy just as he attacks. If the enemy evades the cut, keep
your sword where it is and, scooping up from below, cut him as he re-
news the attack. It is possible to repeat the cut from here.
16
In this method there are various changes in timing and spirit. You will
be able to understand this by training in the Ichi school. You will always
win with the five long sword methods. You must train repetitively.
3. In the third approach, adopt the Lower attitude, anticipating scoop-
ing up. When the enemy attacks, hit his hands from below. As you do so
he may try to hit your sword down. If this is the case, cut his upper
arm(s) horizontally with a feeling of "crossing". This means that from the
lower attitudes you hit the enemy at the instant that he attacks.
You will encounter this method often, both as a beginner and in later
strategy. You must train holding a long sword.
4. In this fourth approach, adopt the Left Side attitude. As the enemy
attacks hit his hands from below. If as you hit his hands he attempts to
dash down your sword, with the feeling of hitting his hands, parry the
path of his long sword and cut across from above your shoulder.
This is the Way of the long sword. Through this method you win by
parrying the line of the enemy's attack. You must research this.
5. In the fifth approach, the sword is in the Right Side attitude. In ac-
cordance with the enemy's attack, cross your long sword from below at
the side to the Upper attitude. Then cut straight from above.
This method is essential for knowing the Way of the long sword well.
If you can use this method, you can freely wield a heavy long sword.
I cannot describe in detail how to use these five approaches. You must
become well acquainted with my "in harmony with the long sword"
Way, learn large-scale timing, understand the enemy's long sword, and
become used to the five approaches from the outset. You will always win
by using these five methods, with various timing considerations discern-
ing the enemy's spirit. You must consider all this carefully.
The "Attitude No-Attitude" Teaching
"Attitude No-Attitude" means that there is no need for what are know
as long sword attitudes.
Even so, attitudes exist as the five ways of holding the long sword.
However you hold the sword it must be in such a way that it is easy to
cut the enemy well, in accordance with the situation, the place, and your
relation to the enemy. From the Upper attitude as your spirit lessens you
can adopt the Middle attitude, and from the Middle attitude you can
raise the sword a little in your technique and adopt the Upper attitude.
From the lower attitude you can raise the sword and adopt the Middle
17
attitudes as the occasion demands. According to the situation, if you turn
your sword from either the Left Side or Right Side attitude towards the
centre, the Middle or the Lower attitude results.
The principle of this is called "Existing Attitude - Nonexisting
Attitude".
The primary thing when you take a sword in your hands is your inten-
tion to cut the enemy, whatever the means. Whenever you parry, hit,
spring, strike or touch the enemy's cutting sword, you must cut the en-
emy in the same movement. It is essential to attain this. If you think only
of hitting, springing, striking or touching the enemy, you will not be able
actually to cut him. More than anything, you must be thinking of carry-
ing your movement through to cutting him. You must thoroughly re-
search this.
Attitude in strategy on a larger scale is called "Battle Array". Such atti-
tudes are all for winning battles. Fixed formation is bad. Study this well.
To Hit the Enemy "In One Timing"
"In One Timing" means, when you have closed with the enemy, to hit
him as quickly and directly as possible, without moving your body or
settling your spirit, while you see that he is still undecided. The timing of
hitting before the enemy decides to withdraw, break or hit, is this "In
One Timing".
You must train to achieve this timing, to be able to hit in the timing of
an instant.
The "Abdomen Timing of Two"
When you attack and the enemy quickly retreats, as you see him tense
you must feint a cut. Then, as he relaxes, follow up and hit him. This is
the "Abdomen Timing of Two".
It is very difficult to attain this by merely reading this book, but you
will soon understand with a little instruction.
No Design, No Conception
In this method, when the enemy attacks and you also decide to attack,
hit with your body, and hit with your spirit, and hit from the Void with
your hands, accelerating strongly. This is the "No Design, No Concep-
tion" cut.
18
This is the most important method of hitting. It is often used. You
must train hard to understand it.
The Flowing Water Cut
The "Flowing Water Cut" is used when you are struggling blade to
blade with the enemy. When he breaks and quickly withdraws trying to
spring with his long sword, expand your body and spirit and cut him as
slowly as possible with your long sword, following your body like stag-
nant water. You can cut with certainty if you learn this. You must dis-
cern the enemy's grade.
Continuous Cut
When you attack and the enemy also attacks, and your swords spring
together, in one action cut his head, hands and legs. When you cut sever-
al places with one sweep of the long sword, it is the "Continuous Cut".
You must practice this cut; it is often used. With detailed practice you
should be able to understand it.
The Fire and Stones
Cut The Fires and Stones Cut means that when the enemy's long
sword and your long sword clash together you cut as strongly as pos-
sible without raising the sword even a little. This means cutting quickly
with the hands, body and legs - all three cutting strongly. If you train
well enough you will be able to strike strongly.
The Red Leaves Cut
The Red Leaves Cut [allusion to falling, dying leaves] means knocking
down the enemy's long sword. The spirit should be getting control of his
sword. When the enemy is in a long sword attitude in front of you and
intent on cutting, hitting and parrying, you strongly hit the enemy's long
sword with the Fire and Stones Cut, perhaps in the spirit of the "No
Design, No Conception" Cut. If you then beat down the point of his
sword with a sticky feeling, he will necessarily drop the sword. If you
practice this cut it becomes easy to make the enemy drop his sword. You
must train repetitively.
The Body in Place of the Long Sword
19
Also "the long sword in place of the body". Usually we move the body
and the sword at the same time to cut the enemy. However, according to
the enemy's cutting method, you can dash against him with your body
first, and afterwards cut with the sword. If his body is immoveable, you
can cut first with the long sword, but generally you hit first with the
body and then cut with the long sword. You must research this well and
practice hitting.
Cut and Slash
To cut and to slash are two different things. Cutting, whatever form of
cutting it is, is decisive, with a resolute spirit. Slashing is nothing more
than touching the enemy. Even if you slash strongly, and even if the en-
emy dies instantly, it is slashing. When you cut, your spirit is resolved.
You must appreciate this. If you first slash the enemy's hands or legs,
you must then cut strongly. Slashing is in spirit the same as touching.
When you realize this, they become indistinguishable. Learn this well.
Chinese Monkey's Body
The Chinese Monkey's Body is the spirit of not stretching out your
arms. The spirit is to get in quickly, without in the least extending your
arms, before the enemy cuts. If you are intent upon not stretching out
your arms you are effectively far away, the spirit is to go in with your
whole body. When you come to within arm's reach it becomes easy to
move your body in. You must research this well.
Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body
The spirit of "Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body" is to stick to the en-
emy and not separate from him. When you approach the enemy, stick
firmly with your head, body and legs. People tend to advance their head
and legs quickly, but their body lags behind. You should stick firmly so
that there is not the slightest gap between the enemy's body and your
body. You must consider this carefully.
To Strive for Height
By "to strive for height" is meant, when you close with the enemy, to
strive with him for superior height without cringing. Stretch your legs,
stretch your hips, and stretch your neck face to face with him. When you
20
think you have won, and you are the higher, thrust in strongly. You
must learn this.
To Apply Stickiness
When the enemy attacks and you also attack with the long sword, you
should go in with a sticky feeling and fix your long sword against the
enemy's as you receive his cut. The spirit of stickiness is not hitting very
strongly, but hitting so that the long swords do not separate easily. It is
best to approach as calmly as possible when hitting the enemy's long
sword with stickiness. The difference between "Stickiness" and
"Entanglement" is that stickiness is firm and entanglement is weak. You
must appreciate this.
The Body Strike
The Body Strike means to approach the enemy through a gap in his
guard. The spirit is to strike him with your body. Turn your face a little
aside and strike the enemy's breast with your left shoulder thrust out.
Approach with the spirit of bouncing the enemy away, striking as
strongly as possible in time with yout breathing. If you achieve this
method of closing with the enemy, you will be able to knock him ten or
twenty feet away. It is possible to strike the enemy until he is dead. Train
well.
Three Ways to Parry His Attack
There are three methods to parry a cut:
First, by dashing the enemy's long sword to your right, as if thrusting
at his eyes, when he makes an attack.
Or, to parry by thrusting the enemy's long sword towards his right eye
with the feeling of snipping his neck.
Or, when you have a short "long sword", without worrying about par-
rying the enemy's long sword, to close with him quickly, thrusting at his
face with your left hand.
These are the three methods of parrying. You must bear in mind that
you can always clench your left hand and thrust at the enemy's face with
your fist. For this it is necessary to train well.
To Stab at the Face
21
To stab at the face means, when you are in confrontation with the en-
emy, that your spirit is intent of stabbing at his face, following the line of
the blades with the point of your long sword. If you are intent on
stabbing at his face, his face and body will become rideable. When the
enemy becomes as if rideable, there are various opportunities for win-
ning. You must concentrate on this. When fighting and the enemy's body
becomes as if rideable, you can win quickly, so you ought not to forget to
stab at the face. You must pursue the value of this technique through
training.
To Stab at the Heart
To stab at the heart means, when fighting and there are obstructions
above, or to the sides, and whenever it is difficult to cut, to thrust at the
enemy. You must stab the enemy's breast without letting the point of
your long sword waver, showing the enemy the ridge of the blade
square-on, and with the spirit of deflecting his long sword. The spirit of
this principle is often useful when we become tired or for some reason
our long sword will not cut. You must understand the application of this
method.
To Scold "Tut-TUT!"
"Scold" means that, when the enemy tries to counter-cut as you attack,
you counter-cut again from below as if thrusting at him, trying to hold
him down. With very quick timing you cut, scolding the enemy. Thrust
up, "Tut!", and cut "TUT!" This timing is encountered time and time
again in exchange of blows. The way to scold Tut-TUT is to time the cut
simultaneously with raising your long sword as if to thrust the enemy.
You must learn this through repetitive practice.
The Smacking Parry
By "smacking parry" is meant that when you clash swords with the en-
emy, you meet his attacking cut on your long sword with a tee-dum, tee-
dum rhythm, smacking his sword and cutting him. The spirit of the
smacking parry is not parrying, or smacking strongly, but smacking the
enemy's long sword in accordance with his attacking cut, primarily in-
tent on quickly cutting him. If you understand the timing of smacking,
however hard your long swords clash together, your swordpoint will not
22
be knocked back even a little. You must research sufficiently to realize
this.
There are Many Enemies
"There are many enemies" applies when you are fighting one against
many. Draw both sword and companion sword and assume a wide-
stretched left and right attitude. The spirit is to chase the enemies around
from side to side, even though they come from all four directions. Ob-
serve their attacking order, and go to meet first those who attack first.
Sweep your eyes around broadly, carefully examining the attacking or-
der, and cut left and right alternately with your swords. Waiting is bad.
Always quickly re-assume your attitudes to both sides, cut the enemies
down as they advance, crushing them in the direction from which they
attack. Whatever you do, you must drive the enemy together, as if tying
a line of fishes, and when they are seen to be piled up, cut them down
strongly without giving them room to move.
The Advantage when Coming to Blows
You can know how to win through strategy with the long sword, but it
cannot be clearly explained in writing. You must practice diligently in
order to understand how to win.
Oral tradition: "The true Way of Strategy is revealed in the long
sword."
One Cut
You can win with certainty with the spirit of "one cut". It is difficult to
attain this if you do not learn strategy well. If you train well in this Way,
strategy will come from your heart and you will be able to win at will.
You must train diligently.
Direct Communication
The spirit of "Direct Communication" is how the true Way of the Ni To
Ichi school is received and handed down.
Oral tradition: "Teach your body strategy."
Recorded in the above book is an outline of Ichi school sword-fighting.
23
To learn how to win with the long sword in strategy, first learn the
five approaches and the five attitudes, and absorb the Way of the long
sword naturally in your body. You must understand spirit and timing,
handle the long sword naturally, and move body and legs in harmony
with your spirit. Whether beating one man or two, you will then know
values in strategy.
Study the contents of this book, taking one item at a time, and through
fighting with enemies you will gradually come to know the principle of
the Way.
Deliberately, with a patient spirit, absorb the virtue of all this, from
time to time raising your hand in combat. Maintain this spirit whenever
you cross swords with and enemy.
Step by step walk the thousand-mile road.
Study strategy over the years and achieve the spirit of the warrior.
Today is victory over yourself of yesterday; tomorrow is your victory
over lesser men. Next, in order to beat more skillful men, train according
to this book, not allowing your heart to be swayed along a side-track.
Even if you kill an enemy, if it is not based on what you have learned it
is not the true Way.
If you attain this Way of victory, then you will be able to beat several
tens of men. What remains is sword-fighting ability, which you can at-
tain in battles and duels.
24
Chapter 3
THE FIRE BOOK
In this the Fire Book of the Ni To Ichi school of strategy I describe fight-
ing as fire.
In the first place, people think narrowly about the benefit of strategy.
By using only their fingertips, they only know the benefit of three of the
five inches of the wrist. They let a contest be decided, as with the folding
fan, merely by the span of their forearms. They specialise in the small
matter of dexterity, learning such trifles as hand and leg movements
with the bamboo practice sword.
In my strategy, the training for killing enemies is by way of many con-
tests, fighting for survival, discovering the meaning of life and death,
learning the Way of the sword, judging the strength of attacks and un-
derstanding the Way of the "edge and ridge" of the sword.
You cannot profit from small techniques particularly when full armour
is worn. My Way of Strategy is the sure method to win when fighting for
your life one man against five or ten. There is nothing wrong with the
principle "one man can beat ten, so a thousand men can beat ten thou-
sand". You must research this. Of course you cannot assemble a thou-
sand or ten thousand men for everyday training. But you can become a
master of strategy by training alone with a sword, so that you can under-
stand the enemy's strategy, his strength and resources, and come to ap-
preciate how to apply strategy to beat ten thousand enemies.
Any man who wants to master the essence of my strategy must re-
search diligently, training morning and evening. Thus can he polish his
skill, become free from self, and realize extraordinary ability. He will
come to possess miraculous power.
This is the practical result of strategy.
Depending on the Place
25
Examine your environment.
Stand in the sun; that is, take up an attitude with the sun behind you.
If the situation does not allow this, you must try to keep the sun on your
right side. In buildings, you must stand with the entrance behind you or
to your right. Make sure that your rear is unobstructed, and that there is
free space on your left, your right side being occupied with your side at-
titude. At night, if the enemy can be seen, keep the fire behind you and
the entrance to your right, and otherwise take up your attitude as above.
You must look down on the enemy, and take up your attitude on slightly
higher places. For example, the Kamiza in a house is thought of as a high
place.
When the fight comes, always endeavour to chase the enemy around
to your left side. Chase him towards awkward places, and try to keep
him with his back to awkward places. When the enemy gets into an in-
convenient position, do not let him look around, but conscientiously
chase him around and pin him down. In houses, chase the enemy into
the thresholds, lintels, doors, verandas, pillars, and so on, again not let-
ting him see his situation.
Always chase the enemy into bad footholds, obstacles at the side, and
so on, using the virtues of the place to establish predominant positions
from which to fight. You must research and train diligently in this.
The Three Methods to Forestall the Enemy
The first is to forestall him by attacking. This is called Ken No Sen (to
set him up).
Another method is to forestall him as he attacks. This is called Tai No
Sen (to wait for the initiative).
The other method is when you and the enemy attack together. This is
called Tai Tai No Sen (to accompany him and forestall him).
There are no methods of taking the lead other than these three. Be-
cause you can win quickly by taking the lead, it is one of the most im-
portant things in strategy. There are several things involved in taking the
lead. You must make the best of the situation, see through the enemy's
spirit so that you grasp his strategy and defeat him. It is impossible to
write about this in detail.
The First - Ken No Sen
26
When you decide to attack, keep calm and dash in quickly, forestalling
the enemy. Or you can advance seemingly strongly but with a reserved
spirit, forestalling him with the reserve.
Alternatively, advance with as strong a spirit as possible, and when
you reach the enemy move with your feet a little quicker than normal,
unsettling him and overwhelming him sharply.
Or, with your spirit calm, attack with a feeling of constantly crushing
the enemy, from first to last. The spirit is to win in the depths of the en-
emy. These are all Ken No Sen.
The Second - Tai No Sen
When the enemy attacks, remain undisturbed but feign weakness. As
the enemy reaches you, suddenly move away indicating that you intend
to jump aside, then dash in attacking strongly as soon as you see the en-
emy relax. This is one way.
Or, as the enemy attacks, attack still more strongly, taking advantage
of the resulting disorder in his timing to win.
This is the Tai No Sen principle.
The Third - Tai Tai No Sen
When the enemy makes a quick attack, you must attack strongly and
calmly, aim for his weak point as he draws near, and strongly defeat
him.
Or, if the enemy attacks calmly, you must observe his movements and,
with your body rather floating, join in with his movements as he draws
near. Move quickly and cut him strongly.
This is Tai Tai No Sen.
These things cannot be clearly explained in words. You must research
what is written here. In these three ways of forestalling, you must judge
the situation. This does not mean that you always attack first; but if the
enemy attacks first you can lead him around. In strategy, you have ef-
fectively won when you forestall the enemy, so you must train well to at-
tain this.
To Hold Down a Pillow
"To Hold Down a Pillow" means not allowing the enemy's head to rise.
In contests of strategy it is bad to be led about by the enemy. You must
always be able to lead the enemy about. Obviously the enemy will also
be thinking of doing this, but he cannot forestall you if you do not allow
27
him to come out. In strategy, you must stop the enemy as he attempts to
cut; you must push down his thrust, and throw off his hold when he
tries to grapple. This is the meaning of "to hold down a pillow". When
you have grasped this principle, whatever the enemy tries to bring about
in the fight you will see in advance and suppress it. The spirit is too
check his attack at the syllable "at… ", when he jumps check his jump at
the syllable "ju… ", and check his cut at "cu… ".
The important thing in strategy is to suppress the enemy's useful ac-
tions but allow his useless actions. However, doing this alone is defens-
ive. First, you must act according to the Way, suppressing the enemy's
techniques, foiling his plans and thence command him directly. When
you can do this you will be a master of strategy. You must train well and
research "holding down a pillow".
Crossing at a Ford
"Crossing at a ford" means, for example, crossing the sea at a strait, or
crossing over a hundred miles of broad sea at a crossing place. I believe
this "crossing at a ford" occurs often in man's lifetime. It means setting
sail even though your friends stay in harbour, knowing the route, know-
ing the soundness of your ship and the favour of the day. When all the
conditions are meet, and there is perhaps a favourable wind, or a tail-
wind, then set sail. If the wind changes within a few miles of your des-
tination, you must row across the remaining distance without sail.
If you attain this spirit, it applies to everyday life. You must always
think of crossing at a ford.
In strategy also it is important to "cross at a ford". Discern the enemy's
capability and, knowing your own strong points, "cross the ford" at the
advantageous place, as a good captain crosses a sea route. If you succeed
in crossing at the best place, you may take your ease. To cross at a ford
means to attack the enemy's weak point, and to put yourself in an ad-
vantageous position. This is how to win large-scale strategy. The spirit of
crossing at a ford is necessary in both large- and small-scale strategy.
You must research this well.
To Know the Times
"To know the times" means to know the enemy's disposition in battle.
Is it flourishing or waning? By observing the spirit of the enemy's men
and getting the best position, you can work out the enemy's disposition
28
and move your men accordingly. You can win through this principle of
strategy, fighting from a position of advantage.
When in a duel, you must forestall the enemy and attack when you
have first recognised his school of strategy, perceived his quality and his
strong and weak points. Attack in an unsuspecting manner, knowing his
metre and modulation and the appropriate timing.
Knowing the times means, if your ability is high, seeing right into
things. If you are thoroughly conversant with strategy, you will recog-
nise the enemy's intentions and thus have many opportunities to win.
You must sufficiently study this.
To Tread Down the Sword
"To tread down the sword" is a principle often used in strategy. First,
in large scale strategy, when the enemy first discharges bows and guns
and then attacks it is difficult for us to attack if we are busy loading
powder into our guns or notching our arrows. The spirit is to attack
quickly while the enemy is still shooting with bows or guns. The spirit is
to win by "treading down" as we receive the enemy's attack.
In single combat, we cannot get a decisive victory by cutting, with a
"tee-dum tee-dum" feeling, in the wake of the enemy's attacking long
sword. We must defeat him at the start of his attack, in the spirit of tread-
ing him down with the feet, so that he cannot rise again to the attack.
"Treading" does not simply mean treading with the feet. Tread with
the body, tread with the spirit, and, of course, tread and cut with the
long sword. You must achieve the spirit of not allowing the enemy to at-
tack a second time. This is the spirit of forestalling in every sense. Once
at the enemy, you should not aspire just to strike him, but to cling after
the attack. You must study this deeply.
To Know "Collapse"
Everything can collapse. Houses, bodies, and enemies collapse when
their rhythm becomes deranged.
In large-scale strategy, when the enemy starts to collapse, you must
pursue him without letting the chance go. If you fail to take advantage of
your enemies' collapse, they may recover.
In single combat, the enemy sometimes loses timing and collapses. If
you let this opportunity pass, he may recover and not be so negligent
29
thereafter. Fix your eye on the enemy's collapse, and chase him, attack-
ing so that you do not let him recover. You must do this. The chasing at-
tack is with a strong spirit. You must utterly cut the enemy down so that
he does not recover his position. You must understand how to utterly cut
down the enemy.
To Become the Enemy
"To become the enemy" means to think yourself in the enemy's posi-
tion. In the world people tend to think of a robber trapped in a house as
a fortified enemy. However, if we think of "becoming the enemy", we
feel that the whole world is against us and that there is no escape. He
who is shut inside is a pheasant. He who enters to arrest is a hawk. You
must appreciate this.
In large-scale strategy, people are always under the impression that
the enemy is strong, and so tend to become cautious. But if you have
good soldiers, and if you understand the principles of strategy, and if
you know how to beat the enemy, there is nothing to worry about.
In single combat also you must put yourself in the enemy's position. If
you think, "Here is a a master of the Way, who knows the principles of
strategy", then you will surely lose. You must consider this deeply.
To Release Four Hands
"To release four hands" is used when you and the enemy are contend-
ing with the same spirit, and the issue cannot be decided. Abandon this
spirit and win through an alternative resource.
In large-scale strategy, when there is a "four hands" spirit, do not give
up - it is man's existence. Immediately throw away this spirit and win
with a technique the enemy does not expect.
In single combat also, when we think we have fallen into the "four
hands" situation, we must defeat the enemy by changing our mind and
applying a suitable technique according to his condition. You must be
able to judge this.
To Move the Shade
"To move the shade" is used when you cannot see the enemy's spirit.
In large-scale strategy, when you cannot see the enemy's position, in-
dicate that you are about to attack strongly, to discover his resources. It
30
is easy then to defeat him with a different method once you see his
resources.
In single combat, if the enemy takes up a rear or side attitude of the
long sword so that you cannot see his intention, make a feint attack, and
the enemy will show his long sword, thinking he sees your spirit. Bene-
fiting from what you are shown, you can win with certainty. If you are
negligent you will miss the timing. Research this well.
To Hold Down a Shadow
"Holding down a shadow" is use when you can see the enemy's attack-
ing spirit.
In large-scale strategy, when the enemy embarks on an attack, if you
make a show of strongly suppressing his technique, he will change his
mind. Then, altering your spirit, defeat him by forestalling him with a
Void spirit.
Or, in single combat, hold down the enemy's strong intention with a
suitable timing, and defeat him by forestalling him with this timing. You
must study this well.
To Pass On
Many things are said to be passed on. Sleepiness can be passed on, and
yawning can be passed on. Time can be passed on also.
In large-scale strategy, when the enemy is agitated and shows an in-
clination to rush, do not mind in the least. Make a show of complete
calmness, and the enemy will be taken by this and will become relaxed.
When you see that this spirit has been passed on, you can bring about
the enemy's defeat by attacking strongly with a Void spirit.
In single combat, you can win by relaxing your body and spirit and
then, catching on to the moment the enemy relaxes, attack strongly and
quickly, forestalling him. What is know as "getting someone drunk" is
similar to this. You can also infect the enemy with a bored, careless, or
weak spirit. You must study this well.
To Cause Loss of Balance
Many things can cause a loss of balance. One cause is danger, another
is hardship, and another is surprise. You must research this.
31
In large-scale strategy it is important to cause loss of balance. Attack
without warning where the enemy is not expecting it, and while his spir-
it is undecided follow up your advantage and, having the lead, defeat
him.
Or, in single combat, start by making a show of being slow, then sud-
denly attack strongly. Without allowing him space for breath to recover
form the fluctuation of spirit, you must grasp the opportunity to win.
Get the feel of this.
To Frighten
Fright often occurs, caused by the unexpected.
In large-scale strategy you can frighten the enemy not just by what
you present to their eyes, but by shouting, making a small force seem
large, or by threatening them from the flank without warning. These
things all frighten. You can win by making best use of the enemy's
frightened rhythm.
In single combat, also, you must use the advantage of taking the en-
emy unawares by frightening him with your body, long sword, or voice,
to defeat him. You should research this well.
To Soak In
When you have come to grips and are striving together with the en-
emy, and you realize that you cannot advance, you "soak in" and become
one with the enemy. You can win by applying a suitable technique while
you are mutually entangled.
In battles involving large numbers as well as in fights with small num-
bers, you can often win decisively with the advantage of knowing how
to "soak" into the enemy, whereas, were you to draw apart, you would
lose the chance to win. Research this well.
To Injure the Corners
It is difficult to move strong things by pushing directly, so you should
"injure the corners".
In large-scale strategy, it is beneficial to strike at the corners of the
enemy's force. If the corners are overthrown, the spirit of the whole body
will be overthrown. To defeat the enemy you must follow up the attack
when the corners have fallen.
32
In single combat, it is easy to win once the enemy collapses. This hap-
pens when you injure the "corners" of his body, and thus weaken him. It
is important to know how to do this, so you must research deeply.
To Throw into Confusion
This means making the enemy lose resolve.
In large-scale strategy we can use our troops to confuse the enemy on
the field. Observing the enemy's spirit, we can make him think, "Here?
There? Like that? Like this? Slow? Fast?". Victory is certain when the en-
emy is caught up in a rhythm which confuses his spirit.
In single combat, we can confuse the enemy by attacking with varied
techniques when the chance arises. Feint a thrust or cut, or make the en-
emy think ou are going to close with him, and when he is confused you
can easily win. This is the essence of fighting, and you must research it
deeply.
The Three Shouts
The three shouts are divided thus: before, during and after. Shout ac-
cording to the situation. The voice is a thing of life. We shout against
fires and so on, against the wind and the waves. The voice shows energy.
In large-scale strategy, at the start of battle we shout as loudly as pos-
sible. During the fight, the voice is low-pitched, shouting out as we at-
tack. After the contest, we shout in the wake of our victory. These are the
three shouts.
In single combat, we make as if to cut and shout "Ei!" at the same time
to disturb the enemy, then in the wake of our shout we cut with the long
sword. We shout after we have cut down the enemy - this is to announce
victory. This is called "sen go no koe" (before and after voice). We do not
shout simultaneously with flourishing the long sword. We shout during
the fight to get into rhythm. Research this deeply.
To Mingle
In battles, when the armies are in confrontation, attack the enemy's
strong points and, when you see that they are beaten back, quickly sep-
arate and attack yet another strong point on the periphery of his force.
The spirit of this is like a winding mountain path.
33
This is an important fighting method for one man against many. Strike
down the enemies in one quarter, or drive them back, then grasp the tim-
ing and attack further strong points to right and left, as if on a winding
mountain path, weighing up the enemies' disposition. When you know
the enemies' level attack strongly with no trace of retreating spirit.
What is meant by "mingling" is the spirit of advancing and becoming
engaged with the enemy, and not withdrawing even one step. You must
understand this.
To Crush
This means to crush the enemy regarding him as being weak.
In large-scale strategy, when we see that the enemy has few men, or if
he has many men but his spirit is weak and disordered, we knock the hat
over his eyes, crushing him utterly. If we crush lightly, he may recover.
You must learn the spirit of crushing as if with a hand-grip.
In single combat, if the enemy is less skilful than ourself, if his rhythm
is disorganised, or if he has fallen into evasive or retreating attitudes, we
must crush him straightaway, with no concern for his presence and
without allowing him space for breath. It is essential to crush him all at
once. The primary thing is not to let him recover his position even a little.
You must research this deeply.
The Mountain-Sea Change
The "mountain-sea" spirit means that it is bad to repeat the same thing
several times when fighting the enemy. There may be no help but to do
something twice, but do not try it a third time. If you once make an at-
tack and fail, there is little chance of success if you use the same ap-
proach again. If you attempt a technique which you have previously
tried unsuccessfully and fail yet again, then you must change your at-
tacking method.
If the enemy thinks of the mountains, attack like the sea; and if he
thinks of the sea, attack like the mountains. You must research this
deeply.
To Penetrate the Depths
When we are fighting with the enemy, even when it can be seen that
we can win on the surface with the benefit of the Way, if his spirit is not
34
extinguished, he may be beaten superficially yet undefeated in spirit
deep inside. With this principle of "penetrating the depths" we can des-
troy the enemy's spirit in its depths, demoralising him by quickly chan-
ging our spirit. This often occurs.
Penetrating the depths means penetrating with the long sword, penet-
rating with the body, and penetrating with the spirit. This cannot be un-
derstood in a generalisation.
Once we have crushed the enemy in the depths, there is no need to re-
main spirited. But otherwise we must remain spirited. If the enemy re-
mains spirited it is difficult to crush him. You must train in penetrating
the depths for large-scale strategy and also single combat.
To Renew
"To renew" applies when we are fighting with the enemy, and an en-
tangled spirit arises where there is no possible resolution. We must aban-
don our efforts, think of the situation in a fresh spirit then win in the new
rhythm. To renew, when we are deadlocked with the enemy, means that
without changing our circumstance we change our spirit and win
through a different technique.
It is necessary to consider how "to renew" also applies in large-scale
strategy. Research this diligently.
Rat's Head, Ox's Neck
"Rat's head and ox's neck" means that, when we are fighting with the
enemy and both he and we have become occupied with small points in
an entangled spirit, we must always think of the Way of Strategy as be-
ing both a rat's head and an ox's neck. Whenever we have become preoc-
cupied with small detail, we must suddenly change into a large spirit, in-
terchanging large with small.
This is one of the essences of strategy. It is necessary that the warrior
think in this spirit in everyday life. You must not depart from this spirit
in large-scale strategy nor in single combat.
The Commander Knows the Troops
"The commander knows the troops" applies everywhere in fights in
my Way of strategy. Using the wisdom of strategy, think of the enemy as
your own troops. When you think in this way you can move him at will
35
and be able to chase him around. You become the general and the enemy
becomes your troops. You must master this.
To Let Go the Hilt
There are various kinds of spirit involved in letting go the hilt. There is
the spirit of winning without a sword. There is also the spirit of holding
the long sword but not winning. The various methods cannot be ex-
pressed in writing. You must train well.
The Body of a Rock
When you have mastered the Way of Strategy you can suddenly make
your body like a rock, and ten thousand things cannot touch you. This is
the body of a rock.
You will not be moved. Oral tradition.
What is recorded above is what has been constantly on my mind about
Ichi school sword fencing, written down as it came to me. This is the first
time I have written about my technique, and the order of things is a bit
confused. It is difficult to express it clearly.
This book is a spiritual guide for the man who wishes to learn the
Way.
My heart has been inclined to the Way of Strategy from my youth on-
wards. I have devoted myself to training my hand, tempering my body,
and attaining the many spiritual attitudes of sword fencing. If we watch
men of other schools discussing theory, and concentrating on techniques
with the hands, even though they seem skilful to watch, they have not
the slightest true spirit.
Of course, men who study in this way think they are training the body
and spirit, but it is an obstacle to the true Way, and its bad influence re-
mains for ever. Thus the true Way of Strategy is becoming decadent and
dying out.
The true Way of sword fencing is the craft of defeating the enemy in a
fight, and nothing other than this. If you attain and adhere to the wis-
dom of my strategy, you need never doubt that you will win.
36
Chapter 4
THE WIND BOOK
In strategy you must know the Ways of other schools, so I have written
about various other traditions of strategys in this the Wind Book.
Without knowledge of the Ways of other schools, it is difficult to un-
derstand the essence of my Ichi school. Looking at other schools we find
some that specialise in techniques of strength using extra-long swords.
Some schools study the Way of the short sword, known as kodachi.
Some schools teach dexterity in large numbers of sword techniques,
teaching attitudes of the sword as the "surface" and the Way as the
"interior".
That none of these are the true Way I show clearly in the interior of
this book - all the vices and virtues and rights and wrongs. My Ichi
school is different. Other schools make accomplishments their means of
livelihood, growing flowers and decoratively colouring articles in order
to sell them. This is definitely not the Way of Strategy.
Some of the world's strategists are concerned only with sword-fencing,
and limit their training to flourishing the long sword and carriage of the
body. But is dexterity alone sufficient to win? This is not the essence of
the Way.
I have recorded the unsatisfactory point of other schools one by one in
this book. You must study these matters deeply to appreciate the benefit
of my Ni To Ichi school.
Other Schools Using Extra-Long Swords
Some other schools have a liking for extra-long swords. From the point
of view of my strategy these must been seen as weak schools. This is be-
cause they do not appreciate the principle of cutting the enemy by any
means. Their preference is for the extra-long sword and, relying on the
virtue of its length, they think to defeat the enemy from a distance.
37
In this world it is said, "One inch gives the hand advantage", but these
are the idle words of one who does not know strategy. It shows the in-
ferior strategy of a weak spirit that men should be dependent on the
length of their sword, fighting from a distance without the benefit of
strategy.
I expect there is a case for the school in question liking extra-long
swords as part of its doctrine, but if we compare this to real life it is un-
reasonable. Surely we need not necessarily be defeated if we are using a
short sword, and have no long sword?
It is difficult for these people to cut the enemy when at close quarters
because of the length of the long sword. The blade path is large so the
long sword is an encumbrance, and they are at a disadvantage compared
to the man armed with a short companion sword.
From olden times it has been said: "Great and small go together.". So
do not unconditionally dislike extra-long swords. What I dislike is the in-
clination towards the long sword. If we consider large-scale strategy, we
can think of large forces in terms of long swords, and small forces as
short swords. Cannot few me give battle against many? There are many
instances of few men overcoming many.
Your strategy is of no account if when called on to fight in a confined
space your heart is inclined to the long sword, or if you are in a house
armed only with your companion sword.
Besides, some men have not the strength of others. In my doctrine, I
dislike preconceived, narrow spirit. You must study this well.
The Strong Long Sword Spirit in Other Schools
You should not speak of strong and weak long swords. If you just
wield the long sword in a strong spirit your cutting will be coarse, and if
you use the sword coarsely you will have difficulty in winning.
If you are concerned with the strength of your sword, you will try to
cut unreasonably strongly, and will not be able to cut at all. It is also bad
to try to cut strongly when testing the sword. Whenever you cross
swords with an enemy you must not think of cutting him either strongly
or weakly; just think of cutting and killing him. Be intent solely upon
killing the enemy. Do not try to cut strongly and, of course, do not think
of cutting weakly. You should only be concerned with killing the enemy.
38
If you rely on strength, when you hit the enemy's sword you will inev-
itably hit too hard. If you do this, your own sword will be carried along
as a result. Thus the saying, "The strongest hand wins", has no meaning.
In large-scale strategy, if you have a strong army and are relying on
strength to win, but the enemy also has a strong army, the battle will be
fierce. This is the same for both sides.
Without the correct principle the fight cannot be won. The spirit of my
school is to win through the wisdom of strategy, paying no attention to
trifles. Study this well.
Use of the Shorter Long Sword in Other Schools
Using a shorter long sword is not the true Way to win.
In ancient times, tachi and katana meant long and short swords. Men
of superior strength in the world can wield even a long sword lightly, so
there is no case for their liking the short sword. They also make use of
the length of spears and halberds. Some men use a shorter long sword
with the intention of jumping in and stabbing the enemy at the un-
guarded moment when he flourishes his sword. This inclination is bad.
To aim for the enemy's unguarded moment is completely defensive,
and undesirable at close quarters with the enemy. Furthermore, you can-
not use the method of jumping inside his defence with a short sword if
there are many enemies. Some men think that if they go against many
enemies with a shorter long sword they can unrestrictedly frisk around
cutting in sweeps, but they have to parry cuts continuously, and eventu-
ally become entangled with the enemy. This is inconsistent with the true
Way of Strategy.
The sure Way to win thus is to chase the enemy around in confusing
manner, causing him to jump aside, with your body held strongly and
straight. The same principle applies to large-scale strategy. The essence
of strategy is to fall upon the enemy in large numbers and bring about
his speedy downfall. By their study of strategy, people of the world get
used to countering, evading and retreating as the normal thing. They be-
come set in this habit, so can easily be paraded around by the enemy.
The Way of Strategy is straight and true. You must chase the enemy
around and make him obey your spirit.
Other Schools with many Methods of using the Long Sword
39
Placing a great deal of importance on the attitudes of the long sword is
a mistaken way of thinking. What is known in the world as "attitude" ap-
plies when there is no enemy. The reason is that this has been a preced-
ent since ancient times, and there should be no such thing as "This is the
modern way to do it" in dueling. You must force the enemy into incon-
venient situations.
Attitudes are for situations in which you are not to be moved. That is,
for garrisoning castles, battle array, and so on, showing the spirit of not
being moved even by a strong assault. In the Way of dueling, however,
you must always be intent upon taking the lead and attacking. Attitude
is the spirit of awaiting an attack. You must appreciate this.
In duels of strategy you must move the opponent's attitude. Attack
where his spirit is lax, throw him into confusion, irritate and terrify him.
Take advantage of the enemy's rhythm when he is unsettled and you can
win.
I dislike the defensive spirit know as "attitude". Therefore, in my Way,
there is something called "Attitude-No Attitude".
In large-scale strategy we deploy our troops for battle bearing in mind
our strength, observing the enemy's numbers, and noting the details of
the battle field. This is at the start of the battle.
The spirit of attacking first is completely different from the spirit of be-
ing attacked. Bearing an attack well, with a strong attitude, and parrying
the enemy's attack well, is like making a wall of spears and halberds.
When you attack the enemy, your spirit must go to the extent of pulling
the stakes out of a wall and using them as spears and halberds. You must
examine this well.
Fixing the Eyes in Other Schools
Some schools maintain that the eyes should be fixed on the enemy's
long sword. Some schools fix the eyes on the hands. Some fix the eyes on
the face, and some fix the eyes on the feet, and so on. If you fix the eyes
on these places your spirit can become confused and your strategy
thwarted.
I will explain this in detail. Footballers do not fix their eyes on the ball,
but by good play on the field they can perform well. When you become
accustomed to something, you are not limited to the use of your eyes.
People such as master musicians have the music score in front of their
nose, or flourish swords in several ways when they have mastered the
40
Way, but this does not mean that they fix their eyes on these things spe-
cifically, or that they make pointless movements of the sword. It means
that they can see naturally.
In the Way of Strategy, when you have fought many times you will
easily be able to appraise the speed and position of the enemy's sword,
and having mastery of the Way you will see the weight of his spirit. In
strategy, fixing the eyes means gazing at the man's heart.
In large-scale strategy the area to watch is the enemy's strength.
"Perception" and "sight" are the two methods of seeing. Perception con-
sists of concentrating strongly on the enemy's spirit, observing the condi-
tion of the battlefield, fixing the gaze strongly, seeing the progress of the
fight and the changes of advantages. This is the sure way to win.
In single combat you must not fix the eyes on the details. As I said be-
fore, if you fix your eyes on details and neglect important things, your
spirit will become bewildered, and victory will escape you. Research this
principle well and train diligently.
Use of the Feet in Other Schools
There are various methods of using the feet: floating foot, jumping
foot, springing foot, treading foot, crow's foot, and such nimble walking
methods. From the point of view of my strategy, these are all
unsatisfactory.
I dislike floating foot because the feet always tend to float during the
fight. The Way must be trod firmly.
Neither do I like jumping foot, because it encourages the habit of
jumping, and a jumpy spirit. However much you jump, there is no real
justification for it; so jumping is bad.
Springing foot causes a springing spirit which is indecisive.
Treading foot is a "waiting" method, and I especially dislike it.
Apart from these, there are various fast walking methods, such as
crow's foot, and so on.
Sometimes, however, you may encounter the enemy on marshland,
swampy ground, river valleys, stony ground, or narrow roads, in which
situations you cannot jump or move the feet quickly.
In my strategy, the footwork does not change. I always walk as I usu-
ally do in the street. You must never lose control of your feet. According
41
to the enemy's rhythm, move fast or slowly, adjusting you body not too
much and not too little.
Carrying the feet is important also in large-scale strategy. This is be-
cause, if you attack quickly and thoughtlessly without knowing the
enemy's spirit, your rhythm will become deranged and you will not be
able to win. Or, if you advance too slowly, you will not be able to take
advantage of the enemy's disorder, the opportunity to win will escape,
and you will not be able to finish the fight quickly. You must win by
seizing upon the enemy's disorder and derangement, and by not accord-
ing him even a little hope of recovery. Practice this well.
Speed in Other Schools
Speed is not part of the true Way of Strategy. Speed implies that things
seem fast or slow, according to whether or not they are in rhythm.
Whatever the Way, the master of strategy does not appear fast.
Some people can walk as fast as a hundred or a hundred and twenty
miles in a day, but this does not mean that they run continuously from
morning till night. Unpracticed runners may seem to have been running
all day, but their performance is poor.
In the Way of dance, accomplished performers can sing while dancing,
but when beginners try this they slow down and their spirit becomes
busy. The "old pine tree" melody beaten on a leather drum is tranquil,
but when beginners try this they slow down and their spirit becomes
busy. Very skilful people can manage a fast rhythm, but it is bad to beat
hurriedly. If you try to beat too quickly you will get out of time. Of
course, slowness is bad. Really skilful people never get out of time, and
are always deliberate, and never appear busy. From this example, the
principle can be seen.
What is known as speed is especially bad in the Way of Strategy. The
reason for this is that depending on the place, marsh or swamp and so
on, it may not be possible to move the body and legs together quickly.
Still less will you be able to cut quickly if you have a long sword in this
situation. If you try to cut quickly, as if using a fan or short sword, you
will not actually cut even a little. You must appreciate this.
In large-scale strategy also, a fast busy spirit is undesirable. The spirit
must be that of holding down a pillow, then you will not be even a little
late.
42
When your opponent is hurrying recklessly, you must act contrarily
and keep calm. You must not be influenced by the opponent. Train dili-
gently to attain this spirit.
"Interior" and "Surface" in Other Schools
There is no "interior" nor "surface" in strategy.
The artistic accomplishments usually claim inner meaning and secret
tradition, and "interior" and "gate", but in combat there is no such thing
as fighting on the surface, or cutting with the interior. When I teach my
Way, I first teach by training in techniques which are easy for the pupil
to understand, a doctrine which is easy to understand. I gradually en-
deavour to explain the deep principle, points which it is hardly possible
to comprehend, according to the pupil's progress. In any event, because
the way to understanding is through experience, I do not speak of
"interior" and "gate".
In this world, if you go into the mountains, and decide to go deeper
and yet deeper, instead you will emerge at the gate. Whatever the Way,
it has an interior, and it is sometimes a good thing to point out the gate.
In strategy, we cannot say what is concealed and what is revealed.
Accordingly I dislike passing on my Way through written pledges and
regulations. Perceiving the ability of my pupils, I teach the direct Way,
remove the bad influence of other schools, and gradually introduce them
to the true Way of the warrior.
The method of teaching my strategy is with a trustworthy spirit.
You must train diligently. I have tried to record an outline of the
strategy of other schools in the above nine sections. I could now continue
by giving a specific account of these schools one by one, from the "gate"
to the "interior", but I have intentionally not named the schools or their
main points. The reason for this is that different branches of schools give
different interpretations of the doctrines. In as much as men's opinions
differ, so there must be differing ideas on the same matter. Thus no one
man's conception is valid for any school.
I have shown the general tendencies of other schools on nine points. If
we look at them from an honest viewpoint, we see that people always
tend to like long swords or short swords, and become concerned with
strength in both large and small matters. You can see why I do not deal
with the "gates" of other schools.
43
In my Ichi school of the long sword there is neither gate nor interior.
There is no inner meaning in sword attitudes. You must simply keep
your spirit true to realize the virtue of strategy.
44
Chapter 5
THE BOOK OF THE VOID
The Ni To Ichi Way of Strategy is recorded in this the Book of the Void.
What is called the spirit of the void is where there is nothing. It is not
included in man's knowledge. Of course the void is nothingness. By
knowing things that exist, you can know that which does not exist. That
is the void.
People in this world look at things mistakenly, and think that what
they do not understand must be the void. This is not the true void. It is
bewilderment.
In the Way of Strategy, also, those who study as warriors think that
whatever they cannot understand in their craft is the void. This is not the
true void.
To attain the Way of Strategy as a warrior you must study fully other
martial arts and not deviate even a little from the Way of the warrior.
With your spirit settled, accumulate practice day by day, and hour by
hour. Polish the twofold spirit heart and mind, and sharpen the twofold
gaze perception and sight. When your spirit is not in the least clouded,
when the clouds of bewilderment clear away, there is the true void.
Until you realize the true Way, whether in Buddhism or in common
sense, you may think that things are correct and in order. However, if we
look at things objectively, from the viewpoint of laws of the world, we
see various doctrines departing from the true Way. Know well this spirit,
and with forthrightness as the foundation and the true spirit as the Way.
Enact strategy broadly, correctly and openly.
Then you will come to think of things in a wide sense and, taking the
void as the Way, you will see the Way as void.
In the void is virtue, and no evil. Wisdom has existence, principle has
existence, the Way has existence, spirit is nothingness.
45
Twelfth day of the fifth month, second year of Shoho (1645).
Teruro Magonojo
SHINMEN MUSASHI
46
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Food for the mind
51

About Miyamoto: Miyamoto Musashi (c.1584–June 13 (Japanese calendar: May 19), 1645), also known as Shinmen Takezō, Miyamoto Bennosuke, or by his Buddhist name Niten Dōraku was a famous Japanese samurai, and is considered by many to have been one of the most skilled swordsmen in history. Musashi, as he is often simply known, became legendary through his outstanding swordsmanship in numerous duels, even from a very young age. He is the founder of the Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū or Nitenryū style of swordsmanship and the author of The Book of Five Rings, a book on strategy, tactics, and philosophy that is still studied today. Source: Wikipedia Note: This book is brought to you by Feedbooks. http://www.feedbooks.com Strictly for personal use, do not use this file for commercial purposes.

2

Introduction
I have been many years training in the Way of Strategy, called Ni Ten Ichi Ryu, and now I think I will explain it in writing for the first time. It is now during the first ten days of the tenth month in the twentieth year of Kanei (1645). I have climbed mountain Iwato of Higo in Kyushu to pay homage to heaven, pray to Kwannon, and kneel before Buddha. I am a warrior of Harima province, Shinmen Musashi No Kami Fujiwara No Genshin, age sixty years. From youth my heart has been inclined toward the Way of Strategy. My first duel was when I was thirteen, I struck down a strategist of the Shinto school, one Arima Kihei. When I was sixteen I struck down an able strategist Tadashima Akiyama. When I was twenty-one I went up to the capital and met all manner of strategists, never once failing to win in many contests. After that I went from province to province dueling with strategist of various schools, and not once failed to win even though I had as many as sixty encounters. This was between the ages of thirteen and twenty-eight or twenty-nine. When I reached thirty I looked back on my past. The previous victories were not due to my having mastered strategy. Perhaps it was natural ability, or the order of heaven, or that other schools' strategy was inferior. After that I studied morning and evening searching for the principle, and came to realize the Way of Strategy when I was fifty. Since then I have lived without following any particular Way. Thus with the virtue of strategy I practice many arts and abilities - all things with no teacher. To write this book I did not use the law of Buddha or the teachings of Confucius, neither old war chronicles nor books on martial tactics. I take up my brush to explain the true spirit of this Ichi school as it is mirrored in the Way of heaven and Kwannon. The time is the night of the tenth day of the tenth month, at the hour of the tiger (3-5 a.m.)

3

Chapter

1

THE GROUND BOOK
Strategy is the craft of the warrior. Commanders must enact the craft, and troopers should know this Way. There is no warrior in the world today who really understands the Way of Strategy. There are various Ways. There is the Way of salvation by the law of Buddha, the Way of Confucius governing the Way of learning, the Way of healing as a doctor, as a poet teaching the Way of Waka, tea, archery, and many arts and skills. Each man practices as he feels inclined. It is said the warrior's is the twofold Way of pen and sword, and he should have a taste for both Ways. Even if a man has no natural ability he can be a warrior by sticking assiduously to both divisions of the Way. Generally speaking, the Way of the warrior is resolute acceptance of death. Although not only warriors but priests, women, peasants and lowlier folk have been known to die readily in the cause of duty or out of shame, this is a different thing. The warrior is different in that studying the Way of Strategy is based on overcoming men. By victory gained in crossing swords with individuals, or enjoining battle with large numbers, we can attain power and fame for ourselves or our lord. This is the virtue of strategy. The Way of Strategy In China and Japan practitioners of the Way have been known as "masters of strategy". Warriors must learn this Way. Recently there have been people getting on in the world as strategists, but they are usually just sword-fencers. The attendants of the Kashima Kantori shrines of the province Hitachi received instruction from the gods, and made schools based on this teaching, traveling from country to country instructing men. This is the recent meaning of strategy. In olden times strategy was listed among the Ten Abilities and Seven Arts as a beneficial practice. It was certainly an art but as a beneficial

4

practice it was not limited to sword-fencing. The true value of swordfencing cannot be seen within the confines of sword-fencing technique. If we look at the world we see arts for sale. Men use equipment to sell their own selves. As if with the nut and the flower, the nut has become less than th flower. In this kind of Way of Strategy, both those teaching and those learning the way are concerned with colouring and showing off their technique, trying to hasten the bloom of the flower. They speak of "This Dojo" and "That Dojo". They are looking for profit. Someone once said "Immature strategy is the cause of grief". That was a true saying. There are four Ways in which men pass through life: as gentlemen, farmers, artisans and merchants. The Way of the farmer. Using agricultural instruments, he sees springs through to autumns with an eye on the changes of season. Second is the Way of the merchant. The wine maker obtains his ingredients and puts them to use to make his living. The Way of the merchant is always to live by taking profit. This is the Way of the merchant. Thirdly the gentleman warrior, carrying the weaponry of his Way. The Way of the warrior is to master the virtue of his weapons. If a gentleman dislikes strategy he will not appreciate the benefit of weaponry, so must he not have a little taste for this? Fourthly the Way of the artisan. The Way of the carpenter is to become proficient in the use of his tools, first to lay his plans with a true measure and then perform his work according to plan. Thus he passes through life. These are the four Ways of the gentleman, the farmer, the artisan and the merchant. Comparing the Way of the Carpenter to Strategy The comparison with carpentry is through the connection with houses. Houses of the nobility, houses of warriors, the Four houses, ruin of houses, thriving of houses, the style of the house, the tradition of the house, and the name of the house. The carpenter uses a master plan of the building, and the Way of Strategy is similar in that there is a plan of campaign. If you want to learn the craft of war, ponder over this book. The teacher is as a needle, the disciple is as thread. You must practice constantly. Like the foreman carpenter, the commander must know natural rules, and the rules of the country, and the rules of houses. This is the Way of the foreman.

5

shapes floorboards and shelves with a plane. He should know their morale and spirit. Things are similar for the trooper. Timber which is weak or knotted throughout should be used as scaffolding. The foreman carpenter allots his men work according to their ability. doors. can always be used discreetly in construction. If you want to learn this Way. and the plans of palaces. The foreman should take into account the abilities and limitations of his men. He carries his equipment in his tool box. straight timber with small defects is used for the inner pillars. giving as excellent a finish as his skill will allow. and must employ men to raise up houses. makers of sliding doors. This is the same as the principle of strategy. Those of poor ability lay the floor joists. The Way of the foreman carpenter is the same as the Way of the commander of a warrior house. lintels. In the construction of houses. 6 . and works under the direction of his foreman. chopping boards and pot-lids. paper lanterns. The Way of Strategy Like a trooper. and encourage them when necessary. tables. Good strong timber. to make small shrines. cuts fine openwork and carvings accurately. If the foreman knows and deploys his men well the finished work will be good. even if a little weak. and so on. He makes columns and girders with an axe. These are the specialties of the carpenter. This is the craft of the carpenters. is used for the thresholds. that the joints are not misaligned. ceilings and so on. circulating among them and asking nothing unreasonable. deeply consider the things written in this book one at a time. You must do sufficient research. writing shelves. Straight un-knotted timber of good appearance is used for the revealed pillars. and later for firewood. and those of lesser ability carve wedges and do such miscellaneous work. having tools which will cut well. The attainment of the carpenter is that his work is not warped. The carpenter's attainment is.The foreman carpenter must know the architectural theory of towers and temples. Timbers of the finest appearance. Floor layers. and that the work is truly planed so that it meets well and is not merely finished in sections. You ought to think deeply about this. thresholds and lintels. When the carpenter becomes skilled and understands measures he can become a foreman. the carpenter sharpens his own tools. choice of woods is made. though it be gnarled and knotted. This is essential. and sliding doors.

and Void (the illusionary nature of worldly things) The body of the Way of Strategy from the viewpoint of my Ichi school is explained in the Ground book. Thus I clearly explain the strategies of the world. If you master the principles of sword-fencing. To all Ways there are side-tracks. In short. the spirit becomes like water. you beat any man in the world. things of Ichi school are shown in this book. This book is not concerned with my Ichi school but with other schools of strategy. An individual can easily change his mind. In strategy it is necessary to treat training as part of normal life with your spirit unchanging. and family traditions of strategy. and so it is with battles. the shallowest things and the deepest things. I cannot write in detail how this is done. Water. Things of Ichi school are written in this the Water book. Water has a clear blue colour. Fourthly the Wind book. You must appreciate this. This is tradition. It is difficult to realize the true Way just through sword-fencing. The essence of this book is that you must train day and night in order to make quick decisions. Second is the Water book. present-day traditions. so their movements can be easily predicted. so his movements are difficult to predict. By the clarity. whether the fire be small or big. the first book is called the Ground book. Wind (tradition). you may think you are obeying a good Way but objectively it is not the true Way. It is difficult to know yourself if you do not know others. when you freely beat one man. The spirit of defeating a man is the same for ten million men. The strategist makes small things into big things. By Wind I mean old traditions. like building a great Buddha from a one foot model. Thus combat in battle is described in the Fire book. You must appreciate that spirit can become big or small.Outline of the Five Books of this Book of Strategy The Way is shown as five books concerning different aspects. What is big is easy to perceive: what is small is difficult to perceive. Fire. it is difficult for large numbers of men to change position. Water adopts the shape of its receptacle. to know ten thousand things. The principle of strategy is having one thing. The Way of battles is the same for man to man fights and for ten thousand a side battles. Know the smallest things and the biggest things. Third is the Fire book. If you study a Way daily. If you are 7 . and your spirit diverges. These are Ground. it is sometimes a trickle and sometimes a wild sea. The spirit of fire is fierce. As if it were a straight road mapped out on the ground. With water as the basis. This book is about fighting.

I have explained what is commonly meant by strategy in other schools in the Tradition (Wind) book. you will be able to hit the enemy naturally and strike naturally. or in a crowd of people. carry two swords at their belt. when it is difficult to cut an enemy down with one hand. nowadays they are known as the sword and the companion sword. It is encumbering to hold a sword in both hands when you are on horseback. it is difficult to wield it freely to left and right. Attaining this principle means not attaining the principle. Fifthly.two swords) Warriors. muddy rice fields. knowing rhythm of any situation. but everything is difficult at first. so my method is to carry the sword in one hand. To hold the long sword in both hands is not the true Way. This is a truth: when you sacrifice your life. and it is not unreasonable that this should be so. It is the Way of the warrior. The Name Ichi Ryu Ni To (One school . The Way of strategy is the Way of nature. one in each hand. stony ground. halberds are 8 . you must make fullest use of your weaponry. a warrior carries two swords at his belt. but swords and companion swords can be carried in one hand. When you appreciate the power of nature. By void I mean that which has no beginning and no end. whatever the reason. It is not difficult to wield a sword in one hand. If you hold a sword with both hands. You must realize this. It will seem difficult at first. this will later become a large divergence. although it includes sword-fencing. and to die with a weapon yet undrawn. In olden times these were called the long sword and the sword. The benefit of my strategy. both commanders and troopers. However. when running on uneven roads. Bows are difficult to draw. All this is the Way of the Void. Other strategies have come to be thought of as mere sword-fencing. It is false not to do so. "Nito Ichi Ryu" shows the advantages of using both swords. This does not apply to large weapons such as the spear or halberd. the Way to learn this is to train with two long swords. I intend to show how to follow the true Way according to nature in the book of the Void. for if you carry a bow or spear or other arms in your left hand you have only one hand free for the long sword. you must use both hands. lies in a separate principle.following the true way and diverge a little. Students of the Ichi school Way of Strategy should train from the start with the sword and the long sword in either hand. on swampy ground. The spear and the halberd are weapons which are carried out of doors. the book of the Void. Let it suffice to say that in our land.

and especially if you want to take a prisoner. if you know the Way broadly you will see it in everything. It is better to use two swords rather than one when you are fighting a crowd. This is the first thing to realize. From one thing. In my strategy. guns. 9 . certain traditions. If he attains the virtue of the long sword. The long sword should be wielded broadly and the companion sword closely. You must study hard. Just as one man can beat ten. you will gain the power of the Way and wield the sword well.difficult to wield. those who master the bow are called archers. In short. When you attain the Way of Strategy there will not be one thing you cannot see. and yet you can also win with a short weapon. those who master the gun are called marksmen. whatever the weapon and whatever its size. there is no fast way of wielding the long sword. one man can beat ten men. one man is the same as ten thousand. These things cannot be explained in detail. as you become accustomed to the bow so your pull will become stronger. When you become used to wielding the long sword. But we do not call masters of the Way of the long sword "longswordsmen". Buddhism. spears and halberds are all warriors' equipment they are certainly part of strategy. To master the virtue of the long sword is to govern the world and oneself. But even though these are not part of the Way. the Way of the Ichi school is the spirit of winning. artistic accomplishments and dancing. According to this Ichi school. Men must polish their particular Way. you can win with a long weapon. know ten thousand things. such as Confucianism. those who master the spear are called spearmen. so this strategy is the complete warrior's craft. The Benefit of the Two Characters Reading "Strategy" Masters of the long sword are called strategists. thus the long sword is the basis of strategy. nor do we speak of "companion swordsmen". The Way of the warrior does not include other Ways. the Water Book. those who master the halberd are called halberdiers. so a hundred men can beat a thousand. The principle is "strategy by means of the long sword". Because bows. As for the other military arts. As I will explain in the second book. and a thousand can beat ten thousand.

You should not have a favourite weapon. However. if you learn "indoor" techniques. From inside fortifications. Timing in Strategy 10 . Weapons should be hardy rather than decorative. Thus you will have difficulty in actual encounters. They are essentially weapons for the field. the spear gives a little extra strength. whereas gunshot cannot be seen. In the hands of one of two men of equal ability. The halberd is inferior to the spear on the battlefield. the halberd is defensive. Spears and halberds must stand up to heavy use. bows and guns must be sturdy. Horses should walk strongly. These are things you must learn thoroughly. They cannot be used for taking a prisoner. you will think narrowly and forget the true Way. There is little use nowadays for this kind of skill. With the spear you can take the initiative. Anyway. For this reason there are nowadays few traditional schools of archery. and swords and companion swords should cut strongly. The best use of the companion sword is in a confined space. It is the supreme weapon on the field before the ranks clash. You must appreciate the importance of this. You should not copy others. To become over-familiar with one weapon is as much a fault as not knowing it sufficiently well. Spear and halberd both have their uses. but neither is very beneficial in confined spaces. or when you are engaged closely with an opponent. but use weapons which you can handle properly. The bow is tactically strong at the commencement of battle. Just as a horse must have endurance and no defects. especially battles on a moor. so it is with weapons. but once swords are crossed the gun becomes useless. The long sword can be used effectively in all situations. One of the virtues of the bow is that you can see the arrows in flight and correct your aim accordingly. or when the enemy is more than forty yards away. as it is possible to shoot quickly from among the spearmen. it is unsatisfactory in sieges. the gun has no equal among weapons.The Benefit of Weapons in Strategy There is a time and place for use of weapons. It is bad for commanders and troopers to have likes and dislikes.

Become acquainted with every art. Timing is important in dancing and pipe or string music. Pay attention even to trifles. and from among the large and small things and the fast and slow timings find the relevant timing. 8. 9. You must train sufficiently to appreciate this. In strategy there are various timing considerations. and riding horses. 3. 6. All things entail rising and falling timing. This is the way for men who want to learn my strategy: 1. Thus is large scale strategy and the strategy of hand to hand combat propagated in the world. Timing in strategy cannot be mastered without a great deal of practice. You win battles with the timing in the Void born of the timing of cunning by knowing the enemies' timing. You must be able to discern this. In all skills and abilities there is timing. Fire. Tradition (Wind). 7. There is timing in the whole life of the warrior. It is especially important to know the background timing. in the rise and fall of capital. 11 .There is timing in everything. 5. Similarly. Timing and rhythm are also involved in the military arts. There is also timing in the Void. All the five books are chiefly concerned with timing. there is timing in the Way of the merchant. The Way is in training. Distinguish between gain and loss in worldly matters. in his harmony and discord. shooting bows and guns. This is the main thing in strategy. first seeing the distance timing and the background timing. If you practice day and night in the above Ichi school strategy. Do not think dishonestly. This is recorded for the first time in the five books of Ground. Develop intuitive judgement and understanding for everything. and thus using a timing which the enemy does not expect. From the outset you must know the applicable timing and the inapplicable timing. Know the Ways of all professions. 2. otherwise your strategy will become uncertain. Water. 4. Perceive those things which cannot be seen. for they are in rhythm only if timing is good. and Void. in his thriving and declining. Do nothing which is of no use. your spirit will naturally broaden.

bear himself correctly. 12 . When you have reached this point. in large scale strategy the superior man will manage many subordinates dextrously. Also by training you will be able to freely control your own body. You will come to be able to actually beat men in fights. If you learn and attain this strategy you will never lose even to twenty or thirty enemies. to help oneself and gain honour. and with sufficient training you will be able to beat ten men with your spirit. conquer men with your body. If there is a Way involving the spirit of not being defeated. will it not mean that you are invincible? Moreover. If you do not look at things on a large scale it will be difficult for you to master strategy. and train in the Way of Strategy. and to be able to win with your eye. thus preserving the ruler's discipline. govern the country and foster the people. it is the Way of strategy. More than anything to start with you must set your heart on strategy and earnestly stick to the Way.It is important to start by setting these broad principles in your heart.

Language does not extend to explaining the Way in detail. but it can be grasped intuitively. Small people must be completely familiar with the spirit of large people. or your body be influenced by your spirit.Do not just read. Do not let your spirit be influenced by your body. and large people must be familiar with the spirit of small people. and when your body is relaxed do not let your spirit slacken. Absorb the things written in this book. If you interpret the meaning loosely you will mistake the Way. With your spirit open and unconstricted. but so that you realize the principle from within your own heart study hard to absorb these things into your body. Both in fighting and in everyday life you should be determined though calm.Chapter 2 THE WATER BOOK The spirit of the Ni Ten Ichi school of strategy is based on water. Be neither insufficiently spirited nor over spirited. do not be misled by the reactions of your own body. your spirit settled yet unbiased. look at things from a high point 13 . Meet the situation without tenseness yet not recklessly. and this Water Book explains methods of victory as the long-sword form of the Ichi school. Study this book. Even when your spirit is calm do not let your body relax. Do not let the enemy see your spirit. An elevated spirit is weak and a low spirit is weak. Whatever your size. but you must think broadly so that you attain an understanding for ten-thousand-a-side battles. memorise or imitate. If you merely read this book you will not reach the Way of Strategy. read a word then ponder on it. Strategy is different from other things in that if you mistake the Way even a little you will become bewildered and fall into bad ways. The principles of strategy are written down here in terms of single combat. Spiritual Bearing in Strategy In strategy your spiritual bearing must not be any different from normal.

Do not roll your eyes nor allow them to blink. You must research this well. When you cannot be deceived by men you will have realized the wisdom of strategy. nor looking up. 14 . and in the same way from the shoulders down through your entire body. but slightly narrow them. Lower both shoulders and. It is necessary in strategy to be able to look to both sides without moving the eyeballs. You cannot master this ability quickly. The wisdom of strategy is different from other things. use this gaze in everyday life and do not vary it whatever happens. study the Ways of different arts one by one. without the buttocks jutting out. In all forms of strategy. You must cultivate your wisdom and spirit. keep the line of your nose straight with a feeling of slightly flaring your nostrils. Perception is strong and sight week. neither hanging down. it is necessary to maintain the combat stance in everyday life and to make your everyday stance your combat stance. This is the twofold gaze "Perception and Sight". On the battlefield. With your features composed. so that your belt is not slack . Polish your wisdom: learn public justice. Learn what is written here. Your forehead and the space between your eyes should not be wrinkled. Hold the line of the rear of the neck straight: instill vigour into your hairline. The gaze is the same for single combat and for large-scale strategy. nor twisted. In strategy it is important to see distant things as if they were close and to take a distanced view of close things. put strength into your legs from the knees to the tips of your toes. distinguish between good and evil. even when you are hard-pressed. Stance in Strategy Adopt a stance with the head erect.this is called "wedging in". The Gaze in Strategy The gaze should be large and broad. you should ceaselessly research the principles of strategy so that you can develop a steady spirit. It is important in strategy to know the enemy's sword and not to be distracted by insignificant movements of his sword. Wedge your companion sword in your belt against your abdomen.of view. You must study this. Brace your abdomen so that you do not bend at the hips.

Your attitude should be large or small according to the situation. These are the give. Footwork With the tips of your toes somewhat floating. your feet must always move as in normal walking. The decision to use Left or Right depends on the place. with large or small steps. There are none but these five attitudes. 15 . Right Side. with the middle finger neither tight nor slack. Left Side and Right Side attitudes are fluid. Whether you move fast or slow. It means moving your feet left-right and right-left when cutting. Above all. When you take up a sword. Fixedness means a dead hand. As you cut an enemy you must not change your grip. Generally. The Five Attitudes The five attitudes are: Upper. and your hands must not "cower". You must bear this in mind. the one purpose of all of them is to cut the enemy. you must slightly change the feeling in your thumb and forefinger. think only of cutting. tread firmly with your heels. do not be conscious of making the attitude. I dislike the three walking methods know as "jumping-foot".Holding the Long Sword Grip the long sword with a rather floating feeling in your thumb and forefinger. or force it down. So-called "Yin-Yang foot" is important in the Way. Lower and Middle attitudes are decisive. It is bad to have play in your hands. withdrawing. I dislike fixedness in both long swords and hands. you must feel intent on cutting the enemy. The grip for combat and for sword-testing is the same. Although attitude has these five divisions. Yin-Yang foot means not moving only one foot. you must be intent on cutting the enemy in the way you grip the sword. Lower. You should not move on one foot preferentially. Whatever attitude you are in. Left and Right attitudes should be used if there is an obstruction overhead or to one side. Middle. and with the last two fingers tight. "floating-foot" and "fixed-steps". Upper. and Left Side. Pliability is a living hand. When you dash the enemy's sword aside. or ward it off. There is no such thing as a "man-cutting grip". or warding off a cut.

It is possible to repeat the cut from here. scooping up from below. from the Upper attitude cut the enemy just as he attacks. The five approaches are this kind of thing. If we look at strategy on a broad scale. you will be able to wield a sword well. keep your sword where it is and. dash his sword to the right and "ride" it. The Way of the Long Sword Knowing the Way of the long sword means we can wield with two fingers the sword we usually carry. When you master my Way of the long sword. when you cut sideways. You must train constantly. To wield the long sword well you must wield it calmly. lift it straight upwards. return the sword along a sideways path. If we know the path of the sword well. 16 . This is the first method. cut him as he renews the attack. In the second approach with the long sword. When he attacks. when the enemy attacks. If you try to wield it quickly. always stretching the elbows broadly. like a folding fan or a short sword. This is the Way of the longsword. there are no attitudes other than the five attitudes of the long sword of Ni To. You cannot cut down a man with a long sword using this method. Wield the sword strongly. Confront the enemy with the point of your sword against his face.The essence of the Way is this. the Middle attitude is the seat of the commander. keep your long sword where it is. You must train repeatedly using a long sword in order to learn them. you will be able to control any attack the enemy makes. The first approach is the Middle attitude. The Five Approaches 1. The middle attitude is the heart of attitudes. I assure you. Or. Return the sword in a reasonable way. When you have cut downwards with the longsword. deflect the point of his sword by hitting downwards. If you learn to use the five approaches of my strategy. with the other four attitudes following the commander. we can wield it easily. You must appreciate this. and as the enemy renews his attack cut his arms from below. If you try to wield the long sword quickly you will mistake the Way. If the enemy evades the cut. 2. To understand attitude you must thoroughly understand the middle attitude. you will err by using "short sword chopping".

The "Attitude No-Attitude" Teaching "Attitude No-Attitude" means that there is no need for what are know as long sword attitudes. learn large-scale timing. You must research this. If this is the case. You will always win with the five long sword methods. cross your long sword from below at the side to the Upper attitude. attitudes exist as the five ways of holding the long sword. As the enemy attacks hit his hands from below. 4. In accordance with the enemy's attack. adopt the Lower attitude. This method is essential for knowing the Way of the long sword well. You must become well acquainted with my "in harmony with the long sword" Way. In the third approach. You will always win by using these five methods. From the lower attitude you can raise the sword and adopt the Middle 17 . You will encounter this method often. in accordance with the situation. This means that from the lower attitudes you hit the enemy at the instant that he attacks. both as a beginner and in later strategy. You will be able to understand this by training in the Ichi school. hit his hands from below. and become used to the five approaches from the outset. If as you hit his hands he attempts to dash down your sword.In this method there are various changes in timing and spirit. If you can use this method. You must train holding a long sword. anticipating scooping up. When the enemy attacks. You must train repetitively. you can freely wield a heavy long sword. and from the Middle attitude you can raise the sword a little in your technique and adopt the Upper attitude. parry the path of his long sword and cut across from above your shoulder. the sword is in the Right Side attitude. In the fifth approach. cut his upper arm(s) horizontally with a feeling of "crossing". Then cut straight from above. and your relation to the enemy. 5. From the Upper attitude as your spirit lessens you can adopt the Middle attitude. with various timing considerations discerning the enemy's spirit. adopt the Left Side attitude. the place. This is the Way of the long sword. I cannot describe in detail how to use these five approaches. 3. Even so. In this fourth approach. As you do so he may try to hit your sword down. understand the enemy's long sword. Through this method you win by parrying the line of the enemy's attack. You must consider all this carefully. However you hold the sword it must be in such a way that it is easy to cut the enemy well. with the feeling of hitting his hands.

and hit with your spirit. The "Abdomen Timing of Two" When you attack and the enemy quickly retreats. Then. while you see that he is still undecided. It is essential to attain this. Study this well. and hit from the Void with your hands. hit. No Design. This is the "No Design. To Hit the Enemy "In One Timing" "In One Timing" means. to hit him as quickly and directly as possible. More than anything. when you have closed with the enemy. as he relaxes. break or hit. if you turn your sword from either the Left Side or Right Side attitude towards the centre. You must thoroughly research this. It is very difficult to attain this by merely reading this book. striking or touching the enemy. you will not be able actually to cut him. If you think only of hitting.attitudes as the occasion demands. No Conception In this method. You must train to achieve this timing. This is the "Abdomen Timing of Two". spring. No Conception" cut. but you will soon understand with a little instruction. hit with your body. to be able to hit in the timing of an instant. springing. without moving your body or settling your spirit. is this "In One Timing". follow up and hit him. accelerating strongly. Attitude in strategy on a larger scale is called "Battle Array". the Middle or the Lower attitude results. you must cut the enemy in the same movement. The primary thing when you take a sword in your hands is your intention to cut the enemy. strike or touch the enemy's cutting sword. whatever the means. Fixed formation is bad. as you see him tense you must feint a cut.Nonexisting Attitude". According to the situation. 18 . when the enemy attacks and you also decide to attack. Such attitudes are all for winning battles. you must be thinking of carrying your movement through to cutting him. Whenever you parry. The timing of hitting before the enemy decides to withdraw. The principle of this is called "Existing Attitude .

When the enemy is in a long sword attitude in front of you and intent on cutting. following your body like stagnant water. expand your body and spirit and cut him as slowly as possible with your long sword. The Flowing Water Cut The "Flowing Water Cut" is used when you are struggling blade to blade with the enemy. perhaps in the spirit of the "No Design. he will necessarily drop the sword. in one action cut his head.all three cutting strongly. The spirit should be getting control of his sword. This means cutting quickly with the hands. You must practice this cut. If you then beat down the point of his sword with a sticky feeling. You can cut with certainty if you learn this. If you train well enough you will be able to strike strongly. it is the "Continuous Cut". The Red Leaves Cut The Red Leaves Cut [allusion to falling. When you cut several places with one sweep of the long sword. You must discern the enemy's grade. It is often used. it is often used. The Body in Place of the Long Sword 19 . When he breaks and quickly withdraws trying to spring with his long sword. If you practice this cut it becomes easy to make the enemy drop his sword. The Fire and Stones Cut The Fires and Stones Cut means that when the enemy's long sword and your long sword clash together you cut as strongly as possible without raising the sword even a little. You must train repetitively. With detailed practice you should be able to understand it. You must train hard to understand it. dying leaves] means knocking down the enemy's long sword. Continuous Cut When you attack and the enemy also attacks. hands and legs. you strongly hit the enemy's long sword with the Fire and Stones Cut. and your swords spring together.This is the most important method of hitting. body and legs . No Conception" Cut. hitting and parrying.

but generally you hit first with the body and then cut with the long sword. you must then cut strongly. but their body lags behind. whatever form of cutting it is. If you are intent upon not stretching out your arms you are effectively far away. and stretch your neck face to face with him. You must consider this carefully. You must research this well and practice hitting. without in the least extending your arms. the spirit is to go in with your whole body. When you cut.Also "the long sword in place of the body". The spirit is to get in quickly. You should stick firmly so that there is not the slightest gap between the enemy's body and your body. However. Usually we move the body and the sword at the same time to cut the enemy. Stretch your legs. your spirit is resolved. When you 20 . Slashing is nothing more than touching the enemy. To Strive for Height By "to strive for height" is meant. When you realize this. with a resolute spirit. stick firmly with your head. stretch your hips. you can cut first with the long sword. it is slashing. Cutting. before the enemy cuts. you can dash against him with your body first. and afterwards cut with the sword. If his body is immoveable. to strive with him for superior height without cringing. Slashing is in spirit the same as touching. When you approach the enemy. Learn this well. If you first slash the enemy's hands or legs. body and legs. Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body The spirit of "Glue and Lacquer Emulsion Body" is to stick to the enemy and not separate from him. when you close with the enemy. is decisive. and even if the enemy dies instantly. When you come to within arm's reach it becomes easy to move your body in. according to the enemy's cutting method. Cut and Slash To cut and to slash are two different things. Even if you slash strongly. You must appreciate this. You must research this well. People tend to advance their head and legs quickly. Chinese Monkey's Body The Chinese Monkey's Body is the spirit of not stretching out your arms. they become indistinguishable.

You must appreciate this. For this it is necessary to train well. and you are the higher. to parry by thrusting the enemy's long sword towards his right eye with the feeling of snipping his neck. striking as strongly as possible in time with yout breathing. You must learn this. Approach with the spirit of bouncing the enemy away. Or. Or. The spirit is to strike him with your body. to close with him quickly. you should go in with a sticky feeling and fix your long sword against the enemy's as you receive his cut. These are the three methods of parrying. as if thrusting at his eyes. when you have a short "long sword". To Apply Stickiness When the enemy attacks and you also attack with the long sword. thrust in strongly. Three Ways to Parry His Attack There are three methods to parry a cut: First. The difference between "Stickiness" and "Entanglement" is that stickiness is firm and entanglement is weak. It is best to approach as calmly as possible when hitting the enemy's long sword with stickiness. You must bear in mind that you can always clench your left hand and thrust at the enemy's face with your fist. but hitting so that the long swords do not separate easily. without worrying about parrying the enemy's long sword. Train well. when he makes an attack. by dashing the enemy's long sword to your right. If you achieve this method of closing with the enemy.think you have won. The spirit of stickiness is not hitting very strongly. The Body Strike The Body Strike means to approach the enemy through a gap in his guard. To Stab at the Face 21 . thrusting at his face with your left hand. It is possible to strike the enemy until he is dead. Turn your face a little aside and strike the enemy's breast with your left shoulder thrust out. you will be able to knock him ten or twenty feet away.

but smacking the enemy's long sword in accordance with his attacking cut. following the line of the blades with the point of your long sword. If you understand the timing of smacking. or to the sides. teedum rhythm. when the enemy tries to counter-cut as you attack. and cut "TUT!" This timing is encountered time and time again in exchange of blows. "Tut!". You must understand the application of this method. When fighting and the enemy's body becomes as if rideable. so you ought not to forget to stab at the face. that your spirit is intent of stabbing at his face. smacking his sword and cutting him. If you are intent on stabbing at his face. Thrust up. To Scold "Tut-TUT!" "Scold" means that. and with the spirit of deflecting his long sword. or smacking strongly. You must learn this through repetitive practice. You must stab the enemy's breast without letting the point of your long sword waver. your swordpoint will not 22 . With very quick timing you cut. there are various opportunities for winning. when fighting and there are obstructions above. you can win quickly. The spirit of this principle is often useful when we become tired or for some reason our long sword will not cut. and whenever it is difficult to cut. to thrust at the enemy.To stab at the face means. primarily intent on quickly cutting him. When the enemy becomes as if rideable. showing the enemy the ridge of the blade square-on. To Stab at the Heart To stab at the heart means. his face and body will become rideable. when you are in confrontation with the enemy. The Smacking Parry By "smacking parry" is meant that when you clash swords with the enemy. You must concentrate on this. The spirit of the smacking parry is not parrying. you meet his attacking cut on your long sword with a tee-dum. scolding the enemy. You must pursue the value of this technique through training. however hard your long swords clash together. you counter-cut again from below as if thrusting at him. trying to hold him down. The way to scold Tut-TUT is to time the cut simultaneously with raising your long sword as if to thrust the enemy.

and when they are seen to be piled up. as if tying a line of fishes. you must drive the enemy together. Always quickly re-assume your attitudes to both sides. Direct Communication The spirit of "Direct Communication" is how the true Way of the Ni To Ichi school is received and handed down. cut the enemies down as they advance. Draw both sword and companion sword and assume a widestretched left and right attitude. You must train diligently. Whatever you do. carefully examining the attacking order. The Advantage when Coming to Blows You can know how to win through strategy with the long sword. You must research sufficiently to realize this. but it cannot be clearly explained in writing. cut them down strongly without giving them room to move. Sweep your eyes around broadly. even though they come from all four directions." Recorded in the above book is an outline of Ichi school sword-fighting. Waiting is bad. It is difficult to attain this if you do not learn strategy well. and go to meet first those who attack first. strategy will come from your heart and you will be able to win at will. and cut left and right alternately with your swords. The spirit is to chase the enemies around from side to side." One Cut You can win with certainty with the spirit of "one cut". crushing them in the direction from which they attack. Oral tradition: "Teach your body strategy. If you train well in this Way. Observe their attacking order. You must practice diligently in order to understand how to win. 23 . Oral tradition: "The true Way of Strategy is revealed in the long sword. There are Many Enemies "There are many enemies" applies when you are fighting one against many.be knocked back even a little.

handle the long sword naturally. and move body and legs in harmony with your spirit. and through fighting with enemies you will gradually come to know the principle of the Way. from time to time raising your hand in combat. in order to beat more skillful men. What remains is sword-fighting ability. If you attain this Way of victory. if it is not based on what you have learned it is not the true Way. and absorb the Way of the long sword naturally in your body. with a patient spirit. Study strategy over the years and achieve the spirit of the warrior. Even if you kill an enemy. not allowing your heart to be swayed along a side-track. Next. 24 . You must understand spirit and timing. Today is victory over yourself of yesterday. train according to this book. tomorrow is your victory over lesser men. Deliberately. Step by step walk the thousand-mile road. then you will be able to beat several tens of men. absorb the virtue of all this.To learn how to win with the long sword in strategy. first learn the five approaches and the five attitudes. you will then know values in strategy. Whether beating one man or two. which you can attain in battles and duels. Maintain this spirit whenever you cross swords with and enemy. Study the contents of this book. taking one item at a time.

judging the strength of attacks and understanding the Way of the "edge and ridge" of the sword. as with the folding fan. learning such trifles as hand and leg movements with the bamboo practice sword.Chapter 3 THE FIRE BOOK In this the Fire Book of the Ni To Ichi school of strategy I describe fighting as fire. This is the practical result of strategy. so that you can understand the enemy's strategy. and come to appreciate how to apply strategy to beat ten thousand enemies. There is nothing wrong with the principle "one man can beat ten. merely by the span of their forearms. He will come to possess miraculous power. Of course you cannot assemble a thousand or ten thousand men for everyday training. They let a contest be decided. Any man who wants to master the essence of my strategy must research diligently. fighting for survival. Depending on the Place 25 . You must research this. they only know the benefit of three of the five inches of the wrist. training morning and evening. learning the Way of the sword. discovering the meaning of life and death. people think narrowly about the benefit of strategy. In my strategy. You cannot profit from small techniques particularly when full armour is worn. become free from self. In the first place. the training for killing enemies is by way of many contests. My Way of Strategy is the sure method to win when fighting for your life one man against five or ten. Thus can he polish his skill. They specialise in the small matter of dexterity. But you can become a master of strategy by training alone with a sword. By using only their fingertips. his strength and resources. and realize extraordinary ability. so a thousand men can beat ten thousand".

see through the enemy's spirit so that you grasp his strategy and defeat him. you must stand with the entrance behind you or to your right. There are no methods of taking the lead other than these three. If the situation does not allow this. Another method is to forestall him as he attacks. Because you can win quickly by taking the lead. lintels. In buildings. but conscientiously chase him around and pin him down. take up an attitude with the sun behind you. do not let him look around. The Three Methods to Forestall the Enemy The first is to forestall him by attacking. obstacles at the side. At night. You must research and train diligently in this. For example. When the enemy gets into an inconvenient position. and otherwise take up your attitude as above. it is one of the most important things in strategy. if the enemy can be seen. and try to keep him with his back to awkward places. Stand in the sun. Always chase the enemy into bad footholds. Make sure that your rear is unobstructed. again not letting him see his situation.Examine your environment. This is called Tai No Sen (to wait for the initiative). using the virtues of the place to establish predominant positions from which to fight. verandas. The other method is when you and the enemy attack together. always endeavour to chase the enemy around to your left side. The First . doors. and take up your attitude on slightly higher places. that is. and so on. You must look down on the enemy. It is impossible to write about this in detail. the Kamiza in a house is thought of as a high place. Chase him towards awkward places. You must make the best of the situation. When the fight comes. you must try to keep the sun on your right side. pillars. your right side being occupied with your side attitude. This is called Ken No Sen (to set him up). This is called Tai Tai No Sen (to accompany him and forestall him). keep the fire behind you and the entrance to your right. and so on. chase the enemy into the thresholds.Ken No Sen 26 . There are several things involved in taking the lead. and that there is free space on your left. In houses.

attack still more strongly. To Hold Down a Pillow "To Hold Down a Pillow" means not allowing the enemy's head to rise. As the enemy reaches you. This is Tai Tai No Sen. but he cannot forestall you if you do not allow 27 . forestalling him with the reserve. This is the Tai No Sen principle. Or.When you decide to attack. as the enemy attacks. remain undisturbed but feign weakness. You must research what is written here. with your body rather floating. In these three ways of forestalling. forestalling the enemy. but if the enemy attacks first you can lead him around. In strategy. Or. from first to last. then dash in attacking strongly as soon as you see the enemy relax. This is one way. These things cannot be clearly explained in words. aim for his weak point as he draws near. You must always be able to lead the enemy about. you must attack strongly and calmly. you must observe his movements and. so you must train well to attain this. attack with a feeling of constantly crushing the enemy.Tai Tai No Sen When the enemy makes a quick attack. Alternatively. keep calm and dash in quickly. you have effectively won when you forestall the enemy.Tai No Sen When the enemy attacks. and strongly defeat him. Move quickly and cut him strongly. The spirit is to win in the depths of the enemy. suddenly move away indicating that you intend to jump aside. This does not mean that you always attack first. These are all Ken No Sen. Or. The Second . Or you can advance seemingly strongly but with a reserved spirit. In contests of strategy it is bad to be led about by the enemy. Obviously the enemy will also be thinking of doing this. and when you reach the enemy move with your feet a little quicker than normal. unsettling him and overwhelming him sharply. you must judge the situation. taking advantage of the resulting disorder in his timing to win. with your spirit calm. join in with his movements as he draws near. The Third . advance with as strong a spirit as possible. if the enemy attacks calmly.

whatever the enemy tries to bring about in the fight you will see in advance and suppress it. then set sail. and to put yourself in an advantageous position. or a tailwind. However. Discern the enemy's capability and. It means setting sail even though your friends stay in harbour. as a good captain crosses a sea route. and there is perhaps a favourable wind. when he jumps check his jump at the syllable "ju… ". When all the conditions are meet. Is it flourishing or waning? By observing the spirit of the enemy's men and getting the best position. When you have grasped this principle.and small-scale strategy. doing this alone is defensive. If the wind changes within a few miles of your destination. You must train well and research "holding down a pillow". The important thing in strategy is to suppress the enemy's useful actions but allow his useless actions. Crossing at a Ford "Crossing at a ford" means. In strategy also it is important to "cross at a ford".him to come out. "cross the ford" at the advantageous place. you may take your ease. and check his cut at "cu… ". When you can do this you will be a master of strategy. you must stop the enemy as he attempts to cut. To cross at a ford means to attack the enemy's weak point. you must act according to the Way. If you attain this spirit. If you succeed in crossing at the best place. knowing the route. This is the meaning of "to hold down a pillow". You must research this well. knowing your own strong points. or crossing over a hundred miles of broad sea at a crossing place. I believe this "crossing at a ford" occurs often in man's lifetime. This is how to win large-scale strategy. foiling his plans and thence command him directly. and throw off his hold when he tries to grapple. To Know the Times "To know the times" means to know the enemy's disposition in battle. you must row across the remaining distance without sail. You must always think of crossing at a ford. you must push down his thrust. The spirit of crossing at a ford is necessary in both large. In strategy. The spirit is too check his attack at the syllable "at… ". for example. it applies to everyday life. you can work out the enemy's disposition 28 . First. crossing the sea at a strait. suppressing the enemy's techniques. knowing the soundness of your ship and the favour of the day.

You must achieve the spirit of not allowing the enemy to attack a second time. First. you will recognise the enemy's intentions and thus have many opportunities to win. seeing right into things. perceived his quality and his strong and weak points. of course. If you fail to take advantage of your enemies' collapse. the enemy sometimes loses timing and collapses. Once at the enemy. In large-scale strategy. you should not aspire just to strike him. Knowing the times means. they may recover. in the spirit of treading him down with the feet. tread with the spirit. To Tread Down the Sword "To tread down the sword" is a principle often used in strategy. We must defeat him at the start of his attack. you must pursue him without letting the chance go. he may recover and not be so negligent 29 . we cannot get a decisive victory by cutting. you must forestall the enemy and attack when you have first recognised his school of strategy. "Treading" does not simply mean treading with the feet. Houses. The spirit is to win by "treading down" as we receive the enemy's attack. so that he cannot rise again to the attack. Attack in an unsuspecting manner. bodies. In single combat. when the enemy starts to collapse. You must sufficiently study this. You can win through this principle of strategy. but to cling after the attack. in the wake of the enemy's attacking long sword. The spirit is to attack quickly while the enemy is still shooting with bows or guns. If you are thoroughly conversant with strategy. if your ability is high. when the enemy first discharges bows and guns and then attacks it is difficult for us to attack if we are busy loading powder into our guns or notching our arrows. This is the spirit of forestalling in every sense. knowing his metre and modulation and the appropriate timing. fighting from a position of advantage. When in a duel. If you let this opportunity pass. and enemies collapse when their rhythm becomes deranged. To Know "Collapse" Everything can collapse. You must study this deeply. and. tread and cut with the long sword. Tread with the body. with a "tee-dum tee-dum" feeling. In single combat. in large scale strategy.and move your men accordingly.

do not give up . indicate that you are about to attack strongly. The chasing attack is with a strong spirit. To Become the Enemy "To become the enemy" means to think yourself in the enemy's position. we feel that the whole world is against us and that there is no escape. You must appreciate this. then you will surely lose. Fix your eye on the enemy's collapse. To Move the Shade "To move the shade" is used when you cannot see the enemy's spirit. If you think. However. and chase him. But if you have good soldiers. if we think of "becoming the enemy". when there is a "four hands" spirit. when we think we have fallen into the "four hands" situation. In single combat also you must put yourself in the enemy's position. You must consider this deeply. He who enters to arrest is a hawk. we must defeat the enemy by changing our mind and applying a suitable technique according to his condition. and if you understand the principles of strategy. You must utterly cut the enemy down so that he does not recover his position. Abandon this spirit and win through an alternative resource. He who is shut inside is a pheasant. In single combat also. Immediately throw away this spirit and win with a technique the enemy does not expect. In the world people tend to think of a robber trapped in a house as a fortified enemy. It 30 . and the issue cannot be decided. In large-scale strategy. there is nothing to worry about. To Release Four Hands "To release four hands" is used when you and the enemy are contending with the same spirit. You must understand how to utterly cut down the enemy. to discover his resources. "Here is a a master of the Way. In large-scale strategy.it is man's existence. and if you know how to beat the enemy. when you cannot see the enemy's position.thereafter. In large-scale strategy. who knows the principles of strategy". people are always under the impression that the enemy is strong. You must be able to judge this. You must do this. attacking so that you do not let him recover. and so tend to become cautious.

and yawning can be passed on. and the enemy will be taken by this and will become relaxed. you can win with certainty. when the enemy embarks on an attack. and another is surprise. another is hardship. In single combat. In large-scale strategy. Sleepiness can be passed on. You can also infect the enemy with a bored. when the enemy is agitated and shows an inclination to rush. altering your spirit. In large-scale strategy. To Hold Down a Shadow "Holding down a shadow" is use when you can see the enemy's attacking spirit. hold down the enemy's strong intention with a suitable timing.is easy then to defeat him with a different method once you see his resources. forestalling him. In single combat. What is know as "getting someone drunk" is similar to this. To Pass On Many things are said to be passed on. careless. do not mind in the least. You must study this well. You must study this well. and the enemy will show his long sword. in single combat. you can win by relaxing your body and spirit and then. Or. make a feint attack. and defeat him by forestalling him with this timing. To Cause Loss of Balance Many things can cause a loss of balance. if you make a show of strongly suppressing his technique. you can bring about the enemy's defeat by attacking strongly with a Void spirit. or weak spirit. If you are negligent you will miss the timing. One cause is danger. Research this well. Benefiting from what you are shown. thinking he sees your spirit. catching on to the moment the enemy relaxes. Then. he will change his mind. 31 . if the enemy takes up a rear or side attitude of the long sword so that you cannot see his intention. When you see that this spirit has been passed on. attack strongly and quickly. defeat him by forestalling him with a Void spirit. You must research this. Make a show of complete calmness. Time can be passed on also.

start by making a show of being slow. were you to draw apart. so you should "injure the corners". in single combat. it is beneficial to strike at the corners of the enemy's force. you "soak in" and become one with the enemy. To Soak In When you have come to grips and are striving together with the enemy. You can win by applying a suitable technique while you are mutually entangled. the spirit of the whole body will be overthrown. You should research this well. you must grasp the opportunity to win. If the corners are overthrown. To Frighten Fright often occurs. making a small force seem large. In large-scale strategy. you must use the advantage of taking the enemy unawares by frightening him with your body. To defeat the enemy you must follow up the attack when the corners have fallen. long sword. you can often win decisively with the advantage of knowing how to "soak" into the enemy. and while his spirit is undecided follow up your advantage and. but by shouting. defeat him. Research this well. Or. also. These things all frighten. To Injure the Corners It is difficult to move strong things by pushing directly. Get the feel of this. you would lose the chance to win. In single combat. and you realize that you cannot advance. whereas. In battles involving large numbers as well as in fights with small numbers. 32 . Attack without warning where the enemy is not expecting it. or by threatening them from the flank without warning. or voice. caused by the unexpected. having the lead. to defeat him. then suddenly attack strongly. In large-scale strategy you can frighten the enemy not just by what you present to their eyes. Without allowing him space for breath to recover form the fluctuation of spirit.In large-scale strategy it is important to cause loss of balance. You can win by making best use of the enemy's frightened rhythm.

We shout during the fight to get into rhythm. at the start of battle we shout as loudly as possible. To Throw into Confusion This means making the enemy lose resolve. it is easy to win once the enemy collapses. This happens when you injure the "corners" of his body. In single combat. we can confuse the enemy by attacking with varied techniques when the chance arises. We shout against fires and so on. We shout after we have cut down the enemy . against the wind and the waves. Research this deeply.In single combat. The spirit of this is like a winding mountain path. 33 . and thus weaken him. we make as if to cut and shout "Ei!" at the same time to disturb the enemy. attack the enemy's strong points and. In large-scale strategy we can use our troops to confuse the enemy on the field. This is called "sen go no koe" (before and after voice). These are the three shouts. then in the wake of our shout we cut with the long sword. This is the essence of fighting.this is to announce victory. we can make him think. quickly separate and attack yet another strong point on the periphery of his force. It is important to know how to do this. and when he is confused you can easily win. so you must research deeply. during and after. We do not shout simultaneously with flourishing the long sword. the voice is low-pitched. The voice shows energy. Observing the enemy's spirit. During the fight. we shout in the wake of our victory. shouting out as we attack. when the armies are in confrontation. Feint a thrust or cut. when you see that they are beaten back. or make the enemy think ou are going to close with him. and you must research it deeply. Shout according to the situation. In single combat. After the contest. To Mingle In battles. "Here? There? Like that? Like this? Slow? Fast?". The voice is a thing of life. In large-scale strategy. The Three Shouts The three shouts are divided thus: before. Victory is certain when the enemy is caught up in a rhythm which confuses his spirit.

You must research this deeply. attack like the sea. he may recover. with no concern for his presence and without allowing him space for breath. What is meant by "mingling" is the spirit of advancing and becoming engaged with the enemy. To Penetrate the Depths When we are fighting with the enemy. as if on a winding mountain path. then grasp the timing and attack further strong points to right and left. or drive them back. You must research this deeply. if his spirit is not 34 . It is essential to crush him all at once. You must understand this. if his rhythm is disorganised. In large-scale strategy. and not withdrawing even one step. If you attempt a technique which you have previously tried unsuccessfully and fail yet again. The Mountain-Sea Change The "mountain-sea" spirit means that it is bad to repeat the same thing several times when fighting the enemy. and if he thinks of the sea. or if he has fallen into evasive or retreating attitudes. If the enemy thinks of the mountains. but do not try it a third time. even when it can be seen that we can win on the surface with the benefit of the Way. we knock the hat over his eyes. there is little chance of success if you use the same approach again. if the enemy is less skilful than ourself. crushing him utterly. attack like the mountains.This is an important fighting method for one man against many. If you once make an attack and fail. There may be no help but to do something twice. When you know the enemies' level attack strongly with no trace of retreating spirit. or if he has many men but his spirit is weak and disordered. You must learn the spirit of crushing as if with a hand-grip. Strike down the enemies in one quarter. weighing up the enemies' disposition. The primary thing is not to let him recover his position even a little. when we see that the enemy has few men. In single combat. then you must change your attacking method. To Crush This means to crush the enemy regarding him as being weak. If we crush lightly. we must crush him straightaway.

But otherwise we must remain spirited. Rat's Head.extinguished. Research this diligently. Whenever we have become preoccupied with small detail. We must abandon our efforts. when we are fighting with the enemy and both he and we have become occupied with small points in an entangled spirit. there is no need to remain spirited. When you think in this way you can move him at will 35 . we must always think of the Way of Strategy as being both a rat's head and an ox's neck. and an entangled spirit arises where there is no possible resolution. demoralising him by quickly changing our spirit. It is necessary to consider how "to renew" also applies in large-scale strategy. interchanging large with small. It is necessary that the warrior think in this spirit in everyday life. and penetrating with the spirit. This cannot be understood in a generalisation. think of the enemy as your own troops. The Commander Knows the Troops "The commander knows the troops" applies everywhere in fights in my Way of strategy. Penetrating the depths means penetrating with the long sword. Using the wisdom of strategy. he may be beaten superficially yet undefeated in spirit deep inside. If the enemy remains spirited it is difficult to crush him. You must not depart from this spirit in large-scale strategy nor in single combat. we must suddenly change into a large spirit. Ox's Neck "Rat's head and ox's neck" means that. Once we have crushed the enemy in the depths. With this principle of "penetrating the depths" we can destroy the enemy's spirit in its depths. This often occurs. To renew. To Renew "To renew" applies when we are fighting with the enemy. penetrating with the body. when we are deadlocked with the enemy. This is one of the essences of strategy. means that without changing our circumstance we change our spirit and win through a different technique. think of the situation in a fresh spirit then win in the new rhythm. You must train in penetrating the depths for large-scale strategy and also single combat.

tempering my body. I have devoted myself to training my hand. The true Way of sword fencing is the craft of defeating the enemy in a fight. and attaining the many spiritual attitudes of sword fencing.and be able to chase him around. This is the body of a rock. and the order of things is a bit confused. If you attain and adhere to the wisdom of my strategy. There is the spirit of winning without a sword. You must train well. This book is a spiritual guide for the man who wishes to learn the Way. The various methods cannot be expressed in writing. even though they seem skilful to watch. and nothing other than this. You must master this. men who study in this way think they are training the body and spirit. There is also the spirit of holding the long sword but not winning. Thus the true Way of Strategy is becoming decadent and dying out. 36 . You will not be moved. they have not the slightest true spirit. It is difficult to express it clearly. The Body of a Rock When you have mastered the Way of Strategy you can suddenly make your body like a rock. This is the first time I have written about my technique. written down as it came to me. You become the general and the enemy becomes your troops. you need never doubt that you will win. and ten thousand things cannot touch you. To Let Go the Hilt There are various kinds of spirit involved in letting go the hilt. and its bad influence remains for ever. and concentrating on techniques with the hands. Oral tradition. If we watch men of other schools discussing theory. Of course. but it is an obstacle to the true Way. My heart has been inclined to the Way of Strategy from my youth onwards. What is recorded above is what has been constantly on my mind about Ichi school sword fencing.

Some of the world's strategists are concerned only with sword-fencing. Some schools study the Way of the short sword. Some schools teach dexterity in large numbers of sword techniques. and limit their training to flourishing the long sword and carriage of the body. so I have written about various other traditions of strategys in this the Wind Book. Looking at other schools we find some that specialise in techniques of strength using extra-long swords. But is dexterity alone sufficient to win? This is not the essence of the Way. This is because they do not appreciate the principle of cutting the enemy by any means. This is definitely not the Way of Strategy. That none of these are the true Way I show clearly in the interior of this book . they think to defeat the enemy from a distance. 37 . From the point of view of my strategy these must been seen as weak schools. known as kodachi. relying on the virtue of its length. My Ichi school is different.all the vices and virtues and rights and wrongs. I have recorded the unsatisfactory point of other schools one by one in this book. growing flowers and decoratively colouring articles in order to sell them. Their preference is for the extra-long sword and. You must study these matters deeply to appreciate the benefit of my Ni To Ichi school. Other Schools Using Extra-Long Swords Some other schools have a liking for extra-long swords. it is difficult to understand the essence of my Ichi school. teaching attitudes of the sword as the "surface" and the Way as the "interior". Without knowledge of the Ways of other schools.Chapter 4 THE WIND BOOK In strategy you must know the Ways of other schools. Other schools make accomplishments their means of livelihood.

What I dislike is the inclination towards the long sword. If you are concerned with the strength of your sword. and they are at a disadvantage compared to the man armed with a short companion sword. fighting from a distance without the benefit of strategy. and if you use the sword coarsely you will have difficulty in winning. You should only be concerned with killing the enemy. Do not try to cut strongly and. Be intent solely upon killing the enemy.". but these are the idle words of one who does not know strategy. Whenever you cross swords with an enemy you must not think of cutting him either strongly or weakly. I dislike preconceived. and have no long sword? It is difficult for these people to cut the enemy when at close quarters because of the length of the long sword. It shows the inferior strategy of a weak spirit that men should be dependent on the length of their sword. some men have not the strength of others. If we consider large-scale strategy. Your strategy is of no account if when called on to fight in a confined space your heart is inclined to the long sword. I expect there is a case for the school in question liking extra-long swords as part of its doctrine. do not think of cutting weakly. of course. You must study this well. Surely we need not necessarily be defeated if we are using a short sword. but if we compare this to real life it is unreasonable. Cannot few me give battle against many? There are many instances of few men overcoming many.In this world it is said. narrow spirit. we can think of large forces in terms of long swords. If you just wield the long sword in a strong spirit your cutting will be coarse. you will try to cut unreasonably strongly. and will not be able to cut at all. or if you are in a house armed only with your companion sword. 38 . In my doctrine. It is also bad to try to cut strongly when testing the sword. "One inch gives the hand advantage". The Strong Long Sword Spirit in Other Schools You should not speak of strong and weak long swords. Besides. So do not unconditionally dislike extra-long swords. and small forces as short swords. From olden times it has been said: "Great and small go together. The blade path is large so the long sword is an encumbrance. just think of cutting and killing him.

"The strongest hand wins". the battle will be fierce. when you hit the enemy's sword you will inevitably hit too hard. Other Schools with many Methods of using the Long Sword 39 . has no meaning. If you do this. Some men use a shorter long sword with the intention of jumping in and stabbing the enemy at the unguarded moment when he flourishes his sword. so can easily be paraded around by the enemy. You must chase the enemy around and make him obey your spirit. In ancient times.If you rely on strength. Thus the saying. They also make use of the length of spears and halberds. evading and retreating as the normal thing. To aim for the enemy's unguarded moment is completely defensive. The essence of strategy is to fall upon the enemy in large numbers and bring about his speedy downfall. Furthermore. Use of the Shorter Long Sword in Other Schools Using a shorter long sword is not the true Way to win. your own sword will be carried along as a result. you cannot use the method of jumping inside his defence with a short sword if there are many enemies. In large-scale strategy. The spirit of my school is to win through the wisdom of strategy. The sure Way to win thus is to chase the enemy around in confusing manner. tachi and katana meant long and short swords. The same principle applies to large-scale strategy. but they have to parry cuts continuously. This inclination is bad. so there is no case for their liking the short sword. and undesirable at close quarters with the enemy. Some men think that if they go against many enemies with a shorter long sword they can unrestrictedly frisk around cutting in sweeps. and eventually become entangled with the enemy. Study this well. but the enemy also has a strong army. This is inconsistent with the true Way of Strategy. Without the correct principle the fight cannot be won. people of the world get used to countering. paying no attention to trifles. with your body held strongly and straight. if you have a strong army and are relying on strength to win. This is the same for both sides. Men of superior strength in the world can wield even a long sword lightly. causing him to jump aside. They become set in this habit. The Way of Strategy is straight and true. By their study of strategy.

and noting the details of the battle field. Some fix the eyes on the face. Footballers do not fix their eyes on the ball. with a strong attitude. but by good play on the field they can perform well. Attitude is the spirit of awaiting an attack. Take advantage of the enemy's rhythm when he is unsettled and you can win. I will explain this in detail. The reason is that this has been a precedent since ancient times. Attitudes are for situations in which you are not to be moved. You must examine this well. showing the spirit of not being moved even by a strong assault. for garrisoning castles. You must force the enemy into inconvenient situations. In large-scale strategy we deploy our troops for battle bearing in mind our strength. When you become accustomed to something. is like making a wall of spears and halberds. Fixing the Eyes in Other Schools Some schools maintain that the eyes should be fixed on the enemy's long sword. throw him into confusion.Placing a great deal of importance on the attitudes of the long sword is a mistaken way of thinking. If you fix the eyes on these places your spirit can become confused and your strategy thwarted. In the Way of dueling. People such as master musicians have the music score in front of their nose. you must always be intent upon taking the lead and attacking. or flourish swords in several ways when they have mastered the 40 . Bearing an attack well. What is known in the world as "attitude" applies when there is no enemy. and so on. That is. When you attack the enemy. I dislike the defensive spirit know as "attitude". however. irritate and terrify him. This is at the start of the battle. The spirit of attacking first is completely different from the spirit of being attacked. You must appreciate this. Therefore. there is something called "Attitude-No Attitude". and parrying the enemy's attack well. battle array. you are not limited to the use of your eyes. In duels of strategy you must move the opponent's attitude. observing the enemy's numbers. Some schools fix the eyes on the hands. and so on. and some fix the eyes on the feet. and there should be no such thing as "This is the modern way to do it" in dueling. Attack where his spirit is lax. your spirit must go to the extent of pulling the stakes out of a wall and using them as spears and halberds. in my Way.

these are all unsatisfactory. The Way must be trod firmly. if you fix your eyes on details and neglect important things. In strategy. and such nimble walking methods. such as crow's foot. swampy ground. Springing foot causes a springing spirit which is indecisive. so jumping is bad. Apart from these. and victory will escape you.Way. or that they make pointless movements of the sword. stony ground. Research this principle well and train diligently. and having mastery of the Way you will see the weight of his spirit. however. Perception consists of concentrating strongly on the enemy's spirit. river valleys. fixing the gaze strongly. In single combat you must not fix the eyes on the details. Sometimes. Use of the Feet in Other Schools There are various methods of using the feet: floating foot. there are various fast walking methods. in which situations you cannot jump or move the feet quickly. and I especially dislike it. It means that they can see naturally. According 41 . "Perception" and "sight" are the two methods of seeing. you may encounter the enemy on marshland. the footwork does not change. and so on. because it encourages the habit of jumping. You must never lose control of your feet. As I said before. and a jumpy spirit. jumping foot. your spirit will become bewildered. In large-scale strategy the area to watch is the enemy's strength. Neither do I like jumping foot. I always walk as I usually do in the street. However much you jump. From the point of view of my strategy. This is the sure way to win. observing the condition of the battlefield. I dislike floating foot because the feet always tend to float during the fight. In the Way of Strategy. or narrow roads. springing foot. In my strategy. but this does not mean that they fix their eyes on these things specifically. fixing the eyes means gazing at the man's heart. when you have fought many times you will easily be able to appraise the speed and position of the enemy's sword. Treading foot is a "waiting" method. crow's foot. treading foot. seeing the progress of the fight and the changes of advantages. there is no real justification for it.

In the Way of dance. Whatever the Way. your rhythm will become deranged and you will not be able to win. you will not be able to take advantage of the enemy's disorder. The "old pine tree" melody beaten on a leather drum is tranquil. but it is bad to beat hurriedly. a fast busy spirit is undesirable. but their performance is poor. it may not be possible to move the body and legs together quickly. then you will not be even a little late. but when beginners try this they slow down and their spirit becomes busy. Carrying the feet is important also in large-scale strategy. but this does not mean that they run continuously from morning till night. move fast or slowly. marsh or swamp and so on. the principle can be seen. This is because. and never appear busy. From this example. You must appreciate this. and by not according him even a little hope of recovery. What is known as speed is especially bad in the Way of Strategy. and you will not be able to finish the fight quickly. In large-scale strategy also. as if using a fan or short sword. the master of strategy does not appear fast. Really skilful people never get out of time. if you advance too slowly. the opportunity to win will escape. Some people can walk as fast as a hundred or a hundred and twenty miles in a day. 42 . Unpracticed runners may seem to have been running all day. slowness is bad. accomplished performers can sing while dancing. Still less will you be able to cut quickly if you have a long sword in this situation.to the enemy's rhythm. according to whether or not they are in rhythm. Or. and are always deliberate. If you try to beat too quickly you will get out of time. Speed implies that things seem fast or slow. The reason for this is that depending on the place. Practice this well. but when beginners try this they slow down and their spirit becomes busy. adjusting you body not too much and not too little. Speed in Other Schools Speed is not part of the true Way of Strategy. The spirit must be that of holding down a pillow. Very skilful people can manage a fast rhythm. you will not actually cut even a little. if you attack quickly and thoughtlessly without knowing the enemy's spirit. You must win by seizing upon the enemy's disorder and derangement. Of course. If you try to cut quickly.

"Interior" and "Surface" in Other Schools There is no "interior" nor "surface" in strategy. because the way to understanding is through experience. I could now continue by giving a specific account of these schools one by one. When I teach my Way. and become concerned with strength in both large and small matters. a doctrine which is easy to understand. The method of teaching my strategy is with a trustworthy spirit. and it is sometimes a good thing to point out the gate. Accordingly I dislike passing on my Way through written pledges and regulations. instead you will emerge at the gate. In as much as men's opinions differ. If we look at them from an honest viewpoint. and "interior" and "gate". and decide to go deeper and yet deeper. according to the pupil's progress. I first teach by training in techniques which are easy for the pupil to understand. In strategy. In any event. I do not speak of "interior" and "gate". we see that people always tend to like long swords or short swords. Perceiving the ability of my pupils. In this world. so there must be differing ideas on the same matter. we cannot say what is concealed and what is revealed. and gradually introduce them to the true Way of the warrior.When your opponent is hurrying recklessly. points which it is hardly possible to comprehend. The reason for this is that different branches of schools give different interpretations of the doctrines. from the "gate" to the "interior". but I have intentionally not named the schools or their main points. Thus no one man's conception is valid for any school. if you go into the mountains. You must train diligently. You can see why I do not deal with the "gates" of other schools. it has an interior. or cutting with the interior. Whatever the Way. Train diligently to attain this spirit. remove the bad influence of other schools. I teach the direct Way. You must not be influenced by the opponent. 43 . but in combat there is no such thing as fighting on the surface. I have shown the general tendencies of other schools on nine points. I gradually endeavour to explain the deep principle. you must act contrarily and keep calm. The artistic accomplishments usually claim inner meaning and secret tradition. I have tried to record an outline of the strategy of other schools in the above nine sections.

You must simply keep your spirit true to realize the virtue of strategy. There is no inner meaning in sword attitudes.In my Ichi school of the long sword there is neither gate nor interior. 44 .

In the Way of Strategy. Polish the twofold spirit heart and mind. also. When your spirit is not in the least clouded. This is not the true void. With your spirit settled. By knowing things that exist. In the void is virtue. Then you will come to think of things in a wide sense and. However. and hour by hour. 45 . accumulate practice day by day. principle has existence. To attain the Way of Strategy as a warrior you must study fully other martial arts and not deviate even a little from the Way of the warrior. That is the void. you can know that which does not exist. and sharpen the twofold gaze perception and sight. It is not included in man's knowledge. Until you realize the true Way. and with forthrightness as the foundation and the true spirit as the Way. What is called the spirit of the void is where there is nothing. It is bewilderment. People in this world look at things mistakenly. Wisdom has existence. there is the true void. correctly and openly. Of course the void is nothingness. and think that what they do not understand must be the void. you will see the Way as void. when the clouds of bewilderment clear away. the Way has existence. Enact strategy broadly. and no evil. those who study as warriors think that whatever they cannot understand in their craft is the void. if we look at things objectively. This is not the true void.Chapter 5 THE BOOK OF THE VOID The Ni To Ichi Way of Strategy is recorded in this the Book of the Void. you may think that things are correct and in order. Know well this spirit. taking the void as the Way. from the viewpoint of laws of the world. whether in Buddhism or in common sense. spirit is nothingness. we see various doctrines departing from the true Way.

Twelfth day of the fifth month. second year of Shoho (1645). Teruro Magonojo SHINMEN MUSASHI 46 .

and even gardeners have used the Tao Te Ching as a source of inspiration. The treatise is not representative of the work published during his lifetime. He taught that strategy was not planning in the sense of working through a to-do list. Composed of 13 chapters. Planning works in a controlled environment. and the work responsible for bringing 47 . Sun Tzu was the first to recognize the importance of positioning in strategy and that position is affected both by objective conditions in the physical environment and the subjective opinions of competitive actors in that environment. Originally called De Principatibus (About Principalities). Its influence has also spread widely outside East Asia. aided by hundreds of translations into Western languages. It is the first and one of the most successful works on strategy and has had a huge influence on Eastern and Western military thinking. but in a competitive environment. but it is the most remembered. five years after Machiavelli's death. The Art of War is one of the oldest books on military strategy in the world. Laozi The Tao Te Ching is fundamental to the Taoist school of Chinese philosophy and strongly influenced other schools. and beyond. business tactics. such as Legalism and Neo-Confucianism. it was written in 1513. The Art of War. Niccolò Machiavelli Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. Sun Tzu The Art of War is a Chinese military treatise that was written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. which when first introduced into China was largely interpreted through the use of Taoist words and concepts. calligraphers. Many Chinese artists. it has long been praised as the definitive work on military strategies and tactics of its time. but not published until 1532.Loved this book ? Similar users also downloaded Tao Te Ching. This ancient book is also central in Chinese religion. each of which is devoted to one aspect of warfare. but rather that it requires quick and appropriate responses to changing conditions. not only for Taoism but Chinese Buddhism. The Prince. painters. including poets.

Kakuzo Okakura 48 ."Machiavellian" into wide usage as a pejorative term. and sūtra are the guidlines of yoga. The Republic. Kāma means sensual or sexual pleasure. It has also been suggested by some critics that the piece is. the place of poetry. The Kama Sutra is the oldest and most notable of a group of texts known generically as Kama Shastra). The books published on the subject are so technical that only a person trained in pure physics and higher mathematics is able to fully understand them. the present book is published. the first transmission of Kama Shastra or "Discipline of Kama" is attributed to Nandi the sacred bull. the word itself means thread in Sanskrit. Vatsyayana The Kama Sutra. Shiva's doorkeeper. It is one of the most influential works of philosophy and political theory. who was moved to sacred utterance by overhearing the lovemaking of the god and his wife Parvati and later recorded his utterances for the benefit of mankind. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz Whether it is true or not that not more than twelve persons in all the world are able to understand Einstein's Theory. and the immortality of the soul. In Plato's fictional dialogues the characters of Socrates as well as various Athenians and foreigners discuss the meaning of justice and examine whether the just man is happier than the unjust man by imagining a society ruled by philosopher-kings and the guardians. in fact. written in approximately 380 BC. Plato's Theory of Forms. it is nevertheless a fact that there is a constant demand for information about this much-debated topic of relativity. The Einstein Theory of Relativity. A portion of the work consists of practical advice on sex. The dialogue also discusses the role of the philosopher. Traditionally. In order to make a popular explanation of this far-reaching theory available. a satire. Plato The Republic is a Socratic dialogue by Plato. The Kama Sutra. and Plato's best known work. The Book of Tea. is an ancient Indian text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana.

It takes up and expands on the ideas of his previous work. he discusses such topics as Zen and Taoism. after having followed lessons with him the year before. polemical direction. The work moves into the realm "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind the traditional morality which Nietzsche subjects to a destructive critique in favour of what he regards as an affirmative approach that fearlessly confronts the perspectival nature of knowledge and the perilous condition of the modern individual. subtitled "Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future" (Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft). Kakuzo argues that this teainduced simplicity affected art and architecture. and he was a long-time student of the visual arts. but approached from a more critical. and life. In Beyond Good and Evil. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil (German: Jenseits von Gut und Böse). and spends some time talking about Sen no Rikyu and his contribution to the Japanese Tea Ceremony. According to Tomonobu Imamichi. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. first published in 1886. becoming proficient at communicating his thoughts to the Western Mind. Heidegger's concept of Dasein in Sein und Zeit was inspired — although Heidegger remains silent on this — by Okakura Kakuzo's concept of das-in-dem-Welt-sein (to be in the being of the world) expressed in The Book of Tea to describe Zhuangzi's philosophy. The book emphasises how Teaism taught the Japanese many things. thought. The book is accessibile to Western audiences because Kakuzo was taught at a young age to speak English. and has since been republished many times. Nietzsche attacks past philosophers for their alleged lack of critical sense and their blind acceptance of Christian premises in their consideration of morality. In his book. but also the secular aspects of Tea and Japanese life. It was first published in 1906. and spoke it all his life. which Imamichi's teacher had offerred to Heidegger in 1919. Hermann Hesse 49 . Kakuzo introduces the term Teaism and how Tea has affected nearly every aspect of Japanese culture. In the book. Siddhartha. is a book by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. He ends the book with a chapter on Tea Masters. simplicity. Beyond Good and Evil.The Book of Tea was written by Okakura Kakuzo in the early 20th century. most importantly.

in a simple. The Buddha's name. style.Siddhartha is an allegorical novel by Hermann Hesse which deals with the spiritual journey of an Indian boy called Siddhartha during the time of the Buddha. was written in German. not far from his friends and family in Concord. In this book.S. the Buddha is referred to as "Gotama". with expressed seasonal divisions. but a social critique of the Western World. social experiment. yet powerful and lyrical. after Hesse had spent some time in India in the 1910s. in 1951 and became influential during the 1960s. it details Thoreau's life for two years and two months in second-growth forest around the shores of Walden Pond. Published in 1854. The book. before his renunciation. It was published in the U. was Prince Siddhartha Gautama. Walden is neither a novel nor a true autobiography. The word Siddhartha is made up of two words in the Sanskrit language. Thoreau called it an experiment in simple living. It was first published in 1922. siddha (gotten) + artha (meaning or wealth). The two words together mean "one who has found meaning (of existence)" or "he who has attained his goals". and manual for self reliance. Henry David Thoreau Walden (also known as Life in the Woods) by Henry David Thoreau is one of the best-known non-fiction books written by an American. Hesse's ninth novel. Walden was written so that the stay appears to be a year. (from Wikipedia) 50 . Massachusetts. voyage of spiritual discovery. The work is part personal declaration of independence. Source: Wikipedia Walden. with each chapter heralding some aspect of humanity that needed to be either renounced or praised. later the Buddha.

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