# Honors Physics

Unit 02 – BFPM Objectives
You can use this paper to keep track of your progress on each objective. You can note your standing after each assessment and track which skills need to be reassessed. Objective

I can draw a properly labeled free body diagram showing all forces acting on an object. (A)
I can identify surrounding objects interacting with an object, and the forces they exert on the object.!! I know when two surfaces must be experiencing a friction interaction. My FBDs look balanced when the forces are balanced.

I can tell when the forces must be balanced for an object based on what I know about its motion. (B) I can use empirically determined equations to determine the gravitational, spring, or friction force on an object. (A) I can use N1L to determine the forces acting on an object moving at a constant velocity. (B) I can draw a force vector addition diagram for an object experiencing no net force. (B) When given one force, I can describe its N3L force pair. (A) I can (and do) identify N3L force pairs in any situation. (C) I recognize when the balanced force particle model applies, and I use it when appropriate. (C) I can use more than one model to solve a problem (BFPM and CVPM) for multiple unknowns. (C)

Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Name: ________________________________

Balanced Force Model
A force is _____________________________________ Common Types of Forces
Type of Force Direction When is it present? Symbol Equation

the

{ }{

} { } { }
force the exerts on the

Newton’s 1st Law:

Newton’s 3rd Law:

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from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Reading: A Force is an Interaction between Two Objects

Book

Table

Earth

Figure 1: The system schema for a book sitting still on a table top. The book is interacting with the table (it is touching the table) and Earth (the gravitational force is a non-contact force). The word normal means “perpendicular to.” This force is due to the compression of the atomic bonds (which are modeled by springs) in the table surface, and the force is therefore perpendicular to the surface of the table.

FN,T

B

normal force, table on book

Fg,E

B

grav. force, Earth on book

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Figure 2: The free body diagram for a book sitting still on a table top. Note that there are two forces on the system (which is the book in this case), the same number of forces as there are lines crossing the dotted line in the system schema.

Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

in the previous example, or the force of a mashed spring on the object placed on top of that spring), tension forces (the force of a spring or string on an object), friction forces (always parallel to the surface on contact between two objects), air resistance (due to wind or an object moving quickly through still air), as well as pushes and pulls by living objects (which can be thought of as compression and tension forces, too). It is possible for two objects to interact in more than one way, simultaneously. To illustrate this possibility, let’s consider a book sliding to a halt on a table top. The system schema is shown in ﬁgure 3. There are now two lines connecting the book and the table, representing the normal force exerted by the table on the book and the friction force exerted by the table on the book. It helps to draw two separate lines for these two forces, thereby clearly indicating that there are now three forces (due to two interactions between the book and the table and one interaction between the book and Earth) on the book.

Book

Table

Earth

FN,T B normal force, table on book

Figure 3: The system schema for a table slowing as it slides on a table top. Notice that there are now three solid lines crossing the dotted line, indicating three distinct interactions of our system with its surroundings.

Ff ,T B fric. force, table on book Fg,E B grav. force, Earth on book

Using the system schema in ﬁgure 3, we can now draw a free body diagram for the sliding book on the table. The correct free body diagram should have one non-contact force (the gravitational force exerted by Earth on the book, Fg,E→ B ) and two contact forces (the normal (perpendicular) force exerted by the table on the book, FN,T → B , and the (parallel) friction force exerted by the table on the book, Ff ,T → B ).

Figure 4: The free body diagram for a book sliding on a horizontal table top.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Worksheet 1: Forces and Motion
Take care in reading every word in these questions. Make sure you know exactly when we are taking our snapshots in each part of the problem. When making a whiteboard, arrange your work so that all parts of one question can ﬁt on one board (neatly). 1. A cardboard box with a rubber bottom contains a cinder block at rest on a rough, concrete, horizontal ﬂoor. a. Draw a system schema for this situation.

b. Since the shape of the [box + cinder block]—your “system”—is unimportant, shrink it to a point (this is where we are treating the box like a particle) and then show and clearly label each force on the system. Make it obvious from your diagram which forces you intend to be equal and which you intend to be greater than others.

c.

A person shoves the box horizontally so that it begins to move. Your answers to this part should concern the time while the person is still touching the box and shoving. (i) Draw a velocity-vs-time graph for the box, clearly marking the time when the box is at rest and the time when the person is still touching the box and shoving it. This should be qualitatively accurate (no numbers, but correct shape). (ii) Also draw a system schema for that same time period. (iii) Also draw a free body diagram for the box during that same time period. Label!

d. The shove ends when the box leaves contact with the person’s hands. (i) Draw a qualitatively correct velocity-vstime graph for the box, clearly marking the time when the box is at rest, the time when the person is still touching the box and shoving it, and the time after the box loses contact with the person’s hands. Make it obvious which lines are horizontal, which have greater slopes, smaller slopes, or negative slopes. (ii) Also draw a system schema for the box when it leaves contact with the person’s hands. (iii) Also draw an FBD.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

2.

The rubber is now removed from the bottom of the box so that the cardboard surface rests directly on the same ﬂoor. It is then given a horizontal shove by a person. In the space below, modify your velocity vs. time graph as well as your system schemas and FBDs from problem 1 to accurately describe this new situation. Your diagrams do not have to be quantitatively accurate, but make it obvious which forces you intend to be equal and which you intend to be greater or less than others, so that comparisons can be made among forces in this problem as well as between forces in this problem and in problem 1. Make any differences in your graphs and diagrams obvious. a. Draw a velocity-vs-time graph for the box, clearly marking the three time periods.

b. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the box is at rest on the horizontal ﬂoor.

c.

Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the person is still touching the box and shoving.

d. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation during the time after the box loses contact with the person's hands.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

3.

The box is now placed on a very smooth and polished ﬂoor. In the space below, modify your velocity vs. time graph as well as your system schemas and FBDs from problem 2 to accurately describe this new situation. Your diagrams do not have to be quantitatively accurate, but make it obvious which forces you intend to be equal and which you intend to be greater or less than others, so that comparisons can be made among forces in this problem as well as between forces in this problem and problems 1 and 2. Make any difference in your diagrams obvious. a. Draw a velocity-vs-time graph for the box, clearly marking the three time periods.

b. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the box is at rest on the horizontal ﬂoor.

c.

Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the person is still touching the box and shoving.

d. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation during the time after the box loses contact with the person's hands.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

4.

Suppose that we could somehow succeed in making the ﬂoor completely frictionless. Again, make new diagrams/graphs to represent this new variation in the situation. Make any differences obvious. a. Draw a velocity-vs-time graph for the box, clearly marking the three time periods.

b. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the box is at rest on the horizontal ﬂoor.

c.

Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the person is still touching the box and shoving.

d. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation during the time after the box loses contact with the person's hands.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

5.

Return to the case of the cardboard box resting on the concrete ﬂoor, with friction. A person pushes it hard enough to start it into motion and then continues pushing so that it maintains a constant velocity. In the space below, modify your velocity vs. time graph as well as your system schemas and FBDs from problem 2 to accurately describe this new situation. a. Draw a velocity-vs-time graph for the box, clearly marking the three time periods (at rest, velocity is changing, moving with a constant velocity).

b. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the box is at rest on the horizontal ﬂoor.

c.

Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the box is changing velocity.

d. Draw a system schema and an FBD for this situation while the box moves with a constant velocity.

e.

After pushing the box with a constant velocity for a while, you reduce your force to half the value needed to maintain a constant velocity. Make a new (continued) velocity-vs-time graph to show what happens to the box while you continue to push with this force.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Worksheet 2: FBDs
6. In each of the following situations, represent the object with a labelled free body diagram. Label each force with a meaningful symbol (ex: Fg) AND with the object exerting the force (ex: Fg(earth)). a. An object lies motionless.

b. An object slides at a constant speed without friction.

c. Static friction prevents an object from sliding.

d. An object is suspended from the ceiling.

7. A block is held at rest on a frictionless ramp by a string (with a tension force indicated by the arrow). Draw the free body diagram for the block and label all of the forces. Be sure to use a protractor to get the correct angles.

FT

30°

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Empirical Force Laws Experiments (Fg, Fs)
Sketch and label the experiment setup:

What could we measure? How could we measure it?

Use this space for notes at the whiteboarding stage of the experiment:

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Consider experiments in which two unequal forces act on a body in opposite directions. The result is an acceleration in the direction of the larger force but smaller. Figure 1 shows an example. This should remind you of how the force of friction slightly decreased the overall force on the carts when we pulled them with one spring of force.

5N

2N equivalent to

3N

Figure 1: Two forces acting in opposite directions subtract, with the net force pointing in the direction of the larger of the two forces. If we deﬁne forces pointing to the right as positive (+2 N here) and to the left as negative (-5 N), we can alway just add the forces.

Thus we can simply add the two forces to get the ‘net force’ expressed in Newton’s Second Law as long as we keep track of the directions of the forces using positive and negative numbers (with positive numbers representing forces pointing in the direction we have deﬁned as the positive direction). For the example in ﬁgure 1 we would have a positive force (to the right) of 2 N and a negative force (to the left) of 5 N. If we add those forces we get Fnet = (+2 N) + (−5 N) = −3 N.

F2 F1 F3 is equivalent to

Situations where the forces point in the same or opposite directions are fairly straightforward, but what happens when there are multiple forces pointing in all directions? In such cases, we need to treat forces as vectors. In fact, without really thinking about it too much, the example in ﬁgure 1 does treat the forces as vectors. You may have noticed that by using arrows to depict forces, we have already chosen a visual representation that is similar to the way we depict vectors. An experiment can be performed in which three forces act on a body in different directions to produce an equilibrium state (that is, zero net force). If vectors are used to represent these forces with their lengths proportional to the force magnitude, it is possible to add them using our familiar headto-tail sequence. Since the vectors add up to zero, the resulting vector diagram forms a closed polygon, as in ﬁgure 2. This corresponds to vector addition resulting in a zero resultant vector (if this is not immediately clear, please review your summer homework on vectors). We experimentally determine that when two or more forces act at acute or obtuse angles, the forces have a combined effect that is equivalent to a single force that is their vector sum. The vector sum of force vectors represents the net force vector, and this situation is shown in ﬁgure 3. Note that we cannot merely add the magnitudes of the vectors in this more general case!

F2

F3

F1 adding up to zero force

Figure 2: Forces adding to zero result in equilibrium (no change in velocity). The vectors are added using the tail-to-head method.
F1

F2

equivalent to

F net F 1 F 2 F2 F1

Figure 3: Forces add as vectors. This takes a little more work, but it is the only way to deal with forces in more than one dimension!

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from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Worksheet 3: Interaction Problem Solving
8. The player in the photo exerts a 100 N horizontal force on a 25 kg blocking sled, pushing it across the grass with a constant speed of 2.0 m/s. a. Fill out the chart below, determining all of the forces on the blocking sled. System Schema

!
Motion Map Qualitatively correct sketch of FBD

REMINDERS: ! Does your system schema have a system boundary? ! In your FBD, did you represent the system with a particle? ! Is it obvious when you intend two forces to be equal or when you intend one force to be greater than another? ! Did you label your forces with the object exerting the force in parentheses? b. On the graph below, draw an FBD to a precise scale. Make sure you write down your scale!

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

c. How would the situation change if the player pushed with more than 100 N, while the frictional force between the grass and the sled remained the same? Illustrate your answer with another FBD and motion map.

d. Describe, in terms of the amount of force he would have to apply, what the player would have to do to make the sled move with a constant velocity of 3.0 m/s. Assume that the frictional force between the grass and the sled remains the same under all circumstances. Illustrate your answer with diagrams and/or graphs as appropriate.

e. If he pushes the sled as originally described with a velocity of 2.0 m/s, how far will it slide in 7.5 seconds? Draw at least three diagrams/graphs to illustrate this situation, then solve this problem using at least two different methods (and getting the same answers).

f. With the sled moving at a constant velocity of 2.0 m/s, the person reduces his force to 75 N. Describe what happens to the sled. Illustrate your answer with another FBD and motion map.

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from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

9. A man pushes a 2.0 kg broom at a constant speed. The broom handle makes a 50º angle with the ﬂoor. He pushes the broom with a 5.0 N force directed parallel to the handle. a. Fill out the chart below, determining all of the forces on the broom. (Qualitative) Sketch of FBD

!

System Schema

(Qualitative) Sketch of Vector Addition Diagram

REMINDERS: ! Does your system schema have a system boundary? ! In your FBD, did you represent the system with a particle? ! Is it obvious when you intend two forces to be equal or when you intend one force to be greater than another? ! Did you label your forces with the object exerting the force in parentheses? ! Did you add vectors tail to head? b. On the graph below, draw the vector addition diagram to a precise scale. Be sure to write down your scale! Be sure to use a ruler and a protractor!

from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006 !

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

c. Is the contact normal force that the ﬂoor exerts on the broom (greater than, less than, or equal to) the gravitational force that the earth exerts on the broom? Explain!

d. How would your answers change if the person exerted the same force of 5.0 N along the handle, but the handle were closer to parallel to the ﬂoor? Illustrate your answer with another vector addition diagram.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Activity: Broom Ball
For each of the situations, describe (using words, pictures, etc) how to accomplish each feat. Each situation refers to pushing a bowling ball on the ﬂoor with a broom. Speed up the bowling ball from rest. Stop a moving bowling ball.

Keep a moving bowling ball moving at a constant velocity.

Move the ball from one line to the other and back as quickly as possible and without overshooting the lines.

With a moving bowling ball, make a sharp left turn.

Travel at a constant speed along a curved line.

Move the ball around a circle as quickly as possible.

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Activity: Dueling Forces
For each of the following situations: 1. Draw one system schema. In your system schema, draw the interaction between the two carts in colored pencil. (Keep everything else in regular pencil.) 2. Draw and label two FBDs (one for each cart). Draw the forces the carts exert on one another in colored pencil. (Again, keep everything else in regular pencil.) Be sure your FBDs look balanced or unbalanced as appropriate. Draw forces to approximate scale. 3. Finally, measure the colored pencil forces with the force sensors and correct your diagrams if necessary. Remember to zero your force sensors! 4. After completing the ones on this sheet, if you have time (or outside of class), you might be interested in trying additional variations and conﬁrming your results. I. You may ignore friction on this particular situation.
velocity = 0

Fperson A

B

Fperson

II. Do not ignore friction.
constant velocity

A

B

Fperson

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

III. Do not ignore friction.
speeding up

A

B

Fperson

IV. Do not ignore friction.
speeding up

B

A

Fperson

V. This should be a collision on a track (snapshot during the collision). You may ignore friction in this situation.
velocity initially at rest

B

A

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

Worksheet 4: N3L in Action
6. A ﬂy is happily buzzing along when it splats against the windshield of a 10 ton tractor-trailer truck traveling at 80 miles per hour down the highway. Which is greater: the force the ﬂy exerts on the truck or the force the truck exerts on the ﬂy? Explain.

7.

In frustration, Alec gets Henry to hold up his test and punches his ﬁst completely through all of the sheets of paper. Which is greater: the force that Alec’s ﬁst exerted on the paper or the force that the paper exerted on Alec’s ﬁst? Explain.

8.

Your friend’s truck stalls out on a hill, so you get out to push. However, after a couple minutes you start to tire yourself out and the truck starts pushing you back down the hill. While the truck is pushing you back down the hill, which is greater: the force that you exert on the truck or the force that the truck exerts on you? Explain.

9.

At the ice skating rink, Lydia (who has a mass of 50 kg) stands face to face with her brother, Marcus (who has a mass of 80 kg). They put their hands together and Lydia pushes Marcus backwards. Draw one system schema and two FBDs (one each for Lydia and Marcus) during the push. You may assume that the ice is frictionless.

!

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Honors Physics / Unit 02 / BFPM

BFPM Model Summary

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Honors Physics Homework 2A

Name: _____________________________

Homework 2A
1. In each of the following situations, represent the object with a labelled free body diagram. Ex of a good and meaningful label for a force: Fg(earth). An object slows down due to kinetic friction. An object slides without friction.

! !

The object is motionless.

The ball is rising in a parabolic trajectory.

!

The object is pulled by a force at an angle to the surface.

The ball is at the top of a parabolic trajectory.

2. If no external forces are acting on a moving object it will a. continue moving at the same speed. b. continue moving at the same velocity. c. move slower and slower until it ﬁnally stops. Brieﬂy explain your reasoning:

Honors Physics Homework 2A

3. A steel washer is held up against the underside of a magnet that is itself suspended from a string, as shown in the ﬁgure below. In each of your diagrams for this problem, describe each force you draw with a statement similar to the following: The [contact, non-contact] [TYPE OF FORCE] the [OBJECT EXERTING FORCE] exerts on the [OBJECT EXPERIENCING FORCE]. For example, the non-contact gravitational force the earth exerts on the washer.

String

Magnet Washer

a. First, draw a system schema with all relevant interactions. Do not draw a dotted line around any particular object.

b. Draw a free body diagram for just the steel washer.

c. Draw a free body diagram for just the magnet.

Honors Physics Homework 2B

Name: _____________________________

Homework 2B
1. The 55 kg skydiver in the picture below descends with a constant velocity of 7 m/s. Determine all of the forces on the skydiver. a. Fill out the chart below, determining all of the forces on the skydiver. System Schema

Motion Map

Qualitatively correct sketch of FBD

REMINDERS: ! Does your system schema have a system boundary? ! In your FBD, did you represent the system with a particle? ! Is it obvious when you intend two forces to be equal or when you intend one force to be greater than another? ! Did you label your forces with the object exerting the force in parentheses? b. How long will it take the skydiver to fall 1000 m? Draw at least two additional diagrams/graphs to illustrate this situation, then solve this problem using at least two different methods (and getting the same answers).

Honors Physics Homework 2B

2. The 5.0 kg box hangs from two ropes. a. Fill out the chart below, determining all of the forces on the box. Note: there are only two ropes. The dashed line is given as a reference line.

!
Rope 1

25o

(Qualitative) Sketch of FBD

!"#\$%&!

Rope 2

System Schema

(Qualitative) Sketch of Vector Addition Diagram

REMINDERS: ! Does your system schema have a system boundary? ! In your FBD, did you represent the system with a particle? ! Is it obvious when you intend two forces to be equal or when you intend one force to be greater than another? ! Did you label your forces with the object exerting the force in parentheses? ! Did you add vectors tail to head? b. On the graph below, draw the vector addition diagram to a precise scale. Be sure to write down your scale! Be sure to use a ruler and a protractor!

Fg = _________________

FT1 = _________________

Ft2 = _________________

Honors Physics Homework 2C

Name: _____________________________

Homework 2C
1. Imagine you are ﬂoating in space several meters from your spacecraft and your rocket pack runs out. How could you propel yourself back to the ship? Assume you are wearing a tool belt holding several wrenches. Note: This is my all-time favorite Honors Physics homework question.

2.

The attraction of a person’s body toward the Earth is called weight. What is the Newton’s 3rd Law pair to this force? State your answer formally using the long statement we came up with to specify a force (see the front of your BFPM packet if in doubt).

3.

Joe pushes Bill, who is asleep. Bill a. will inevitably push Joe when he wakes up. b. pushes Joe immediately, but not as hard. c. does not push even after he wakes up. d. pushes Joe equally hard without waking up. Brieﬂy explain your reasoning:

4.

In a soccer game, the player heads the ball toward the goal. Which is greater: the force that the head exerts on the ball or the force that the ball exerts on the head? Explain.

5.

You are walking on the sidewalk. Draw one system schema (use the margin of this page) and two FBDs (one each for you and the sidewalk) while you are walking mid-stride. Your left foot is on the ground and your right food is in mid-air and moving forward.

Honors Physics Homework 2C

6.

The 80 kg box rests motionless on the 20º incline. a. Fill out the chart below, determining all of the forces on the box (including their magnitudes). (Qualitative) Sketch of FBD

!
System Schema (Qualitative) Sketch of Vector Addition Diagram

REMINDERS: ! Does your system schema have a system boundary? ! In your FBD, did you represent the system with a particle? ! Is it obvious when you intend two forces to be equal or when you intend one force to be greater than another? ! Did you label your forces with the object exerting the force in parentheses? ! Did you add vectors tail to head? b. On the graph below, draw the vector addition diagram to a precise scale. Be sure to write down your scale! Be sure to use a ruler and a protractor!

c. Is the contact normal force [greater than, less than, or equal to] the gravitational force? Explain.