Cellular Engineering



Introduction • Cellular Engineering Objectives

• Costs Elements in Network Design

• Design Constraints

• Quality of Service

• Radio Planning Methodology



Radio Network Planning Area

Air Interface (Um Link) Mount and Antenna

Mobile Station


Base Transceiver Station
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wordpress.Objectives of Cellular Engineering • Adequate Coverage .Lowest Possible Costs for Expansion and Maintenance without affecting Quality Levels http://dinendran.Service with least Call Drops.Handling Maximum Possible Traffic in Busy Hour with low Blocking Probability • Quality of Service (QOS) . Contiguous Coverage with least coverage holes.congestion and high Setup Success Rate. 2.Scope for Coverage and Capacity Expansion Maintaining the High Quality Levels • Cost Effective Design .com/ 4 .Voice Quality Levels • Network Growth Accommodation . Outdoor) meeting Marketing Plans. • Capacity . Adequate depth of Coverage( Indoor.1.

• Cost in Acquiring the site locations meeting the Design specifications ( Acquire as close to Designed sites) • Extensive Drive tests before commissioning of site.wordpress. OTHERWISE ---• Potential Cost due to Improper Design • Revenue loss due to disconnection • Revenue loss due to lost Airtime • Loss of Competitive Edge • Enhanced Service Revenue loss • Redesigning Cost • Modifications of Cell Parameters • Equipment modification/Change • Relocation/Addition of sites http://dinendran.Costs Elements in Network Design Cost for Quality Network Design • To Design Optimal N/W :.com/ 5 . • Integration of field measurements in design.Extensive Modeling and Numerous revision of design.

keeping in mind the following constraints MARKETING REQUIREMENTS LICENSE CONDITIONS RADIO NETWORK PLANNING RADIO ASPECTS VENDOR SPECIFICATIONS BUDGET GSM SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS http://dinendran.Design Constraints The objective of Radio Network Planning is a Technical Realization of the Marketing Requirement.wordpress.com/ 6 .

1 W.com/ 7 . • BTS Transmit Power • Receiver Sensitivities of MS and BTS. http://dinendran. 2 W . 1800 .Design Constraints License Requirements (Technical Requirements based on License conditions) • To cover(class 4) 60% of population within 12 months of Commercial launch • Availability of service in 90% of the area for 90% of the time • To achieve certain Grade of Service( System Reliability is included) • Availability of Limited Bandwidth divide over all licensed operators GSM Specifications (ETSI recommendations for Radio Transmit and Receive) • Frequency Bands • Mobile Station Transmit Power(Class) class 4 . • Carrier to Interference Ratio(C/I).better than 9 db. C/I . C/A . -102 dBm.better than -9db. -104 Dbm.wordpress.

• BTS Capacity. number of transceivers.wordpress. Radio Aspects Radio wave propagation loss. beam width etc. Shadowing Multipath Fading Interference Power Link Budgets Budget • Governed by Business Plan • Identifying and Prioritization the areas based on max. return on investment http://dinendran.com/ 8 .Design Constraints Vendor Specifications • BTS Transmit Power • Receiver Sensitivity • Cable Loss( Generally it is defined per 100 meters) • Antenna Specifications.

includes reliability of the system. 9 http://dinendran. null areas.Quality of Service Specifications The Technical plan for Quality service is based on: Coverage Quality .com/ interference or congestion(usually<5%) .Probability of disconnection due to Handover failure.Averaged coverage Probability of 95% across the cell area • Indoor Coverage . • Blocking Rate .wordpress. extra Interference margin should be taken into account. • Call Success Rate .Besides the C/I values recommended by ETSI .Proportion of calls connected and held for 2 minutes within the defined coverage area(desired 98%) •Dropped call rate .Probability of an unsuccessful call attempt due to unavailability of radio resource (usually <2%) •Grade of Service .Probability of a lost call.Supplementary level of coverage for highways and remote areas • Interference Margin .Extra Coverage for Strategic locations • In Car Coverage .Determined by • Outdoor Coverage .

Important Considerations • Long term projections and trends developed by Marketing • Existing Traffic distributions and typical densities in the Existing network • Spectral efficiency .com/ 10 .Quality of Service • Roll-out Plans .Plans considering availability of coverage within certain time limits based on prioritization • Traffic Forecasts .wordpress.Based on • Frequency Re-use • Clustering • Traffic trend design • TRX allocation • Business plan feedback http://dinendran.

actual sites • Documentation of details http://dinendran.com/ 11 .wordpress. + other constrains CW + Model Tunning Tool. Digital Maps NO System/ Parameter Tuning/ Optimization Signal Propagation Nominal Cell Plan • Cell Plan • Site Configurations • Sites Prediction • Frequency Plan Surveys/ Site Sel •Testing of site •Drive test Implementation Process Design • Coverage Maps.RF Planning Process System Growth YES Integrate with n/w. Commercial launch Initial Planning Is Site meeting Quality Norms Traffic & Coverage Analysis • Traffic • Coverage • Quality Mkt req.

Air Interface • Frequency Allocation .960 MHz for Up-link & Down-link.200 kHz • 124 Carriers in GSM 900 Band • Every Carrier can be shared by 8 MS (Physical Channels) • Types Of Channels • Physical Channels • Logical Channels • Physical Channels • Each Carrier can be shared by a number of MS called Physical channels • On every Physical channel a number of Logical channels are mapped http://dinendran.wordpress.GSM 900 System with Frequency Band 890 . • Channel Concept • Carrier Separation .915 / 935 .com/ 12 .

Logical Channels • Each logical channel used for specific purpose e. call-setup or speech • Eleven Logical Channels • Two used for Traffic and Nine for Control Signaling Traffic Channels(TCH) Broadcast Channels(BCH) Common Control Channels(CCCH) Dedicated Control Channels(DCCH) http://dinendran.com/ 13 . Paging.g..wordpress.

plane wave the Electric field.wordpress.f =c  = wavelength in meters/cycle http://dinendran.3000MHz Propagation Direction Waves • Radio waves are one type of Electro-magnetic waves • Typically Generated as Disturbances sent out by oscillating charges on a Transmitting Antenna • A simple . all are perpendicular to each other • Waves can be described by simple Sinusoidal function • Can be Characterized by the length of one cycle of Oscillation called the Wavelength ‘’ or equivalently by its frequency ‘f’ .Radio Wave Propagation • Waves Magnetic Field Electric Field Propagation properties are different across the frequency spectrum For GSM the UHF(Ultra High Frequency Band) is used 300 . the Magnetic field and the direction of Propagation.com/ 14 f = Frequency in cycles/second(Hz) c = speed of light(3 * 10 e 8 meters/sec for all Electro-magnetic waves) . travelling.

The power of the signal diminishes as a function of distance r. http://dinendran.001) .wordpress. r Pt Receiving antenna The Power is expressed in dBm which is P (dBm) = 10 log (Pin/0. where Pin is in Watts.The Principle refers to the decay of the signal. Loss and gain are expressed in db.Isotropic antenna radiates the signal energy in all directions. travelling in Free Space as Fn( Distance) of receiver from transmitter.com/ 15 .Free Space attenuation :. Isotropic Radiation :.

wordpress.Factors affecting Radio wave Propagation Absorption • Refraction • Reflection • Diffraction • Scattering Assuming • Emitted Power Pt • Received Power Pr • Transmitting Antenna Gain Gt • Receiving Antenna Gain Gr • Distance between both Antennas d Antenna Mobile Station d Transmission loss L = 10 log Pt / Pr = 10 log {(4d)²/(Gt Gr ²)} L = 20 log (4d/) . However for cell planning it is very import to arrive at a model to predict the actual path loss for particular type of terrain.com/ 16 . This gives the model of first approximation.10 log Gt Thus theoretically Path loss in Free space Lp = 20 log (4d/) => the received power decreases when distance between antenna increases and the transmission loss increases when the wavelength decreases.10 log Gr . http://dinendran.

Obstruction in the propagation path.wordpress.Reflections from the ground and from objects. and path loss is much severe than the free space and it is proportional to 1/r n where n is the slope of the terrain/ propagation path loss slope.com/ 17 .Practical Attenuation In practical we design n/w with real attenuation in the environment. -20 Signal lev (dBm) -35 Log r (km) 1 10 100 The steeper path loss slope is caused by . Terrain http://dinendran. multipath reflections Signal decay depends on .e on log scale theslope will be between -20 ( Free space) and -50 dB/decade( highly urban). Antenna Design.Distance from transmitter. The propagation path loss is determined the actual terrain environment and can vary between 2 & 5 I. frequency. .

even when LOS does not exist • Scattering – Objects smaller than the wavelength of the propagating wave – E. foliage.com/ 18 .. the surface of the Earth.Propagation Mechanisms • Reflection – Propagating wave impinges on an object which is large compared to wavelength – E. lamp posts http://dinendran.. street signs. etc.g.g. buildings. • Diffraction – Radio path between transmitter and receiver obstructed by surface with sharp irregular edges – Waves bend around the obstacle. walls.wordpress.

Microscopic( Rayleigh) :.Long term fading because of terrain.wordpress. buildings etc.Radio Propagation • Effect of Mobility – Channel varies with user location and time – Radio propagation is very complex » Multipath scattering from nearby objects » Shadowing from dominant objects » Attenuation effects – Results in rapid fluctuations of received power Mean Less variation the slower you move Fading :.Fading takes place due to multipath reflections. Macroscopic( Log Normal) :. when reflected waves are in same phase ( constructive) signal addition but when out of phase ( Destructive) cancellation of signal resulting in Fade. radio waves from many different reflection path received http://dinendran.com/ 19 .It is short term fading caused by Movment of MS.

Of f = 900 MHz. the distance between Rayleigh dips is about half a wavelength. In GSM we take example carrier freq.5 cm.wordpress. statistically .Effect of Rayleigh fading 1/2 It has been found that .com/ 20 . http://dinendran. & = c / f where speed of light ( 3 * 10 m/s) = 33 cm And the distance between the two rayleigh dips is half a wave length which is 16.

wordpress.com/ 21 .Fade Margin The fade margin is normally equal to the maximum expected fade. http://dinendran.

wordpress. discontinuity in atmosphere. The first one is directly from BTS & second signal is reflected off a building. airplane. MULTIPATH FADING 2 1 consider two signals arriving by two different paths to MS. The Phase of the second signal may be such that it is 180 degrees out of phase with the direct signal.Radio wave may reflect from a hill . building.com/ 22 .Multipath Propagation . (1) (2) http://dinendran. truck.

com/ 23 .Effects Multipath propagation and reflection can cause positive or negative effects. • Constructive and destructive Interference. behind the hills. http://dinendran. Rayleigh fading Delay Spread Due to multi path propagation effects the sharp pulse which is transmitted arrives in the receiver as a delayed. Doppler Shift :. flattened bulge and last longer than original pulse. • Ducting due to tunnels.wordpress.Frequency of the signal shifts because of MS movement relative to BTS.

Countermeasures for propagation losses Equalization .com/ 24 .26 TSC transmitted with each timeslot burst are used to measure the channel characteristics.Refers to any of several techniques for sampling the received signal more than once to improve the SNR at the receiver.The predicted distortions in the received signal are subtracted from the received wave form then the original most likely signal is estimated. Input Output Viterbi Algorithm Channel Estimator Fade Margin Diversity . http://dinendran.wordpress.

There are various possibilities in combining. Diversity Methods After obtaining the necessary samples.Space & Polarization .Different Diversity Schemes • Time Diversity .There are three ways of combining the two different signal samples: • Selection • Equal gain Combining • Maximal Ratio Combining http://dinendran.com/ 25 .Frequency Hopping • Antenna Diversity .wordpress.Bit Interleaving • Frequency Diversity . these samples have to be processed to obtain a good result.In space diversity mostly two antennas are used at different positions may be Horizontal or Vertical.

SELECTION At a time. Antenna A Logic Antenna B RX http://dinendran.The signal that has the highest instantaneous SNR value is selected. only one Ak is set to unity while others are zero.wordpress.com/ 26 .

Antenna A Antenna B Summing RX http://dinendran.wordpress.EQUAL GAIN COMBINING Both the signals are added together and both Ak are equal to 1.com/ 27 .

The signals coming from the two antennas are phase shifted in order to allign them in phase before combining them Antenna A Co-phasing and Summing Antenna B Ak = Sk / Nk RX http://dinendran.com/ 28 .MAXIMAL RATIO COMBINING Here Ak is proportional to the signal power S and inversly proportional to the noise power N at input K.wordpress.

COMPARISON The maximal Ratio Combiner is the best performance combiner.The selective combiner has a 2db degradation as compared with the maximal ratio combiner DIVERSITY GAIN The achievable diversity gain is also dependent on : • Clutter Density • Speed Vector of MS w.The equal gain combiner has 0. http://dinendran.r.t.com/ 29 . BTS • BTS antenna height • Difference between the two Signal Levels The diversity gain is nominally set to 3 db but can be higher in reality.5 db degradation as compared with the maximal ratio combiner.wordpress.

other beams containing radiation intensity less than the main lobe • Back Lobe . also known as -3dB points • Beamwidth .Antennas High Frequency Radio waves are generated by oscillating charges on a transmitting antenna.com/ 30 .Amount of Power radiated in a given direction(dB) • Main Lobe .beam approximately pointed 180 deg from the main lobe • Half Power Points .at these points the antenna gain is 3dB lower than the main lobe.wordpress. We can think of electric field as being disturbances sent out by dipole(long wire) source and the frequency of the oscillating electric field(Electro-magnetic wave) is same as the frequency of the source.The beam containing the maximum radiation intensity • Side Lobe .Angle(degrees) confined between the Half Power points http://dinendran. Antennas are characterized by their electrical specifications • Gain .

Polarization .regions in the radiation pattern where radiation intensity is minimal compared to adjacent lobes F/B ratio . 270 Side Lobe -3 dB 270 180 Back Lobe Main Lobe Half power Beamwidth 0 0 180 Null Region -3 dB 90 Horizontal Radiation Pattern 90 http://dinendran.com/ Vertical Radiation Pattern 31 .Quantity describing the orientation of the Electric Field or ‘E-plane’ (GSM antennas can be Dual polarized) e.ratio between Power radiated in the main(front) direction to the power radiated in the reverse direction.g. a vertical polarized antenna means its electric field is perpendicular to surface of earth Null .wordpress.

Antenna Diversity In general. One antenna can be used as Rx antenna while the other can be used simultaneously as a Rx/Tx antenna. Configurations: The 0º / 90º configuration The 45º / 45º configuration output X X X http://dinendran.wordpress. two types of antenna diversity are used: Horizontal Antenna Diversity Vertical Antenna Diversity output Polarization Diversity It is achieved by using two antennas with their polarization planes perpendicular to each other.com/ Rx/Tx Rx Rx/Tx Rx 32 .

The practical value for the isolation is 30 db http://dinendran.it can degrade the performance of receiver. affects only vertical radiation Antenna Isolation – Isolation between transmitter and receiver is required to avoid receiver desensitization .site transmitter ( spurious signals).that signal may get amplified & get through RF selectivity of the receiver. can be Mechanical .Phasing of the electrical currents in the dipole array.Antenna Tilting To minimize interference the transmission range is reduced by tilting the antenna main lobe down.wordpress. .Receiver in-band noise caused by the co.com/ 33 . The generation of spurious frequencies could be due to non-linear characteristics in a transmitter. When an undesired signal from a nearby “off-frequency” transmitter is sufficiently close to a receiver’s operating frequency.If the spurious signal falls within the passband of a nearby receiver & the signal level is of sufficient amplitude. affects both horizontal and vertical radiation pattern Electrical .Gain reduction of Low-noise amplifier caused by a strong off channel signal.physically altering the angle.

Antenna Coupling Equipment Two classes of ACE are distinguished : • Downlink ACE types • Uplink ACE types

Downlink ACE Types: Diplexer TRDU The Transmitter Diplex unit makes it possible to join the transmit & receive signal into one antenna. The transmitter filter unit combines two transmit signals into one output signal.It is a narrow band combiner and is only suitable for GSM –900. The transmitter hybrid unit is a wide band combiner used for both GSM 900 ,1800.






Uplink ACE Types Splitter RXMC The receive multicoupler is used to split the received signal to separate receivers. The receive distributor besides attenuating the signal from the splitter,it also distributes the signal over the different RTs. Low noise amplifier boosts the received signal to compensate for splitter & feeder losses. The tower mounted amplifier also boosts the received signal to reduce the impact of feeder cables noise.It should be placed directly below the antenna. The tower mounted booster is used to boost both the trans & receive power.









Link Budget Scenario Antenna Gain = 11 dBi Path Loss

7/8 “ coaxial cable Loss per 50 meters = 2 dB ( Typical)

Mobile Antenna Gain - 0 dBi cable loss - 0 dB TX Power - 33 dBm RX Sensitivity = -102 dBm

ACE Duplexer Unit Loss = 1.0 dB ( Typical)

Transceiver Transmitter Power - ? Receiver Sensitivity = -104 dBm
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Link Budget Uplink MS transmit Power( Class 4) Cable Loss Antenna Gain MS Body Loss Max Path Loss Penetration loss Fade Margin ( Antenna Gain BTS ACE Loss( Duplexer) Feeder Loss Diversity Gain BTS Receiver Sensitivity % cell Edge) 33dBm 0 dB Signal level (dbm) 33dBm 0 dBi 33dBm 2 dB 33dBm + 112 dB 31dBm 20 dB 81dBm 14 dB -101dBm 11 dB -115dBm 1 dB -104dBm 2 dB -105dBm 3 dB -107dBm -104 dBm -104dBm http://dinendran.wordpress.com/ 37 .

wordpress.66 dBm .86dBm -100dBm 0 dBi -102dBm 0 dB -102dBm 0 dB -102dBm -102 dBm -102dBm http://dinendran. Duplexer) Antenna Gain BTS Max Path Loss Penetration loss Fade Margin ( Body Loss Antenna gain MS Cable Loss Diversity Gain MS Receiver Sensitivity (Class 4) % cell Edge) Signal level (dbm) dBm 38 dBm 2 dB 38dBm 1 dB 36dBm 11 dB 112 dB 20 dB 14 dB 2 dB 35dBm 46dBm .com/ 38 .Link Budget Downlink BTS transmit Power Feeder Loss ACE Loss(Combiner .

•Decrease the front end noise figure F •Increase transmitted power. •High losses when Waves Penetrates building •Building Construction within target area. •Existence of coverage holes.com/ 39 . Methods •Lower the threshold level of a received signal. •Increase BTS antenna height( Doubling the the height may give + 6 dB Gain) Equipment •Mast head Amplifier •Diversity receiver •Micro cells / pico cells ( to fill the holes.wordpress.) •High gain directional antenna http://dinendran.Coverage Extension Reasons •Customer demand to have coverage in a specific area.

http://dinendran. Micro cells increase capacity and coverage and are located in hot spots and dead spots.com/ 40 .Micro Cells Micro cell cover areas that are small compared to macro cells .wordpress. Other Coverage Enhancers Repeater Passive Antenna Active Antenna Leaky Coax ( radiating Cable).

of Channels available for voice/data • Grade of Service .com/ 41 .wordpress.the acceptable probability of a system to be congested Traffic Theory attempts to obtain useful estimates on number of channels required in a cell depending on • Selected system • Assumed/Real behavior of subscribers • Traffic .refers to usage of channels usually expressed as: • Holding time per time unit • number of call hours per hour A ( Er) = number of call per hour * measured in hours( Avg Call maintained ).Traffic Theory and Channel Dimensioning Capacity of a cellular system(Traffic a single cell can carry) depends on: • No. http://dinendran.

com/ 42 . measured in Erlangs(E){Erlang .for one or several channels.wordpress. Assumptions • No queues • Number of subscribers > Number of channels available • No dedicated Channels • Traffic following Poisson Distribution • Blocked calls abandon the call attempt immediately This is referred to as “Loss System”. The BTable relates • Number of Traffic Channels • The GoS • Traffic offered http://dinendran.a Danish traffic theorist} Based on certain assumptions on Subscriber behavior Erlang developed Erlang’s B-Table.

.0526 0.0309 0.02 0. .9811 7. .6667 . Assuming one cell has two carriers => NO.0081 0.7295 11.2003 8.473 14.008 0. .413 21.0091 0.01 0.2382 7.007 0.03 0. .0101 0.8035 9.0071 0. 6.com/ 43 492 subscribers .0204 0. 14 E.wordpress. . . .009 0.05 0.1111 0.3517 8.Erlang’s B .2 0.1 0.4 0.017 = http://dinendran.243 n 1 .25 0.of Traffic Channels = 2 * 8 -2 = 4 Acceptable GoS = 2% The Traffic That can be offered is = 8. .Table n 1 .2/.1154 7.g. 14 0.2003 E Interesting part is : If we assume a typical call lasts for around 60 sec per hour Traffic generated by each call = 60/3600 = 17 mE Thus Number of subscriber one cell can support = 8.

Traffic Dimensioning Dimensioning the network now implies using demographic data to determine the size of the cells. of attempts for every procedure that uses the SDCCH • The time that each procedure holds the SDCCH must be taken into account Procedures are: • Location update • Periodic registration • IMSI attach/detach • Call setup • SMS http://dinendran.wordpress. keeping in mind the traffic is not constant • Day an d Night Variation • Different day variation • Mobility during the course of the day • Other Factors Also important is the dimensioning of no. To calculate the need for SDCCHs • The no.com/ 44 .Of signaling channels(SDCCH). Once cell size is decided then need is to estimate the no. of carriers required in each cell.

wordpress.Channel Utilization Assuming a subscriber Traffic of 23 E with GoS during Busy Hour not exceeding 2% NO.com/ 45 . channel utilization = Traffic Served/No.75 4.of Traffic Channels required increases • Channel Utilization reduces Capacity and Interference problems prevent the use of most effective Channel Utilization scheme and a compromise is made between • Cost(Efficiency) • Quality http://dinendran. of channels required for one cell = 32 (From Erlang’s B=Table) With 32 Channels.of Channels = 23/32 =72 % Now Assuming 5 sites(cells) are designed to cover the same area(same Traffic) with acceptable GoS 2% Cell A B C D Total Traffic(%) 40 25 20 15 100 Traffic(E) 9.2 5.45 23 No.6 3.of Channels 16 11 10 8 45 Channel utilization(%) 58 52 46 43 Thus is is observed Splitting into smaller cells. • No.

Interference Protection: To reduce the interference between two frequencies there should be a minimum margin between those frequencies.com/ Minimum C/I 9db -9db -41db -49db 46 . Types of Interference: • Co-channel Interference (occurs when the interfering channel is on the same frequency channel) • Adjacent channel Interference (occurs when the interfering signal is on an adjacent frequency channel) Carrier to Interference Ratio – How much a signal (C) is interfered by an other signal (I) is given by the carrier to interference ratio (C/I) db.ETSI recommendations: Relation Co-channel Adjacent Channel 2nd Adjacent Channel 3rd Adjacent Channel 1st Frequency Spacing 0khz 200khz 400khz 600khz http://dinendran.INTERFERENCE Interference is the reception of unwanted radio signals that influence the receive/transmit path between a Receiver and a transmitter.wordpress.

com/ 47 .Minimum Spacing in khz In the cell Between 2 co-sites Between 2 neighboring cells Fighting the Interference The C/I ratio can be increased in a number of different ways: • Intelligent frequency management • Frequency Hopping • Antenna pattern design • Accurate tilting • Reduction of Antenna Height • Power Reduction 600 400 200 http://dinendran.wordpress.

com/ 48 . Valid values of K can be found using equation (where i & j are integers): K = i² + j² + ij Calculating the Frequency Reuse Distance The frequency reuse distance (D) can be derived from the K-value : D/R= 3K http://dinendran.wordpress. Cluster Size/ Reuse Factor (K) – The no of cells that are using the same frequencies is called Cluster size.FREQUENCY REUSE As the spectrum allocated for a cellular network is limited. there is a limit to the no of frequencies or channels that can be used.Channel reuse is implemented by using the same channels within cells Located at different positions in a cellular network service area. or reuse factor K.

com/ 49 .FREQUENCY HOPPING In frequency hopping systems. each call hops between a defined set of frequencies.A hop occurs before each time slot is transmitted (every 4. or 217 hops per second).615 millisecond. GSM networks use “slow” frequency hopping. Frequency hopping mitigates two problems with transmission quality over the air interface: • Multipath fading • Interference Different types of FH • Base Band FH • Synthesizer hopping http://dinendran.wordpress.

a customer will be TRX 1 (f1) for 1 TDMA frame and in the next frame he will be in TRX2 (f2) and next in TRX3 (f3) http://dinendran.Base Band FH In Base band FH a call hops between different TRX of the same sector f2 f3 f1 In the above fig .wordpress.com/ 50 .

f2.Synthesiser FH In this. but in the case of Baseband Hopping we need 4 TRX in 1 sector eventhoughThe capacity of that sector is very less http://dinendran.f3.f4 The advt of Synthesiser over Base band is that we need only as many TRX as the Capacity .com/ 51 .wordpress. the output freq of the TRX changes and the calls will continue on the same Timeslot f1.

wordpress. 1) 2) HSN ( Hopping sequence number ) MAIO ( Mobile allocation index offset ) *HSN is an algorithm on which the frequencies should be selected with in the predefined group for hopping frequencies There are 64 algorithm ( HSN ) ie 0-63 *MAIO is the starting frequency of this algorithm.FH is described by …. where N= number of allocated frequencies http://dinendran. The value of MAIO can be 0 to N-1 .com/ 52 .

occurs when same frequencies from different areas appear in the same area.Coverage and Frequency Planning Since the GSM Radio frequency spectrum is limited. the most challenging task for an RF engineer is to use the Radio Frequency as efficiently as possible or how the allocated set of frequencies can be distributed to serve the required area with least interference.com/ 53 . Interference .wordpress.occurs when there is inappropriate gap between the adjacent frequencies serving the same area The minimum Frequency spacing according to the theoretical GSM standards are: • Between two sectors of same site(cell) • Between two Neighboring sectors • Within a sector of a site(cell) 400 kHz 200 kHz 600 kHz http://dinendran. Types of interference • Co-channel Interference . • Adjacent channel interference .is the reception of unwanted signal that affect the air interface between the receiver and the transmitter.

• Clustering . Frequency Hopping depending on the coverage and capacity requirement.g.com/ frequencies • Amount of Traffic in the area 54 .The limited spectrum allocated limits the number of frequencies to be used e. 4.The frequency plan is living plan or in other words a constantly changing activity based on • Network Growth • Traffic Growth • Interference Detection Frequency Planning is carried out following different approaches involving Clustering.2 MHz bandwidth provides only 21 carriers for serving the large number of subscribers thus forcing to reuse of same frequencies in different positions of the network area. The number of frequencies that can be used within a cluster depends on • Available Frequencies • Interference relations between http://dinendran. A unique kind of distribution id designed with the available set of frequencies to be replicated over the whole area this is called clustering.wordpress.

wordpress.3/9 Cluster 4/12 Cluster http://dinendran.com/ 55 .

wordpress.6 R² R R r = 2R http://dinendran.Area of Regular Hexagon Area of Equilateral Triangle(Each Side = R) = (1/4) R² 3 Thus for a Regular Hexagon( Six equilateral triangles) Area = (3/2) R² 3 = 2.com/ 56 .

which has high level of directivity.wordpress. Each sector has directive antenna. The typical examples of sectored site are 3 sector and 6 sector sites.Types of Sites Omni Directional : The omni site radiates in all the directions.com/ 57 . http://dinendran. They also handles much more traffic than Omni cell and coverage wise they cover double the area. R Sectored : Site is divided in to sectors. The ideal coverage shape of omni is circular. As number of frequencies are radiated in a particular direction the interference is much low as compared to omni.

Omni Directional Sectored http://dinendran.com/ 58 .wordpress.

Test Mobile Phone . Neptune.GPS .Coverage Verification before and after changes .wordpress.Locate coverage holes .Vehicle http://dinendran.Initial network coverage verification and benchmarking .g.Logging excessive handovers due to poor network design .UPS .Locating and measuring interference . Tems etc) .Lap Top having Drive Test Tool ( e.com/ 59 .Simultaneous measurements of the other networks Tools .Preventive maintenance .DRIVE TEST Purpose .

and time slot .TRANSMIT POWER .TIMING ADVANCE . With long calls and short calls. shopping malls.Primary route(street level) Includes all major roads. hotels and resorts Drive Test can be divided in two categories .wordpress. beach resorts.Secondary route(street level) Includes all other small streets. .RXQUALITY for the serving cell .Data Collection . department stores.Miscellaneous routes (in-building and special locations) Includes golf courses.CELL ID including BSIC.highways etc . http://dinendran. convention centers. LAC.BCCH. subdivisions and compounds.com/ 60 . BSIC for the serving and the neighbour cells .LAYER 3 MESSAGES .GPS POSITION DATA Drive Test Route Planning .RXLEVEL for the serving and the neighbour cells .

Caused by either RF environments or incorrect system parameters Corrective Measures • Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined • Check HO parameters e. BSIC. margin. Adjacent channels or External interference • Serving cells might go down • Abnormalities such as call setup failure http://dinendran. Corrective Measures • Create an appropriate neighbour cell list • Change HO parameters such as thresholds.wordpress. Cell ID.g margins.Common Problems Cell Dragging . LAC. etc Dropped Calls . • Existing or new coverage holes • Interference.Calls may drag a cell beyond the desired handover boundary. etc • Check serving cell’s cell identifier in the neighbour cell’s neighbour list • Check neighbour cell’s BCCH. cell baring.com/ 61 . Co-channels. This might result dropped calls or bad Rxquality.

com/ 62 . more diplexer loss. Adjacent channels or External interference • Lack of dominant server • Poor coverage • Not optimal antenna configuration • Hardware Problem e.wordpress.Serving keep changing and as a result of bad audio quality Corrective Measures • Check if an appropriate neighbor cell list is defined • Check HO parameters • Interference. less RT power etc.System busy on several call attempts and site appears consistently on the traffic report Corrective Measures Short Term •Add additional RTs •Upgrade the BTS Configuration. Co-channels. System Busy . •Increase SDCCH if there is SDCCH congestion.g more feeder loss. Long Term • Build a new cell site to off-load traffic http://dinendran.Frequent Handovers( Toggling) .

com/ 63 . the result is an imbalance in traffic distribution across the system Corrective Measures • Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined • Check HO parameters • Inappropriate antenna configurations of the serving and neighbour cells • Interference.Handovers do not occur at the desired HO boundary. Adjacent channels or External interference • No TCH available (neighbour cells congestion) http://dinendran.wordpress. Co-channels.Handover Boundary .

2 0.4 6.8 BER > 12.4 0.wordpress.4 < BER < 0.2 < BER < 0.4 < BER < 12.com/ 64 .SIGNAL QUALITY LEVELS Signal Quality 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Range (in BER) BER < 0.8 http://dinendran.2 3.6 1.6 < BER < 3.2 < BER < 6.8 0.8 < BER < 1.

com/ 65 .g 100 calls with a holding time of 60 secs which repeats Automatically. • Call drop rate • Handover success • Handover failure http://dinendran.wordpress. The parameters which are monitored are • Call set up success rate. • Call setup time.Short call Parameters A sequence is fed in to the tool e. • Access Delay( Time between channel request and call alert) • Call success rate.

Narrow Band or Carrier Wave (CW) Measurements The figure below shows a geographical representation of CW measurement equipment Radio Path Time CW TX RX Sign al Level BTS Location GPS Data Storage COMPUTER Average Variance Location time speed MS http://dinendran.wordpress.com/ 66 .

wordpress.CW MEASUREMENT Survey Transmitter Parameters PARAMETER Transmitter Output Power Transmitter Feeder Cable loss Transmitter feeder cable length Transmitter omni-directional antenna gain Effective Isotropic Radiated Power VALUE 43 dbm 2 dbm 10 m 7 dbi 48 dbm For analysis the out-of-band frequency is chosen http://dinendran.com/ 67 .

While doing CW the following things to be kept in mind 1 . http://dinendran.Use differential GPS. The CW ( based on Signia Tool ) have got two ASCII text files data file has decimal lat long and received power strengths Header ( . height of antenna etc.The height of site = average clutter height + 3 meters.hd) has got all the information e. 2 . 7 – Take around 15 files . frequency .Take panoramic photos of CW survey sites and near by area.It is recommended that route length should be at least 80 kms.Choose test sites such that each site coverage area has nearly all the clutters.wordpress.The route of each site should have all the clutters( numbers of bins for all the clutters must be same) 3 . 13 for tuning the model and 2 for validating it. 6 . 4 . g site id.com/ 68 . site name. 5. lat long of test site.

wordpress.a log h} log d . a.a hm + { a . a are adjustable parameters f h frequency(MHz) Base Antenna Height hm Mobile Station height d Le a Distance between both antennas Correction factor Mobile antenna height correction factor http://dinendran.a log h . a.Okumura-Hata Model L = a + a log f .com/ 69 . a.Le a.

k3 = mobile antenna height factor. Model is valid for freqencies between 150 MHz and 2 GHz. k6 = okumara hata type mutiplying factor for log(Heff) log(d). d = distance betn base station and mobile stations ( kms) Hms = Height of mobile station from ground.( height and separation is also included).com/ 70 . diff = Diffraction loss. k4 = okumara hata multiplying factor for Hms k5 = effective antenna height gain.) Standard Macro Cell model is based on Okumara – Hata Model. Heff = efefctive base station antenna height.Standard Macro Cell Model ( Used By Asset. Prx = Ptx – Ploss Ploss = k1 + k2log(d) + k3 ( Hms) + k4 log( Hms) + k5 log( Heff)+ k6 log( Heff) log(d) + k7 diff+ C_ Loss. The addition is inclusion of clutter And height.wordpress. C_ loss = Clutter loss. k7 = Diffraction. http://dinendran. k1 & k2 = intercept and slope.

Mean Error. S. so CW measurement help you produce an accurate prediction model that functions correctly.com/ 71 .D < 8 – very good.D and mean error to zero.D < 10 acceptable. • Filter the data • Analysis of data .D < 8 and mean error tending to ZERO. • The S. http://dinendran. • Tune the values of K1 – K7 to get S. • Fine tune the values of clutter offset to get the final value of S.wordpress.Model Tuning While calibrating the model we need to compare it with propagation data. S.D.

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TOOLs Used • Planning Tool . http://dinendran.com/ 73 . • PMS – Matrica.Asset from Aircom International UK.wordpress. • Analysis – FICS for Tems and Probe for Neptune. • Frequency Planning – ILSA from Aircom • Drive test Tool – Tems from Erricssion and Neptune from Aircom.

is conducted before installing a site to consider following aspects • Location meeting the search-ring requirements • Space for antennas • Antenna Separations • Obstacles Nearby • Space for Radio Equipment • Power supply / Back-up • Transmission link • Coverage area study • Contract with the owner • Drive Test Surveys .wordpress.conducted regularly • To ensure the health and proper functioning of the Network and its elements • To detect Interference areas • To meet the Subscribers need • To provide better coverage • To solve Quality problems http://dinendran.com/ 74 .SURVEYS Types of surveys • Site Selection Surveys .

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