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# Honors Physics

**Unit 01 – CVPM Objectives
**

You can use this paper to keep track of your progress on each objective. You can note your standing after each assessment and track which skills need to be reassessed. Objective

I know the difference between vector and scalar quantities. (A) ! I know the difference between speed and velocity. I know the difference between position, distance, and displacement. (A) I can interpret/draw motion maps for objects moving with constant velocity. (A) I can interpret/draw the position vs. time graph for an object moving with constant velocity. (A)

! ! I can ﬁnd the average velocity of an object using the slope of the x-t graph. I can describe the motion of an object in words by looking at the x-t graph.

**I can interpret/draw the velocity vs. time graph for an object moving with constant velocity. (A)
**

! I can ﬁnd the displacement of an object using the area beneath a v-t graph.

I can draw the corresponding velocity-vs-time graph given a positionvs-time graph. (B) I can describe the motion of an object in words by looking at the velocity-vs-time graph. (B) I can solve problems involving average speed and average velocity. (B) I recognize when the constant velocity model applies, and I use it when appropriate. (C)

**Standards-Based Grading Cheat Sheet
**

This class is based on a method of assessment called Standards-Based Grading. The goal of this method is to have your numerical grade at the end of a term represent your mastery of the subject. Since this type of grading is so different from what you have likely experienced before, we’re including this cheat sheet to help you interpret your progress in the class. Your Standing on Each Objective After an assessment, your teacher will indicate your progress on each objective using a 0 – 3 number scale. 0: No mastery has been shown. 1: Developing mastery. This score could indicate that you are missing part of a conceptual understanding, and/or that you have made an error in reasoning or in your process. 2: Mastery has been shown. 3: Sustained mastery has been shown. This score cannot be given on the ﬁrst assessment of an objective. It represents repeated measurements of mastery on a given skill. Your standing on each standard can always go up or down as new data is collected. You will always have a chance to reassess on each skill (all the way up to the exam—your ﬁnal reassessment of each semester). Because it is important to develop carefulness and good habits in your written work, “calculation errors” and similar mistakes will usually be measured as “1” instead of “2”. Don’t worry, though! If your conceptual understanding is solid, you will be able to update your standing quickly and easily through reassessment. Levels of Objectives and Numerical Grades Each objective is categorized as an A, B, or C. These categories serve to show you which skills are the most fundamental, and help you to plan a path toward the ﬁnal numerical grade that you want to receive. A: These are the core skills of the course. You must master each (and every one) of these by the end of the year in order to earn a grade above 70. B: These skills usually depend on mastering the A-level skills. They are the “meat” of the physics content. You must master each (and every one) of these by the end of the year to earn a grade above 90. C: Mastering these skills shows depth to your physics understanding. Mastering all of the A, B, and C skills by the end of the year would be represented by a grade of 100. Our translation from your standing on a slew of objectives to a 0 to 100 grade is based on the A, B, and C objectives, as indicated in their descriptions. We will interpolate between the 70 and 90 grades based on your mastery of the B and C objectives (more details about how when we get closer to the end of the quarter).

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

Name: ________________________________

**Constant Velocity Model
**

The front of each model packet should serve as a storehouse for things you’ll want to be able to quickly look up later. We will usually try to give you some direction on a useful way to organize this space (see the table below). Physical Quantity Position Description Symbol Units Displacement

Speed

Velocity

Average Velocity

–1–

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

**Motorized Cart Experiment
**

Sketch and label the experiment setup:

What could we measure? How could we measure it?

Equation of best ﬁt line: _________________________________________________ Be sure to: ! Use pencil ! Label your axes with symbols and units ! Give the graph a title (“[vertical axis variable] vs. [horizontal axis variable]”) ! Draw a best ﬁt line (don’t connect the dots). ! Find the slope using points on the line (not data points). ! Write the equation of the line using the variables from your axes (don’t default to “y and x”); make sure the slope and intercept have the correct units attached to the numbers. ! Put units on numbers, but never on variables.

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006 ! –2–

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

**Worksheet 1: Comparing Position-vs-Time Graphs
**

1. Consider the position vs. time graph below for cyclists A and B.

!

a.

Do the cyclists start at the same point? How do you know? If not, which is ahead?

b. At t = 7 s, which cyclist is ahead? How do you know?

c.

Which cyclist is traveling faster at t = 3 s? How do you know?

d. Are their velocities equal at any time? How do you know?

e.

What is happening at the intersection of lines A and B?

–3–

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

2.

Consider the new position vs. time graph below for cyclists A and B.

!

a.

How does the motion of the cyclist A in the new graph compare to that of A in the previous graph from page one?

b. How does the motion of cyclist B in the new graph compare to that of B in the previous graph?

c.

Which cyclist has the greater speed? How do you know?

d. Describe what is happening at the intersection of lines A and B.

e.

Which cyclist traveled a greater distance during the ﬁrst 5 seconds? How do you know?

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006 !

–4–

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

**Reading: Motion Maps
**

A motion map represents the position, velocity, and acceleration of an object at various clock readings. (At this stage of the class, you will be representing position and velocity only.) Suppose that you took a stroboscopic picture of a car moving to the right at constant velocity where each image revealed the position of the car at one-second intervals.

This is the motion map that represents the car. We model the position of the object with a small point. At each position, the object's velocity is represented by a vector.

x

If the car were traveling at greater velocity, the strobe photo might look like this:

The corresponding motion map has the points spaced farther apart, and the velocity vectors are longer, implying that the car is moving faster.

x

If the car were moving to the left at constant velocity, the photo and motion map might look like this:

x

More complicated motion can be represented as well.

!

x

Here, an object moves to the right at constant velocity, stops and remains in place for two seconds, then moves to the left at a slower constant velocity.

–5– from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

Consider the interpretation of the motion map below. At time t = 0, cyclist A starts moving to the right at constant velocity, at some position to the right of the origin.

A

B

!

x

Cyclist B starts at the origin and travels to the right at a constant, though greater, velocity. At t = 3 s, B overtakes A (i.e., both have the same position, but B is moving faster). A graphical representation of the behavior of cyclists A and B would like this:

You could also represent the behavior algebraically as follows:

x f ,A = vA "t + xi

!

x f ,B = vB"t

where vB > vA

!

Throughout this year, you will be representing the behavior of objects in motion in multiple ways: diagrammatically (motion maps), graphically, verbally, and algebraically.

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006 !

–6–

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

**Worksheet 2: Multiple Qualitative Representations
**

3. In each table below, the motion is described by a position-vs-time graph, a velocity-vs-time graph, a verbal description or a motion map. The other three representations have been left blank. a. Complete the missing representations. DO THIS FIRST, BEFORE YOU USE THE MOTION SENSOR! Be sure to include each of the following in your verbal description: starting position, direction moved, type of motion, relative speed. b. Move, relative to the motion detector, so that you produce a graph that matches the given graph as closely as possible. Using a different colored pen/pencil, correct your predictions if necessary. Written Description

Motion Map

0

Written Description

Motion Map

0

–7–

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

Written Description

Motion Map

0

Written Description

Motion Map

0

Written Description

Motion Map

0

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006 !

–8–

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

Written Description The object starts close to the motion detector, and moves at a constant, moderate speed in the forward direction for several seconds. Then it stops for a few seconds before returning to its starting point, once again at a moderate speed.

Motion Map

0

Written Description

Motion Map

0

Written Description

Motion Map

0

–9–

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

**Worksheet 3: Applying the Model
**

4. Read the following three problems and consider if the Constant Velocity Particle Model (CVPM) applies. I. A Mac Truck starts from rest and reaches a speed of 8.5 m/s in 20 seconds. II. A dune buggy travels for 20 seconds at a speed of 8.5 m/s. III. A driver sees a deer in the road ahead and applies the brakes. The car slows to a stop from 8.5 m/s in 20 seconds. a. For each of the three above problems, say whether CVPM applies and explain your reasoning.

b. Choose one of the problems for which CVPM applies. For the problem you selected, draw at least three diagrams and/or graphs to illustrate the situation. Choose the diagrams and graphs that you ﬁnd most useful.

c.

Using the constant velocity particle model, solve for any unknown quantities. Show your work and use units.

d. Show how to derive the equation you used in part c from one of your graphs. By derive, I mean show the graph, write the generic math version of the equation, then write the physics version of the equation.

e.

Show how to derive the equation you used in part c from the other graph.

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006 !

– 10 –

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

5.

The graph below shows the velocity vs. time graph for a toy dune buggy which started 20 cm from the edge of its track. Assume that edge of the track is the origin.

Velocity (cm/s) "#! $#! !!#! %$#! %"#! !a. Determine the change in position from t = 2 sec to 3.5 sec. Clearly indicate how the change in position shows

up on the velocity graph. Show your work and use units!

&!

$!

'!

"!

(!

)!t (s)

b. Determine the change in position from t = 5 sec to 6 sec. Clearly indicate how the change in position shows up on the velocity graph. Show your work and use units!

c.

Construct a quantitative position-time graph for the motion. Assume a position of 20 cm at t = 0. Be sure to accurately number the scale on the position axis.

Position (cm)

"!

#!

$!

%!

&!

t '! (s)

!

d. Draw a motion map for this motion. On your motion map, clearly indicate the displacements determined in parts (a) and (b).

– 11 –

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 01 / CVPM

**CVPM Model Summary
**

Save this space for the end of the unit when your teacher will give you directions as to how to make a model summary.

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006 !

– 12 –

Honors Physics Homework 1A

Name: _____________________________

Homework 1A

1. From the position and time data below, answer the following questions.

a.

Construct a quantitative graph of position vs time and a quantitative graph of velocity vs time. (Quantitative means that it should involve numbers.)

!

b. Draw a motion map for the object.

c.

Determine the displacement from t = 3.0 s to 5.0 s using graph B. Show your work.

d. Determine the displacement from t = 7.0 s to 9.0 s using graph B. Show your work.

Honors Physics Homework 1A

2.

Consider a marble sitting at rest on a level ﬂoor at a position 3.0 m from the origin. At time t = 2 s, the marble is bumped so that it rolls to the right with a velocity +0.5 m/s. (I have chosen the positive direction to be to the right and the origin to be 3.0 m to the left of the marble's initial position.) The following graphs and motion map represent this motion.

8 Velocity m s Position m 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 0

!

0m

3.0m

2

4

6

8

10

Time s

Time s

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

x m

The above graphs and motion map have been copied as-is below questions A through E. In each part, and to each graph and motion map, add the representation of the new motion. a. The marble is given the same bump as before, but at t = 4 s instead of t = 2 s.

8 Velocity m s 2 4 6 8 10 Position m 6 4 2 0 0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time s

Time s

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

x m

Honors Physics Homework 1A

**b. The marble is given an identical bump at t = 2 s, but the bump is to the left.
**

8 Velocity m s 2 4 6 8 10 Position m 6 4 2 0 0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time s

Time s

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

x m

c.

The marble is bumped exactly as the original, but this time the marble is located at x = –2 m when the bump occurs (at t = 2 s).

8 Velocity m s 2 4 6 8 10 Position m 6 4 2 0 0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time s

Time s

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

x m

Honors Physics Homework 1A

**d. The marble is bumped to the right twice as hard as the original.
**

8 Velocity m s 2 4 6 8 10 Position m 6 4 2 0 0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time s

Time s

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

x m

e.

Everything is exactly the same as the original except that there is a wall located at x = 7 m so that the marble suddenly reverses direction.

8 Velocity m s 2 4 6 8 10 Position m 6 4 2 0 0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Time s

Time s

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

x m

Refer to cases A through E above as evidence when answering the following questions. f. If an object is moving away from the origin, is the velocity necessarily positive? Explain.

g. If an object is moving in the positive direction, is its position necessarily positive also? Explain.

h. If an object is moving in the positive direction, is its change in position necessarily positive also? Explain.

Honors Physics Homework 1B

Name: _____________________________

Homework 1B

1. The graph below shows the velocity vs. time graph for a car trip which started ﬁve miles from your house. Assume that your house is the origin.

Velocity (mi/h) "#! $#! !!#! %$#! %"#! !

a. Determine the change in position from t = 3.0 h to 5 h. Clearly indicate how the change in position shows up on the velocity graph. Show your work and use units!

&!

$!

'!

"!

(!

t (h) )!

b. Determine the change in position from t = 5 h to 5.5 h. Clearly indicate how the change in position shows up on the velocity graph. Show your work and use units!

c.

Construct a quantitative position-time graph for the motion. Assume a position of 5 miles at t = 0. Be sure to accurately number the scale on the position axis.

Position (mi)

"!

#!

$!

%!

&!

t '! (h)

!

Honors Physics Homework 1B

2.

To which of the following three problems does the Constant Velocity Particle Model Apply?

I. The box on the horizontal, frictionless surface below travels 30 m in 10 s.

II. The box on the frictionless, inclined ramp below starts from rest and travels 30 m in 10s.

III. The box on the frictionless, curved ramp below starts from rest and travels 30 m in 10 s.

!

!

!

a.

For each of the three problems, explain your reasoning as to why the CVPM either applies or does not apply.

b. Choose one problem where the CVPM seems like a good ﬁt. For the problem you selected, draw at least three diagrams and/or graphs to illustrate the situation. Choose the diagrams and graphs that you ﬁnd most useful.

c.

Using the constant velocity particle model, solve for any unknown quantities. Show your work and use units.

d. Show how to derive the equation you used in part c from one of your graphs. By derive, I mean show the graph, write the generic math version of the equation, then write the physics version of the equation.

Honors Physics! ! CVPM

!

!

!

!

!

Name: _____________________________

**Quiz #1 – Spend no more than 10 minutes!!!
**

1. Suppose that you are driving along at a steady 25 m/s (nearly 55 mph). a. Draw the v vs t graph on the axes to the right.

b. At time t = 2.0 s, you reach down to tune in a different radio station, without changing speed. At time t = 5.0 s, you return your attention to the road. On the graph above represent the distance you traveled, while you weren't really paying attention to your driving. c. What is this distance?

!

2.

Use the position-vs-time graph to answer the following questions. a. Describe (in words) the motion of the object modeled in the graph.

b. Determine the object's average velocity.

!

c. Write the mathematical equation that describes the object's motion. (Should start with xf=…) Use proper variables and units, please.

d. Determine the object's position at t = 10 s.