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Estimation of Power Characteristics of a Semi Planing Ship

Estimation of Power Characteristics of a Semi Planing Ship

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Defence ScienceJournal, Vo142, No 1,January 1992,pp.

13-2: @1992, DESIDOC

R.K.

Rana,

K.A.

Damodaran Madras-600 036

Dept of Aerospace Engineering,

Indian Institute of Technology, and H.S. Kang

Directo.rate of Systems (Engg), Naval HQrs, New Delhi-IIO

001

ABSTRACT
High speed ships, especially with planing or semi-planing type of hull forms are popular amongst navies of the world. Appropriate propulsion plant configuration has to be selected to provide the desired maximum speed and quick responses. Dynamic response of the ship's propulsion plant is one of the main considerations in selection procedure. Accuracy of dynamic response obtained from computer simulation characteristics. depends on the accuracy of data, especially the hull resistance and propeller , characteristics trial data. of the ship

This paper discusses the estimation of hull resistance and propeller with the help of computer programs and'their comparison with full-scale

NOMENCLATURE
B Bpr Bref CB Cp Cv CF C( Cwp Cm Fnv J kt kq PID S T V w

p !:1 \;7 'f ..1. v 11R

dead-rise angle displacement volumetric Froude number trim angle wetted length to beam ratio kinematic viscosity relative rotative efficiency

maximum molded breadth maximum beam at the chine breadth at reference section block coefficient prismatic coefficient viscous coefficient friction coefficient for corrected displacement Schoenherr friction coefficient waterplane area coefficient midship section coefficient volumetric displacement Froude number advance coefficient propeller thrust coefficient propeller torque coefficient propeller pitch to diameter ratio wetted surface area mean draft speed of the ship wake fraction
199(!. revised 16 April 1991

I. INTRODUCTION The use of high speed ships, of late, has been gaiuing popularity amongst most of the navies allover the world. Generally hull forms of these ships are chosen to get the desired speed and sea-keeping characteristics depending on the operating area. Though the high speed round bilge displacement type of hull forms are also being considered1.2 the planing or semi-planing type of hull forms have an edge over them in terms of maximum speed. Their sea-keeping performance is also quite comparable to that of the conventional hull forms J.

Received 5 December

13

DEF SCI J. Theoretical analysis requires a sound knowledge of the equations governing the hull resistance and solving them with the help of computers. (iv) resistance prediction from systematic series data. No. If the hull form and the propellers are fixed. predictions of resistance characteristics can be made.6364 7.5 62 and 65. This technique will help in predicting such responses and the evaluation of the control systent provided the hull resistance and propeller characteristics are known accurately. The formulation of the governing equations.40418 0. the present study was conducted based on statistically analysed data and comparing them with the data obtained from full-scale ship trials. given the hull parameters. there is very little room left for making changes in them to improve the dynamic response of the ship. planing. 2. JANUARY 1992 Proper selection of an appropriate propulsion plant configuration to meet the desired maximum sp-eedand quick responses to the given speed demand is a difficult task. To ensure the dynamic response of the ship's p~opulsion plant is better than or at least equal to that °'the already existing propulsion plant configuration. The ship considered here has a semi-planing type hull and is propelled by gas turbines driving two shafts having a fixed pitch propeller . 2. In advanced countries various agencies have their own systematic series for each type of hull.7127 0. displacement. Thus. semi-displacement. of have the Ship the ship for which resistance in been estimated are shown Table I. Particulars of hull resistance characteristics Parameter Value Type ofhuIl Lppl Brer BrerlT SI 'V 2/:1 CB Cp C-p Cm Pmidm.1 Particulars.5544 0.The existing facilities are not adequate enough in terms of maximum speed that could be achieved and accuracy of the results. However. full-scale trials present their own set of difficulties. ctc from full-scale trials since the 'scale effects' are not present. Model testing could be carried out provided such facilities exist within the country . Some of the known high speed series are : planing type series4.1. their computations and validation of the results is quite demanding and time consuming. This paper discusses the estimation of ship's resistance and propeller characteristics with the help of computer programs developed and compares the results with those obtained from full-sca1e trials. and high displacement length ratio trawler series8. VOL 42. etc. Multiple regression analysis is then performed on the database and empirical relations developed. This is generally the case when one is considering the possibility of fitting the ship with a different propulsion plant configuration from the existing one. There is an advantage in measuring resistance. Prediction of resistance characteristics is also carried out from the systematic series data of a particular type of ship. Such a systematic series data for the type of vessel under consideration IS not available at present in India. PREDICTION OF RESIST ANCE CHARACTERISTICS Various methods generally available to determine the resistance characteristics of the ship are: (i) theoretical analysis. They have carried out the regression analysis . Statistical analysis requires a large database from model tests and full-scale ship trials. high speed displacement forms series664.p P'ran50m form Hard c~inc 4. one has to resort to ship simulation technique.7181 0. since the environment in which the ship is being tested is uncontrolled. high speed round bottom boats series7 63. viz.2 Resistance Prediction by Holtrop's Method A statistically analysed resistance prediction method has been proposed by Holtrop9 and Holtrop and MenenlO. (ii) model testing of hull and propeller.853 4. In view of the above. 14 Accuracy of this prediction will be dependant on the closeness of the hull under consideration to the mean value in normal distribution of the database. and (v) full-scale trials of the ship.5628 15deg 4deg 2.of Particulars characteristics Table 1. (iii) statistical analysis.

000i64} iv Resistance in the planing regime can be calculated with the help of the following RT= ~tanT+O. which includes 118 separate hull forms.B. equation x Cf/COSTCOSP (7) The Schoenherr friction coefficient Ctc?rresponds to a Reynolds number. ship's resistance can be predicted b.of the hull. A generalised computer program has been developed to do the number crunching and iterations making use of the large number of formulae given. wave.0 in steps of 0. the characteristics of a given propeller can be determined by one of the four methods: (i) model testing.v (CF + CA) - (6) where (Rri~)corr is the corrected value of Rri~.The logical/numerical errors in the program developed were corrected with the help of test input and output data9.000 Ibs is seawater. In the pre-planing regime they reported regression artalysis carried out by Mercier and Savitskyl2of the smooth water resistance data of seven transom stern hull series. (ii) theo15 . appendages. These empirical relations/formulae are quite exhaustive aI\d take care of differrent types of hull shapes. The resistance prediction equation derived from the resistance data of the above mentioned 118 models. For ships having any other displacement the resistance calculated from the earlier equation can be corrected as per the following relation.+ A1S W 2 + A8XW + Al8XW + A9ZU + AIOZW 2 2 + Al9ZX (5) + A24UW2 + A27WU2 Values of the 14 terms corresponding to F "V varying between 1. its appendages. etc are known. Empirical relations have thus been developed by them for calculation of various elements of the total resistance of the ship. The range of geometric characteristics for all the seven series has been summarized and given in the form of table". RTI ~= Al + A2X+ A4U+ AsW+ A6XZ + A7XU . bulbous bow. transom and model ship correlation resistance. (Rri ~)100.5pV2). If the geometrical details are available. VI. Once the geometrical details. PREDICTION .!XKJ is the Schoenherr friction coefficient corresponding to Reynold number and is given by C/100. Total resistance is a combination of frictional.000 = (Fn~ (LWL('V1/3}.\x '4) 3.bulbous bow.(XX) + (S/V2/3) F.3 Resistance Prediction by Savitsky and Brown's method Savitsky and Brownll have given a resistance prediction method for the planing type of hulls for pre-planing and planing regimes separately.RANA et 8/ : POWERING CHARACfERtSTICS OF A SEMI-PLANING SHIP based on the results of tests on more than 300 models and full-scale test data.V(32. The values of the 14 terms in the resistance prediction equation given are applicable for a 100.!XKJ the value of RT/ ~ for ~ (100. is based on the following four parameters.ased on these relations. RN = i.CHARACTERISTICS OF PROPELLER The original equation had 27 terms out of which the lesser significant were eliminated to arrive at Eqn (5) which gave a reasonable fit.B".aRpendages.' A computer various equations The and calculating program iteratively numerical/logical has been lift made to solve for the zero x= 'WL for predicting pre-planing coefficient errors resistance z u v IBpx V2~ (3) dead-rise. These have been implemented on a computer.1 are also given 11.1XXJ = (1/2) (RT / ~)100. This program has been written in Turbo C language and can be used on an ordinary PC A T .2 X 1()(). and CF100. developed and output in the program were corrected with the help of test input data by Savitsky and Brown II w = AT/. 2. (RT / ~)corr CF ] lOO. from Eqn (5».0 to 2. Terms for all values of F" V may not be necessaryalways because each ship may move into planing regime at a different value of F"V. etc. 000 Ibs displacement ship only.

..45. I I I . ~ .~ -+ ~ .~ ~ 0.-0 SSPA PROPEltER GAWN PROPEllER GAWN & BUQRlll PROPLLLER WAGEN!NGEN B SERIES PROPEllER ~ 0. which is mainly used for merchant ~ I I I -' I SSPA +++-+-+ (jAWN Got+t..14 .0::r ~I I " . JI I " I .1."" I I I I J I "" -: .BURRILL PROPELLER B SERIES PROPELLE~ . Theoretical prediction is possible.o GAWN -~WAGENINGEN I' I' I I I I I I PROPELLER ~I I I . 01 TTTt-"rrr'"' . 0.8 1.1.I. whose open water characteristics ( kq. kt' vsJ). The relationship between thrust cgefficient coefficient of propellers. t ~-.1. and (iv) full-scale trials of the ship. ~ 0.1.. SSPA series.. .. 20t z ~ u ~ 0 u -« ~ ~ .1""... No.6... :t 0. The torque and thrust characteristics of the four propeller series are plotted for a particular PI D ratio in Figs 1 and 2... (iii) matching with the known series data.0 ADVANCE COEFFI(lENT Figure I. I. 1.- .2 [ JI I 0.0 0. O u 1~ 0. . PROPELLER i . Gawn series. Thus equations were obtained for thrust and torque coefficients as functions of advance coefficient and propeller pitch (P) to diameter (D) ratio so that for a particular propeller. i I I I I I I 1 I I : I . COEFFICIENT The relationship between torque coefficient coefficient of propellers. I . . I ---i-~ : I +I I .2 1. The third alternative (used in this study) is to try and match the given propeller with other well-known series by comparing their geometrical features.05 . pld = 1..81z ..DEF sa J. : .6 ADVANCE Ttr t2 ~rrrTf-r' 11.. 0.1. and Wageningen B series. Model testing requires a suitable tank and a cavitation tunnel in order to determine the characteristics of tlle model propeller over the complete operating range which is time consuming and very expensive. but some input is still required from the model tests13.-fTT. : I . 1. I I I I I I I ..I I I I I I I I I I' J I The four propellers namely. kq and kt values can be calculated for any value of J and PI D ratio. JANUARY 1992 retical analysis.45. 0. t .10 o 1- [ t 0 ~'igure 2. available in the form of graphs were picked up from the literature. VOL 42..8 . They were then expressed as third degree polynomial curves. p/d = 1.~~. 1. Gawn and Burrill series. I I I 1.3 blades and advance 16 .25 1-0. All of them exhibit similar characteristics except the B series.. 3 blades and advance 0..".15 ~ ~ ' ~ ---.6 0.6 0.C I .2 ~ jI I 0. ~ 3: 1- T-~---~-1 I I I + 0. One to one geometrical similarity was not found between the given propeller and those generally used for high speed crafts1S-20.

But in actual practice all The last technique available is to conduct full-scale trials.1 1.2 I 1. The relationship between torque coefficient and advance coefficient of Gawn & Burrill propeUer. can be statistically predicted.-+I~ --J.2 u" 0. O has given a generalised formula parameters for a twin screw arrangement w = 0.6 0..} "" N 0 0..1. I I -I -=-~~~ ~ I I I ::g ~ J:~5 (AV NO = 0. A program was written for the interpolation of these characteristics for PI D = 1. :.1 1.3 (AVNO= (AVNO=2..0 1.3 = 2 0 = 1 5 = 1 .50 --- .: u. These have been used for the powering predictions in this paper .I 0.50 ton => 0= ~ 0 2. digitised for PI D ratios of 1... "... To predict the powering characteristics Holtropl() in this study these factors have sources.1.. The results are shown in Figs 3 and 4. (AV (AV (AV (AV 1. wake fraction. O u ~ O 40 1 : ..9 1. PROPULSIVE FACTORS propellers used for high speed crafts are generally cavitating types especially in the higher speed range .3 ".. thrust deduction fraction and the relative rotative efficiency. O u ~ I '.0 = 0.8 0.45.~~ .. 1.0 .3095 CB + 10 Cy CB -0.8 0. The author~ had access only characteristics of Gawn and Burrill 6 different cavitation numbers.23 D/VBT 6° ~ tz . 1. However.6 0.5 0. ---!.. p/d = 1. TRIAL 1 No No No No No No = 6... ~ I : -!--~ I (AV NO = 6..7 0.. --. Later this can be modified suitably based on the full scale trials on the ship or model testing of the propeller . " I I : I --.I""i"I"""". 7 ~ ..3 1.j 1. .2 1.. pld = 1.4 and to the open water series propellers for These curves were 1. torque and rpm of the propeller shaft and conducting trials on it to derive the partial or complete open water charateristics.0.7 04 0. U. This requires a ship adequately instrumented for measuring thrust.5 0.- 0. I '--~ ~: DATA --.45. This implies that characteristics of anyone of them can be considered for initial powering calculations.--(AV -(AV ---....I.9 1.75 = 0.. The relationship between thrust coefficient and advance coemcient of Gawn and Burrill propeller.10 ADVANCE COEFFICIENT Figure 4.5 ~ I ..6 and stored in the Propulsive factors of the ship namely..0 1. for these : (8) been taken from two different program as a look-up table. 4.45.. conditions this is true only under non-cavitating of the propeller.4 o~ ~1""""I""""I""".RANA et aJ : POWERING CHARAcrER1STICS OF A SEMI-PLANING SHIP ships.4 ADVAN(E (OEFFIOENT Figure 3.8 :) d a: ~ +-..6 ~ )( ~ z .

9737 + 0. 1. Blount and Fox21 have presented similar data in a graphical fonD showing their variations with Froude number based on volumetric displacement specifically for planing vessels..111 (CP-0.D Volumetric -.j 3.. ship's speed over the ground and Pl)sition (decca trisponder).1. 1. 5. The ship was equiped to measure propeller shaft torque (torsionometer) and speed (shaft speed tachometer). The water vapour pressure was determined at sea water temperature recorded during trials.2251cb) -10.0 Number . 2.DEF SCI J. 6 with respect to cavitation number. The vilpour pressure of fresh distilled water is very small at thc average temperature of sea water. The source for these data has once again been the large number of model and full-scale experimental data for a twin screw craft.5 I 4. Current was estimated by allowing the ship to drift for five seconds at the trial ~ite just before the commencement of the trials.1 Propeller Characteristics '7R = 0.25 psi absolute and is also very sensitive to temperature. Percentage difference in the values of the torque coefficient determined from Gawn and Burrill series and those evaluated from trials data at the same cavitation number alld advance coefficient werc calculated.I.. FULL-SCALE TRIALS made for the hull and To compare the predictions propeller characteristics.. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 6. and wind speed and direction (anemometer) with the help of a computer-based data acquisition system. The graphs are shown in Fig.... But sea water contains much dissolved and cntraineG air and many minute nuclei oiother kinds which encourage Upper Mean and lower value of limi ts of Exp~rim~ntol Data' Dot a Experjm~ntal I. Although it is usual to assume that the cavitation will occur when the pressure has fallen to the vapour pressure of)Vater . VOL 42. the torque coefficients were determined. this view is too optimistic.. JANUARY 1992 t = 0..325 CB -0. full-scale trial of the ship was carried out.I. 2.I.I.5 Froude Twin-screw . 18 . These valucs havc been plottcd in Fig. Density of sea water at trial ~ite was measured and was used for determining torque coefficients.1885 D I VBT" (9) 6. only some 0.06325 PID (10) Fromthe propeller shaft torque values recorded for various steady ship's speed during full-scale trial. propulsive data. 5.0 . No. The perccntage difference is increasing with cavitation number and could be attributed to the following reason22.5 .0 Figure 5. 3.

20 .. ' I ' I IIi 9 40: ~ .SO . which clearly indicates the nonlinear relationship between these two parameters. I I 2.0 I ~ So....S SPEED 60 (%1 by Holtrop's 80 100 Figure 7. The difference between the two becomes larger at higher speeds of the ship. . Comparison of trial data with estimated data earlier formation of cavities or bubbles and cavitation may occur at local pressures a.. I I . :J: o 0. Figure 8 is an actual plot of the propeller rpm versus ship's speed. 60 III III III I 1 I iI III III . a good agreement between the trial results and predicted power upto 40 per cent of the maximum speed of the vessel.shigh as 2. I I It. I I III I I I III I --1III . It. .. I III I I 3.c x VI 0 20 40 SHlp. i5 I .~~.~ I I I I I I ~--~-.Resistancedata was obtained from Holtrop9. I I I I 1 j . .0 1.. ~ ... I I .5 I I I III ---i I I I ' I I I I II I ...5 1. I . of predicted power method and 19 . superimposed in this figure.. I . This implies that the propeller thrust break down would occur at higher cavitation numbers.2 Holtrop's Method Figure 7 shows the shaft horsepower for different speeds of the ship calculated using Gawn and Burrill cavitating propeller characteristics. I I I I I 1 I I I I 5.: . I .. 1 6. This would lead to lower torque coefficient at the same advance coefficient and cavitation number compared to that evaluated from the series data... (a) The relationship between propeller rpm and ship's speed has been considered to be linear through out the operating range of the ship in the above powering prediction program. ---.: 0 I I 1. ~ . ~.0 1..z . III 1 1 I I 2. I III III ---.5 psi. There appears.--III I I I . I I I ---i--:i-1 I I I ' I I I I I I I .0 1. . 1. ~ a: 30. I I . and hence the shaft torque values measured during trials would be less than what they should be... I III I ' I I I I I I l I I 3.I I I I ~ c. VI 0: O X 100 ~ -~ . I CAVITATION NUHBER Figure 6. The trial data has also been 1S0 ~ ~ . ~ d III ii III I --. vessel's semi-planing type and the propellers are highly cavitating.. --. . in general. This may be attributed to the. This can be attributed to the following two reasons.5 1.RANA et al : POWERING CHARACfERIS11CS OF A SEMI-PLANING SHIP .III 4 III III III I I 1. Ci ii: .O 1. t I I I I .II I I I I I 0.5 1.5 1...' I III .I ---. Comparison trial data.

(c) The values of the propulsive factors are taken from Blounf and FOX21. I I I I I I . (b) Holtrop's paper does not specify the range of applicability of the empirical relations in terms of geometrical parameters of the hull. 150.which are again the mean taken from a large number of planing craft model test data.1. theoretically derived hull resistance equations have been used. (b) In the planing regime. ~ .DEF SCI J. which presumably contain large number of planing hulls. Various graphs have been given by Savitsky and Brown 11to confirm applicability of the Eqn (5) to the hull form under consideration. No. power by Savitsky & Brown 20 .7 . I I I I I I .---i I I 60 SPEED 1.S := -~:~~~~ici ~P~~~R. !I I I I I JA I ' IA I I I '. I 1- 50- ~ 1- r.3 Savitsky and Brown's Method It may be observed from Fig.I i' .within the range covered by the models.j 80 100 Figure 9. i100 . I r I r- . There can be many reasons for this : (a) The database from which the 14 terms have been evaluated are specifically for high speed transom stern hull series. VOL 42. 9 that the resistance estimated making use of Savitsky and Brown's method compares well with that obtained from the trials. certain differences between the predicted and trial data can be observed from Fig.0 SHlp. However. JANUARY 1992 Figun 8. It appears that these empiriCal relations would be more applicable for a displacement type of a vessel as seen from Fig. Comparison or predicted methOO and trial data.I. ( d) Geometric characteristics of the hull under" consideration fall very well. 9 which may be e:xplained as fo!lows: ~ . Trial data showingnlation between propeIlorrpm and ship'sspeed.values 6. I I I 20 ~ I I' I 1.

New craft. E. Comparison between full scale trial results with predicted data regarding ship's resistance observed to be satisfactory.\" Joumal. S. Naval Ellgilleers 3. 2. But as mentioned in Section 2. " 0.52-62. I o no . S. REFERENCES I. prediction 1987. One is specifically resistance the second could of a systematic series of planing since the resistance 21 .267 and 2. ~ . resistance prediction equation used is valid only in the Fnll range of 1. & Sheldon.f .s propeiler under consideration is cambered.99(2). I I I ---: .lo and trial data.0 Holtrop's method can be used for predicting power required even for a semi-planing ship. 1963.0 and 2.28. performance a ship planing by two different for predicting whereas hull. Such a propeller will have better cavitation characteristicsl7 and hence higher propeller efficiency when operating at lower cavitation numbers. & Blount.71. Na~'al Ellgilleer.0.- SHrp 150 ~ .491-561. and parameterics studies for high speed displacement hulls.RANA et aJ : POWERING CHARAcrERISTICS OF A SEMI-PLANING . 4. The most predominant discontinuity occurs at approximately 50 per cent of maximum ship's speed probably due to (i) semi-planing and planing type of vessel exhibit a hump in their power vs speed curve.e less. . The evolution Naval of round E. Figure 10 gives a plot of ship's speed vs power . 97(2). (b) The trial data shows discontinuities in the recorded power vs speed curve. 0. -'"-TRIAL DATA :t::: PREDICTED -REF 9. 99(2).S SPEED (8fol Figure 10.3.234-47. 19R5. tests Trans. . measured power and power predicted by Holtrop's method. Comparison Holtrop of predicted power by Savitsky and Brown'( method9.. C. Fullg. P. ~ ~ VI ~ iti 'I : I 1. methods. Resistance Joumal.0 ~ . R.64-80. SNAME.1he shaft power required to propel the ship will be less and hence the difference in predicted power and trial data will becom. attack A. .the propeller the manuscript. and (ii) there is a changeover from two-engine configuration to four-engine configuration with a resultant difference in the transmission losses. by he-r in digitising and typing .lgilleers bilge fast craft hull forms. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to convey their thanks and data appreciation entry to Mrs Anila Rana for the help rendered characteristics. ?4 .. Clement. generation P. Resistance hull forms. Toby. A. used only packages resistances characteristics good type of hulls. L. {a) The Gawn and Burrill propeller is a flat faced one. . of high J. whereas the ship. D. JOIlS.. CONCLUSION Software computing geometrical displ(lcement ht.< 1. 10 :-PREDICTED:REF 11 I 60 I 80 .SO~ ..1 ~ I I : : ~ 0 I ~ 20 100 SHlp. and Savitsky and Brown's methods. I --.-. I . Journal. I I . 7. It is expected that when the actual propeller data is used... for a planing have of been developed from the for known for prediction equations have been developed b'ased on the database of the transom stern high speed ship only. (c) The trial data covers a speed range of 10-90 per cent of maximum ship's speed which corresponds to FnIl between 0. .. From this figure it can be seen that for Fnv.. 19R7. VI a: o ~ a: ~100~ ~.. Koelbel.

8 7. C. Hubble. Y.29. Progress. SNAME. Model tests with a family of three and five bladed propellers. Nevett. length ratio . J. JANUARY 1992 Hadler. E. SNAME and. w. 1978. 7 16 of Technology. Effect of cavitation on the performance of a series of 16-inch model propellers.31. SNAME. S. E. S. 381-400 12 shear craft in the pre-planing range.. Marine Technology. A powering Shipbui[ding 19 method. P. RINA. M. J. Oosterveld. H. S. Society of N ayal Architects and Marine Engineers. 22 . 1957. 90. Resistance of 20. Marine Technology. R. Marine D. J. Comstock. Numerical 22.93-129. Internationa[ 166-70. Trans. A statistical reanalysis of resistance Shipbui[ding 9 and propulsion data. 1965. 1953.o[ogy. & Burrill. Series 64 : Resistance experiments on high speed displacement forms.218-53. Yeh. & Kerwin. E.103(2). N.. J. & Fox. Newton. L. 1984. 22. performance by Trans. P. . 9 May 1974. D. N. 13.690-728. 14 Kerwin. 13(1).272-76. 13(1). prediction J. H. Savitsky. Trans. 75. INA. & Lee. methods for propeller design and analysis in steady flow.INA. A new usable propeller series.-86. L. L. Puckette. Principles of naval architect. C. L.66 p. Trans. W. 1961. Procedures for evaluation of planing hulls in water. 21 Report No 1667. K. No. & Oossanen. (Ed).. Savitsky. performance. Hooken. P. 1982. Hubble. Internationa[ Progress.99. Stevens Institute bottom boats. F.949. 1976. Gawn. Trans. Marine Techno[ogy. w. 1961. & Menen. C. R. J. P. 1973. Lindren. v. E. USA. 14-45. International Shipbuilding Progress. R. Further computer analysed data of the Wageningen B-screw series.95.415-53. G. 251-62. J. Series 63: Round Report No. G. T.DEF SCI J. Stevens Institute of Techno[ogy. Performance data of propellers for high speed craft.trawler series. SSPA Report N'o. 1963. & Rader. H. M. The resistance of a high Ridgely SNAME. Trans. 26(3). 6. D. Greeley.2(3). VOL 42. Smith. Hcooken. Small craft power prediction. 173-91. 10. 1975. unsteady marine propeller numerical lifting surface theory. C. & 1976. Holtrop. 18 1967.. Techn.248-72. Gawn. w. 1989. 1982. Denny. Blount. and rough J. & Holling. D. transom & Brown. B. Prediction of steady Resistance characteristics Section. displacement Holtrop.47. S. ofa systematic series of Chesapeake 15 planing hull forms-series 65. N. H. hydrodynamic smooth Mercier. & Natarajan. H. D. R. D. B. Beys. A. L. Effect of pitch and blade width on propeller 1S7-93.

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