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Michael Mann - Sources of Social Power

Michael Mann - Sources of Social Power

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'The sources of social power

VOLUM.E n

The rise (If classesand n.at.ion-states,; l'OO~1!lI4

MI(:HAEL MANN i"rJ:vt:r~iJy fJj C¢iJo.rml'!, tm: ANgM~s

CAlVlB RID GE

UNIVERSITY PR._BSS

Contents

List oI.r,aD{e:s Prqar:e

ptl./Jt! vii iIx

rnnrl:rod urtioill 1

EroIiWlRlitC :illid ide oJog"w!l1 power ]',e:la tL\()fiCS, 23

AfueOiry of 'tile ImlOd:e!'lli stalle 44

'The IndustriiJd Re'i'olu:tkliJIalild old. n,,g,i_me. ,Jibe,1'~lis:m in

lJiitarin, 1760-188.01 92

The A.merican RevoJ!umiolil "(tel the i~MitjJ,IIi{);ffI;:!1'ie:ilition

of OQIlIfedefalcapJitgl]isl libenlisllll 131

TIle 'FJ¢m.:Jl Revo[iution ~Pd the b0111rgrcois ilaMOri. UN

CondlusJotliro,C!'I<lipters. 4~6: ,[h.eem.e[~e of cli('lSse8

and natiOi'l~ 214

Oei)lXI~itics .wd iDltem~rtl;!]I:M capitailis1'!1! 254

Stru~gle over GermaiJJJY: I. Pru,ssj" amd iliUW,Qrililii!(I1l

ruationaJl capitiliUsm 29;;1

Struggle ove;.u t'Je1imany:U. Au'&tnaaJlildiioofederal

reptesel'l1ta,t~,O!1 3·3'0

The rise or the modem staN~; LQu!mtiUIl't"'lll. dla:iJa 3513

The m.e of the mooern s;t:a.t~: R The flUlon.omyo,f

mi~it~H)' power4!OO; The .rise of the modem ~llitG; 111, Bultea:l!lor.atiKa'oon. 4M '[Ir!e me of the: modem smte: ]V. 'fne: ex:pa:nsi'O[l Q'f

civili.all scoplt 479

The rts:ifstille rrise Qf tile British working class,

1815-1881.'1' SHJI

"!'he itl1!idl:ll.e·~~ tlMi'on 546

e'!lss struggle in die SerondlndWltrial Revolluti,()!l;

1&80-1914; I. Grtiit Britain 59?'

Cla~ stlJlJUlein. Ute Se<ioml IlicIDslrial ReV'o!l.'wllon,. 183(1-1914: IT. C.o!l:lparai.We 3111i!1ysiIS (It wCl1kling<l~

movements 628

Ohass st~we in dll: Seeoed Indl[l~tl"ial. Revolut&on;

18BO-1914k 111. The [peasantry 692

Thoore~i~ oondusions': Olass,e.s. s1ates. I1atio.11S, and

the sources, of soeial poW'e1' 123

5

() 7

S 9

10

13 14

16 17

18

19

vi

21

Em:pi:rica[culmiination - over the l4.'1p; Gc:opoHt-··.;; , 'ita

suuggLle, and 'World War I . l<:., C ss

Appendix Add'i!:iQnaJillililes On state m:ilances 3!)d &ta;k

Gmploymen,t

81'9

3 A theory of the modern state

Chaph,r 1 di~1iing,lJ~h.es ,dii;arl~,. between military and politi.ca[ power. Vel. modem states seem to merge tile; ('l\'O, 5'rne~ tlrie-y formally mono!p~lize '!JiII~ il~ of m_tili.t:u), vWlence. This did mol;;md. 1.1fie :;mt,oMmy of mHitouy p(l"f';\~r o:rgiiJ'i,~tion, as, OUl!plers 12 and 2] make dealf, b'U'l j,t :r,erlir-eclGd! it th['ougt1 o:rglil~U:a'tio~s: tl'i,}Jl were fOITOially the stare's Hence this cilapl1e!!' treats millitilil)'j)li)Wll,l! within a broader clliSOIl'Ss:Uo!.1 off politic(!L] lKj,wlZ:l",

Lreview 'fJwe; >C1!lf.rent ~lieOlJ'ie-s G)if tile 8!HI~e, plus '!lit;: political OOI1l~flt:ll o~ MaN W.eb;;:!:'. I then procecdi!D tlinee s;~ge:s ill) my own dU::liJry. I begin WiUil an. "'illlstitlJtiomlil" deliiflition olf the sl;.iJ;te and seek. to' specify tile lRlI9lyinslit!JJti,onal Il:ntic.u.larilties ,of moil(Om stares. Then. I seekjo simp~ify ~bis c,omp;!,e-xity by mo-villlg to a '·:iu;m:ciio4:l1l1" I:lJiiallysijs, o.fferillg a po~}'mo!l"phol!s view ,of state r~lic~kms. I assert thM modem :sta:ieili "crystallized" (O't.'cr the ereacovered in this "'Q~Jl1ml\:} in sGl'l,ilem] prill· cipal ·OOr.tfl_j;. Re::!ipoo®diim.gro the other duee SO~.mDt::s of iSOOru powell', they crystruJized asca.pa.t.aJist, ,,$ mGrnl.~.dLe-o~.ogic.lI, and as militarilst. R..espondiiiJilg to $eir OWll 'polit:ical ~t[l.l;gi!l:les, they ,o[yst.31~i.z..;-d <'I!~. \".U'~abl.e pj)~j'lt~ on two continua, one "ntlpre:rell1itativ·e, ,. HII.npi:ng in t!lis period trolll aliltocr.a~i~ .m.onare.hlY io party de:mocuacy; die- olhcf' "~a:ti(iflai.," fll'(ti!U:I cellJ.tntbiled lIiHI.ti.(Ii1·s-l.ate iiI) a DoooeJy o(jlJilf~der<li~ regime. Mooli dilffl1.lliiely,~lilie:y also CJJI's!l<I!II.lzt::d a~ P.ilitIiaN't!!I~ .• reSill:ltiTl,g~!!'lid~["l.'ncl. flimiiy ]'·e;I.i!Jl~O(tl<S. Finanly, 1 discuss wtli:~tl!er W>C can dt~~Gt [\¢.~~~ion:;: o'r hiel'ardbry iOIi!'l1,iJlfi,g these, so Ullait one ormo!l',e crystalli~ri(Jim. may ·~lltjliCIial!.ely d.ete!i~iIle t!he overa]] cl~aJl'actei.' of the: stare,

Ei'i!;16l th.m.r,ies ~ iiu: SW.'!.II:

It ha-$ become commOlIl .!.@ distim:grusa~ three theories, of the :M~te :d~ilS. p~i1rai:ist. and elitist {somel:tm.es ClIl1edl staltis-m or rnan~eriali:s'ID} (AltD!r.d al~(i Fried!la'l1i;1, 1985}, Bee:U.l;ss~liti&·m. is Similar tOI il'ie.lIJ:i.:;til'il'~er.limti(lM.l. 'r·e·!atrom; I:hecu:y., ] disClIlSl: tihr; '~!MO. tGgCn:her _ But [ dih'hle el'iH:I:ue-Qr:i-es into tW{), each wid! ,11 di~~in.ct. v.iew of S~~le 3utOI'l'M1Y. I call these two "true ,e.Vuri§11 " · and. ·'im;tlt·i)Jtional~tali$m." ~ aliso add a ru:t~I theQJ)'.; implied Ib-y many empiric<l1 stl!JdliJ~., whi.ii:h I label (lr;c,k-1Jlfp Qrbl.d-'\I!p, theory .. 1 borrow from al!I fi",e . especially from illUItitl!itiona~ statism,

Mii)St class the-or~es.6Jalive been M!lJrxist. M:1I,]'){ tended to redaee st~tes to. ~lJono!J]'JjiJ;: power Je:I<I!tions. Smrr,e;s, .1I]j.t: nllR,du(l@fll foil" :mode~ of

44

1

, .

4!S

46 The rise of classes and nil1I:Lo'llJ-titates I' .. the '''Mi!ibiibrtd-Pol.llant.::lI!s diel)<I!le" as be-i:~!,l; a s:i,gllil'ioCiU'IJ oonitr(lv,el'sy iftl. I, :., stare theQf)..,a:s theie ~leJbale was over :slid'!! .:!L nllr.mW acea when viewedJ ft{!;m the perspecdves of lIIi!. 'oWer tb.eQyi.e5.Ei~her way tile state ih~l.ps 1 accumulate ClIp:i'ti!l.~ and :N~.gula.te: class :stnJ!gg~e, 'Sometimes even repress- " ing ;;;;;aptrni!ll1s15 "'blose £c!:JtiQmJal iiO.'!.e-rest5 fril'Sitll':ilit(;; the i:[I)~[les['!: of (~pit;11

ill -gealer.ru [there arcm.<lny disp!;i'~l!.tjml'£ O!'l !l"l.!IchPQi!lllt~; fur reviews, see

1 es-50P 1917, 198i). These fimctioll1ls • roqui[llOdI" iii vast ¢ . p3nsim:1i of

. '[' ~

what AJUllll:&>·e-t (1971; 123 -73), l.el'm.ed ~'rep:ressiv<e, 311ild ideo. ogical

8'UU.e apparatuses" ~ p('l'~ce, weJtElre ag' .. ncies:" 'OOlDc-31ion, mass m(:~Ha, and the like. TIle state is not an actor, b'!t :II plaoe where classes i and ctass "fractiom'" Qr ·'~eglll.elilt.s" (Zeitlill 19M1·, 19M) org."I!llize" i

ActuaL1y, slates are both pb~ aru:l actor. <~

. ~ ~~

CIlass ~hoo['is,ts who r·e:!ail1! more oplimis~u ,~nq)ha.si7£ that caph~'h,i:sm .,

stU! conrains ·c·t)ltl(r;:u:ltictiQ~~ and efass 'strl!J,gg~e, wbicfu is p{lt]rrtidt.ed and !;~.'".; displaced oato the ;state as the "fisca~ ",risi~s of 'I!he, stlllli:e'" (O'CoDllor

[913). "~egitimatkm crisas" ,(HaOem1!3S 1976), or "crisis managcmelilJti't ()ff:e 1972. '1974,; Offe and llonge 1'9&2). O'l'i'e dj;stin<Cljvl':~Y 3.CC{!:P'~ that

.th.e. slate .h3l5 also beeome all] actor, le dit'ig to a eom:mt!~cHol'I. between

ilS, OWl! i!l1StitutiDnal ilit.¢restsin oompJi'{)<;[l!liimg. class $~ruule tltl'Oll;gh .~

d,tv·eloping welfare progra:l11iS!!iild the dYIll.am'itt: of calP'iiQ.list :!IiC'Cumulil- ti

tioD. Wiliicib OOlldlll1al~y seeks 110 ~l!Ibv'crr~ this sl'id reduce stare expsndi- ~

tU!re. (:1,,85 theory has also ge~ulratGI!'I. ~Il ,e:mpiri.cist tadicll[scnoo!, "

~ooci,ali:ed especiaily WiitlJru C. Wri8ht Millis (1956) St'!l!dI DO'lllill.off {EllS, ~

1'900)., who see state-s as ll::;s:) u[1;i'licOi, .composed of div,ersl;:· iI~8~rhldii)9~

O.1I11d b!raIDIche-s COl.Orilll·ed by pq):wer c'lites !lind e-111~. 'fractitms,. ApIU"l from tL'lese .radicals., mQU d.iI~.t111>OOt~S'!$ t[\~:ait I!I~ iStilteas pas,stve and unitary: It IS la.:rgeiy. tlje central pollirticized place 01 caiPita!i~l SQ.dery, Shtle-s,oci.ety ]'eil~tio'Ill> :I0DTII a :s:ing[e s)'tle:m:. The state, ,p.t the eemer of

a "':S(!cbl fOrpJ;Ol.tiou" defi.D'I'"'~. by its m.ocl.es of eoo,DI)[mie prodaetion, reproduces tlldr ooh.esioll and theiir s-yste:mic: ooilJUadi.ctio!1s. The :J1H.OOerfb Wesbe~Dl state, tilus, 1iI0!!~, ilj) Ute ilas~iinsl;;m;c,e, been delDned by

a single ocry,s,tfliUzatillJlliJ, 01$ capitawt..

Urilite c!a.<liS 'Ilbte>ory, whkliL :seeik.slo e::l::p!.i:lii!lil all Slates, ph,II'aIiSl ·tlhwl')' dai:rns ito explaia ,of;~Ij' modern de:m.ocr ... tmc oaes, :P1urailism is liberal ·(jem1iorcra.cy·s (especially Amerieen de:m.ocracy's) v.iew of i.tself. Madernl'l""t~otl shilted p().ii.tical power "from ki.n,gs ro p~pae" {a.s Belldiilx'g. 1'97'8 title si.lgg·e..sts). Dahl noted that this c'{)nsis.ted of two processes: (1) t11>!l: c.metrgenc,e; of institul:ioDlI.I,1;Zed "·(;om.es'latim,'· between parties arndl pre~s!il[,.f; ~I"O'ups, rep'reli;'C.:I1!I.~Dg a pim:caliri:y 0\1' interest groups .in ~oci.e.i}· .md (2) tile wid.'!!:niDlgs.OI,;(!lpe of '·'j)i3Jr:ti.c.ip:!ItiOlu" b)' the: peopk~ in ~hi:s 'Cii)'l1i(,es,t8tiOti. 'Coml;i~ned •. OiJilltes,ta;.tIOlll and participation gencn.te genuil;i~r.temocracy (wblch Dah] calls "poiyilttby"}. S,in~, il . DaW observe:;, conrestatiou appea[1::~. eady iiI the West,. ..... .. hik p@!I'-

Bj' contrasr, writers illl UiOC' thl.rd school, "eUtists" or "statlsts,' mClm ,0111 amDI]OmOIJJ.:S [po'W,e'n iPoss:essed hy~:fure :starre. YeJ they coneain t'WlO q]uxte diUeTerrt Yiew~. (joE aU'l'OIiI.muy that need di;s~i!J;)glllisJliirilg. Thees WQuLd be :no point il')! my dIDstinglil~shi:llIgI'QAitic:al .p(>l1o'e.r es the fOiCtrth scmt'Ce of SlOci~1 pO'YI'er ·l,I.n~ess one 'liJJi Ibo~h oil t.hes.e 'possessed ro.flsider .. able i..mth .• A]I:]JO'ugh bot~ cGO:rtaJ:u some trutlil. 'Q!fJf:cont:rins much ..

E:Ji~e U"leoiry llist flolllr.j. .. hed ar the l;li:lgirawDlg. rl).fj]lIaOl IWoe.ntiel.n cellrt!il:ry.

Opll'e!l1ilei.mer (197:5) elnpru-sizedi ~he i(u::rea:.slng po ..... ers througb ,bi5~ li~ry of the "political elass." Mosca. (1939) I~ted poUiltic<lJlpG)l;~ 11'1 ,oflratr,ali.zecil 'O:r.I!l<LiiWltion. A cemt!l'~lized, .0 rgamt:d , and ''Ohesive mlllor.uty w.ill always dlefeat and oCl{J]Jl:rfJill ~"Le ,rn~sor~nwed tn;(l.S.Ses, he 'CO!T:~!1y 8rgl!lled .. Yet Mos;ca and P.'areto em .. ~hasizod i:.ftIal:th¢ power of pomiticaa. elites Qriginated ,ebewnere, in -civil ,society, amid. 15 Iil!ve~tillalJy V1\.I:Jraerab!e to ne:w OCluot,~rehtes a;r;sun.g therefrom. CQntroE over Other rescurees (eeenomje, idlc>elllogtcal.,or .mi~il<lZY) cnab:leodl rising eli'te.s 10 overthrow the fadi!:llJll .po;]Jtical. elite:md Qrg~lljze tllei! C'W" power ill stat·e. .imstitutiol!ls. Thus· c~JlQs5Jcal elit~st::;. saw poJitical power as I!I! dyra<iimic r-elalioo b,i!"tJ.V2el'i the S1!at.~ .amiJ~ ci.vi:1 $olOielly - Olllild tbis i~ iJljAJGe-d correct.

Y'eol., 8boutt 1'9.130, OOC10!o.gi.I;;n:1 .~.l~efHion concentrared 0'0 Qenuailized state pewers. Tb.edil Skocp6l (]979: 21, 29-::m:. d. 19S5} ol~'.f1necl. tfu:1l: stl!l!r.e as "a set of adminis;U'ati"'Ili, poDtci1llig, and l"riIiIIita:rry o'l'gaob:,aliolits headed ;1!:liId more or less wel.1 oo:ol'dmatcdi by aill exoclLlli""e aJUl:ioo'l'ity •. _ an autonomous strllllCltl!.!:fe - a st~uctur~: wid'la logic an,d interests of its (lW.ll." SJue: wis,ned ~o correct '·'ooci.ety--oe'liIilc.md" p~tll:a]is~ ane! Mams,t Iboories, 1.I.;]!n a ".L5~ate~Cerltefed·' llJppmaclIl. Alilwt!~h. neither Slkm:p('Ii)1 nor her erities seem to have re"aH'tzed it, th~ rewarIba.c:lllally ool1ltaur.! two qlll.i ee diit'iere!jJ .... ersloas ofstat1e a1u:h:moil'l)', whi'l::.h l' t¢'Jn1 "true .e]itism" liUil~ "il'!1stitl.!;tij'Oflal stM:llsnI'l., ".

True, el'iimts etttphasiz:e the· dlil;trib1;!J~~v~' power Qf state elites over ooc:iety .. Thus states are seen as acto.t}J. ~oer (:1984: 224) l>Ul.tes: ~his natl)': '''l'lle state ~ ... n be treated: as alii ac~ur .in :its. 0''1'1'111. rigitii .. " Levi (1988:: 2-9') ·lIlsQ inl'l,ifits thOlit "rulers rule." She' sees stares as r.atio~3! .-ctOIO;.!. maximi'izill,f!: the'ir oW.in ,Pri"'<lflie' inl:ere:sts:, be!t!l;1omilllcg "predators" dltospoilitlg -civil ;8C)Ciety -.;a 'very American .... i0wpoin~ .. Kiser .. ltd Hecluet ~199:[) !la-v;: <lrnra:t1lr;;:ed :!II '''ralional cihoioe'" mooe] ohtate:s. that ass,urneS states are s~Qgne, ~nilll[Y, ra:liolMll aJ!.':tOi',s·. Poggi (l:9'9IJ: 9'7-91, :t2CJ-1). wl'lUe [evogl!l:izing that s:tat,e-s:mf:'e .a,n£o "':serviee~blle;' (i .. e., ~'.rvin~ pl.m[ll ante,r·es.ts) and "p-arris;:uf' (beneJll:ing &asses;), ~rgu.es ·!.hat states are ultl mat ely "i:~"'.i:I.:!l~'iI~.,"· [preoocw,pied with "their ,own'" dnt,~res'ts_ True e-itlil:ists if.l!,l',ert class and JPI.urali~Jt til:te:ory: OilStributi ... e po'I~ .. er naw p.rj. mariliy radiates QI.!'I'w.ardl from. rant iinward [0, the State.

Tru.e elite theorists, have one u;'e-mendotls, virt,ue. The, c:mphasi!ze,

49

ORe as:p¢c;:t of states 'em wIde,h a]1ilQ~E al[ clasSriLJul! plural:ist Vin'len: llaVe. bee,11 i,lle;tc.u:s<lb~t ~blellllt:: tinl~, Mates inhab'iit a. 'ilIor~dI of states aID:! fua1: sta~e~ "act' g;eoPQliticaUy (Shi;!w 19$4. 19B8 is!I.fI :ho.nol.1abl,e; ,excep1!:ioll to M::tr.dal1 silence, as ,:ue ~he ,r;u::llk:al,$ :MiUSi and IllonIDoff)- "fhe fe,w dass IJ'if.Qrists wn.{) diSC1!lss,nnterl!!atiallal I.'e;laoons ~Qndl to reduce them to modes ,ofproOd'udion, and classes eKliended i!!ll.o the. globe - the :m,Q.~t recel1t. su:cliJ analJilSiSi i)eing,wurMsystems, tbeory. By contrast, U],eQrism, inlflui1illQed by trus eUtisrn haye ,emphasked gWjXltlti.cs" WaF, allld war tinl'!!l£es (Giiddern '~9.as; Levi 19i18; Tilly :l.'~}.

Elii!iist,'i' are !i",ciororcedi by "J-ea]i~f' brt'e.fuatiolilul re,latlion!; ':he,orists.

Tholl~J'I li'tde :i!]te:r~tedl i:1!I tbeili!.'~4'!laI stJ!'U.ctlllrt: Qil" :SUites" realists see &1iat'C-i> as: uliliilt~Ij' [powe,r actors e~joying "sove.r'eignly" over their rerri'l:O.ri.es-"S~8tesmen"· are empowered to re.pre-~D~ illternatkmall.)" ,a.:..1'! ovef.:l!lI ''''ml!tiIJ'II!a]'' interest. But ,among, oov~iglii. S!:IUes there ilS M' hi.gne:'I"i!.l~O!1Jaltity or normetive sotidUfi(y" ooIyl:he eKe.fcIse o.f distd"bl.l,~ li"repowcf, !lOl!I!I!Ill;;-5'Sn~i, aru:l.anliiircl'iY (P.~, 1990: 23-5)- Thusfforei,gm polIDc:r is liH~de Iby :;;til.t~ ,aDd staresmen ayS'temalie:lII!1fy, "reaUsticall.y" puir5wng "theiJ" OWIlI,tI ~>opol~'~l :illlie['!at!Its; :iig,airu;l dlO~ of ,o~tiJ,e(' 8lt<J!l:e8 .. n", p!dmary iriIt~.!"est is sG(lIri~' -vigilml;t d.efl!m&e c;oupIedwiiillm mterminen~ aggrec$siQ~- M.o:rg,e.n.thI1lJUi (Il!t1J!!: 42) Id.ecia!!'edi: "Ail hiStQ.l)' ;shQ!.!l8nhat Blidousactive, hi jllteJl'natiOl!ull1 poliries are ctmtiRl.iiO,usl,y pil'epi3ir~I4g mo." acrlvely iilil'(I]v,ec8 .ill, or t~{)¥eri:l1ig from o:rg!l.lflized vEolem;cc in the €O'J!'m of' 'iN,ElI'," Re<lilisllil tblJise~ha<Siz.es oob.e-siou of llil.all!::~ witbin;. zero~.5iWfi !.a~es; nO!l"m1c-1>s:il'e5S,. and war without, Most inlc;fIl.a,tiQ:!'Ialrel:ati{l;lI.s tbe1lr.usrt:s. I.'I3a:lfiS;I$. or [lot, stress ~he CllHllicU]!~±e:s of '~5tiJb.lishil:~g [nt,ema'tiou.ail DOJIIDLWhere nonas e.Ki;;:l, they lend to :'IUJTib~re ~heUl en ".hegemo.ny'; or ecercion (ec.g", Hpsol:Q ].;8:5) 'or ~o "realiis,tic" cru'cu]amow-·of na:tional illl'elf'e:!lt:'1Jch as d!gvelo:ps in balance of Plwer sr.;t'ems" 1dieologi;ci!I:1 s.olid<l.'rity ,amO,lig Powe!rS caa be ,o~ly transient and iilil.tere.s,~de~erm.inoed.

n.eOJJl:i!Slil.~ hasbeen cri~kized by iii OL)!:1.]!t,e:rtl'end ln, lntenr!i;!L'l!iorn:a1 relatiees theory, C11i1iI]i\l:iiasiztng :illl.ter..(Je~ficienre8m.ong ~late!;:. ~ea1i'S,t5 ate bbmed fur DJ~gkitil.~ng trawuUol1!l[ and tr3Mgol,!"efnmental :po-wer tl:e~wO",!'k~ :3Jro1!lnd th.e. g1obe. These Cl!Q:S:>Cl(!t !,!.1ale :so'\le:reisnJj', red.ll!Iidn.g li1.eal' oohes:i:o!!l andpr,o· .. i.ding am alt'(!!l"nfl!Jtiv~ source of nQi1I1'5 and henee of wmM order (K.etihame: and Nye U911:, 23-31), Because w~e'rde:pe.mdenoe.tlwonns, foCt!LS, om modern. gtQbal ,cl.lJpiiHliIi~ID, the)' Iililltel)' il:pply tbeir :ill:gurmeafS, '~ previ.O'us c,eiDHln,e.s, 'IlitC!y st,em ('0 agreE: with realists that: bai.a!llCG ~f po,wer' or he:g'Il!D1oJilk powel\S l~'iJ!a]1y ruled, thel:l. Ho~~"'nce !(Ht86) is an exception. He regardsiradin:g mi:ilimpml.3'1 stat~ <lIS pfese.nlt' imI v~lng de!ln~es tlirougho:url hisoo'1'. bolh emfulooyinl,g distinct nOI'T!llcaWi'e s.yS-l:ems. m' devsJO)p ~limr~lar Illrg'umenllS ~n Clru.lpters 8

50

and 21. In mUd'll--PQw,e,r-actor civ:i!lizalliom., lik,e Europe or U'l!e f.nodem West, :g.ea!poljrlri'C~J.'I relations eX111i wiJtJbiilil ~ broade~' ,dvilrl.zati,Qi'i enD.bocly. 1l1;g traesnanonal ,a.Eird li:!t'atlilligOVCFllIiliIzliliilll power netWQrk5, 8;nJji I~Offms_

Realist and i!'iteooepel:l'C:iemoe tlieorl$ts. also share a eunous blind '~ spot: They eoneemrere 00 bow benign pacifle rntei!ilililicmal norms

~

CI If pear - .illlLle,r,cl.ependenc,r; the!l):rDslS 81.:: e. iQont.,.mpi).!'~ry flOIT.FIS of co- jl,;

C1p~'rnt!OO'i! <l'~ refieclting 9hau'ert'l pll)]raD" mJat.eri:i'J.I iJi1l:ere8m~ rea.lists. see ., norms as ge.Jle,ralii2iedi eakliru.UQm: of s1:ate mGer-e· ,t_ Y'elm:ailII)'lr:iJJ~UilJas ~, tii9i'iai Q'r traasgo ... ernmenra] norms, aliid 1deo~'ogie;s Ilfllg:brlt [!l'ot be '~e"g,g,iil ,~ or r'e:ftect, m.uerial i[Jil!ere.s:ts expll'eSs.'&I peacefully Q!Ji 'market.,. "'Filer mighl, ,em,body fep,!"eS:Si.ve class ~nd j)'[I!Ie.r 'poW',e'HlCkll" interests, they ~[ might eneourage w~r in t.he Dame of il'ngller ideals, they ltlight even ~. icilealiz'e W'8!l" ~tsr:.]f_ No.Ff!l:lam:iv'~ ;solida.ritje!l; m:iElbt I.e:f!i~ i:O (:I~g.oFde.r. Dis- 1'1 mcl.er mi.ght, 1I10t :l"es~ltfro:m, the absence of an illti:ern~':io>n.d :regime but r

'1'" from. 1be prescnee of O.t1El!. Re:amists preter (0 avoid this prob[,e:rn .. For',

oi examjpDe •. m 'MI,'J'rge;IlII.6"aiul's re~t historical asrrafive. periods 0-1. ...

calm, [;!!ItL'Olnali:;;tiic balance of power ,or. hegemonie po·wer areabru.ptDy ~i shattered 'by mOIre vhj~elTiJt :un.te["Fe,sna., as dU1F~lrlg 1772.-18;15 or 'lt9l4,-4.!j,! .'1'

- ~,'.

BI!I,t M!J:rgtllJ!~]nliU. makes no atl:empt W e~p:la'un l!b;f:Se intene:gna. Sd:nce "

IDe has, earlier desct.lood ~d.eC)ologies alS mere' leg,limaHom; 'air "disguises" of m'ie:~:>ts, be hes no thit-"Ore"tica.l ()onoe.]pts. w:iJb \-'l'lTiiclil t-o, iIIJliCtfJ'J:le!t pe:riods :irn whic:1iI dip.lomacy and wa-r were themselves deepmy infilsed wit61 wo.lzrit ]'i;:'I,IIoIUliClifll;JJr-y and .reac(:liCKllaI}, idool.ogie-s (1.918: 92-103, 226-8) • Indeed, .1; S.ho...'D])U 'c£ill'-U]~t.lio'p>~ of im:cr,est .... 'ere aliways mflillenct:d by ~II of the. ,ent\v~n~d soarees or soclal rower. and .:ihway:!i irnvo:hved norms - somerhnes peaceful, sometimes \iwlent - em!linal~u!1~, (ram 'oomrp'Jex ~tmchlil"ID!;mt.s l,o' tile ·'iW<J.gined communitles" of class and Illation.

Realism fllid true e.itli.sm also tend to stlitlil"oi! wltll plllJialis:nn and!

M~r::~i:sm iill emphi:JJsis em, :!Ii eohestve, &yst'e:I]Iil!; ll-Ulte ~. this tim.!1: .in nl!~ forn] ofa ;si:ngtl~l:u' elite actor. Krasaec h.u argued thM the an:lo!'lorny of the statelilitc is. :!!ireater in furei;goJ. than ill dO'mc:s>tic pelky; it is Jd~ti",eby "i.IrISIlIlated" from d:QI~lif:8tic class Iillid ir.U,e!l:lest gU'I!J'!IIp pQ;\i;~~llI.res. T.llIe state ,ils a •. 'lj.ct Qf ;l'Q~le.s an.di imtihl'ti(mS having plCwJi<l!l" dl'lives. compulslons :[l[JJt!, aim& of thei.r own ~1iI~Jt <iJre separate .md ,~iSl:inClj' from ths i!l1lle'Ii'S:5ts (Ilf an}, p<a.nklJll.:;Jl" gro~p" (l9'78: 10-H) .. W use Krasner'!; "~ii$llIlat!,Q,n ,., :m.etapho,]' later i:11J -llriJs v 01 !J me , wliiGe ~uaLif]lin~ h..ilscondll!!s»o'i1. Statesmen also .,;;miJ)ody social identities. eiillamuing from, beyond Ihe gtame itself;. and S;i.8.1les.melLl, are 1'10" oolies-Il.'e.

On th,e. firs!; po:i.ll~" ~Ji~S>8l[jip (1990} has iilJ'gl!l.ea,cen!lral state [esoUJ!"ce5 .are rar,e.lyade.qua'tJe f-or ;amb:iJrious. sta'CiSli: projecot.s. SUlil:e entes Il'leed al!ian!Ces witlru pou'eltfiLJi WOUJ!8 "oull: tlil.eit"e.'" in :!lode'll)" Tiles.e OlIIre not IIs!J.aUy alli;;tJil>ces l;iel:wi'een, two 'quite; c;l!i~Li.llot gr'Ou~" Lau.man!ll aDd

.

~,

~

" i

"

51

j(!19U (1'9'37~' ~;'hQW thalt. ill ooll:l:~mpo['.airy Amr;;i'ii.ea llI.et'Wqr~.~O'ill;iti!tl!lID2d b1 mii,lJlliip:le Q.rganitzatLo!llS~w.i.;.--ally pelle:~:rane· Hli!il ~om]>;l,l!til[ ... ~i.olll bet'!i\',fCiI S'~3te· ~ncil society, S1;.a!te 8C~ors no!t'.mnll},":'lre :!Ils.o ·'c.iv.iliilIilS.,." wit~l, ru~.ial ,idieIllH!ties. D(!ImlloJi: f]·'900: i07 -52~' sbJ;r'lli'$ that most OOiQQem America~"5it3Jt6iillrl"n" ,1lre :recrljit~d from big bu<sl:ne;sl> and! «"po[.alle nll:wlfurms. D!ey for.!M. a "'plilrty" "rcepreseE'itilil!g:"'" an ir.Jil!eirfi8tiJtl!IiIJaLi! C:llpi" lalll~l ciI:a:lS :bactioll more than Amel."ic3L

An c.~as£,ilruf1o!r.iSiIS s~J~SS th~ "jD,mi.rl!<lJ~~ da.si'i b.ielll!tilly a~d interests oil' statesmen. As; a SQcio~.ogi,:>t lJ~li~"'i!l'lJg d~'d s(]6i.a~tdenJt"~I[e~ eannot b~ redl!l:oed Wi class, I bro~de:n thdr r~~e oJ argl!ll1lle:J1!l :iil l~lIiIilis, yohlme. TI!Ollg~[ support ,1K:1OI5:.l1;etvy demQ!1I.st~.niiil:g: '~I:!al: ffii~l!l:eteef'l!h-ceTI:tll!rY !;!3w:lcmen w~re ill]oIeerjl :SQID,¢wnat ifl:l!t:!!.I<lted from !batb'! jXipui~ar1l:ncil dDmunalll classes, iH-ley. c:Ql!.!!Ld not be who~[}' ifl5"I..II!lJH~d ibeca~~ they them'~e~ves poslre8~d ~.i:i!1 i<le:IlI~i.tie$. The:-y W~:!,,,, all wl!i~!:e males, oii,i\erwhB4mi!IJ®li.r orlIrnwn fJil)ffl. the o'l.d~eg~~ <lind from. cl\i;im!ii'iO!ll"itre.li:gjm.l~ lInod ~i~ii,:d!:~ic oo.mtm.iU.:nities. An these ;socia! b:lel!th~es iI1IfiIaheredi !:!"l m~i[ 'OOi!'l(;l~~ o(fureii\l.tl policy" :s1l<ll;piL1;g ~hc IlOfil11CS 1I!1]!t!fi~, them. with., or dli'l.i~d!i:nl1: It~~m [[om, otEler dome$'~oo ,mel ~(II1Ieig~po'Wi\:.r 8;C.tOir;S, some:tim.es .recfilll.cing., oom!:!iiLm.es iJllereal.lq, ilflte:m.a~ioil<JJi!'!iol(:iI1(le,.

0\[1 the S>eooudpqilill, few ~~!!eili~u.:m out to i;te. ~'!uilJiJt!'llryacron;, Keolhlilmell!lni Nye (1971,34) poi!rn.tedl~y a sk .(;d'a:r,gl1mlBIlIiS ass.e~tul"Ig 'rr:il:<u "S!t:;u~, aet ilJJlne:ir O~n rllt·erest".: "wll!ic'-h sdf and w'hkl'l fnt~re&l'1';' $!:ale elites OIlwH'Jurru:, not &i !U:$u.1 air .. S~rne ttJodi!O:uu€~y &to!!tiM wril:e!F:;, 3cklliow]edge,lhii5. Tilly (1'9'5Hi); Ji3-4)~coe,pts. that ['€!i:fici!I!tiotlJ (;if the srn~.e i~ uilt.ima~sly U!legTt~n~te, !iJj;a!Ls~, he'ac~n,owled\!::,~, is, his llIegtect i)if :rociMi~ classes. 'i1le;s(l; 3I~ jU$~ pi!',<'lpatLlC andheg:riS'hc simplifb::a!tiom. he iSll)iS, S''''ocpo~recopi:res tlitM: clii~~ powe.rs; and coliu];si.Q~ "'acn. (;:0:[11. n,~.j~wi.on~ ~t~~[. ne!.l"ll~ra~i.cco:nsl:i!rI!lJtio!ls iJ'.Iluhiibh eli~e OIl!ItOIilOmies ,aliJij'wed to, ~~!~lIil;orlti!IJri1M!! ones, He'.I"atl;l!ly,M!l (1979) of ea:!'ry modLt.!"n ~vdIlJtiol:1i·s eentered $!la~e a,utoillomYj lIe:;H'i.1i1ri1i!).tlILy !1lIL'I';I!l~ •. O~ tile iPO'W"!Elrs illf ,~bso~lIlte ftI.Q~;iuch;, ~ll,[J;ep¢riQd discl!.lf;:5et! here, mOl1llll!!)cl"iic..aJ Po~;r£ uw;a~I.y aPlP~;8te mQllt oJ;oS'Cly true e~iti~II!QtiQn:l 00 state alU!ron,QIlI)" :'lh!hQ'l,:il.gh <lillt:o.!l@Itilyii'i never <!b50bIJt"". ]3 III ( S:ko"4loI'~,m.o.re .re.oe.(!ilt 001. I<lOO.l"IlJlt"'e WQ[k (We!~~' <!nd Sllioepo:U :1 '9l3:$), olll~WleIl!tie~1IJ-.oeJilih.!['Y W.e.l!raIe P:~{!!,gra:Ill~, Ioeazes eit!.e ,::!iUwiIlomy <i!iflfiOn;g spEciaJt~e~ '~II:r~.~c.r .. rs, ill ~.I"e ~IJ!JjWplitioUI", ~e;s~T fOrn:l! o[alil!to[J:omy"[n TrimliJ~l'g.e[':s anaD,j'sis (]:.978)of "]!"·evolll;J!tjons from. allil)VC}' in dJeveiop~fJ@,c!J'!imt[i'eS. the state f!JjJ[!2 cilififel1l !!i.et. ~gaJjri ~ It is al'ev'C\I~Llticmal'y <!I~s; of Ihl!.l~a~~ts; ~r.JdI miDitary Gffi~en_ Tl1iU;S, :;ltaJte eL'i~e.s are drli'l'"e:r,5e and they m.ay !)e uu'wherent - '6SpBCi<llly i!l~ihG .p;etrioo l:I!1.de'f di5t:L!I5i!liO!tl" w!ieil mtJInmrch~es., Hile mll~Jt~!)', burea.u.c:faJts" m-ld ,pol~tij:ca] ptIJrti't':5 ool!JahMt !llai~'$.

Blit Sko~~ !fu.a;g,. aiso mo""eo;j:, ~¢>~ill(g~ sOn'!!e"""ba.t l!!lJiCoilliSc!,ou:sIy., to ...... a~,j :i!! mO!J.'\f: (u!i!dil!Ii.IJc'..JiItlil.~ re...-1s~ofl Qf :>!:!I~~ autO'II!omy. Le~ me ,:sIpin

quote hsr staCllIm:mJt that tl:t~ state ""is a s~:r!I.letme with a iO.gi.c and ii1te,re:'1)ti; of its OWIlI .• '·' "lilltemsts" am obv:iomly propernes of. actors ._ <l!ii! e:.:p.t'e!!slio['l ef true eli.tli;gt till,oo[y - Y'1;l:~ "~.og~~"lfIeed imp'Jy no actor or elilt}. St~I.c:= ~~'I.Q!1Qmji rnggb,t fti'is.](!!\: less in 1;:1ir~lI;; 3l1tI!J1liJiomYlit all!bar.lj ill til1le mj~QilQim01;1S ~ogiOJ:; Q:f definiee iP'Oim.caJ im.tit utio 1115,. arlS'e1JJ in tile couese {}I previous .1X!W'et strugg~e£, then :iln::>~HU!tvon~lizsd and! coruuainin;g preseat ~1:rll~Jles. Skoqpoi a ~d her ooli<IJbor.:uolL'S (Wl.llr et ai, 19\138: I-R:2.1) e:mg)h<l!s:ille l'l!~W A.m~~i~[!J f'ede['~~:sm amd title Jmrty paJHQnOl!,~'>e sys~elTl, im,tituUO:iilf.lliil!ed Liil tlile:lilIinet®e:mlth centusy, ~hEm iieM back tile: cl1l1,v-e1 ojlme !It of IUJ "8. statepowess, e;speeiaJly in the ~r~~ of w~Df:5IJr,e [policies" Though they S''''Hli~ternlJiue,~lIy asse~tl:hm: S"1:a,te dIG,~S (bureaucrats, technoeeats, 3111dparny leaders) pO!!l~ScS :S;i!l!i(iilr;: allt(lo!1loml' as aetors, Skccpol a[IDi:I her aSSOOCU8!I~S :ffooclLIs more on the IilJU~.O!1l0mm..lS ·eff.€ct:s e"e:~ted. iby Sltate :~~sl'ttI!.lJtjOiI!liS, on <1111 polHic:1Ll actors. F'!1:die:ITOlJlislin, parties, tile presence 01(' absence f~f ·mttl~ll·e't ~:QVOmmeil~,. and :m.aI1lY otill,e:rre~u.ll'e:s iIJIf" what we calLI tl~.e ".!Ji!l1i'lh~~i~l!i:li.ons" .of :st9i!e$ structure po~verrebtioll~ i:1l .quite dis~'~ncti."\!'e W;!IJ:'{!l .. Laumann and Kilo.!l::e (['}.81} offer a m;o,re emplrid:'lt j:m:I'ltllH~ll:lJal awr~.cl;IJ. TH10ey loo~ IfiOf fmmaJpaUemiillS oil" the'Ii1Jeractloo5 betwee·1ilIstMe depsrjments ilJl1I!II pressure groups, ,oolflcil!udilllg thai the co:ru!emp!!).ra.ry Amerleen M3~e eonsists of complex "'o'.Fg.lil!niZllJt~,o.!1l.ail:" netwo.l'iks.

This is ""'M:ate po.wer'·' t!ho:u~r;!)Jre~y "elite PO'Wetl!'.," .as it !'€:lates Hl0!t'f:. to colleetive than to diSlriln.ni.ve pO!A1eL'. [t aff!f:ct:;;i"IllI;J\fe~he forms i!lil. wfuJiclt pO]]I:uciz.edlac!m:s coll.a.oor..:Me "tha~ "Who !A;as pOW\ef o'!o'oer 'whom. "fhit tEi$ury w(]I!JIi,d] predict ~ess that state eJ!ites dG!miml!I:~ civil society <l!t:~{)([s :!lifld more tl1:i1tall actors "'"00 ceastrained by ,,,,,:xb:tilil~: politie~iil. i~tgt~ti.(!!i~S, Be~.ai!Hi';; srates are es:s~n.'tii.:ail]y ways in whic.1:IJ cl,ynami.¢ ~S;Ociag rel,UiQns :J;!!eoomea!!ltlii.orciJl:.lItivel.y~I!:!llil!aJtiotl<'iJlizecll, they .~eadHy lend themselves to it lkindi. ,o:ff "iP'0I~:Irl'ca.l ~ag" -rheory... Stales hut!i.tllJ:t,ioml;~iz:e p[lme!lt sceiial O!JIlllIiiCl:S •• bUJt :~!~~l~tl!.ltbtlali;::ecl h!~M;lri'c CQJI:t1k~~ then exer,tCl)!!siderabie ~'We']' {li\l~r new ·cotllAi.(;ts - from MM>e :<is; pa~sfi ... e pla<:e (as; 00 Ma.!';;::ii".!D. o.fp'l:Il![a~:tst t~OO[Y)11i) :;~:ate net '~I.]~t,e :iiSi ~rolr (:;!!~ in ·~ru~ elitism) [rut a. s acti.ve .p~ace. '!Chllpt~1:' 20 (lJ];,jorses s:ucUTi. a vi,ew of the ·We·s:~triI state.

I call. this approach ta, .~'!a~e !PO~t.' "in!l:IH:l1hojj,al :5.ta;lis:t'Ii, '" nmil.

I ~lIiIbmoe i.t acs part oJ: tHY' o¥cl'an "'organiutio[llal. rn,aJtelrilaliS(l.u, -rr Because tms. f~ri.Qd Sal'>'" tlull eml>rgence of a ~nl~)' lTiI;1ls~.ve set of. ~o~i~i~! l!'!s'~tll!tiolls - ttw liI.<:ltk~llI-stll,te- t;h~~]}oo[r will. F'ro'"...: to' n!Mv>e' co~];s)iCl!e!i'OIlbae e:>;;pa,i!i!l:~.·ro[)'· p<a'l.!I"!e'Ji In Oli!r cl:b;1".;1Ui55.UO'Il. True' ~Ii!ti.sm. may b.e l1I~:(iuUy ,",pp:t:iecl to. '~he most ~lIlhorlt!u:i:a1l and "~ict:OiliOl'i~1 :s.t:o.hl:S - ['Or ~'.!Iir.i.p~e, to ~ke N.azl O:r S~:fl1iin:is.t 5t~te (tholligh ~n~.Iti .... m iI~:s 8~lHI1P'Ilion o:f elite coJlleref'lAe mil,l...",t M re~J!:ed), EveD il1 $ome (!if the ~lfJItes Qr l!Jlypresell~ Jlelt'~(ld! t.rl,!i.e elitism Jims !!)$~full ttiJl~g.s, ~o ~y .aoo~, ~bsoll;ltist

,\

.~

,

OOfu;itlltell,cy to state bl!JJInd'!!'rs <IS well as state SE.ran.egi s'? S~I£el.y, modern ~ \Vestem sl.{!'I;:eS are i.n some fU:['I(i;a1ililen.ml sease ",capit~lisf" al1ldi "parl)' ;~ demoeraeic" (as Jt.1!8100:sts ,a.!t1!d phJ.ralist,s, assert) .. Tlney 'llarv'e oon'tai.ned . I mon.a[dln~l al~dI bureal!~'JJj1:ic el:il:es (as eiitil.st'S observe), 'Jlitcj' itre 1T.1!i)Or or mlner Powers seeular or ee Hg,io us, cen:lrralirzed or federal, iP'!i4[uaf..rJ;;ltical or gender-neutral. Such states are patterned, Grantedl tile ezo;;·cesse:s lOr sy.sJtcmic ~~l.eorie:s, can woe .paue:m states while not reifyiflg them? DQ we he ... -e '1;.0 abaJIidolii. $u!.lSI:'a!l]l:v ... e theory andoonsm,l.(Jt Q~F' theQry nDere~lI from the fo['m~[ propeeties 1[I1f. Iill<!fi'S '0]- lh~ del1lSe '01'gaJlj:i!atiOH~ networks of IllOdern poUiiti¢iill hli3lu'mce,! as L;allma]lnamil Knoke (1981) dQ?' Despite the conslderable virtues 01' their O\rg.ailil~.Zll!' tiQlla~ theory, and the par.a!lels between tileir euterprlse and :my 0' ..... '1'1., does. it n'O~ S(iillietim.e::s miss the wood for Uie trees? The American State sllTe~y is itt some "l:Iign'!;i['," maCl'O level c!!l.p:ita1i~t; iit fu; ,aiI$O e~ertl.tii;alny f.edernl and it possesses '(Iite most powe-rftm[ .Itlilitari:sni. iin tne wor.d. ] 'WOI.I.lrl not bave gtl!ess..:od this f,'am. tiJeir maps of.clD.mp[e:ll: o·rgani.zaJ!:ioa!al ~wer neoi:I1I'O:I'its. Indeed, by dilmis5ing tile. notlon tlaat this might eS'SeooaHy be a capitallisit s~.a.t.c: because or,gam'<:1l!I:LonaJ. net.worh are rarel.), c.Qnfilg'l.~redi lor tbe de~el1l:S6 of ,cajll~<Ili:sm (and so :may s,omelimes react be1a.te~lly i'~ 31hreat to their prope;rry·righ.ts), Lanenann lind Klwke (19B7: 383-ilS)aIIi: :~m dla'"llge-r O"E [lCpe'iltil'l.g_ dll,C '(lad ph.l.Falist e['fQr

or ~i.Staldns the t.clI."rnin of opel:l. poli.ti.cai dell:IaJte and f,)rganiz:aJtiol"lror the entire ~eii'[.ilj nof poliues,

My-more ~ub!w;I.I1ti.".e 'Ve;r5<i,m.l of OoIganL.-:a-l:io:rn..a[ mal.eriat~s.1Jlli co:rru~,s. illl tw,o Stag~s. fliEsl, I J.dellti:f)' th.e piJifticl!lla[ C'har,a.meristiC5 of poiilica~. illJ.sJtina:tioI1!S. Ma.rmm and~~.I]raHS'm. bellllg roedl!!C'titp,niS'l, i.en(1 'to !I1egl.ect pcilli:tical [ptutioularitie$.. True clil:ism-realiism regards ths.1n r/LS si.o!,l'ular, exagg;eratrng the powe. and oohesjM ·of stare a,ClOrs, c.oo.1\:-'Yjp- iFolUl-l!!p' tneo["y Q!i',e.l'proU!f~l"8tes flartieuladt~es. In beginning. eo i.der:Uify gemwil panems ,of politic:il pl3!rticolaritiel'l, we C<lirinot do better tban start with M0!..1I!: W,e'ber. W,el.:iler has been wme:-Itkm.c::;, ~.de·~l~.red as atrue eHtts'l, yet thlis ·calal"act.c;nz.a.ti!OR is WiOOillg. Vi/'eber .:;lid nOI!. pi[lod~ce .Ii coherent st<lDe 'ah'ecQ[}" but iii."" left lIS: ICO"Elcep'!:S' wida. wtrdcl1 ~o -fJlJsMOI"I one. An mstilu,· li'l1irn,ail approacl.l'l tends ~o prol:lfe:rare 0l1laniz:atiomLl ,complexity. as do Laum.llITlil anil. Knoh (using !llil!lch more ~opi!d.stkii!ee.d data tM.i:'I I CiiUi'I aspire to rolf hisronca] states), So in tine second :stage [ look Kl :si.mpiily .instiituti-oual proliferation,. usiIllg II.)' polym.orpl!11QUrS ttileory Iilf: "11i,g_her-

'Le'!'e~. :l,'lElt e '~lJ'"st.atl i z;a:tiom s, " -

Weber',s pollli'CaJl C'OIi:!~epts: an instil'Utio:mil ;'Iha1l's.i:s

Above :ilil. Weber was a theorist of the b.is,jjQofl'C:;I;~ de ... elopm.elii.to,f :s~I inS'lit~]tii)iU1S. He b(l:,g!tlli hii50 di;scl]tssi,o-.n ot ttle S'~atrt by d~ston;guishi~1g three

, ,

-~ ',i

.

.,

·-1

·t

'._1

A them:y of the modem stllte

:5:5

s,tages :if! it:; :irm;titll.tion.aI. development, e.ha~ac~e:rizoe(llby theler.I!DS "po~hilt1l!lH'owe!",'" the ·'state." arndlhe "modern state." In .hisfirst :litag.e, .p.uiti~tI::i3J! pO'\;Ver existed tJ~Ql!Igh a state did Dot:

A '"w!ri!l1l:!l, !!)rgn:riIDz;)tiion" !&i[l ~e ~an,ed "po1i1ticaU" .itrJwiun as its, ~le~' and .order is 'ooll!lnuO'l!I5i1y S1lti.gJJi~rdgJj!, "'idli.1l :;Ii, gi,~ (el"ritQ,r~ '1Ilrr.!!!, bl/' th",' t!;li-'~!lt tLlI@ apP'lgo:;;)tioD'l of p:hysi£"il!I, FDtore ,o.rn, it'IfIe IfI'<lrt ,of' [D,e ;;idminri~t[i3tu"'il .s!af!"" ['Tlltis :3!DO, t~ .w:U twO ql1i!J!la~iQ.lILs are [Hl:tU Weibe:!' 197.[3:: [,' 5~~,6) H'![s emp~s.]

TImspo]ih(lill!U~owm: is ess.eiITl;i1ill1~.ym:friiil:Or~at., IUld h ~5 ptily5.k:a~~y imp05~cl 'b}" iilJ :spcci.i:a~~2ied (implic.itly c~lJItrnl~.wd) ilit;;!;if[, Th," ''':>~t~''ifu.;;-.[I '~m~rg.oe(j [Iil! th¢ !)BDornd 5It~ge;

A (lomptilsor~ po~i1ic~~ Qrg!;uii!:~~j,gn wid! ooJil~i:JJI\IQ!'L$ .tI''p~,p!'i(l!l!!i ' ..... i!!.~ c:a!l!~d :;! '''sr~ill':/' :inoofur ,I;I!S :irt~, admunLslrarlive ~t£lH :!ll!l;ooe~~lly rtIpll.ol.,j~, Illiie ,c.l:a~:riI:l Iii} Iilii,e ma~!l(lpaJyl;)(f the l!!gilfrmlrio!' use of phys.lC;Ol! ~i\re iru th.e ,en{'Qoroemetllt 0f i~s (Jr,fj;[:;1'"

This, :in:>!d!Mn~Oltlial delTI!IlJitiml 0\[ the state lm~ been 'w.ide.ly endorsed (Madvcit' 1~26: 22, Et~r1~l n dl: :~~~9': $; 'I'my 1~7S: 77" RU'fS!::lile.m.eyer . (ll!IciI E'iti!IL'~ 'J~3S: 47, !F'~j. H.iS'O,. Ch;::Ip!:Cr,~ 'Uand! 2)" . .,.Uollg wiltih md~~ru~ (19$5: loa}, I diUelf on one point; M<1Il1.y hi.sl,o'fic S!~:a,tes, ciI~.d .!'I(!!~ H:i'i1.o.noiPol~:re" th.e m.(luntS of p.hysit::lI1 ]D~, and! ~'I'E'n ~111 UiI.oe mtodil;l([ii1 :s~:ale the meaulS ,oK pil:uysie::d force !lave :0ee:[1 s~hst8.ntiall}' ailil,~DnO:[UU)!lI!f> from {the rrest 0:1') ttil~ state.

'FinIS I loosen the ~ies between Irniliu:rrY1l!rucl, ~ml:Utk:lElipDW6r to ,genefa~,e [JI1Y {DWJI definhiol1l; Illl.litil i[l'Hneruced ib'y Weber:

1. Tlfie sMite :it :3, duffier~J'!H9~, ~~~ 9t irn;'!~~l'Q'l!!!> ,1mdl P~~~©!1!III.(:'il

1. GiJilli~dyIng I!lelltramy, irJ IIh.eseJnse 1ib1llt p~luticaU relalion$ r!il.o1Iuil!le 00' <l:fi!~ h~m 1'\ «.JJ;t'!i![,~O "!J"'~.I:I

3<" Iiefril:otiaJ~y ,clle.miu.cil.tetl a:rel!l (]-r whi~ ~,t ~r;;:i~

4_ ~om", degr.ee ofalll(I:1.ori~ililive; i!!Iundjng r!!lite nt!e~r[l1!;, b.a:&a:tl lip hy S>l'!Q1;C (i!;g!!i!i!lL~d~hy.g.ic.a~ [O'rce,

1".!'Iis i~ i1!1iI un:!itil:IiIMOIiI;I:III, not a fUJl1Icln;OI];I:III, c18fiJni,tkm {lilT tm..O:;:; ;st3!~_ It does not ID!ii'Jll!rrrO'J:I wH"lll!rr the state does, 'tme,rhe ~laJte uses force, but oniy as mM;;;r[l\'i to b;;)CK up :uts rules, wh!~cit are ;gl'i"eilnJ flIO pa.ttr:lIli:~~r content". Of til'i!~ theo;rie5< OOits!~-t;'J~d he~, Q;i!I~ M~rx~.st ()~OOS tbOOil")' ~~d some l'ea:tl~,ts. 5pecify :Mi!ll'e :r!,iJo~tio~s: ·~r~p~'odl,j~ the !Jooi~lreliilJl~!llffi'L'S. ~<lqllJin::dI by oommaJlu modes of :prodiIllC'l!orl (M:3l'xis1S},O'l' to pU!rslile ter1f]Lurial S~cl!l![.i~y I].eedis (r:ealism), Yet states "'ave ulfid.er!c:ak:eJ.1! nlllIlti,ple Cunc, t~OI'l..S. 'I.h!oo.P ;ijltilltes, h~",~ liIlder;cl d.:ilS!:, ailitI SSCilIri,ty :l'u;r.cJti.ons,rn~y also ;'Io:!JIgC!iGl)~e ditpt!~~ .. redistribtltot re~O<U1we$ .am(Jug n~gii)ill\'t>, a.ge groyp$. .find '~t!ler; illt"e;~esr! gWu'&"$, sa(:raU~e :S~fllleir!$litlLl.ti~Il~ and seclll~;;)r.ize Q'I~er.s;, ,and dO' many other thinGS. As cliffel'e[[IJt ~t3Jte;s, p~!r;SI.i!e d!DffeI'e~[I~ furu:ttiO:l!lis 'i!lidlil diffe:ri:rrlg d~grees 0:1' co.mmitme:ntJ. It ]~ IIIot ~iiJSy 10 cl,:e4l'ln,~

~he s.~ .. te~ ~)fi:Tms (If [~l!];cti!)lls. L1l!l€r .1: ,~ove I/O af!Jl]cJji.ol!lai iilJrrlaiysioii to ~,d]elltl[y {hffewnt fi[lncti(m~d c.iI')'5~aUi:z,ati~~s. ozyf s~.at~.

. FJ'o!':t1I na,}, ddillitiun Q~ the s~:aite we CIUt d~ri"'¢rolllr .f.iaiil.i;c'ul a it'.iiti~, shared t!'}f <Iii. :S1:a~'I1!:S, of poli.!i'caJ :imaitutiom;~

1.. Tille ·MOiite is tCln~toriatly centl1alizeoil." It d!o~ )juII widd an ml;a~" (!I~I]IIJS resource eo i,dki:Oi.Qgical, economlc. and m,mtarl' Po W(l r . :ITl1fcleed, H JiIIIlJ.st d:mw Oll!lIi(;Se very resources wll'lid.h .;!I:~B ~oC<!ted out&ideit.s.eH, Bu. [he 8ta!re, i10iI!I.£'~he.~es:s pessessesanothes diS1'j~c~pow~1f .reoou:rce~[t 13i~u!lle i3, :innIi!Tel!lt[:y o~ntl!',[ltUized over a delimJlled t,€:fri~my ov;e! Mlh;iu.it ha~bi[I.diil1l:g iPowe:rlil_

2", The . suu;e'CQ!'I~<:i!iffi\l, .tWO di!llaHt:Les: H is pt~.ooe!;l:mJcl.pe[';!;o,tl!:; ~Ild '~e:lil~~r ~m:ll:eFfil(l!:j', Po.li:tkalpower is :;irr!!.l~t·illa(!oi.Wy "st<lHst," ve,s~ed i!~ eh~(l pe;roorus and m:>lil:!lItio.ns al:ll"I~ .y~!i!li~r ,&l.d~l: :lls composed ,of "p.altl·y'· relations be!!,wee:1'i ptrsons and ~ID!s.titu!i(jI'J:S ill thecenter and across state tBf!:itOit"Ues.. T1iIoo ifl w.m. Ci'yM~lim im fmni8e.!;$~'l:1Iti~lly !llellel:~tcctl, by the outsIde ~Qdety ~J\I!d i!~ f:Ottm~ thatan~intriDl~i~ to Hs Q''i\iru politicllJprocesses .

3, Srt3te ~~s:titl,l!~ioll$ are diulie:re!'llti:Ued ,limd~rt:3.ki!l1,g dlifferej:iJ, fij[j,c, tions Jilr di!fkEeflI illrlll'te.!!il grou.l(pS localt~d within its Ilfnit,Q!fies, W.h~t~l>[ oe.(fltralt~.y, wti'lllltc"e;r prlivawe r"'tio.rmlit~'.lhe statepossesses ,.it :u.s, a~D impul"e.,dliff.e:relHpa~ir8 !(~!f i'~s hody po.iitk open .(\1 rel'le~],:litUoi[l by diverse .iXl'Wl\:i!' iIlot·c,works., 'I1hI!l~ t/lJf! !it~'t~ ~eed have m.'l final unity or even c;(iim~tl:'i'\!cy, n migllit do so if sixJ~he:!i pcssessed :!lll.chil'bna~ unity OF ,-.QIiI:llUstc[].cy, bllJ~ my mooe~ of sodietge~ as Cl"i;Jcrl:ll!pplng, ~D1ler~eh~g PO'i,\.~[' n~twol"k:!l suggeses tlh8:~ they (Eo !~9~:-

'. 4: The:...ery. de;l'in:itli)l]'j ()!f the state as a delimited te:rlrH:ofY mg~$~'S ~ 'l'ilIrHlier setof "pol:iHcal" rel~ui()lac5 boe~w.eefl ~Iris 'Sti'LClJ udi oliher sJta~,~. - f.h_ilI!l IS~ geopotrrir:s" T.H'!!:olll,gw@'l!iitililii, \\\Io/fk, a~d! ,etpeCllJ::!lly Whe!lil ,dlei!llj®~ wl~lil. lui:> own .[mperial GefiiJf&8iIlI. ssare, Wei>e,t e.lfIilipih;3.siz:es '~ha1' geO!POHUci1 mdp shape domesuc pehncs. CoiUim, 0,9135: 1(5) :mgg,e:>~s that, for Weitler,"polilic,s, woli;;;s frOI1l ~~)e ot!ts:~tle :in."Iih:o~ W,e'i:!lc;1" also rometiml?,~. emphasizes tho re"'~lriSe ,cilu.lsal:km,_ 'P'Q!.it!Ce3 and geopoliti~ ilWe enh!i:i:il~d; theone :~ould W!)I~ b~; :studied wiitihol!lt Uile other,

. I shall '. '~(p'~!ld o'LTl.lbese po.iims iliil1'll' e.Kp:lia!:lilIi!o~: WelJer's ithurd! stage, the "illOdle:i'1II state," It ;;tr:;lditiQilililly

PQ~~"'5M!g an lliIiril:l!l1islT,IIJ~i"e am.Q I,eg,al order subjent ~1;I~::iJiige by legisIMrtm" I~ whleh tbe (]:r'iSa!1i~ .ac[i'\·1i,tfe~ of 11)8 .!tr;tl1:!..inisGr:atrlle s~:afl'. wliJiicll 3['S ~lro <:ODI. HQJJ~.g. by reglllimiom • ."I:ri1! ol'ieiU1ed. Thiis :!;y,~I:C!IT! (If o.rd!eroS .;jla:Lms bUilding lOIiJllho;;l!l1!J!, nm, {lJ1.I.y O'o'ilrr thi;: m!l:mb()I'Jj.!Jof .he :!l[a:~il,. tilt:: dltiil'(l[Ls •• , iml:aoo U~ ii ...ezy Iliir.S.-=, ~:t~mJ !!)'!ll!1;.r al~ ad~DlIJ laking pl~ .. e ill .lill':' <lre<l ~;i' ,~t~ jluL~J<5idiO;:~~.Gn., It is ~itlLls <l comp!l~scrr oT;g::m~llIJtll)n wil~1ili '!,smrol.l'jru I±msLs.

l"lnl8i ij).., mOdiell'll st .. ~e: ~cld.ed wutiTI!e, follrtLati.zeo:!. tr.a;ttio!l!ahzed im;;tih!ltJQ!U; of wid)e:r soope ~[ citizens ,O)!!ld ~:e:rri;[orries. II peJ~t!lr;Qj;ts its

!etril~riieswi'~ MtiI:!J .1iiiw ,a:mill .. 1lI!.mmi~tr<l!tiQ!l (emI:lQcl.J'iDg w:Elia~ Weber I.<l:lll~ "nl!~jmlt!il-Ieg;al d(im!~,M~Qfl"h. a8 .. ea~.iier ~$!ate$. did i;1,{i~. Ti~1y (1900; ]1)3-16) .[~r describes tilliS as '·.:;Jlire~I" nne ~ru;l! eontrasts .itto Ull!l1: in&:rect lIl!!I~,e embodiedilll ea:llllis:r state;!;,. BI.I;!: this.Js not mere~~l"&. 'matter I)f ~h~ .sta~iR~[Ca'<'lilng flil:l!e over $ocidJ'.C'Q:~!i\er:se]y, "cime:ns'" ~:tlid "'P.lIrlie.>s" allso pe.netr,:He th.e modeen grnte .. The stale has boo(!!me !<I I.Uir:tOri-S'~~~, a~s~rept'$'leolir;f1i~:hilllen~" iiI)J~nill, senseer oomm~ity as weI!! as emrlil~n!1l.~!he diistfinCItIlt:ss; ,of ttite:ire::..:ter.nal. :i1l~ereSl!: in t:e~,fI~ !ion to th_e.:dti~~!l. of ot~lf:r :s.l:at:es<. Wh~·eas the ·'''i.eg~dm;;lJIl»)'''' .p'1\obl1e:m i!IJ m(l~~ lIiiS!totIC. statesns, for Weibel', IPf.um.arril.y ;JJ probLe.'Ill of tilt: !l::~h~g'P'Jl be~weel1 ill ruler lund nilS Slt:1l'ff, he a['~lJ)e;s[It!a!t in the modern stalle it pri[!.c.ipally concerns [(,iali'olliLs, amo.rlg rulie:rrs,part!iies. <lndl the :lII;3IIiiOiI'l.

Webe;r wmetirnetl ~1!ii:1.!l!cts QJJiIi) il1.iSti~lIhoill of dil:~ moo~m :stlEl!~e fQJ e::t,uaQrciliITIal')" emphasis: "mcmocraJtic ·Ii)l!lIeau.cr.aey ."lfual.is.. Iinll,ureaJU;cracy ffililll:r,~a:iz.ed: Ultd!eJ 'OiJ;1~ .head .... He fam.ous~.y Wfll1re:

~ nton~tttl; "',~ri~tror: btiJ[~Illiltr;;l.,;-y is, !I'~O:IIi. "" ~!lIre~.,'i' Leml1!i:C'1ilil. [poiM ill V1IJ::W,. ~1l.~l;t:le of aJ!u.~mtl,!l~he hu~eS!t d:egHlG oil" eftiiciiency :3iOO is Ulil tti1j~ 8.!lUEe ~Dml:;ln): Ilbe mosl: :r1lG::iQ-n!!1 mO~!i!~ ,tJf ~rcismg!lu~u)rilyl;)"'i!:r i1Il1m~~ kJ@~,. h is; S~p:~lQ[ ~~ ~;Y ~tlier .'?n1! _iiIl p~siol!1J, in :llabmty~ ~n lhe stdlll~Il~:l' of itt !l!f.!,'!;~~me, ilnd IIli ;L~S rellaibIM;y ', ~t. ttillil~ m~"'~~ prn;slb.l1o ;31 pliIlLitiwhuly m.g11 d!!'.Jjl!\ee ocr c31L\;l!!!!~tJ!!~ly {~[.!'e~II~~~r);)r dte heads of (hie oaf!j)3ll1liziI!lill.Q)IlJ_," " The d.Ei'l\~~~~ oif"mm:!er.n fQ;n-m of o:rgaruiz~~i'o,til UI. ;)U~~~ is. nothiirrg ~.1lSS Ilmm_~~lI.~1 wufh ~~~ d'e!lGllopmen~ of ;a:m1J ,0000tilllJLntl $p!Cl1'a(! of bl[l[rellll!';;rr'4!i~k il.1iD1lIIlll5it~1!II~Ili, " " ~~:'i."h::!l~JQPml;;-m h" kt. ~!!!~~!!i!:~~t ~ri~iJr.!g ~~5"' •. ~~ t~ ro(tto~~bi):, [!]~I,!h;:m ,W~~rq S<t!l~C_ ,., [T~hc !IIl:i::d:; of mils~ !I.Jm~l1Ib!!:ra,!i()rI .1i!I3J~i): U: ~~ycOIDlJ:lle~yu~i~pensa'ble, .Th~cllC!i.GC is r)rlly~hillt between b~I=Dra£y and! ·diJt.e~taillilS1im. in i:h.e field! 0f adm&ruistrMtOilfL [19'78~ I, 2:23]

_ ~eb~[ saw bl.lF¢:lIi"-lCilrui!zatuO'.I]; aO,ltilil1i11H~ tllil~ GtlltUre W~st. Alth.ougl'l he Vl(:,wed ~h~ German Sl;a!l~ usa b:u/reau.Cl~tic: piam~e;r, !he tookpail1s to d~mt}:ii:stl<!ite ~:m.a:~.w(J .. st8il:e:\i tlIDa,t migfltl siille:m. d~d.d'Gdllym]Jbu:mfJ:!J:craJ1ic - t8;;lt.liS~ iRlIIssw and th~ c.(m[ill&'~T!ilpilrt.y-ri.dd!1m UmliJtoo S~)ll!trn:. - were :3Jls0 falting !l:I1itierit".> !!,w~y, iE"'erywhere oompetin,g polM!i~aIIa.\IUI(JoFllti.(l'-5 ~re sl.lbo~i?~t~t:H tooulireaUc,"tacy_ A. tU~mQttlli~l.(: ~r~gim~.,n:r' 'D$~~!"~~i~mJ; tt~~lMlh!lltl'. on~y fm:the:redi IIDI;GlllQor.a~±c b!ll!r-e:3.IJ:crary .. He <l!ngu~Jlh.ed. ove,li. I,Jru~~ "'i!r.resls..ti!hle acil.'ilan.ce," atSking :rihetoricaliy. "'}Ok!""" cao 'O'lle 1~lbl]'. sa'l"e alili}' rem]l~!l~$ of ':i[u:I!~v:i(jl'U!aJi~l'freed(lm m an,y sen:;e'/''' :3Jod}lgaUII ~"Wtlal" ca~ we op]:l08e. t.o lili!,is ~ac:lliilery, :~11! 'Q(r·derr ito keep<l po.mom of_lmm:atruUfy free fmm~1:uls parce~)]ng om (!if th.e :soul,from tllis ~;(lt:sla d.i)ffll.liaoolJl of' the!: bm:ealJlt:raJti.c idea~ 1][~ife1'" (1m: n, 1400 ,

Bee!l:!'!",m 1l9S5~ S;l.)- .

__ At O'ne poi:r:1iI We:ber seems too have se!l~..d tilathis ~!;\lQ'le!l~ wo!s ~~rl!k;. HJI:-. mlls,:,d . wheth~rm.Qde["lliZfl!tiiol1l ~!1cre3sed th.e PQNlrrr of burs.aMC~a;cy .~ W.ltl'lDut ,expl.Sliml1g WDalt ~ms. s"-Idldell !~3Ikiz:I1i:01'il rne:nltS ..

58 '£be rise of cJJ~~s arldll<Ll~O'El":>tat,j,'l:S i But then Ine OOIilCU!I,Uj)!i<d p:UaiiItLytm.at it cilid!: ''lirll<lpower' po:;:u~]JOI[l of a t flllty.;ftooge,d lJ'!Jreauo;;:rdC), is al'w!lly$ !1:.r(lIllt, under Iitorma~ I;QrldLI:UOil1S ~ o"ertow,e.r!!.~:g .. The pOUtlCil~ 'm;::ml(:r'<l1nn~t <lJi'l!!!"y.~ flllnds· .hlIDs.elf'iil5"a, " VDS the ruined officiaU, in the position oj a dHt:tlt:;lIMe i'acin;g ~~e ~xper~" ;f. {:il978~ U, 969-1003, ,quot(i;d from. JL 991; fa!!" :[Ii'! excellent 'c();jum!;m~y, m

see Bel':lltlam 11.185: st- 12). .~

We.her went 'b<ldly WOOIII!l i~ sudde~iy e~.diorSi~g :iii tit'l,.I.e ·ei~iti!!.l ~'J]eiO'tJ ,:;

of. Ilnlrea.ucracy. HI;,I:re:ilIJiCl1::;11:> b,OlI\rerare[y dO[l][ul1:tlted mode;rrlil 'li~~~)G:S, <li~d s:1:ate a;dmir.Li!>t!!"lllilOll.silIave rrl:uo:::iy been m.onocratic (see Chapte:r 13 ).. ~:

There are botll oo!l:1ce!pitu:;:.[ and empfiricai. olbjecti.ons- _ ." !"

CIJ:rio~~L~,empit~cai ,oO)jeehol1s are fu~~c1 iml. Weber'~ ~lssectl~!lS of ~ inlis (li!i!;'n. [ll][Iedal Gernrll:ll1:litate. There .n~~~e:~~if!edllotl!J:~t_a, ~ow~dlll ;..

b~ll!'eal.l.Qja:cy but thsee dbti;nC!t. po~i~i.c~I. ill~l)tl:It1Q!1!\\: 1b~.!'ea!JI!;:I:.<!~,. ~.(I~!lI1 .,

po.u(h;~1 ,e:l;eC"n:LVl'l (hiser arid cha:ilo:!l1ol:): and .I':IlF~~es (~:?eel:i1JIY _1he <~

junk!H [pIaFtyl WeJber. di.di moot 'OOI[l~!:l1e~he term p<l!rty . m [~~~U1i po!liJ~tt:M pa.ttieslflgJltililgelecltiom; •. [~.e .me<a~~auW~Nup c.o.llcc,tl"'~~Y mganizedtFCt the: ,*cqruisitionof poV!'~!", lilQ1Ill!!:l!n.g taC~J.Gn5 ."t O!JIl!I!rt ~r li1 ministries Qir~)~ OOilImands. M Ohgrpte:r 9 S/b,(l'W5,. i1i~dlfle~~I1l~ ~L~e5

!he :uateodl tlUllt each of these three .a(:Wr5 dlo:mi:r.iJi:I.tea U.e KtJ~s.e:lreicfr,. Not~"nowev,eF. tfi;Latpart:iJe.s differf:rorn t~i.e. otl:1!_er tWO :m:t?,rrs. Ulie tlUreft!IJICr1liCY Il!m;! UH~ e:.::ecutive are ,oo'mp>3iib!Le wllth.m.~.e 'Bhllsm, ~j1I;1[ pauy :power ·d.e.rive:t! from a twQ-w~r tr-.e~;M~omJ"b_e~w~!.n !;~o.t,e:~, and t(l:rdr~Qtry; The J !i,lnli;,ci!'S. weire a; clatSs'<:"lliu t~ere . ![J,. i.CI\1:~ :S?Ct~I.}, yet welte also ~l1Itrei!}dl!!;d ill dil.emi1~tOllrry ~1!ffL;dI omer k~1 state ~rlSUllillli(JiniS; ". [iliI his \Y>Or.k Webe~' ga'll~ gre~~est'i'!.·eight tQ prattif:s,.t.he)".I1{1l b!!.!;~elllJlc~~~s or ;e;(.ec,utives" oomf!f.~s.cd ~h.e UlIir-d :l!C'tm ~Il l1b ~riiP'alitU'f: m,Qcle! olf ooc:1I;11 5'tr alifiC<l! (io]'l , <i1ol[ljg widl da:sses alild status grmJlj)s, _ ,_

A.ltno!Jgt! Weibel didlilot k:fJ¥e a fiina'~ tbeQry (Iii dil.emolierrn szate, lw; ideas d~f[\l;if,e>d from. tlu.e '~tate dTl.e>O'r.lt:s identified ,e,nli.c;.. H!i: was InQt a redndior:dst; Unliikie, propaTlCilltsof :rdar:l:.ts~u ~fldp1iJr.ll!i:!;m.n,~~a!w that :;ta.t,e;s 1);:],0 pQ'Wers of (bleir Ow!:!' And llil!g.k:e those oo-f true e![~IITIJ~!J;d rei:tlis,lTl,l'le (lid IliQl~od!geti1lO'.le powers me[c!y~1'I fi.;:erl!~rilli. ~ht~; IiJQ~' werettiley ne:o~~a:ril); (joh¢$I ... 'e. L..aK.'(; !ilO:an.y other !nQ~¢1l"1l , .... n~OilrS, L~l.IInSJc'!!l. and'({rnoke 0927: 3~O) id-e.jl!t[fy W£lbe~1:ls a !(-ealisl !i:~~mt :;!i)d c~it~d~: hiSS'8lppoo~d~eglet:l of l'h~ bLlIn:~fig {;If ~1.I;Di~;ad~ bet~en ~~he public alli.d ~~"e: pl:~'I'a~e,BUit~hi~ w~ pr.e~i<sdy tlim I?Olrl'~; ~~eru_ il'U,;a!},lllrIJg ~rlIi[lies. F'!j)~iticaipowe:r w$iS 8lml[!ltal'lcolliS!ly .~. (l~iltrahlied ['I;.sO~_p:;e •• :'I two-way re,]::ni<J!IJi£hip betW'c.ef:l roome,r and t?in'i~'O([l;s,aI1ld a 1'i.:4;;ttl~lnshlp nmfmg sta'~.e~L Weber did IiI.Ott . mohJ the$e l,w~.U,tI.lHQIli;aI. ,demeilts HI~O .~. ~i1IeIG~~ sta.te the(lory. y.e.t, !;J'y £elnooyilllg t!is key 'COi!'tcept~:iJ[ ~(m-

'h~$~on.> Woe. are:llblc ~o do w. ..

Weber's Fem;W"M OOIl1~!I]&e rn'Q ool1 ... el~tioi;i'S of sta~:e st!l'Ei!QI:g!n, .O:::l!~r6:>S~

Ull. ·H'Mi.s ci~e.d q!,l,ote <IS "pem~~f,llItiiOl]!' and ,,' pO',;,o\e;r," WelJe:r ~.:> :nglilt lin

.' .. , ' . that l:iurrearuC;t'<lC)' increased pelletn~;tiQlri bI;!t wrong :hl saymg '!hat .5<1j'JDg . 1:.ii·" - . 1"- •.•. .. "_". " •. -..1 its.imply f]lcDe;1lse~ 1I?()Wii!t.. ~~e was 'COlhruilD!g :00' Ic-c.we, 1~~L~'~l' ...

and di&t~:ibuti.".e dMPi)dr:: power ~ Tl1e'f01"~r IS em,h.a:l11cZIN 1!i}'~llrul\i·

w~a31 stat.; theories; the latle,r" ''''~"~~ e,lI18m. . ._ "

Despf71w pr:r'Ner m:ferS to dU:::~l!.SmbuU""e lP?""e..r of ~,tfJ!(:e eht,~5, :O'o'er '"ll society. l'n der.Lrvc:s from tlte CllIlgeo:f actlpn~ that stare eMe~ can :mdert;;l~e w~'~hOU!1 [,o~tine negoda,ItLon with, c!Vn socJoty Wo.~Ps,' m.t r:!~ri".e~ frong ~h.e bel Ubli't 'OOliyfue stat:e Ri, !u.be:rentl~r(,e]J"~wr.l1.ny ~;:d]Jtranil:ed , :ruWnill:lg 'lWs.efuU soci,!1 liiji1lC1ioiIiL~ !hat feqlLll~ titis io:rm, oJ ,~[gll1!llizilltli.{m and ,tlmt 1deolugK-aI,coo(iO'iItu:, ~!ld. mllutaJypo,",,'cr' ~H::l:QrS:, Qrg.[Ill'~ed ,00 dtitf.e·jj',en:t bases, CillJUiI,ot t,hemse.l"'e.s flld.fili!~; Jil!c'ta~s. loeate.d printarHy widiwii staill:es l1a~e a ~,ft~~n Sp'!liCf: amI, ?nvac~. l~ which to (lp~~ate - 'be d~gree "'lIIf)'IDg.acoooo!l1g lei th.ellb]li.ty 00] ~~] oocr1l!t}' ~'tQ:~s to O.l'glllljze O)emsel"'escentralily t'I:IiI:008h r.epre.seilt_~1JNe membHes.,€orm.al poHtkal pai'de:;:,cO'\.ir~ fb.C"iii.af1~', and se ~orl!h. 'flter coo alt\J;:,rna~~ve~y ..... itldlOild po'We'IS from central: PQliti~ (disclilissed Later) QJ;' undercl!!t slt~l-e· JJO"le!l"8. by 8~len,gtbelling; tiri:u'!c'3fl.:a.t10fl91 reblftJlO;m.'S. abrofid, A stase w.vo:n de,spolic PJwelT becomes 'e'.itber aD :jlIlliIDIU)mQlI)S actor, as (lQ:rl'ha5t.zed try trae el~lism, O'IJ' Iliultipl~ bu~.perh~J'"'l: w:rrfu~eill aulOl1mnOUs, il/t;;ti)lrs., Bccurdling, ~O i~ jnte-r~lal hOIlJl-ogIij!Jh~ity,

. Jiifras~f"j«J:u'i(ii .P()~'t )8 the i~liJU[bion<ll Cll;J?a(:ity. o~ a ,ce~trtd ~latc, d!e-50potico:r not, to, pen~tl'ate its l,e[["i~O(J'ies :ilind 10~lilucany lm'ple~e(IJ~ dedsiolls- This hi, ooll.e:ctiYfqJO''l'I'er; '·powe(lli"Imligh" society, ooo['d!r:t,:R!t· q oociallife t:hwu,gjh :s'i&~e :infrastroctlllie.s,. I[ ide:nt!itle~.a state as a set. 0:1' eenU:aIa:Dd r:ad'ial im!s.tit.utuoos peoot:!'~tilil$ illS, ·liernt.orn.e!l. Because, the inb:almlotm'sil ~owe.:rs ,o:Fmode:rn. states h3'\1'1t: increased, Webca ~m!P':Uiod this. al:willil.c:reased tihe"ir dle::spodc po,weE o~r ooci.ety. :Bu!t thi.s is [1O! liL'Coes,silIIriLy se, [l"tblli5~l'l!lll)tI':lJtd fn~[ Isa '~\O-WilY stU'o:l;[t i111S(! I;:nabl!l!S ,civil :society parties 'W oolltml rille seare, as :Man.is'!::'> "U"I(ff, pa~r3ili~I' emp:ha:£iZ-\li, [nerea:sii'I!t :ililn-a;S'Irl!lctul:I:lIl pow~r does not IWIi:(;ssanly I[Lcrease; OI redru:c6 dislrijhllJti.ve, d,es.p>!J~1c, power.

E:ff~t'lve iilf[a~tn.!lcmra[powe['S" I;tUW¢iVI;:r., do ~pcre:a.se, ,eone~li\'~ Male powe[. BocaWl5e mOIre ,O'E sodllil nr.e is now ,coordiil1at,ed d'irougt state i.1'I!!l!tLtuttons., 'DJiJ~e will iltru'Crun~, mere 'Df :u~, mcwasmg whart migb'i~ b~ ClIille~ the "territO",l'iillll cemtrillrizatio:n" ilr lbe "Df.!luralaadon" of [!i;j.;j~1 l~fe- 1:ll"IfrasbPJl,(l'l!Ir:a.!IJy mQFepoweml mates CI,1I.g,e more social rela'l1iorl~ within. tbe1'r"'Il.3Jtoonal'·' beundaries ;il!i;ld alQog (be radiaU lines o[ ,oontrol betwee'n ,oenter and t~nHories, n1l'~ymcrease ti!!.tioual ~flld g.ctJpolilical ,()l)n~lCti'l',e powers at tlile ~;;:penliGof looi!l-:re_giOiii.8J and! tfaOOli.iltiOi'ial oaes 'i!,(il'lUe leitviilg open the dIlstribu'tioaai q'IJe~ti.(J1I {lif WllQ ~Oi]l'i'(ll'5lheD1. ,,[hus toe explamirl'Ory power of iliistitlllti.MZliI statism. increa.se!l. in the modle:rn :stSlf,e as its Clo:l1'eci.:We, infui$tn.lct.u·i'1rli1 power.s ma<SS!i .... ely'e:t]pBIi£L

LOI"

Hi~

P'IO",dli'ii ImiPe:r:i.alfafl~otut~S!

;. .,

BIll[ea1J e ra,rk.,.gI~"[l1ocrmti.c Amilorit!lriMl

Despotic aad i.Dirastructll!.ral powel~ oombin.e inklrolu ideal. types, as shown io 711b[l: :3.1.

l1te feudJa~ :s~ate oomb~;ned f:g!~Ue d!e8potk and irrha-s-JtmctlJrnl powers" n bad J!jj[l:]e capa.dty to intel:Veliie III soeial life" It hue] co:m;ideil"aib]e l:iu'~"On'om}' in its (lWn 'private ~VJiere blilt 'little power O'll',e-:r Ot through soclety. The medik}';':al ~ing ·posses.sotl '~~;1e ilital'e;u~ w~ hi; househo}d;oj.s: 'W,I"Ifl:ldl'lJbe, Iii,s, estates, ;g£rne.rating hi~ owiii. re"'(Hilu~,.He ool11tcl do as be pleased witbiiTh it, b1Jit ht! wl!]ldi n.o~ do. m!.iJCh to socbe,t}' (;I·u'lSide. H.'h5 n.Jile 'there wru> ilndire.c·~, d.eperullirn.g oilL dDe iinfil:',~tlllJ!CiiUre.s of autenomcus lads, the etaun1'l, ~ful, other louIiPQml·e; I.lodi,es .. His army &:pc.!ld~ .ii'l1i1! tlDelrr le'li'ies:mc:l these might dIe-e:~ilil£ his ordeii'S_ The iIDPeJrial !:.1:ate of ['lome Oli' C1tilm,a .:tilt! "Eulf0iF'Calll abs~aul:ics.m .. apptox.imate .~. The second it1e<!llyp>C, widt prouoanced di!l:spOt!l:l but ~Vf'U~ l.nfras.I:r~raa power. They ,o(J·uild WlI[ "o:!f witI'! hiCs bead," and i~ t~e pe.F.SiJ1Jl was. wiitbj['b range, offc;ffme his ]lead - but f'ew were WIIIhIIl raJl:Iigtl, 'TIIeil' a;ooies were f'oI'mida!bi.e tH.U tended wfrngmelill as g~f'enilVS became r.iival. i:n]Jperi1t1l pretenders, 'The modern WecSl,em lIl!ber:il~·· "t)!i!'~ea1!il;!,n"lk sta:Ce approxiLmat.es ('0 ~be tlI~rd type, wilD. masshll(:; iuf.r.~. struetuees I:{u:,~~y c:o[!troll.ed !by either ,capitalists, er th6 d!e,moc.I1l'Ii!J.o!: process (rn :lihti]! :no'!; y,el jw::l~ Ul'bich), The modem auth(tlrit:a!l'i~!l state[he Sovi.et U:lli(l~ W.h~il at .~ts ttei..gjht - had bofh d£SlpO'~ic powers, f1ild substantial .infrastructures (m:Do!J(gb tflGir ,o!?hl>sim'i W.1l$ less UJI@fi. '>'II~ often ,~Sll,l!m.ed).

From th(; sb::teenth. IJelll,t'l.tr)' on, .'Ii :rnoL'l!arcbiea'U S'1!li,ge. toward greater die:Sp(lt.is.m provok.ed! a ocpre~emaU ... eb'3ct1Mh and m~sive p<!oli.ti~~ oomJi.ct. !BUll inff,ii.<;tru,;;~W'aJ power grew fairly 'OO11!lemlll~l[y illS, 1lIta~3· p!ai[wQk in the 'e:!tjpolle:ntial g:rowlb of the: gmle1~1 colleeti'll'e= powers discussed in Ch,3ptct 1- As Table 3d, indctcate:s. the 1I1LU.lSIJ<llst,r,mg~h I)f modem stal:eS :its iIDJI"3:stJ['l.Ictu-raL Agrarian :st~'~s oo'tlldi not even koow the worth of tl'meir SIIIbjeC1i8. le1 alomi1i tat.'l: l:hell:!'! .acc~~r<;ltel.y, "fIDey cOI]I(I :lilIot tax inCl)llle. at ,tt.ll." assessed only crude indi.c!l~o!i's 'of 1rIi\e;;![tll {s~ze 'of ialllaMldJimg or house, valuf: o-f goods, bifQy;glli~ 1:0 ~3!l'ket, e.tc .. ). alo.di Icliedi on ,eurlQflOIlJj;O'lJrS ~Qcil!l i!.o'tabJe:s lio ,e.it'l1!'aiCt H- Yet i.od.ay 'll:r.e

.'

~ I

,An1IeriC3n and British stares can both ti!lXRUy OWilJi illloome,i!l:Ild ;o;,;~-aUIJi "iiI!t SOl!lr«"" - tlley 1:no''''' :my !lrpp,mxi.maJt.e w.l)ftb _ a.nd e.x:tmct thei:r "'lilt wlin!hOJ,JlI my ev n laying hallds. C!\11i it. Wboe'li'eiJ cun1:ro!s these: stal.e-8 M6iil1llTIllil!e~.YIlll.ore control over me; than a,,~ra!!'.ia.:nl MilI~:s had ov-er ~y ancesrl:m-S. As HI;ll!!l'~groili (:U. 96R: I )ob!'>et'l.red, tile B.ritis.Il.V.·$ .. , and soviet ,(bef'Ore 1991) ;g,tat~s'9ire(e more Simibll[ to one another thlllill either were to h.isrorrc"tI;ltes: O[ to mafllY star!.es .in de;velopill& roUritrier> ._ "tilite gove:mHlef!llt ~o\,(:il:ns." 1tctuall.y i1lt!!pleme<llting ,c8brl.ne1!, p~idC:fi!tial. or [P·o1tiltburo die.:.crm'Qf.!$, <C1iL..1fiilbIe or fa.t.mQre ]:lower mo.'b:ilizat:~Dl at bomoS and abroad t(b,_ were- titeit hItsil:onc pred~~~{\!!:$.,

BU.I: not (l'liIl)' :!lta.te iinirastru.ctullIeS- e1<l:ponded. A r-.evo]Uiti.a1l ill (:Qn~,"IJIVie power itogiililic:>. incooitlsed theilltf~trli(..'ltuJ!iLII Felll.etratiOl'l of all .~\!ielr orgailizatiO-llis. eivin. soriiety'~ cap~ty to control the ~~a;te ·also .i!n¢J:'<e3:sed. Modsnb sod.etiescnnit<'io both authQritM.ian :s<t<.!te-s" effIWtively do:mililJatal!lg ,everyda.y :Ujie ~n th.eiltteIrilo[i~ ,e..,".;· ~Q hii>icO.ri.e states did)l, .and! !IiI\e!lilJiocratio-p.axty f>uues:, routi.ncly contron~d by cl ..... ii. society (3.:!l l:IiJlIy smalt dty~gt~te!ii bad bt>e'll p.reviOl!lS:lty). This spcUled the end :fnr ~taltes iJ(ll the upper Mt. porti.onm Table 3-1 _ ~ut(lnlomow: .. and faiJrIy OOk:dve., yel (eel!l·le,enjioyhig privaey (vu.mca .... il oociety hut lillnle ef:fu~,. hve .power over it. MoJem statesaad d; ... j;1i s.oo.i~ti)es lnterpenetrete ItQQ liC;billy fbr autonomy witnoot ;pow,er ..

TI:I!~s. IDlllddlies. Ol!llt' anaDysu .. GirV,,"liI !Suet! interpe.netJjEl;!'i:olll, where dees the' state .e.n,m! and civil sQ;Ciety be:~? The state· is no longer .:<1 small, pdvare central place amd ,e.lit·e wirl:h its ,c:nWIl ra~iorallluly .. "J[''' ,pootiilils multiple illl$tiUIUQM and tenua!::les: :sp.I'aW'liing [rom the oe!f.l"~rl1lro~8b. iIB t.eFfiiJ.-Ofl.e:>, even. sometaaes through trnn:m.at.iOlillaD space. Co.n'\oi¢:rs¢lly, cl .... i.1 society Moo· Ills-comes fi!IJr.' m.og;'>e .i:i'(d.itiici~ecl. t:Rlan :UllIlhe .pi;lSlI:, scl1Ldli,liIg: our di!letse !.afclmg parities: - pressure; groups: al!ld .po.litiCll~ pa.r!ies- into the ·v:ar.i1JIIJ~ places of the state, ~:> well as: 'ootHanking it itr~nan(nutlly. Modern PQl!·ti~aI poW€:r as place aDd a;ct.w. i~t!f'Ulotu:re Ui.nd. despoJt, elHeand partles is dtli!JI, e'OlII.oel!'llIln.fil; ooth. !ill ,ce.nte.r, w.ith its IiI1l!IIJlii!p~e pOWe:l' particular.ities, 8_00 CGl1Lte['-re:r.rit:QQ'Y re]a:!ioIilS, wiJtIli. their poweil:' .p~ni.wJa:r.i!l:ie.~_ •• Its" coh.eiito:Jl is alw~~ pw·tiHematic. OnJy iIn one re~~1 is ·<tlle :S:18.t~·'· :s.inguDar: As. inmilimJ(:~llI['al. interpeBel!:ration increased. "it" ~ended to "lDlari:J!lr.aill~e" sooial I1.fe. Thc"'power'" '01" the Iill.Ood\er!i state pdri6jn1lUy COllrelt':ns: :!l0'~ '~S~8tt;lJ ;ellites'" ex:err:;:~i!'!i!!i .PQW;;1J u.e:r oociety b~llI~ .ilI. tighl:ell!illlg s;tat,e-sooety ;rela.non, cmging social relatiOO5· O<l,IIe:r the 1ilatiO-Hill! [lither than ~e toc~I-[@giliJIl3i! or trnl'lsnatiQ!i'!<!! terrain, th~polhJid,~~I!ig alIDd gc:opol.itkizing rnr mO;r<eo:f seclal . .life tb:lllJ had~ earlier states,

Suu1!ing fromWebe:r in this sect~l'):[i I idenl:ifiedl the ioslimt.iO"fii!l1 PlIFticu]31'ities shared by all staoes. Ilben ad.d!ed 'i:be pmi.CU:Ia:rhie!l of ~em natiD..n-sIt.'!Jte~. Be]'iOliJd ~Ilae broad s:imilar~!lies star~~Sl willi dirfl':er

'Potitital PartiCllI~d~iic stalHivll
ili$liJitlltonS Despc# !~~te wcUliy Mll~1 Do!!ljoant tbSSe5
Supreme Ahroluie [Jionmh, Eil\~ ~M'.ourt &U~ Embedd'¢(! in feud~l-
ete({I!!vt dynasty g!clreglme C>lpitalist!c :society
Jmic~r)i·f"lliee hil'1I1ate~ IQYaI roullJ ~m.bMded in cOrpwale Em~ded In P'~Y
. legal p~ore!Sion md law
Il!!iversities FunCtiolUl lQr ,~~tiilism
Civil fu~~laled oo~ (if Embedded in ol~ rtg1mt,
admlnl~tlauvn r.o~aI (I] bUi~uC!atic Mil' pror~5~~ii:I~! and
~Ilida~ unrr~fiiti~i l, Pro¢rty iuaclli5e
r~liies, One-paily fe~mes Liniile.d le~s]~tul~!,
BSsemblies (nonoln (his peiilQd) !livi:&: ~d rule, p~ 2. Ca~taJiM limits. {Ii
~liB~thi~, ro\lrt pKl'Hameataij
in!rlgull !Over~gnlY
Dlplolilaey 11I!\lJ.alsd "$Ia1eslI1Ilo' E.mbeddGd in old [e~tl Em~M in profi'Jrtie~
d~
Military !~uliled C1l51~ Bmbedded ill old regime l!inlledd~ ill propel1l~~
and otl!~I pml~lari5lic d~~j~, WWIlIa'b!e i0'
gr~ Iii\iill~~ u~ti\'e!
DesjJll~t~iI'el H'gIi Mellllum Low
.J. liIS~i\]!i~MI siatlMn. Cl~s!
ThiOry af slate True I)liil$Nt~1l!1 OJn5li!ij'~~!iiiny etllb~d ill Gstalts, pafti~IDtniS; rnrporatt privileges

C:noil clti:!.erOOip (iIIdJ.vid,$! ~iid coJl)«tI~)

M~riiocill& b\lN~\!vraey

aiiSWerabl~ !(I ,lItt&n01S Poli'lical cii.il~!h[p

Allswerab~ i~~arUamentll

J.,0w ptUrnMt

:;' ... ~Midea.(lb[)'. acoor"d:ing W Itiime .and, .pLace.[n thellext s.ecti,OilJ J g,o into .. lDiJl'.e d'et<ill •. ro list the main polldeal m~ihutIDl]sof w,e:stem soci'c:ti£s d!Jl[rill!,g th·(:· ).ong :nin~t~e:~th OeJilitlllr:y, begi:nif:l.iing wid) ~h.o,se invo1.l'ed i:1!1J .' dO'tnestic :poUc:r·

.Do,"reJri'C policy

T",ble 3,2 ghes tbe mOlijor imHh.n.iom;s, oi ~.eill.·tJ!,aJ: .l!l,o.yernmeilt (I de ,in l!aii:e.r- wittiJ ~ntrall·II.OC'lil gO'llermne!:!lt :reblitioiIl!!» .. The: :first oolumll liMS t])e illlS'ODt!!iJ aloll5 , and the re-m.aifli]f)g: co]l!Imml an .. I)I2e who., c(mtroi:l, them _ w'lth the aid (IIf a distillction be'l'YI'een "ms'Ul.iatoo'; i!l[l;d. "embedded' poowe>i'. Fbr a stale l'ID' !be despOil:i.c (as in '!['\le eiVJit.Lsm), i"~ netl't"Q.rk::s must be :UfiSlIl.a~·ed fromdvil . 'oc.ietJ{ (!'IS Knl,SifleJ' arglU:edl ~rred in foreign pgiliCY). CoJumn 2 .~fiS't:s :ti'o.rms: ·Q,t ]!lSulatloll thart might free ti!l.e state dli!e from ci"l.<i.] sodet.Y prC5SUf'~, 800 illtere:!i~·. Bu~.if ;£tal'e instil:utioll'S ,9!r,e."embedd.edH ~n civil S"Ocie~JI, they wJill be, ,vol!.t.!'lD·lIi!ed; as classand plulrali:>t. tboor.i'BSargll€: (ooQ1.'lii'ilLI'IS 41, !im.t.! 5).,

iH3.!lIt full ifespoitllS!Illi and oompl-e'le il1J5u]!3IIi-on are !JI!lilike.l) ,Be!;;al..l5£ '!~e state is bo-tih Oe«:t!l·er and :Fe.lai:h)t.lES I:t¢t;w·!i:C111. censer and ~er.l'i~Qry. ;1If1,I!O!l]omy wo;u.ld reqldre its t·erdto:rial r-each as wel[ as .u'S.cen~er ~o be illf!:m:l:u·ed. Moot fundiamelflta[ Oif aD ,the st3ite's .reSO!!I!r'C·B bass ~ liS fiscal am.d manpower Detworkspe:netr.al!:itl!g tll:!'Du!f!;hout dvil. sociely - M.,w:;t be i!lllSllli:aled from. civil. :;ocietyc-O.l1itrol l'eit such i:I!lLsula1ti[!l:n IlIIt~ bccn rare hi5"liI)ri'ctl~}r. Raisirig iJ:'eveilllili.e and! troops. nor.mally nlql[Ji.IIFGld (tile nelp 0"[ roca:l-'rE;!lIOElaiJI ntll:alb!es .. Imsula:,ji,{)lfD. became even. rarer in ~hispef.ilod. as pl).(Jii.l:ica! re-{!'reseil1~t~.on developed ~ ."i"med p:~cisely a!~ ·cootromng suclJJ ~~:al"':d. m;lllr:lrpOlWere:I::a.C:l~o:rn.tS.. iF.~jI.UI :!i;I'3.t~alltodlo:m1' ~r !~l!Ifuil:iO\fI.; as 1!opecilUed :m tile second ooIlI!JmII of TobIe 3 .. ,2;· amiJI .by' me true clutitst.. ~eall!st !flI.eorh:s, is unlikely. Ilpr-eslJliP:poses iinsi:I1stioa alf III oo'u.m!!il I msMtu,tions. It is m.Qro mihl)' that OOm'C are reil1Uively ~n$II.d,a~e:dI .• others emboo~e;d m dOOlJlllillaDt cla;ss£~. aild stiU o(hen Inplll1ra.l ]JOWe::tT netwo'rl!'..s (cJ. DomJ:U00f!fll'900: 26-8). Thus, tJj)e ~ta~e would he i.e108 wl1~lllii: than .any.CD,f .I.!te first three moore.Jflka] ~choo~:!'i !mggesl:s .. IilSJ1I!IM:liml .. :ildl .o:il!!lOnOftr!,"y ml:gl1t lI>ep;o.-s~es~ iby P.'UlS, rnther t.hau b'.'( aD, ,of the Slti!IJle.

. ~1io~ plaillsib-loe is a ·"me:dillm.' !level. of d~tic power, s:~ecitliedi in t~e H~«l!. oo~u:rnn. ~nlilie tLiislitl!!tiil.l.m. ma,y be ,e,mbedld.edl .. in more PMt)l:u.I<'l!l'1sl:J;c clvll :soc.te:o/ 'p"",,"'e:r a~n, as in 'Weber's aceouns of the ~u!l]ket' .purt,.-. Acwrd!urirg flo hlm., 'bhe G-ern~n, m.ol"i3ochy had mu.clJ ilrl!I"lOa'lQJm:y frum cap:iItanu!li!s :i.I.mtd! fFOm. tlie citlLemy lin i!l,en.eran. bern.'lliSC it had ~~fIl!ltOO. a~~."icun.msm:i;c !liUiancs wI.llh tile J ~de:],iil, .. dass :ff:cmIRe.li1.j' do:mm:tlI"lJt 'j!)! society.. ;now g:r:e.atlry d.!:;dimed in. 'l:oolJID"mic power. ~luough

II

s1jU,11 OO:r1l!'W]iul,g IlTie m'ilita[YlilIil~j_ moot ci",ilian ministll1,tls" 1"'Ii!rough par- ~ liculadsi:ic:, em.t.w.d!dea. amm.n~e regimes may auain moderate ~nsul.atio!ll it and i1Jl!I,t.(lllomyfrorn ·ttlle broader sociru th.Fces .spec:ifiicd.~y cl.as~ tilnd il plll.rra]is·t theodes. Re.gimes miiLY di.",l.dle ~nd ["ule to 'serum patticul.ar.istic ~ :segmental.dlie.s, .po]iUcal in&iders., and to ,eIlCOl!Jrage "QUI:;" ~(l.i1loderate " their opposition in. tihe; Elope of getti.ng back to .. Of OOIl.rS1e, tneballiltce " of [MYwer t:ontaiilled in ~.l'iis al~ian.ce :l1I,a.l' W(i'l'k. in th~ op[J!Osi.~~ dij;i~l~O!'i; } Tbe !pan'cIIIa-listie civil! soeiety ,gl'{l:t,lrp may effe:cl:ivcly "rol[llIliz.e" part "i. o-f the Slate, lIs]ll1g iIl again!Jt other state elites or m()regell}[l]""8] :pOowt"r ~l actors - 8S, for eX<lmplc. :ill the h:is.'IQric eontrel ex{!['C.is;ed by Ameriean ~ :so'kMUliem [piJILitlciOlills. embedded. illl tile m'I::Foro,u!J·plulll.er oligJlrcl'Iies 101. S!iYl,ithem :;~h;n:; over ~he co~~$ioual committee shl,iCllilfe (DOPllhojf

1 Sl9tJl: :)3,. ltiJ4-5}.Coh~mn 3 lisl'S, tile maim [pauic.t]]aris"l:icembed!dea 01:

emii.CI!wiaH·ed segmelitail allililnoe.~. fmmd in O"le long '1]if:l!elteC1i!Ui ccmm:y.

The ]lr.;t row :lin "]'atiJi,t! },2 dJe:alliSwllh the S"~p~eUl"le ,e;'(ecuU"'e, tile ~~ chief mode! lor U'Ufl ,ditiiliH'ea~ist tllleoFY. Here .~s wheee we mi.gh·t ~; exre>et true elite irt.itonomylo center, An state oon:stitutions then (as ~ no,w) cord'er:red ,eeJ:liaiUli pD'I'fll::rS, 011 their chief e;>;,eoutiv'e, ,especially (M ~

Chapter 12 fe"l.reals) in .ror.e:ig:n policy .. Most Weliltem ,executIves. we-Ii!! ..

eme['ging from an absotnctis[ phase aF mOliiar,.;h.y, :l(!!i~· XIV'!; "L 'I!Jt1l:. ~ r :

e'es! Inoi" ()on~·a:itlled. three t:tTlillis. AltJoolu!!:e rulers posKssed. mort; ~ dcs!fWtMC power 11"1 all ~(mstituti()nal 1:l!lonar.cll~ or n:pi;lbl.ka[;J~'£eru~;~",..~t;,. ~ 'C(ln'6tl.tm~(Jit:l'5. mauer. as ·(x!iDlt-e:mJPO;ra:riesbelie .... ed ,f:t,illrEluchilig driff~l,e((jj! c!l.egrees of state alllli!O['!.Omy. Sccl)rad;ili ,~bsoltil:te <lind! late! itl aUdiQ!,in.dan .monorcl'lies, more depended QIiL tln.e a!ili~i!;~r;, and e.nergies ,,;f tlhe :m.oIl~rc:n or the duld mbl"l!i..:sum; to WDQ.11J mcmarcR'5 d.elega,Wd powers.

AB hiSl.Oriam; H'!fe!I. tbe talents of ar :M:a]'i~ Theresa (Jf a Dism.awk; (oOowidlerill:Jole) Q[ a Louis XV] 00[" 0 Betil:mi.ium·HoUlweg (Ilc~~ible) :mOl'dea. dirl1ere·m:e - more :;;0 tlII~ll. did the ahilities of aCl)!l~]hllltiorl1aI monarch 0.1"' even orEs. parll.i:trnent.a~y prime mluister .. 'Ihird., 'u::lI'cdit'~'!f mcnarchsaac tliLeirr fnom:ilies w,erelmiq,i,1!e 'in mot be:ing .~ .r·elali<i!ft" ship betweeu <Oeti~er and ·Ier..~i.tmy. (b,r they actually were celllra!!z.ed actors, CQ.lIIsiitubo:g. a ,ouit·e., ills~II.Ua;l.e-d stare elite; wi~n th.ei.r ow!i1 powc'r p~rtk·ularitie!!.,

B.ut to el'l'ercise power over roc~ety" mQlIl.a!rclig; had to 00!"l:1:1'01 further s~:ate institu1tiollS. At 1ih6 ceater they lieil!ied 00 the cQ~rL COurtiers wen l!5l!!aily ariseeerats, bjgb. clertes, and mifiJiklry CQmmun,de."C'5, embedded Jn the (la;mini!il'lt elass, i"1$ claCSlS tlIeory a:ssert$. MOID;JJrcl1~ sou;gh~ to roU!lll~.e! th!!! el11beddlingliiy segmentally di .... ,jdiing anti luling, us.:inS lUIl1l!ll;d chem networks ~O' .spait the domi.oant class into llO:)';11 "in" and di.sr]ace.d "ollf' p~rti,e..s. A:J SOt;;-le·tj' ,and <!i~iite 'became motte II,H"ui!,\'el'lla~isii.'c. liJ1is strategy shiflet! to ,embedd!ung 1I!l0:trlaUh~.fH:I cm.l!rt in t11e. oild re~illlle., 3 ~.lflLlft-ce:ilteredi p:arty 1Ili.lance be!tWlll'li:rn Dllon.af'Chmd

64

tIlte {dd liIII!Jded,n::rnitl.er da~, p]us the ho.eoJ"archiy of eSlabfu!h!!1:rl ciIll,!!:<,cU1ecS and me o:ftk:e:roorps"

'Ille ,o~d regime domJflJal:c.s, moM of ooh;rmn 3's .s.emlliirnsulll.tijo[!~. ,],b:~ "p;li['I.y~CllilmiNdite;'· ,s-uMved wel1inno Lhie twentieth, oe'.t]llllry l{ ~ :Mayer 11981 has f:o:rcefn!llly argued). It rematoed. more :iirnlPOr~:am: ill 3!lJIibmit:ni:iilfil I1IiiOIil.:iucnies. Yer even oonstitlJliooi;l.] m.on~[c.hies; ret.1Iil1led ,(!lad! regime~ges. aad !repuJbl~ ,iilXllIibiJl:ed"o1d" ele,1iiLe1lJJts - "RepublicM ~o'tOible-:s.!" "the 100 (QI' 200 or 4(II(P~f~milles," "'the Esl:.l1J~I.is.hmenl:,·' aad 'chc like. [11 all, ooontde:s some politica[ ,poo'Wer was or is w:ie~ed by <In ""lIppelr class·'"' ce-1iI~;;:l on "mel mOIlLe.y,," I.ISWl~ly £flPded 10]" 'oilloikiing;, coupled wi~h n,aditIDIIiiIIl starl;l(IS - ~mile l:enD, "EsitabGiisila I!rten~" colilveyS its role i.m Britain,. and illl relation to t'oU"eu,gD'l .polie)' 1Jj]<l1ci._ng in Amer:ik:a. O'Jd ~.g:iirrlile:s retained ooru;irrl\e'rable ljl1.liwei!':S Over dmp1~C)', as Ohapte:r 12 explicates,.

-C[<l!~5 lh.eQ:risl:S a r,glJl~ th,a1: old ~e~.es became illC~rd~Gd as a fr,acti,'ooin~o rhe ,if!!iQ'$;u;ilDi,g~Y dumrniOlj)t ca:pi~'oiII.I~:!ll cilla.s.tS" TIwygh pllllralitlu: .have rarely applioo tlil~u theory to [londemm:ratic !:egim~,. plur-al power ne!tworks; 1l:U!.), abo bave pel"l'lid:edl e'\l\eD'l ab~O~1:e mD:Il!IJ£OOies .. AlnO'h,nists were pre .. ssw-ed b~t multfrplLe ~;lilt6:rest gr.oUf,!{l ilIJod! so granted iP'O"lhicaI rig}ltll!S and p;riivilege.s bey:ond. JOIiOdle:d ar.iiswc.racy ~nd ,c:o!lpii~amist.s"no clllilJrch.es: and [~O lesser estates - m:luii.cipa.~ities" po¥OIf.essiofl:ll! oocilu.es" u]}e:~dJ;a!'It ooltpo-.I'atio:DlS Ol!!];<i g!!lUds, e'V>eJ!I to lfJ'easaJlIt f'8nners" ]iike ooul1ie-r.s.rbi::~[' priv.ilegef. were pa·rtirnl,u1stic, <lind thei;r po]mtics: rended to fll!.(:a:]OTIJa], sepeO:l:a1 iintri,g:ui~. Subsequent ehaptees in 1lhis ·'!ro~l.Ime ,e"j.'ruu:a~i3 ·tlle.se 'i:bu;;s and 'pllJiJraliist views of the old irel!l~.me.

The s·e~"Q!1d H),,"' of '1'ah!e3.2 ·ooru.'eiInS jlJidl~dai;"poUioe iosti,til.l~ions - law courts and, l:8!w-enf'o~me!'!J. ~gettci ... s, -In this Feri.Qdp@]»t;;~ forces emeu;gedi. dli&'t~t from. armies b!.!li!. Vi,ewe RJ)tmajiIJ,r pow,er' p]aye~. (:S~ Cb.ttpk:r 12.) Larw OO:uJiIJtS IDatlel'ed more. La,IN .had] a citu:il role: exptesSUI1!,g, t:m..e mcuareh "s 'WiDl, )'~l ;;Jilso emb"Odyi!IDg CU5G:o.m:ar.y and djj.iv~rlle la.w" The ~MliOLrclt migllt ~re''\i:f!:i[ i.n hi'S 'IJIr he:!' ilhtigbCSJt 00'1I1l"1, Dutlll;l<W\el" jlUs"til:l~ was diisp'~d! b,i (I[ ln c:oope:rad'olml wi'll] LOCa:n...le,gi;Cl:ru!d notables, often cnu(\cll IJJOt:lllbles. Eu,,'o'~e w-as a la.w-gove-rned. 'COOJiiID!!ii:l.iitj'; even aJb.-.sClOUul,e. ro]e:rs (Il~d not llke to- be seen. i!lil1m!m;gil:l.g Law .aDd! ,cu.:sl,o:m (Beale.;s :t '981: 1). Its, ih'Y'b!rid ch8r.aci'e[ made law '" c·enitr.fll site of ide:olQgiical stJililggte and .~ave ~aWY'lUsll. COifijllOT,I:I:e, Went~ty :reducible to lle1!the!1 ;Ilil:aJre nOr ,d'lli[ ,soc:iet.y. MO'.DIill"cbll. gll'Mtoo lawyers ootpUfl'Ijl!e: privileges :seeldngmo reduce titeir oocial embeddernllless., 'The iFrc-,och. moooll"Cby we.nt ,~. fartlTl.est,graJ!1!ling; p~temts of nob<iililycarry~ng. m:i!ll:e.ri~1 .pri·j/ileges. {iwhleu.e .dIg ,Sa ro.&~) :f!u,d [':~gJtt:;; to co!p;ilfOlJle @S$e,m.lilies: (p.artements.). The ,t:oIlapse of 1ibeh: pmicul.uidistmc aillia:ncern me 1 f8'()s was a [J.ec~ary prr'ecIiYJilI!:iIiltim'l! Qf the Fr'1i:mm Re'VOh,U::i~!'!, (See OIlapter 6.) The 8i.!cce.~ o.f this dillspotic ~miimulatiii'J<l!I stnuegy ·\'3d-ed .. In :so.lliIe

stares, la.wye:r~allld courts ,:lllied w.itlll despotism (at; in Austria and P,:Ji]~ia); in some, w.itlh its enemies; (a~ dt]dng, the AmerJ:CtlJil Rnd! Freblch ~e'!;l(llllltiO:ilI:;;)" If jllldid""-' :lllstli.!.Uim,s ae'1l'll'ired a ~d.lde autonomy, ilm:ig,_!lu Olll occasion be their QWII." nOI the sl:ale',s.

Risblli:J ,e,~glilteenth.·oeli1lhuy classes :mdill'!.er¢.5t grffillps aimed IJ'iUoCD (II~' ttiteir ·energy at 'Ille ~.)W,~'!] sec'tJire [tile fjrS~ of 1" . .H., M<IlJS'hali's triuMvirat\e of citizen right·: civil dtitensliip. Tiley demanded j-l1Idicial rights :!brindivi.cDuals. Il(l~ f:orconecliv,ul;iJcs. Old regimes proved eo. 'Ilj)e;rac:iite because !:li'i!ey w-ere heoomilig capitlll:itst t~emseh'es, 'readieF FQf 'that equaition of personal and property rigll:ms labeled by C. B. MacPbie:rwll. lies "possessive illldi'liidlJaIi5l!lll." MOl1lardu were also reek. ing to d~ilop moee '~m .... c,rrlilil ,ool!l~r.ac~~l relatioaa wHb tll·~iir sil:lojecn!i. Modem. States beganto elnoodi.y\'V·eber·';s "'rational.:ne;g:al domi.Il!Hl!I:)I!I'·' (Poggi: 1990: 28-30). Ttiere WliOS little head-on classcoJ!.liM'01l Over imii ...... idillal ,ci",i~ rights in ~Ii'li:s period (lII.nlillie earlier ce(ltJl!l!i e 5.). Old Je,g:iRil,es became ifn,elio,nalized as Jis:illg classes pressured, CiviH<ilw codes Were sometimes promu,lg:il:c:ed] i)y absolere 'ITIo!l3lrc.hs. tbe~se~,.,.o.s, But the ]ugllJag:e of bw ooocos was I1Ill1ivef8ru even if desii\loedto protecs m a leproFen~· holders Cud' sometimes the dominam etbilll.C 'OT religious COITIIIlJIIII!Ety). Law had! emergent power, I.Isdll!D for ,e:xtel1.ding, the ,rights o()lfDo'We:F' elasses :reli_gjiOlil8 OOfltiU!J!nitil..'!i5. ud! women. For a tirne leg.<ll Qi:g.IIrnzatlofllS - 1I<!ilf Inside, half outside the ilAile - exerted :radi.c:al pressures.. Aiter about 1850, ]!O'wt:......-er, they bec<!!ltte conservanve, w.e.<!(i£¢I to. w~'ta,~.e\l'er ,collilbiriHltIofn Qf ~)~d .l'eg:imes, ud caJ,piU'llisr classes had been i:lls1it!;ltjQilallz·cd. lLlali\'kh.nal civil ,eitiz.emihip pro'i/,eda b31r.r~er to the developll.ent of further ,Qol1'e~li v ~ ci.vil and 'political oil:izm. ,lights.

TIlLe t.ni:l'd row Ifl 'F~llbk 3.2 o(;I)IDCeffili civil :mmrnistral'iloJL Apa:n: :Ilr,om judiciilll and rniUi3rYlilClivities, previOI!l!s, states had not adJililiIlliis.tered rnuclt; lhe[]! lli:[1;e~ee:lJJlBli-celibLU:}" sD:ates ~;re'attly ine.rea~edl their iJl]:fra.S!:rucfrl!lral 8'OOpo. BlIl all. 8taie:5 need li!';Car and :manpower resources (38

.e'lli. 19'88 'emphasizes_), D-etipt)tjsm eequlres that revenue i!Jl'id! expenditure aUlo.caoo[J[ he j~05l,!!lil,e:dftQ,m ci'!l'il soc~ety.. Royal domains alld ·reg.i1ian :rights (e.g: .. ; slate Qw;oers'hipol[' mining rights ,ane! the right to sell economic monopo!iei) bad conferred. some revenue insulatiorl, as did. anciern.t, inslilutiolilal:j,zed :forms; of t:u::liiocrl, 'War malkj:ng was a statept.t:Jog;ative ,ilad success'flll war might i~cre,a:so Fe'l'eIl;!lIe tllroilgil boo~y and usilllg the· army to coerce at home (tIIl;Qughl!llrnslJC'4;e~.f\!ir war might dioniiSl:iJ powers), 'Few eq!1!h~e~nth.cerrlllJry tti;UIII:lLrrchs· hi!l!o to submit 1;Il~dgcls to pa!ll:iamellill.. Yet tior 'Ihe in,c;re;ilse<i sc:iI1le of l!1o;:!em w,ariare, . traditional insulated revenues proved !IISIIJt1icie:IIII:. New OOfimiS o.f taxaJiO!l ~Illd DO,l"I'owii1l!,l; embedded ,adimilllis!\l"ali.oit$ ,~J:D()!Jig tax,pllllyeu and: C'Jedh:ors,!ihou,~1lI :pa;rticuLiirislie alliam:ces, · ..... itb ta...: farmers .and

68

sprawled, 'ID'hoy:sa:lfId;s;, t~en miUli'o'])s, of d'v:hl :>eI"l'IUlt~ im:p.~eme;ii1Ited poli,c),. Technccracy ~~d bureaucracy is ~Iili,et,emlt speci;;I,I'LTZed and mI.!lUipLc"in'we;l!;S~iIl.~ '5~at'e com.pJexi'U)'. a:s s.1te:s:sed by coClk-up,-:Fnul.up themy. Notltling has rWu)re 'md;s~ed .lfllilll,)'s.i's. of 8ctlll,fd :;!!:S!k:~ thi!llli Weber's notion ~f llIl1Ioooorutit: b1!lre~l,lIorac}'. State lIdmini:l:IJiaUOil almost never hnms a single, bareaucradc whole+

The fourlh row in Table :3.2 concerns ,Iegisnati!l'.e: arssembl'!e;srmci patl{ies", ] extend the term h't:re" 8S W'ebe~' did; to iudicilt,t: []jot JUSI! polil:iica] parties [)llJJtaJ!), p'rcS5U!J¢ grol!lPi'" Ab~illt1isDil did not forman), a~knowledge pani,es, and (lAnl~k:'e :in ~he tweiil'~~etb ceID:tUl:Y)' 'I:ne:re were no, al'!eumpt8 'ID rule dcs:po'iica]ly thi'O'IJ,gl! .sitl,gl\e-IP;;[ro/ HlglmCt>. !l3l,lt e::;recuti,..re attempts to' Itllldid w]J' p:Mi!ICUI0iJ1ast~r:: Emlbedd:edl :iL~IJi;ano~ promiCerated segmental factioIlI> "(lim:po~-d of court aad pittl!~mei1ltQry cliques, embodyin,g ]ntr.iglllii.Dg.beh~nd·sl.ad,Js clle:nt'e:n~sm. More formal and often h:Sli scgm,'!:nl,Ed were n~¢ :fo.~i~tal ,~o:l1itical pairti~ e:me!!',gi~g in the I:1iDflIeteendil century, cnllioling diffuse ,dwil ;5Q'(:be1!)'ac1!orn to cmH'ro] ::llIi!J!!e e:;:eClU:ti es (and. each orher) tibrruIlJJglil Ma_rshaU's "J!olitica~, cihzel1- ship."" 'iFhiis cstabJisJaed 5ovt:re_ign legislatu'Vc assemib'l.ie!;, elected secretly by w,rus[J:[lig [[,il[ii'lclIJ1s.es:, l!Isualily enshrined in 'COO!l<t!tll,l,ti'OllS. These ensare thet llliod!WiIlWes'lenil ~taQ:e.s: ace demoeratie, pIYJr~lis~, ~llle:rt-

Yet polincal (:i.ti~e(l;Slbtu,p didl not advance as. smoothly a'S, Maf,HIial1 amplied, AlItIlQril;iir,i~ri, eXl',;ic!.!i'lii\'es coujd dirride and rule belween faetio:m;1iI1iId ]:itlrt:i;e,s, iilJJI¥in~I;ra!t'lih:;lI:larrii>IJ:ically ;;[ii1tcl :seg,mei'U<1Uy with pill!r~ oligardhiii;'l;S, of notables, O;!;OSl;jUM:lQml :311.5;0 had emccr,ll/ent properties that could p.r\';v'limt flllnner citiz-en developm.ent: •. Propeirty ~UiId ,gei'iide!!:' :resni'Gtions: '0'0 :IT~mchises remained to tbe en~ oil' the period. as did restrictrons !IJ~ tti'ge :5O'1"e,Teignt)l ,of .aiS'ileml)lies, u: "eIllJl!r.ElXIil:titl~dl" !;(Ii prolEd title [_gilts of th.e ,t;;Qll~l:',aCi:ung panics, comi~.:llItiOOls proved F~ijstaJjIl; to social cl1:ftJnge. The U,$- Coo~~~turl:il(!jn pireserved ,a Ii:.dJeraUc:ap[l::alist. lilberal state across two oenturtes inliO very differ nt :5:oci,,[colld~l:ion:s. oosi<s,ting mevemenes dem.Al:tl1d:iillg aJ:~lecti'\lle: and soeial ,dtizeu rig,l1!D:s. ' he (1.llflw:rlt;t~n)Bl'itish oonstitl1i]o:J] '1O!!Iltp;:;n.ciJ!l?-d pildi~l1itellt:ar.'l" sovereig.IJt)', which iPrn5'eFV'~ :IIn:I:aW,ely ,c,eutraUized, lwo"'iP,a:rty slta,te,.

ManritS.ts also. 'n:g,u,e, ~hat ,p2it'ties. and! assemblies are limiteld ma more ~U!t!ll;!aIDeilta~ cs;e~re by the.ir dependence or!e~pi,t!l!lism .. MO'.!l~ 'p'QI~ti~'.<ig pG,wel' <llctor~ in this period 'limlk¥cd property rignts O!I!nd ,c.OlilIiitm;od:iilY IPI'OO1!Iciii.oD were "na[uir,al,," The:~' ra!l:'ely eonsldered ~iIlCl'oaclliillg on 't~1Ie1'1l, But even ihIad they tried, tllc:iit :powen mij;ght !hay~ been liii1itect:!" 3S ,,;:apit:alist !wl;:tlmu~:i!ftklnpi1"o/l;l~ded !heir O ..... n 1l't::S():I,:nt~$ (fl''> Off:!:: :3JIud Rouge 19.82 ernpliiil5.l.:,ej., 'Fh:Ei> L~, :Ii key MR[X1Rii :i!lrgu.:~nerit ag,~um:t bOIJl1J true ,eLi~ist :and p]l.I:raliS'~ posiitmmlls. Nci.thc:·r state e]iles "OJ ,a[ltiC1lphali~~ 'gl8'l1ies C::n!I abrog,M'e the ·'I.i:m~1J8" 5ll:t by the iilIe.ed! 'For ,ca,p:itll~ist accamalaii()iUl, they Ofg,Uoe' (shore of nmlJlTltog a J'e'i'QII!I:!ion). I ltla'lfe ~Irelll(l)'

suggested t9<i!l states hadQnJy Immiiled cbiillrilceS 'Of ,ge-Ji:tfl::clting ;tlleH' Ow.n iilldlcpe"deillrt:fi~31 r'e:sO'Ii1il'~!:s" 'IbiS, ~I.iPJMlins tke Mania!l'll argument_ Tbe modem. state ,.mid 'cu:yst1'llIhz.e as capit!lJli:;n, th>ou;gU .n!l);~ (rnly .as car~I:lI!I~.st.

Foreign. policy

!.Ilte, f:irt~h ~l'id si..:th fftVi's in T~ib1Je ;3,.2 QOficel"fI. diplomatic am;d mill~ta.ry ~1Il&~ltUtlO'm;,. As.~ h~~-c: p:rev~O:u;sly .(X!'iettir&cized {im eSiSial)'$ .reprimledl .I~ Mi!llnlil_l~8~; ,c~ .. G.uMe:n:!l 1985), most stase thsory has n>egkcled, d}j;p.~~m~~Y8nd mllltruY.ptm'eI:_ Yet st<!l~:'l ~riItJJaJbjt .a 'm:J(~ld(rf g,t:<ll~e'.s., omlJllIJu!I1I;!l ben~en war ill_l""Ull peace, A,~.rnr!an sJt8J~S ~~d ar Ieast

tliitJree_..quollJ_r.t~~O[ th:dr :":~e.n.lll.e~_·"? maik,e w~U"~ and theil:" milil .. ~ pe:r- 50nll1.:::1 cllwarfc~ tlile!l!!" CI1vi1.liIn ,o'fncl!iils_ Stat.es. l.oo"ked like war-m.ak:iiiltg ~~chmes. Yet the ~i!:CWIll.e8 were s.ta;rlled IlIP' and ",.,qUina down I),,,, d!1plD:rn.acy, o~~en !l)fii!i)i1I."I"ed to OOlllciliatio:n and :pea;ce. Thms w,as~e

CiSSe'llJlaai d!u;;;lIllty of :fo~ 1W1i~, -

E\:i:ropeiiilli1l. dlif'p~.o.ma~.iSilil]lmb1t:edl! a "m!ilJ;tj·;pl!l'l¥e:!'"~torr ciYil'izattoiLI, " .llI.o1i· i1I~:l.. aaarehic bla,cik bole (as. e.riI.vi.sage-di ~lby so:msJ'"ealists), tm~' a. ~o~mli.tJ v e..~om.m:!!milJ' of :ill:ilJre?n~ arnd pe'I\ceptio:n~. SOIn$ .... erry ~~c,r.all. oiJille..rs s~ar;oo .by spe-c.!fk I:rn:.nsnatiO.!ilia.1 cla~e.s, Or ![IeJ!i,gjo![);S,; :~ome~ ~1Ice:frd, otln:::.r:s VI Qlent, Many power net'!'irQ:rks ,ojplli!rnr.i!ng <!;C[Q".SS .tlllltemSlt.1"Q.lUt! spaee dl~d not go t!h;l'ou,glii. states; 'Ch_ap[el' 2 .fiIO"re~ ttil_ut th.is< was e$:.lIlH~:.da.I1.'!I' tm(l) oJi" klieo.~o~.cal al'nll ,eoO'OOID~C. poWer n.etWQrlk1'l, .S'ltate;s, coul~ Ilm ful~y cag:e ~~~.mse of messages, <!!l,OOd's ,. al]di persoanej , QOl"mteriFeR mu.c:h w.lth pn"'~H~ pl."operty I:'ighrs, 0[' wiah trade netWOt~s. ,S~·;at'~mien .had! socia.' il!llemllftie;s, eflpecilaUy cr CLass amd :re.ligilYr.ls, oomm_I,iIJ::uty, whose !Il{)i['rIiIiS !helped define ,eo:ncepliQos 'of g!l1JteJ",e:sts and morn.hty,

", Th~s iilIi;p.lo"ti:.'i:a:c:YaJ.Iild~ g.-eil]lPI!;l:J!it.ii~1l: we.re .rule-goverlled. Some' il"u~.es d:ellined wh.aJt ~eru;o~able:~~tiQ~~J mliere~~ we1!'ie aJniIXwerre $h:areill by i>lta.~~meli1 8.Cf'0;5s ·the CivllLizallllOn. Others added IilOTI1UJ!d ... eunde.rl. ~,~JIIC:!Im!l!lg~ ~Q11!,~ k~n-r,eJlarred amt'lJcrat:s, .amo:r:l!g Catholics, .:mlCHlg .. ~1iI,~0p':a:ncs.,. "W·e:st~rners." Cve:D QoOc~5dol1l;amL]' among ".liillma!lu ,~II"I(g1S. Even w.;;I:I", was 1t1l.l\e"'g.o1tcrnedi, "limrlie:d" in J!c.ila~liolJ eo some, fig_htem..!lsl.y sav.oilg.iil' 1.0 .rei.8ti.o1l HI! others. The iStabi~iity ,(i'F "the ci'll'iilizati(j(nlJ o~ iIlL:JIlY. :~n(l4ries aidedw!I:JJal' WJt1J.e rreallWi!tS as;:!lUm~ to b~ uIili:~e;rsi:l:E ~m;:m .abllr~~. to _cafoui!M:G .rationally· ·'.oat:io{[])a] .iD.teresi." ]n pa:r~ flCl]~aif, B!!lfm~i!Il_g d.ip.lo:macy inad a miiillie.mtium of e:xperie:llce .of :t.wo

p3r!il'l:ilJ~al:" """"'l'cOI'I~;"~'I' ~._ - ...... -. .. f ' '. -

11'f: '._ - .. ,,>,""v.: ~_',:!.~1 !n ~lo.ns. .......8n>!:,e;s 'IJI~ [pll;;o,w;e..r amoillig 1' ..... '10' to six

._ -:il:r-eqttEti Great POwe[":!l. alld! :artt.e:mp-Is a.t .he."ea1I:Jo:n,.. b .... !l):oe of ~"'efllJ CIllUl1ltS";r U h-" ¢.fu: -Jrn . - ";$ . 0' .. -'"'. ..,' laboe .~,.e>t U?:'" 'eO_I ~~. The~~ ,C(mllmOIiI mu:il\erslIsllIdil1lll.!li atre sOrr.lie"tinn.es

cllTl-di~~,~he _~e~~PJiI~ll!:a"::S'Y:5I:eIiil,'''.a:m;mer the lM~ Tr.eaJty of We$~haiia. ; '. ,8 tlloe Wa]'~ of rellg;tOfi I(Rosecr.3Rce 198ti: 72-8.5). StU UUl:ye,mbodied. o'14eJ' iEuropcarn !m(Ilr.IiliS.

I

Dip-Iomae" was ullitmce dl'?IQma='. Almo~ :aU wars were between '.'1

J ""'" -,; '~~

groups, of f~med Powers" IIIf1Je.:lS one proragonlst slIcC!e,,'(Jed in d.ip~(). ;

:rlU'u&caJly aso~atin.g Its 'OPI1Qae!li!t- Oip!amacy souglu to m.Qke frit=:~dI:s and ~1 i:so:Jlst'te enenties; lill 'I\ .... ar .. Power s(IIIU:",·ln to use Its :i'rie.ll1icls, ideally to

Ir '1

J'Qrc:e • .he eritem.y to ~ghil '00 mO'fe tlil,a1lJJ one front, 1I:'iTI~.e a~' very realiisi, 1

c, taeties, of '00<1.l;r50::. But wine aman~s also rested 011 shared norm'S, ~

hitherlilO on r-.eU_gtolltS, oolid.u:iI:Y. in tilliis perlod en rbe solidarity of Y reacml;oua:rv 11I10[l,31'CtiS or of ll1e ".A1Ilglo-S{IXO!Di" oomnn!l:illty, and on. tile 1 inere:.[lsi[lg· :reluctlililDeof liibtl:"aJ ttgimt:'-'S to go to wnll" with O'rlJe :a1"l(Jilhe:r (see Otap!ie,rS 8 and. 21).

But, the li"'V'CliIte<::lith aDld eii!!lh~ei1tlh cerrturies saw an increase ill the lure of war. Eo\J1rope wafs,e~p·'Il~ding,e,i;l:;;t into Asia, southeast imo OttOJiJan IQnds, SO'UOI ~nw Africa, and by !lilZivah slagilf:l~, !post'S and colonies ,of settlers ttilrougbJout tile globe. By 1.760, war coses (fhiJ~lI]cial and martal) W"c]'e; eSCilililitilllg. Iblli't SO were ~he benefits. Colo.nu.8~ wW';s "Were Dot usually zero-sum fur the .E1.!J:rropE:ilt.1 Powers. The~ could ail gajn: [f Britaic and. France omll1iC1!ed h~ North. Arneri.ca, or. Russia, and Austria i.n the Balkens, the .... 'inner took the choicest priz:es,dlle loser took Iesser ones, ColoRialism was ui10sually ~~·ofim:ab.~e, and El1oo:peans also oolilgtat'lllat!.\!d tllu~mS'elVJes UUit ltiieJ' we,re: [m:l:be.ri!llg C.lII:iS,t!i.alli 0,1' We:ste:m (Io.r- ., ''!'I'h~lie;'' cbr.ilizah(l~. ;a.llij. "progress' over savsges, nutiv,e.s >

01" decadent cirrili.z;ali:ions"

Ag8n!s~.on wiitlim EI.!!"ope aliii;)re-'i'IIardeod ~~1'f: b~er s~iiiJte:s., Dele wereabout two hundred independent stares la EI!J:rope in ]500. (111), about twenty by 19(1) (Tiny 19!i(J: A5--6J. The winnen also appropriated hi~tQIJ'. When (Jerma!lllS.,in 1900, reflected '00 thetl' mrtiQoal idle:ntity, lew ,ccQi'I!ceiv·e>CI or tihe:mSie.U",e~. :::IS ex-chlzens or the thirty-eigh~ 'German :SlI:~qelS 'c!t::~ea~ed. ~iflC,e ]]815 b,!i' me l:in,¢o:rn 01 Prussia. 'I'hey wel.f€ Ger.m<lG wii~.]1}ers, not Saxo:n or Hessu~n losers. :IJru a his~.ory wrijtum by "'i.t~~len>, warTi~r 1Il.W,es.s;iO'J!] ftl!loked better then it reaJfly wa'l. War has been ubiqui!rous among states. II [oll)k¢d entirely :I1!01'm.:am. to mo:sG,

il-!Jiorpe'ruJs d\l!!:"ii~g. the lon8 nlinet·eemi1 century.

1l;te. ubiq uilty ,of w.a:1" and ~Ft':;5siv,e d'ipi(lmaC)' .ililfwed th£ V'e1!1' n.Ol&olrtS. of materia] i.:n~e.res;a, and ca]"lit~li8·t !profil: \Vli.DJnJ t.er:dili(l';[ial ccnceptlons ofiderl.t!1Y, oomm.ul1.iit:y, and 1I1oralit)' - though lhe;:se: cQe:l:is~eJ:l wilt. the more marke1-orietlited oonoeptij]'!J;s or interest and profiJt fost,e;recl by the mu['m]..]powcr-itlc,tor ·ch'il'izOltiioll, T1:ms flJoll:r1::sned <III six international pol~tk.a~ e~-Oiilomie.s distinguislled in 'ChNpw.j 2: bi.i:i;i:iCz~f:ak,e·, p:rrute~ti.oJili:sm, meocantam.u, and econoJ[nk, '5Q(;ia!, i:'lllul. g¢iDpolilical ·frmpe.rialiS1l1. All W'e'l\e "Jl.i.1lrmOliI" 5'Dral:egi~5d.'Lrifts.

Fh'e m))..j,o.!' ,o~g!;l:.!l!i>l:ed: ,ru;:ror:s p.3rli<c:iIP8.te(i in dip.Lo!lilOtttc dleds.:tollS:

L Ciassel'- I returu to the rh:r,ee; types of class .organization dls~ Iin"lJ.I.ishedi ~IJJ Cw;apteF" 2. :r-.1QM e:a_ljly '~b~;rl:s~s ·e:\':pecred tinal RIoden"!

il

7l

. _ .• ' 1""'1' ...... I· .... du:!;tr~:ll secietv l'I'O"!III.d 'be dl):m.i&!aJre.dby tr'.liril5IJiOlitional

,eapll3l~ ... l '-'" . ",,_._.' . 1_. • . c.... . . _

,c'U~~S ~Ilc! ,ot~,er. inlle-jJ~tg[l}!IIp;!!, defined without :l'e:[el\~[lce t.o ~;atllYiI~1

b~~rilliI.:I.lries. ~:ress~ve t:t'<lll;]S;l:l!arionai el~:;e.s do ;sO:mI~tim(';5 e;.'(...!s"~ - for ~allIl!pl!i, I:lrue ~nr~peaJn wam~r_ oobm,ry cf the~ M~ddle A~~, .. OJ!. ~~~. ]'"I'encl:t ~e'l'(!llllllloiH!I!l'y bQI%f"g.eo~~u~ seeJi;mg '~Q O:;)l=l'olrt re v ohJU(I!DI, ,iI3lU~ O~ii: !fIi)St O'I this :perrod tHliItS" a ~!?!)al d3:';;$:~ werem;JJi:ll:ly ~~5Tnop(J!li~~1i!!" :Ltn.t~:rIl:'l:!hJIilil!!lis[ iill:! their npe]'t~~ and mnt~~~, OOf1il'(III~I01lJ' '_ GV€·IIi paciik, i~, tlrleur diiPb~@cy, Liberals ~lq)ec~tfldl t.~150f '~[h;~'()$paIHllm~,jas.-o, wci~l~sns ,of n~e WlJrk!~~lg class Cla:SSJ;('",! Mo;lJr.'X,ISts and mlie.l'depe!llder!lI~e !hoorrist5 ,lltnl"ha:siZl: s,",.CilJ :~ad:llic tn!Jljjsn~llG!);!dl:sm.

_ The:t!!, about 19£10" '''''~1fm till,," wml':) :seemed m.o.m ·v.ili.1'lMI., tl;l.wr.Uslts be~OlJlIGempiTiasi"'le the ,[Io;PP05J:~_; "it);OlJ~ilJnaHst" classes .de~I!i'I:~(l1 in O~)pOS"Utiioril ro·irlll:babit~lots of u.tHl~[ . :;.1at~s. D~e w'~~o;; :tl~$(i believe~ to ~.a!'I'~ e::ry;iP~r~js,e l:Irn.dltl;~:eI'~lt III dllplolllii!CY, _ tru"t thiS w:~~ ei!lgreS:SI~:. e:~[J-<l!)&iO"~Sl, arid even [[)Jlilil:.ui:;;i. ,[,l1e oe;ntra~ ttru",oJiY de¥I¥!Ili,g fmrni. dillS

:p,ef$'JK'i~ti.!le itSeCOifiOiJ'Ilk~m!pC"~~lll~., .' . . • __ ..•

Trnnsnation;9l ... ~.d natlonidiLM dlploIDlliCY ~:> t>i;IIpe~ecil. byO[.~!"O!:e>d

8.0'1<01:5 in ci",i[ oociety po;s~:lJJng. diiP10iillal±c; ¢~!I?-e..rl~s.e aadinterests, For ~ampie. the end of: a m~jo~ war' ofuenprl'ldliilces: ill Ill. UJP&ll]"g,~!i)l!'il~lterest. ihry clo]![riaHlfilt C:lal'i5il"ls <:!mOiig Ute ",:±cto,ri.@l!:~s.P.O~lf".s: Chapter S[!~~rra~lil's the at1te:rnp' l'O .restm:elJiJie old treg_l~ne by the 'I',ill)I][10US Powers "'1 1815, !)o:mho-ff (1 ~I!}: 1m-52), and 1Y1aie-f -(:193:1) bave "i!'gl!l!e!J~hat _a DoeW >voile:! oder was. imp£eme[Ll"tldlb~ Ame1!'k:al1l cap:iil;al~t ol.<lSS fractionsat thLe CljLd! O[ Wml.dI WaJf 11, Bu.t dluplom~y w.m. 00. mU.oltl!!es8 exp!l.[~ i:f mUiOjj,a1 cJ]afi;SeoS d~milll;~~e.~r c:l8isst:',lii;!_lld other :iin~ere~$~.gro!JiPS,1iIT'~ latrrgely cag-edby~:hts.ir ~ta,:e OOI!I:IIidl.arics., they may have IiI!Jt!e ~iil~ereS'~ in di~(I"ma>cy. Na:lionid ~£I.sse~ are obsessed ...... ,ltil cilom,£stl'c poljJtros" ".IT1iJ£y ~y ~ea!le ciIi~p,~.om.:a,cy tv oWe:rs, inc:tt-a&iing the "il!lsul:.ltio:r.1," .Qfs~:a!t~ men; 01' tliley m:tl.y e:\oi:p:~e.~fol!"'e:iJ.gliI poie~ec~ that me:rely ,dicsp]aoe !~tt.lJ demestlc pra'b:leoo, illfitd 00 an3Fartliler shallow, IllinroOited ]I! ge<Jp;OhU.ca~ re.;<llily, and 'i'olai:uICil.

This volume na[[mt~, me ell.twun.ed dsvJe:~0f'mem of ali three f-o:rrJ[l'S, of dasst;llglllrilizatiol1l. B-I!,I~a!Il1Iii:d Huh, .n~tiQ!lal classes emerged ef;p~i~lIy ~rll.!ll~y" ,all'o'Wiug;rou:r other (I.rgtIiI:l~ed 3Dtm5 widil, Mronger fur!\:;~g!1 [pOLicie{; mO!te pcwers, Olil.e: w.1tS :~ooted. predomilll.~ifj;t!ly in ,d.o;-ifl. :5QCiely, lW(l 'il! Ute Malle, and ,one '!3illFiood.:teda.!'l(l.CDVG re!:a~i(l~shi!p 'b6"~,w«4li tht;: lwo"

2" P(J.rt:ic!-l!~ri$lfc pnJSsul'e grQ~~, Amid Vile rnaMonalul1ldiutIe]le:!lce '~f cl::lissesOlThd ether majorglQ ..... er <lic!n[S, ID{!of,e pa~twLliI!'l:mtr~: !plI:~l:ies, 'migllit form. amulrnd :lore-ign :Poib;:y" Ecoilltomic !lect,o:rs,undl~~tries, e .... elil. il!~~.yi.dua~ O!JIi[pm~Uo:n$ m;my :hlai""", :sp.;;dfic Interests, •. U~ij~!b' .ilTl. ra_t. ticlIJ!la'u' :mgi'Om or cQl!iIJI~rte1>" ''[he 'bro~de5"~a:rre c'la51i, bact~ofllS = as m Domlii.ui'.[i's idc-JJJtificmio!!:l! Q! aiD m~ttn:Ja~g(mal frae-ti.M :armoJ!g. m.M;etl1i

I

,ca~i1alist:s, located illl. hu:g<l: oolrpo.rlltioooS, !il!a'Nl bi!tl~S wjjU!i gl'ob!l!.t ·!!uere~~$. it(

Eigb~;eefl.tlli" <l!fldi earlly .ninereenlibJi';!Jent!lllry "g,ElTifHs:marilly oeapi.l::alislTiI.'" "N W::IiI-!; a col!tii~:,ui1l:bly tilto'll!d class r],<!:c'<'!:~ofll i:t'l!l1uendng British fm:eign polky "

IJ [see Oh.:a--er 8),;. wm!e tlllree, ai~te([lfI.ati'i"'i:: Getm<t!iI fQ.i'eRg~ poljdao; Fl'Q~. "

, iI:'"~ ~ .. _.

tHlie jLR91!ls (lVdtpoti.tik, Milre'leurOpil2', ,::!ndl~i!)ei!"aliSlll!) :pill!l1:1y der.v'I'Ied ~ frolifil. class fractioas (see Chap~ef 11)- SlmU,.:r.ly, Webt.x argued tha~

economic impe.-iIJliism- what he ~J!tlred "bool:}' cap:utClilusa,T:lJ" - watS supported by C~pirl;flliis:ts wiJl:ti!. ma;lle;ri:fl!1 '~n~e~'C$'S in state po'!,!,!\e:I'~ • '1ifiI:i~ital)'. iooustdall comple:O;:·e"-l'i."· we, cal~! them (mill1l),.,. NO:~e(lonomtG pressme gro~!ps illoo :a:!)op~d.; ootab.l~Y ethnic, reHg,ious:, or li:lJiglllist~c:grolJlpG li:!ilt.e;;;!!o ether OOil,:!!rltr.~~s·,

Pressure gr{JlJIp8 Iinay he more decisive til!:;I;i1 .in d.Qmes~~GlJolk)'.

I!L!.lllati~ more dose;ly supervlsed b:!l' dL1lS!l.ef> and other ~.ro<'!!d p!l)"He:a !)!W)i'.$_ 'Jhe~ :may a~5Q be .ac[ij'l1a:l:ed :ml'fu:e;!'" :more ~nati.;;:all.)', ]0 recent U .S, fote-J,gn f)()l!lCY, f.Q.r eX3!llo:ple; mi~il'lg c-.!n][JOm~i.o:liI1s, ha'l'l; iiIllf!JUen~ecl poli.cy OOWalli·d! (bi~e; blacks, oow.n:d Sourrh Africa; Jews. tuwaoo ~In.e M.idldileiEafll~ ~and :roOOi}tih'i" B,1!Iltlil'l-f: a!.t[el.1i~tolll ~p:.:lIli o:~ pressure g[Q"iJ~ is narrow; ife'Ws a]"!d b!arr.::~s are l)l:~i~ll:erest€d In U.S. policy toward Chile', ;:Imd ![IOI>~ mifl!i!lg eorpoeatioas .nill!¥e .~iule interest:lin Middl~.e- E~I!M [pOhcy. For.eigg'i! p()Hcy do:mi1l!a!;'@d~yp!rf:.lSS'l!IIre groups .m~y lb. .. ~ series <of ~ho[~, 8h~rp j:;l!bb!!lg ~fJ's~aUUn~i.o~s witH-! little oy.(l(uall pattem, At. DlIrkJlieill"n rGDflilr.it-G(t "There is nothing less, constaar than i!f1l"en;:st.~'

3.. Sri!ih:!SU1lL?/~ ,. Roilali:sttil,fot;~e", \in ::>~a!le aeeors 'QQlJl>[lem,edp[\e.~~;iiS]Oitli. ~jllly wti~h dlup~.ol"lJ,:itcy, :5p~a.kiim;gfo!t,e'l'l;ll. (!:liS t~e!!:' f!H~~S'I,lJ~e~ts)pe[8o"EIIify. hllg, the: sttaite, Statesmen clll!i>t¢1' :!'(H;!:IlU tile dMe;~e:l::ew1!ive, Mona[O;H.5 Ilm1l. long possessed the p:r~roga:!.ive I/o m .. ik~ [o!:,l}iligi[lpG,HGY, ±m:~'IJI,ji:lilg willr. The gr,(IJwtlilof liL~ti.QrlilU:Y ;:;.agpd.cl:it!st~""lIowed ~I~e pf;e~'(lgaJti'!,/e to survl .... e '1i! ..... el1 iJalto tHis d~m()cJiat~ce'jl~, even tllo1J!gh1 .i51JSlI:i!ati.orl was oodycecl iby(l!!he;)f powei!:' <L'ctnw,:>;o Soo.i;a~ pre ssares olfiten cam~ tiir'Ori,i:~J~ Slult~me:lili's O'Wifl, ide!"!~!I~!e$- A'mofil ilIli. were drawn from the oW regime ,"!:!"Is:!> , 'l'.tiIey e;)(pres:;ed it.!: ·'i!'allues., nOI:'ID5: and ['3tillJ\llii~ity" and some of Its 1Ti11~&nat~0[l!I:d ;s!DlirlaJ[~ti, .. s, Ag;i!lllil, ~5.Wii;'h dolrtlJ:Ci;tio;; pci'licy, the pcanilc!J.Il.arisli:c :lill.iiallcce, :mther th~tI the woolly oOolllt1l'oaLe:d or wlil.!!Jlly insulared state, e::Iinl.,:;rges -aUld aphil H i", 'between chief executive <>ndl old r,fi;glIl1/i:, They cl).nd!~.~i~d wi,iJ~iriie dj;Plo:macy, (uade and br'l]ke alli;1l!lJ;ces or thf,e1l:~~ned W:iI:l'. ~ifiid eve" (l;C,cats~.onilln.)' went W' war, withOli.!!t !I)~(;rlJ!ri,i;(;1!i 'oW!r>!;lI~il!I:~O\ilI wi~h od~.e!l" .power :a.ctms • .Bet:l1lJjf;l!)· the:ywet'e, ':;:1,,'I:S'mo!iXiIi:~i:iii;'i fLi1d! .i~l.1llil.tiHni!lIjj;211 ~~c~aUsts.,. sta1i"eslinerl W¢:.!"i\!; ";expet'!$"' w.te;~cllr.ug tecJlil:lloc.ratio·h!ll~e:aJLCcmtii!! 1J'O~r:s, poss!i::~~ng the b([l(ll3!olestt <I!~~e~l'lti(lltli Sipill~ O!l'er the w!h:ole.F<lJrI:s:e (D>:fff:oreign (I'01i.cy, Diflier.:::!l!t fOf:eigtlil i>O'~jdell reS'u~ted w:Hten their ±rlsu~;lltio9 waoss;!" it.s ~i"!ik ~]!@!!'i""'M!jJ ~.~ 'was O!frs;fl,lp~:edL

.BIjj~~ even. old l'eg;im.e smlte8menwere clilim~ed by tke Iii$;( (If ttile

13

]iil!ltion-:sfale. A.sWeibc;t obsel"\o'~d, stat~~:n Ciune U) :re:Pl:U'eGent: the· ~iiIltWtt, as w~U as the ~¢ate .. '["fum,.. Oi\lm.~Lil1iCllJ]pOW5.[ cam!:: t~ dep_end Ott lih,e;jr ~lI~SS· ill oGI'~t PO-W~i" r.e1.a~wmsalS pe:roc~v,e-d 1011 die Oftle:t'· p@wecr adOrs (ljsti~glillished bere (d".R1~ose.crnooe 1!86: 86~-8) .. ~V~ber e~~~bed that $1:::i1it.eS'~. :had become. ~re ac:tl.lI'e as l~lpe[i[uLis't~. ide[li.tif~ing Ufi.eiili own pcfil.;calp';"W<iFWll:b ~!le i»ute po~'er ,o~ tllel~ ,. a<IJDli'!!oSlate, awa e tbat mitit:ny vlctotywould be dld! grE:~!!lest UlUIl111D ~~~ alsO th.at deJoait might ,1l.We.rtbro'w them (GOl!iUIlS 1986). This, Wever a~gued., was 'eqruilly _ so f~rmoll!~~c~S, fur t.heiill app:nin.Jt~ ~ie-t' mi.~. (e[S, ,amtdf:I.U elected I.cadle:rs. nns. is a :Fili~l1e[ pes~miLl®tiC 'Yutw or tilri.e lia'UoJJ!: Some i\i.atiOlil~ Illci'iem.t.edi ill mOte Jibe,iia'! and pad.fi~ vie'W 'rJI.f the·i:r world mis:>ioG. and tOOl' st~men oould strike poses, a:tJmm p.!'estige; ;iI]td wh'a. !!ii:ileotWf!5 as e::!;)emp.ltlJrS of pa.c"ific natioIllaJ virtues. W~be:r WitS .. fl:e:roliUiI 'na'llOrlmSl; his 'politics. 5liio'IlILd!~ot C:O]OIF our entire 'I'ii-e'w of.

lu!,ti.o4-1fl1. political prestige. . _

4, ThAi! .mll'ir",y. H«,~ 1 mO"o"e on to the sixth. ruwico Table 3.2,1'0 thEl state mO\1l!cupo'iil.ation of o1snnizGd 'mili~al:y power - go:nm werefellld1ili1 It\4e!': andprirva!te umi@'1i,. j'lliuli military becaJ11(l C>eil'!itnliLize,d W'tder a hugh command, under 1!hl~ ~Qrm,ail caiUrol. of the cldef exe~utive, Mod~.n teehrdques o,funi\lllihatio~ dm)liIghsa.la!l"ies, :ilelisioo~, a,nd si8le S]).tpi:o-yme;nrl: 1J1{Q1l r.etiremel'l!t were developed fur miaitarypersonncl,. Most e'igbt,ootUn- :iliad oe:,~.rly Wi:!et,el3:I1w'-OCJl!tlI!Lf O'fficer corps 'Were he.a'lli[), ]"~I'IIiI.Ue~ irMl old regime:s., (See tile d3!ta in Oapter 1.2.) Th~y '~a",()Ir.ed a stn.Jilg: E1Ulit::uy posture .in foreip poliCe)" 'bllI~ ]acke~ Illter~:)t in routane dip]o:macy and wen ofte:UI ratb~r sober ~(lU!~ the r,w'ity· of WIIT > C8ll!t~oUS, abou~ '~l:arlm:g i.t alttd oosirouj, of "]jmjtjIJg;" i~ with :ml.cs.

NiDe'leellth.ren~,ory 'higlb oomlIta:mjs· ware c'looe to st.at.esmen, ;!ll!I ootin. were l"il:CIl!Jitec:i (IlI'etwhliiDinio:gly f1U1I1l o1~ r-.,.,gi'!rnle!;. Tney also c!e'li'e!ope.dl cI.rD:>er Itilnks to ililch,!!sJt[:J.g(1 ciI.pi~i;'lIi5ls .a!lliheybe~.am6 major ~liJS10merS :fOf the pood~ of tlte Sooo:mlhd'llfstri:al1RewhI!Mn. ·'Mil.itary·-:i!UloIJN.SltriaJ ~mpilel'e8," we!L'e: Qn~y lliImcd by U.S.PreS'~lj)ef);~ Dwight Eisenhower;. lIDey had exisred tong b~fl):re bim,. No!Oetneless, milifi:aru:Si aJ80, gfmel1l!loo q'l!lilSLr.t:aS"t,e insulaitil)'JI willian dtest:alc. Th~ iPosSllO~sed ateebllIDODI'aJti.e seif-oord'idence; llilild tkcll $ll;;illiii 1becllimerewo. v e~. [:'INDmelreF)I'day soc.i;a,1 prtic~tces .atiid oo1i1:ro1s.. Tlley d.e\lle]oped !j;egtmen~al. dri~plwe (D'I!I6:r their WL<).SS sohiieries~ tll5ir lo-we.t eadresbeeame recxuD:led from IDlU'ginaJ s.oci.:lilb-s,c;jk:g;l"otlJ!dis. ,As tile kill [[':1t~iCSi .of w.e:apo~, grew, so dWtheir ·pol:ellti.a1 impact un so~t)'" r.ii:Ulste>Butn-centiliii:]' str&!~;egic t1ruioikin,g began 'I.ru'!etlry t'C! ]Jll"e.;ti'er Hiuack. 1,,'1 er de:fen~. In det~li'io:ra'l:ing diplomatic s~l!I!I:IItio[L:S., :I1i.gh oom..m.ands :ui!<j,i~~ DllD1bilizing a:nds.tdkmg first,. a~. lIlappene.d :Un l;ue JlIJly 1914. So, .aJtbollJgliL militaries, were· clog.e 'ro the '!ol:tolllcutiV'e; .m.d i1;l oklregm.es a~deap-i'l:aai&iJn .1ih~kI1 p:l"lJ,r:eS;SiM~!is:m e:nwu[a~'\®d ca..",~e ~.I,i:lOliLOmy with~:n tile st8ite, nrumaJ.~y lricoMpie1lllOI,!.$,

14

I:

~

occasionally devastatlng, MJlitary power ~:UlWll.omy .!>urvivern tne ,sltate

monopoly of org.tlJlluzem violernCoe,_ >

.)" Natiolf{.Jisf partie:.l'., 1 ]n the absence O'.l' dasses with SI.!O'£lg rmt'lerilll f.;

.;

diip,.lQm,atiic :IiJterests, a mOTe po]itican~r rooted. natkitliiaUis.tn 'cme!:'geci, ~

first in the Re"'Qll1tiQ~;llry and Napoleooic Wa[;ll, , then in rhe later nineo:eenth century, A® cI~e~ <I(1d other aJOlO!rS, ;itu,alned clvil and political oit~~.l'is.bip,. the state baearae "their" Il!>lJtuoUl-:s:c;;'U'e, an "'ima:gLllJed oom.:mllJJnity" to whicli they d,e,,'eloped loyaaJlies.U:s, power, honoe, .liJi!lllfliUatiol1lS., "lId! e,..,en mal:ernal inte!l'ests came to he sen'~ed as their own, and s(!!cbreel.ings were mob!JiizabUc b,y the statesmen, 'pre,ss'lue g[U!llpS, and militaries. Na~tQf.I:ili!>t partles and pressure gr'oups- :pr'¢~ecl. these feeDings QIi staresmen. Yet llggreSS!v,e' iII~tionaILirJim m '~hi50 Ileiiiod W<'b'5· neve]' as broacJ[y :pOlJPliI:~ati" .as is oflJet'l IboeBi,e ... ed. It hl:!d1 11\!Ir1:~rlillii.r I;:ii)ve canil!irs, w:bJio ~LdeJl.tify as "stanlSt nation,alism;s," di.ect[y implicated iI'I S-t.ateil1st'itlltiolis - ttle inc[e~S'illg nambers in slat~ 'e.miP1oy!t'ltmt :il.li'ld :;ociaJizec1 !in .stare ,e.t~!,a.(:atiorud innil'liItiolls_ .Ra~Ii;t:]j' milder nadonalism emerg;ed ,iillI@lrigdasses enjioyllig chi2lI!!'ns.'b!uj)' and atso among centralizili,_g .u9tef¢:>l groups - tile.middll.'e, dass 8J~ dCJ(I:JfIin;am le'ligiOlu5, 1I11g.tlisti.~. ethnic. :;uld regicnal 'commu.r.bities. :[11 U'le 'tw'c([Jt~e~h ccmM.lry, arJit:he WO!l'k.iJnig c!1a;ssJ' wO'.men, :lIirlA mil'lU:nihe~ also :i:lU~nedciti~e[];st,dp, Hlis

m:i.ld nationalism broadened. • .

The growth ,of n<lJtIona~ idenltiHes !lit1d of core carriers of :5,t~~tiSl nationalism 5Om'!ltim~8i gave diplomacy a popular, passionate, nalti;O'Ilal tinge. But fbics·lac!iei.1 the precsse m(iOrlli~J!il:)r of iJtiH::~es1:s p'l!lrs.l!led by classea or p<llrl1.cuILuislic P['I.1!SSU!OO gmlllp-s ilmd the r)['e{:.~se, lllonni1- dye·l,. rooted i!.lfjderstal1d:iQ~~s of iJ'iiS.li!at,ed old r.egime s~ a tesmen. Class, phH;;IJlist.!'ll1d realist th.eQri!1:s all stl.ggest ·that fO:F:eigm policy ViOlS dkotakd b)' ,mltedaJcollec:ti.ve inte.l'e:s!S- But pol.ijhcaU nat~on<t1lis!m might dictate cOllceptions of material cQllective int¢rem. rallier thaa vice versa .. l.f OIiFloln,et Power sceme;d to .impugn "·uul.tDonal bOI'iQ)E ," 1l:ggres!llon or fii'm. defe'a5e eoutd be ba.:k,edi by popular, shallow, 'l,l'()I.aW.e, yet nOGGtheless" p<lll5'::!iQ'Ila.lf WIl,'ti,Q!iI,;)lli:S;t]'l, 'The. ,eJJ:t[~me, poerha$!!;O, 'is, wli!oI;!te ('liIe U1Jtikm is iOJ"Ilestedi wHl'Ii ;lJ vel)' b~Old CH!s<Jdi!l1,g: stance t:owQrd! the: wQ.r!.d - d~-nditlg ,Clirrntiafllity or 'llie, Aryan raoe, C!lfFying lalber~y aad fraternity to til,; ..... o.r1d, or fightci:l1g C-I)mmlllll]ism. In rhls period 0111.)' the fiend, .Re'l'oi!,n'ioll ~[le'r<ht,ed such extreme sentiments"

These fiv-e org!:l:t1i:z£¢l! actors joiilJt]ydlet'~:limine'd. E'Oreig~. pdl;~l;;y or v. er the 'UQug nlllccteentn Cl;lli~I!!:ry, a;s.bhe:;r m.o:sdy dQ ~()dJa,)'. Their i[J,t,c:[reG.a. lloilii: wew ,!C;o.mp!c~_ And be,cf).u:<>e the eX:l,e;nI: o[ ,heir m'i"']'~t :il:lild

L A.g!W:. Ih'! word '·p~;ti~~" ~ lJIt!i:di bert; [Ill Weber'5 i5i1:m5<: ,or ~!1r p;!'3it~~II~' (ll'8,llnll!'~ grol,!lpo, NaIIDmdm!<t50 I.lSllaUy pr'~J1fei!l tbir~ i;dl,b)'inog, y"(li.!~ (ma\l)' lcagu>es., (!rnpl!J:e lCaglJes" i!l[ll,) ItUlILi ~ ~~Ill~ril1lg fOlllUaI !J"Ililj~i;;iI.I !i';],l:\Ij;:;s.

~.

,atle:mi{!!n spanvasted, Uhiere WOIiS lelilitivcly litUe s;ysl!emi.c ccasensus 01" b.eaiLLon 'Qoilll.isi'on amon.g. them .. Unless, sulffil!t:l'lJrltial. class, fl'ac1iio~· 01' .IJ].(I(r::ail natiami:1 ,C[1J]5i:i.d.\e:s Emte.J:"\i\eifiJled., 'ro!!ltimetFo\li'edig:ml po~:iicy IirtliightlPe :I&ft to 'dille· s.t:;slii:emlen,'O'I'i.ti'll ot:E'lIer:s :Iil'ilo:re s.po·rn.dicatlll, 'e~Ii:'''lf~.icaJJJ ja:bbiling the-1111 illil:O ,~nd Q'Ul of a iilii!1'l(I'i;t(i:!i,. crises, and WOIJ'fjO. This does :i'iot .5ieem wndJuoe:iv.ew ,,.ve-ry sy:steooc ro.rei.gl1l. .p!l:llicy., 3lS :SJU~:;.led, .alike Iby e1iithm[J)~rea]~m, Mruxism, ;and pll!lralli'!';:r.n ..

[ ih:!ii\',e ide!!<!tified dh'eil'sc 'I:)r,g:mizsdi actors in diome.sltmc and foreign .policy .. Domestic policy :iJlIs.:~tu,tiolil.s often difFered!fl"om these iin foreign PO&iCf, DtOf were the same· jffiiSliitu'mioms alwilIJYS fu1!ln.d! 1j('1J diifferefu:s.1J'l!iteos - . andfuilS could create difficuftl'e:s In. me :!IJDiliry o:f re;g.iftl:e.s. 00 ~ifide[sl.:aincil. each other. Re:;lJJiS'~ <C;liI~ul:aliC!:Jtis of sla.1:e. inteeests require aoc:~ra,~.e perceptiQiIl\.s .of eacll. ~~er, etipit'ciully ililJ ctiulllIIg.eail!de d!{pD!!lm;;J:li1: crises, lbis was oft6:[1 lUi.ckilf.!lg, ,ElS we see '~pe.cial.ly in CtaapWlJ:' 2:1 iirl'll the ~id.e 'i(ilwa:~d the Great W.au. a~:~ly neither ~t.alte 110[ divii! :sm::ie~y we.re :iIII!iI.o:flI!ORIL(!'I!li'> or cohasl ... e eU'lIItitje;s·, Des.-pohc po .... ers derfved le!}s F.l\omJ :iii rren!l:rnl~zed ol.ime tihLm [ll'om p.SlrticuJa.:r.isCic semia:rusublired :illjaniCe-S 8Imol'i.g org:<iiltifzed aetors i:n sta~t.es,. :national oi ... nll. societies, and ·tr'~~!Og~tiQD<!!l ci'll.ilizatioi'll" State .pe!t'S(Jil@] C:o!!m ¢',};~p;~ awl'On.omul!Is pow·er by 'Ifir~M.e Q'I the witirtnlili.t:y they alone PQSS'~S. .Molilarc.hs, bureaeerars, high COIDnl:i!lftds,alll!d o.tker!l.eme-rgedi as distn:ibl]tti'!,llJ: power' 301O.S, iff ra:reJly. as a :singul.ar, cohest ... e stat~eJjt". But imJtihltiol1ls of central po'>'o\e·r n<lrV'e l'iuJ)e; di.suilbllmiiive P~"""~.i' liiJill~SS enhanced b:!t Co.lls<t1.1ue,.rlll::h;!$ 1D11 ,d'IIIiJJ socteties o'l:Iiairm,eliing thi2:]'i] .liiilcBiI and m:lnpowerr reS-QI,UCe.s.,. The ;sin~i1!l1lffl,t state elite, tillat c:riti.c.al [perSOT:l,age of tfU>e' e!1dslifi, W'iiIIl ba[e~, 'tilgure 'ifn this "'Qlwltil£'!, Far Ifml1ll be~lli~ ~~4I!lguw' .J:I!OO C-i!:lfiItmI iZ'li:!di,. modeen :s13!l:eS am pollyrn!l)q'I'no'Us power. net'Wo.~k:s ::ot~e.ml1iif!il,g bc~wiWln center

:ilimlire rn t on es, .

FWictionld anal.Y!i.is: a .polymow-:phlllUS, oe:rystaUlml:.i(iR !M'lidUJi

]iIiI c.hem~stry a poIY.nito[ph. is. a g4!IJ~Si'Ean~e t!b.·.l!tct}'Stalliz:e:s wtwo or mOre; dine-li'G",t fo,cm!S .• uSlllally b~ron.ging to diUe,rent :s.yS'lelm>· .. The term OODVCYS the way SHI!G:e .. s ,crystil!.IIil2i1l< as the ceru:er - bl!lt in ea~ ease as :Ill d[ff~rol1lt celi!~el' - of a, nwnblt:r of power' n8il:wolfks. 5fa:~es: bave mtl[t~iPie iinrstiIUIi'oli1'1i. charged] witlil. i:iDJ1..iI~.1ti.pl.e tasks" rn1;obYli;tinll: ronshh:~$llIci'!i!s both throl!..i~jh it.he.i]"~!!:'rtWr.:Les, ,a]]di g(;.opoJitic.aliy. As RosenalJl (,1'9ti.(i.), o·~se(rv.es., a~g! li..aJumallll1l .Had Kiil:o®C:, (:1987) ro:niJ])an~y pJN.J''o'e. di:ff.e[[\e<rI!l: "·':l8:fiUlIl: :4r'I;'.lfIS" o;r ·'poJi.cy dCl'maim·'·' moblltre, cI1:i:ftereitiJ~ ,""Onstift!lle;nci<e:s. States, a['c· t~U'!LS· thoir,ought.), ~1ymQ'rp;_!'l'o'U':;. Perna-p$, .as Abr,alJll5 .liJas Suggoe.:wed, m '~cdbiing al1Y p.al."[tcu]ar st:OIrt\e, we moU:~d ce:iL'5C talkin,g :al:Jout "the iYtaJte. , .•. But by shiiftililg 3'W"dY from all m·s.titu'tioifl,a[ 'lQW:ard ,:t.

functi.Qnal approach, rnaybe weC:lIJ1l ,$JiI1i~Ji[y mllUli.pile Ins-ti'u..I~rl,(1iiil:S .iili terms of the l,Ii!lI/derly.iIil:!Jl (ul:1;c.:ia()Jtl, lI!f.IJdef!aiklen bV iPal1ticlJlbr &t.{lite.s. These .rn8:!~!1,<!.di'; m.!!Iltujple irnJtitulions :3.ild oO[J5tihllcncie:.s. ac1ti'li'e~irl.g stares Jiil :Simple. on;oeran:! c.l)'lt!:aJliZRI:~Cl!lllS ..

1'.1'1 U'lis period! states c:ry$ltaU~ed el1ldllringiy and :importand!l' !lIS. "capitflliist.." '·'cit),[!:ii1.Stic,'··· "par!:y demoeratie, '" "miililarnst," "c~:m!;ede.raJ." "L-IJI.lllenm," .?I:nd ,00 forth. liV.liliim later idielIllifyi!lg the most :~ullda.lnelttl.W one O! rn:C!I;r,e ,clj'll .. alU~z3itious. ill O!I state, I use the teem "higherIlev·e). c:rylll:.,d.hz1Itlons." Mrxism, pll1lriiliisrn. and lr,e31is,m sssert thai modem state£,fiJJ3!'Ve I(!lltimartefy c.rys:tallhiMa;s., respecri .... eJy .•. ,capitali:n, palr.:y-d!efllQCra,tic,.a.lrud. :sel;uritY'ptl:n;;lII!in:g gtat.e~, .. n.at is, !}'hey see pat • terned, bi.er,aFchical relauons e:xist.inll: 81Il'IDns m,1Jjltip:ije iIlSli:!tllij.IJIl!l. 'Gocl-up-!fO:l!Il-!Up theor.y explioi.1Uy de'!lIies, 1:11 ls, whik pl'lJlfill.li.san lI-'ilds that ]pint)' denru~'''I'aqr il!l li"le way there ill, :syS'tem;atk ooIilJJP(flom~s.e be- 1tW'7en ma~~' 'o-tb,e'li c~yst<lll'iza,li'Olils, ,M"':rx:iiSJ!lil, ![\eal~:5m, .a~d pill:!'i!l1is.m umtumate.ly !I!1l1I!!:iI), a s:i:n.guiLax ooJile.s:iive !;,tal\e m;a1dl1liili '''final'' dec:i.sii()fi!l' 'betwec,1lI crys¢'alliZiuions. There are twe me~h!od$ oil' adjudicating w.lle.:h4!r some <Cl"ystaJli~Jtioli1s o:room.pwn~ise:5 between them :a.'1ll ultima:!e.y ,(jJ~c:itSh,'e - two tests ()[ "hienrchy" and ·'ultimacy." OI1l~

method ;i;s. dml"eC11, the omhel" ind~;t',ec~. .

The direct test tr:.w,ght ·co:nfi]!'m, Itlhat the sltaJ~e !.!DI:irmately cr)~s't3lmzed! all x rather than y, say, 01_:5 'carp~tali$t r;uhe'rrJirJa!lproletarian. Since x aad y are (]I!ia:metriicaJlly 'l'Jffillposedl, they ,colJ!lde head-on, In geillera] we klllow that x (c<lipital~[!ll;m) ui.~!1tJJpihe.d over y, 1iI000~I1I""OI!n~b:lly blJl~ inl ,5-0101: ,; ~a'j!t .instance" seiNl~. sYSJtemati.Clll~)' .pir.,eventnlillg P'.N;l~.eII:;lJrila:DJ revoJlutili);JfiJ ~11Id1 set~jj.li1gli~ll!its ·to ..... hllill [)wkmr.iIllD parties can do. Quru slIIcll a direct tcSI: be 8pp~i.ed ilD,(lf(: gem.eraLly':?'

SteilUmetz ihJ3s t!Fie,d to sabmit ili'i'l,!,IlI] class: -!Wid ("true") eI~iil,t ttis·(),r:ies ,of [mpen::d GerID~U1Y';S welfare stale lPO[kies to' such a II est , He sars mhal: Ito support elilie theolj! we would h"",'e to ~delltify

P;Oliicll::$ t~~>t d.ireCily chaJ~e'Jllge otllmiLru.!lllll; class dn~,r;;r'1:5ts., , • (SJIMe .. ce~telr~' !'h!!!~1I1' ulhm3it<ll<~ ileUs UiPO:r.! :SOOWill,g G1I5C5. of "noa-correspondenc», ..• me::mmillg m:$-t?iOces wh~n state offioial.1> and !,oDiL'Y-mcllJil:sJr.l dilleclly ~ojJnn=~ne Ul.oe mle1:ests ();[ tlte ctassthar iscOQ:uom.tCOlLLy d()IWiJrJlan.:, [1900: 2M1

. S~eii)m~tz aIgl!I.e~ tbl)j~ eiI!ii~e theo\fY r~.ils this [est in Imperial G::t'!Ii:!!!IJY bocallJ~e llIDere was DO't "noueoreespondence." Wetml"!: polieies 'Were actw,l.D1!I' a,gree;!lJbllil: to QWany ca:pitalis!:iS andi we:11e pe;rm.e"Ue.d. by pr:incir:;.te;s of cap.[~<I~iSi .. rilti.o:nalh),. There W31l :an:;tuall)" "<I;lo['.l'e.s.pO'!J;dI~ltce" berween r;:api.tl'!1fuS-:l'll·1 alnd ''!'!'el[~re, II.1i Cb.ajpIDe,rr l4·, rn mo!>rrly a.gree. wiitli SI:eUilm.et:z_'s ,~.mpidcillli oonclwioni'O. Yet :IT ,clis<l!g<~~e. witlhL .Et.i.:s m>e!rlLod'o~ogy ,of !rle-soi .... niillg tno • "uU:lma~e'" lruatUfe oil" ['he state. The problem .fu;. wheU])sclf we can appGy hrs test of noncorre.spo.l1d\ence, ibie.:9d-oncib.alUe,qge, ailld ,e:lllSJl!Litlg ,"'icto.l')' -dlr::,[ieat-dialectki!!il s}'1IIthes.i:s to the 'il!intire sta:m~, Th:is. implies. a

77

s,ociil S.YllkliID pLHlcing holisti.c .Iimits (ilili .its staire, The Man::ia_:ndass mode!J. doe;s· elilvis~ this:.as t~ sees elias:.: s;brl!.l~ul.e as a diaieoticai. tota.~in)', S\rs1~'1J:I~tjc-an:r! slt[lucturing tihe whole ood.e~y and state, P.r-ovideti ~h>e-ofo~tical diisp<i!!'I.ei:> :remm w.ithfu these di.aiLed1ic1iUl:el'rnls" wiil ,1;;8J!1 adjooDciiiilc' them.

Head-on. Cl~ss comlii.ct c:m be stated lill ,dilaifeClii.cal t,elrms. StaJes caa-

n(j~ be ieudalt and C'ap:it;di5in or c;apil~lis~ and so.::-iallist 01" rnli;lig·;il.]',cltka~ and l?!IIrty ~mo~a:Ii>c, They must. be O(!!e Oil:' ths other 01[' OODte· :syst~lTtIic oomp~omi:5'¢; between them, 1m ;this peliod U~ey !)e,'<Im.oLl .and l'e:!:mrjli.ed prcdomina.liiltly c;ll:pi~<!llist, rather 'nbaD feurlla:~ Of soci:aiist. We c;malso spedi)'lib.e oonditiofiS yodm" wMch. s)'m:emic co:t'ir.Hi.c!' m.i:,gihot bl'eac}~ ~he, "I.i~hs" [J])Oitii1i'!i1I:JJ1;' ,exe-r'CISlilld by' capilaJis;:m on Si.il!ch. stallies. Rueschemeyer arndi .e",ans (1985: 64) lis'! 'Ihese as: ,(in <l'S£e.n:diUtl,g order 0:[ 'the threat ~\Q capital) wihie'f,e: tile cap:itaUis[ ,dass. is, divided, vihe.re th:I!'<I~'i!!~ :f"om belo ..... induces t.he ,capina.lis,t d~s eo h:llin.d Over powell' t'o,ilie politi~1 regime (8!Il.dl ·,he regi.rnrue ,:1I'c'I:!l. autonomously to, CCi:JiIfIJp'l'o'lnise'mss oomfit~c:t); and where 8li1bord~nate classes acq1J!i[',e the IXDw,e:r i!l1 civil sooet}' to cDpil.lUe Ihe s.tale tlh.emse_lv,es, -Ca.p;j'ta[~bOO[' stmwe has been :s:ys.temic :10 modem eounteiea. Tbey can filnctiooclfiici.eIlfJJy ollly if they prodtl,ce, ilIirld etfident poo'l:b.lcniioili. ~ues; ... ppooes soT'I'iiln1lg ,el;Jlil$ -ll1!;'I1{ggl}s'. S~:arte;s, requi!re the. ~suuggl)e. OOlw,e..eiOi ca·prl.al a['J;(i l.a.fb.o!J." '1;0 be reso9'!i'li.':d, One way o:r another, Cap'iJl!al ,alld libo]' have !pers.~s;I!e!!tl1y struggledl for over a cerluuy over t.he whole te'li'mim of the stat!:e' .We C~JIi1I analyze theii'" .repea!:ed i'le~n. "X~:]'Si1Ji:S y) ·cGinlis:iMil. ,<lud '4I1iom;oii]i1irel!>po;o;del'lll::es, ,., see who wins,. HOd! 'COme !to .a '&)'$:l:em<!!lic oonC]us.~o:o. of o:ne k:i.nd 011;' ,IUil'O¢.her.

l~ow far can 1bis Matr.xian mQd\eI] ,of cmdli.ct be 31P.pHed across di~ Mudi eo :;i.Jl] po~itmc:s'i" The: p.roMem is thar, consldered in ~n:se~f., eV'et)!' aysJ!:ilJitzillItiilm ru funcUo.ni,s. ~rs'\e<mi(: and I~I11liIi;kDg •. i.Ill the sense that it mrwt be staib]::; mstituto.C!'!Ia!lized., JU!>t ,M states must be capitalist, ~Hlis.t. or some relLatively stable ,comp.romi~ebetv.<eBD these, :so I:he:y must be' s>eruJlar., C.;ljthoJic; P·[ot.esJtan.t, .!F.slamlc. ~jjd so fUilith, 01:" some onsW:li!JhonaJi2ed ,oOf.1llp.Ji'·omii:se. They Dlust stably d:ivide pO'I:iti'C:il!.18li1Ji:iIiI.ol'~~y b~·tw-eefil ii!ai~ol!l;Ed center and I.o~iiiti;e-s··re~i.o.m;; th.ey m!lls1: inst!t!,l.ti.Q:[i~l!~ reil8ti'O.RS between men and wom:e'Jl~ tli'ey mlilst a.eh:iev€ efficienC"y 'Qf jus~mce, admilrl.i5'l:mtiOD military defem:;e. and diplDmanic ~UIirilj'. B~ o:f 'ttiJese ~tystallli.z;at.io.ns is intr:insica.[1:y s}'Sllemi.cana OOllJta.i~'ll .head- 0'.0. c.hal.~e,~.~s and riLolilC'Oir.res!po:nd.elll.Cie-S that ooil1~·mJ]JO'.l"ary 'We&tel"tl <em..lntliies hii~e manag~d to iInstiitlllti.mmlize broadly.

BUll re~:!IJriOl'I.s b'€J'We"eJ'!! fum::tior1l.a.1 cryst:aliiizati.'oIllS. are flot :s.y~ltenric.

CI~ ::lJ~c! :relru.~ol.lS c:rySi!'a~iIlli:!:.ati()il1ls., :1'01:" elXa mp I.e • dmieii" i!i:od. :S!i)@i~tiim.es tfu:ey co:m.ii:ict. BUI the.i.r conWet ii:;, ranity sy.st,emlli:c. ;them:!" colili;icms !;,4lf,eJy CD.llstill)lle Ii Ibt.ead-on dia:lecti-'c_ Stac:Gs 00' not IIlSWI.!lly make ··'·llltiID.ll!ote" choi.c.~ amn:om,g them. bllily ~oday, fO.1:" eXJlJm.ple;. ren1ains p~!'¢y demo-

crstlc, cap~talliist. (m.d C'lliUro.lic, j 1IS'~ as it remains rr,;lJtll"i.ilfeh.d aJJons w~th

· v DriOUlS. otherc.ry~tiiLJliz~tioIl5. Steinmetz may find capll!:ali~~icn<ltio'naID1)l embodied. in we!tal:'e policies, This i~ J~igt1y likelyiJecal.l:j.e these were e-c'O:no(rnkpolides S"-IIlbsli:lI!DJtu8Jlly aimed at r,edliJ.iciIli,e; class. oofiflict {th!l)I!I~1l he does rial consider whether the]' were also ;p.1l.t!f.iareh.t1, as they we'f'l:~).

Nor is It sl!ll']lri~ing t.hat over thai. wil.r-I'u:mre OF raodem st .. te ~heory, dispetes Q'I,1,er American New Deal we~fa.r.,e, or agti(1II!lh.lHill pclieies, most write!!'S lliil'!.'e empbiMi:Z:J!i!d d1;a8.S c.ry,slamuJtiQI1S_ These p!l)li~s are pdRil,arily economie, mosdy framed wi.tll classes or economic sectors ill mind, Nonetnejess, U.S, welfare polieies have jseen also (~f rare;ll), c:l!pJ.icitly) :pal:riar<:hai Olind Qt'iiC'Jl1] titey have been racist. How do these '~hiree li:.rystall!l:z':';lJior!l:5 over welfu'e poHcy relete ~o· ollie' ~motli1l~!"? S<!1ilJo!ll of the best American soci,o[Q.g}' Sl_tld polntdcfil science haee ''ol':r,esrled with these eDI:i'P'irung:s of elass, gendleE'., and race and have not emerged with

a oonsetii:JJj;.~1l lIl:titm:ate con.c;J1).IsLO:n- Ste.ililme;Dz may also .110,t l'irnd CQfrespoi'i(:J)e~rnlces or ncncorrespondenees lin Jmparial Gei'm~my ;;ii!i(lll~.i: poli.c}' areas - among; say, elass lnterests, the Kul:!rurk,9111pf, and ' ja:ismarck~am djp]oma,cy. 1'.hese were different, !1Q~ LIi1I head-on oolli5iolll, JIIe~ elJiiiWille,d. Wenni\g:1iU Sli.y the same of A merJcl!!!iI Ci:<!iS;i;. f.ooeral, 3Godi d~lPlo:madcpcncj' areas,

Evell wjtntou~ bead-Oil oonfmnitaitiolll, though, S~!rI;t¢s m~gb.t sWl.al~oc.n,e priorhfes .ranking, ,cQsta]li:t3tions illJ! uBtum.ale iltlJI'O'ftOlrnce., Four staee rum:cIIiJ,;m:i:l<llIfI$ ,milbocale .p(ii'i[lirities;

1. .1.A~8{Jl codes an.d cUi~tirun'o.rl.:!1 specify rii!l til S, amd (jllJ.t~~, The civil and cnmIDilJ law :iire'p[',Bciseaibout wha~ they proscribe tmdl wbat bro,ad dviD Ol.Jld poIii:ic-al rights du~y a1low. Bu:~ they do P10~ ~.liliclJ:cale ex:a.cnJy hcaw power wil.1 he alli;~car~«I. Co I1L£titlItioDl:' are sUiP':pose>d to ~Q.C:M.e where :!S(lYereignty Jies, b~! they do not indiCllJte blOW' ilB p'.rio:raties are to be Set . And, as A!!1dersl)1liI and Anderson (1967:2fj .. 82,) demol1stntl.e, cagh;teEmth. rurucl ~!t1ie!leellf.lIl-cr:rlJhlry OOrlSl:iluttOTh'S were acttl4ilt}' ~g.l!';; because t.hey eml'lQdie<l an 1JITIJl!irnisi1ed sJtrlll~1.e aglfmii.IJ'IS'I: executive powc['.i;,

::;:, Budg,t:iI.!' auoeare lascal priorltles, AlB. state ,~d!ivilic;:Si oos:t money. so budg:e~s illUl,j' re ...... eal 'wheJfe ultimrr.liiltl:e power and Jjmi~r. lie, A choke between aregressree (ill!" p'Fog.ress:iiVe tal{ or between Sipell'ihllJ.ingoill H~!.ms 01' butter" .may evoke head-on l(lo[J,~icr and :re'l't:aa tt'ie s,ystemic' disirib!J·taOIil of power. This is the WoClrkin,g .1l1;sumptioJl ·of my a!lalyses (1f s~ .. l.J!e fin:tlulOOs. BllIt Ji!UO'I.!1!ces alsQ 1I.3ve their OWIi1J pa.llth:ula.rilies .. The: ~t o{ fgncticms 'C!lJnnot be. eq~.ated :litn'ip.1ly 'I'!'i.th tlrueir i.mpDmlloe._ Di[JiDomacy jj,eed\s, liUle: .m.oney ib!llt (iI"I)ay be cH.e"l'fJ.M<ltiril8, illl .~i;s colllsl1lquem::es. III ,:U;lI~f c:aS'e, [~rough IlliO:;;~ 01 ttiJi:s pe.riod st~te:s dirjllo~ :Os vel!ll1lil'ied bULdgels, or i:fng:IJey did, :;Qml;; 't:emcS were cQlmstiltl!ltiOlllaUly ,e~ltreficbod, nOt ava~l· >1!:lIe fOE' reall.ocalij,!l'.ifi_

3. Parly.democ·ralie fj'~~Orilie:f .lIiIli.gIlIt indk<l!t,e: die ~11e,~~N=hiCOl!I di:;.

uib!!l!tiVIDi oj power, as p]l!J!t' aJ i::rGs all &e;!' r, The poli.cie~ ,oil' majoo;!']ty parties, ilt:IliY i!llm'ERle ultimate priur.itics '. BIiI.1 p;5tJity intr~g!.!lie Iilo'l"m:ally i'lvoid", [bcad"on oorifronil:::nrona:ndl 'llltimaJ~)Il d'OCiS.1(tiIJJ :maikilil'lg,. Governing parties, ~jdr. by issues o:f 1P[ll:!II;I,:::i(llls bYIliI.ak:ung ad hoc compJiOmi5l!1:5 <'lHlldDI[I~n" in,~. Regimes ,rarel,), c.boo.5l!l:~l:ltwe(lj!il, gum .mdbl.l,tter; tfu;;:.y sec.k !borth, i!liOO:I'I1I~ill a ~ionsv1uyilil:g: aoomdi:ng to oomp~c.N cl1;imgi~pliJ:Vitic:tl1 ~I}'!T I::3!llizado.ils;.M'orC(i!v.e:u, rnajlO<.I'ilti.es we:re oWly <illll ,imperfect iiii'iQJ(;;f!;oor lYo'er tihlis perlod, No llI~j,or sta;t<; e:llifran'(,tiJ:iSed wom.era; :se\!\e-nuJ did not e!l1lfr[lncIi.i:;,:c wiliole C£I~.;gO<.I'ic:> of men, Did tllLe· c;(c~wdcc!, IIilii!1V¢nOo poH~i'C'rJ~ P!)WB.'I'· at all: In se!i\emi 'o(tulilitries aecess to the monarch was 3Ilfio a:!lulliliP'Orl):.m~ .. ~ ap@!!:',lianJ;~tary nw,]o.ri.tj', The $llllte llIad IIUiIlly lil!aIIsi.'o[!s •. Parf .. me\nt:) ,di,(J not to!l;!t.iLriLedy ooru!.]"oJj diipl.omacy 1)'.1'. militl'ltry' p~ice.!j;d.~eil, and otilief. interes~ gttOrU!~ lJbbie.d1 CliYlJ rrt , ~f.l1l1y, a!ld: ad_mstlatioitliS i!i~ wen :;lJS p~ri~iam~i!lJl" Pi'lli.ljilmt.~t:s we;re ]'i()i~ "~!.ij;(i!Uy, :wmelil11:!::s ITIDI even Cl)]'ls!::liI'lI.!tiOilMly. sovewigJJI.

4, Mol'lQ.(.;I".;:!l;l'ic b!.'ifi.i:+l4t~cy :m~I: roiJJliO:Uiall)'allooa~~~tlio['.ilj~ witfliiil: ,sl.i"~!'iitoon:il>tJii'l!tijon-'Th.ot!igh We.!be:r e:l!~gget~l.ed~!lie ~i!,!!woomy of: tnlJi~€tI~Jcril!II;:;, they <lfe <l:ltr.a~ed ta'~~on~lly by h:iii;~r:;:i!~y a~d fUil,cI.'iO:F.I,. with prlolrihez se1l alUtl'!!(}.rj¢ati'!;1ely by'ihe ·dJiiei. ~ecl!!!ive, Drol!l:g;llom ~i!lis pl':<riiXI, S!.Ii;:!staiflMiaJJ stiil:le- bYit\eaiU(.r,[l:!iza:tion 0'CC1.ii:lTed!. BlI;!!t <IS Chapter l~ mo'Ws,it rem2lif!Led iIliCO:(;]lr]~OO;, ,es~c:ua~ly near the tor ~I stare ,,.dmieiistrl:lltrortt5, A!JJtllioriHilr.1aD FIfIo:naochie'.l di.",id!;;;od 8m;]1 ruledlro p.r,cveillil: co!hiesi'i'e 00008 uerac y;. p:ul!iamel!iJtary .regimes were c:3:refilJ1l 1:0 still! tlille brlgll:eSI::ldministrnti'Y'6 :~~ls, w.itlu. pliJ'~iti,Clll. l\o'Y1'lIis~. Adm]lllstratbJ!l$ were ]J,i(),t f'l:!!Uy miJ,\!I:iIllGd, th-G'Y ,tmlibodiiedl: th~ !Pirmc~piil CJry;5tMIIzaU(IIi!:!> (If ~l1ec rest oif the :SiIMe.

or OOi,l1;',S;(!, OO~ ~~M.es were mwe ,cll)]JJ ... oont. ~lfi:a;i'i 'o'th.e~ts, SUd! states calli be .dlstifa,gl!l!~s]l}ed acoolt'dir~g ~.i) I:! ow (le<lrillj' they locate lLI~:ti:rnat,e d6ciston. ma.ki[:1Jg-the:DI:' W1ier,efg;tjlY. We sh<l!~[ see Ul~~ eii\1ilu:ee.IiI·lth!Jelntllf_'!' :Brli~!IiJil and Pru:ss:iia IOCii'!!i«I :SO'lfe-re:iigDlt.y mote, ,c!ea.~I)' la de~e:rr· l]][ina:llIt sess -of re;iali>OM, {OOI1L9!1;:oong mcnarchs and r·ilJI.iia'mell~ 'OiL" Iliigih.e.r offimls)li'mr!. did France '0'1' AuslrU;:,J., 31i1d that by J914., pa&1ty democracies dj:dtllis more cleQ1I'ly than .a'lJthorti~lU"ian rn.o:narcltiiies .. rnli!i these oomparrii.8O<J:ls, the l;ljt~&·~t3 of Ci:l!S~emJbodi!;:id ·!iTilOr.;:;:: ,cocl('II!prOll~'l!IlPlhi!l~ cl1bl th.e(Qf,m.e:r. O'!o'eraU, :H!!QW~,altIil:O:tIJg(h the mooe[.1i1I ~t'ili~ll "Was :li,tt,e.~!ptin£l: ~o' iDlmease :!It:.S; aiI;~o~;:;:ui.'!;'e ,OQ]'l'erence IIlL anrou:~ I[lQctmliltsmS, ju:st ciltsootSsoo, tints was actuaH!y ~:n res!,omc ~() aS5urnlrng 1!IlI@:!je, d!b,e;I'S41l f!l.llll)ctiO:I!I;lI~ cry:;uJmi:!:aJtiol1is (as Cha!pter ]4 ;lI['gtliillS). 'Fh.u:S, i.!: wa:s (,flna ;stiI;~ i:s)ilil.com:DJkt~. I ar,~!!Ii6 t!h:3!OCi"'l:;ra~ill :staitC oolil!t:['eFlc·e W,OllS probably d~e~asililg: ttilmugHU::l'ltd tile :pe[~dI. so.pr.io!l'.ities. ,could nOl!: ~s!LIany 00 .. nll]cat,eds,ys~ema~i.cail!Dy"

No &ifDglel,]"lveJ:~al measrl,[ilit'<e {!If [poiLitic:ol!1 pOWe'J" e:l!!s~ CQfl1!{P'<I!I:'.llb.~e ~o lIDIol]ey ![I!)l~ eooilitomi.c [pow,e.r (If. oonce(lrl~r~ted phySii;.aI, :fQ:~ce [O!r In~IUary

power. There i'5, no :fm.al. me&\'i,ure of IIh~rua~e, state power, Far di"'e.r.s~ c:ry:st11lmZM1.ons to res:u[t: :il1i, .f:L si11,f1;l!Ila:r ~y~1i:eli:nic stillt.e 'WiC,ilUldl requiit\e, 'litm only eKltrno,~d!il]atry 'oiLgmiOling abrude.s lJy M<!il'e offid.ds buealao extra.. o:rdii!1<l!F), iPoli~ical .ir'!terecst by d"'il oocijety .~d:Or.;.. Vl'hiy should the cal:r.ii!:aJls~ class, o.r me worl!o:ing dass, orl'he Catholic ,eh!1llrnlll c::IlTC alJQiltt I ool!i'~l!!i!e di[ploH'l.aq<1' Why :SJ1ol.i~d n;;),t;i;oliJ,al~;stp8r~ieiS or the milit;!ll:"j' C<I!r'il: a:ibol;!t fucto[}' ~£ety l'l:~i:S]""t.i!1J'.IiI? Stai:es do :moot ro!JItiliidy aUUocaLiieFl~~n"j;a. mel1!!ta] iP'ri.Mdt~e$ ~monl1: such functions ::1:5. ,d:ill5S r,c,wuJalion, gQvcmmeliit cel!ltl~a]iio!:;!i!tioo. or dip.Joma.cy, iP'!)Wetl'ul po I itiw U. ac~rslPl!r.sillil: most 0'1 tbe mubip~e 'flLlnc~~o~~~. 'oJ ~I;:;;ll'.e~ rr"'f;m~.'ti~!ly, a<cQgtd~tiJ.,g tll) ~rti~il!IJar trariltiJlii]llSaDd pHl,s:e!l]~ prec.~l!Il'e;s,rreaa~!lg prngm ... Ucal~.y .. rl.d hasll:il}' to crises coliIC€:m:ing. ~hellil all;

ThIJlS'lPolitiClillc.ry:s(a~li:;O;1)ltiQ~s fOl!.!"ely ro,~frij)~~ each Qtfiier diiaJiect!c<l!lIy, head-on, We e"'!t);!lot oo~ti!Iiely <!pply ~liIedil'ed: It est of "wli1o wins." S:J:~~eol3 li<lrel.)!enn.bo~y ;t m,~:r .rf.!j]'I'I. y, T~c states .m :[uCi.i5o:n W~-l'e ca:piJt8Jlist,. but tluey wem :1:1:50 .1P~triri:l'chi.cal; ·~h!!'y we.:~e G'l"ellJt Powers, and aU but .AucS!I:r.ia became :l1i<l[~O:rli-SJta!ieS (an,d they l:Ni;gh:I: be C<t!~:holi,c, fudko::ral. r,e.U:!:l!ti",e~!I' [.nili~;ari~t:k:" and so tm.'(h)," The. logic oFcap;J.lali:1WIli requires [lopa!rl:~eula:r g~ndJe:r, G!I'eat I>ower, or ,[lJaliQ![j;llJ~. DID;gk - a~d vice .... ersa, Th.!1:se .u and .JIS ,did 1lI0~. cila~hl'l!ead-OllL The,:y sUd thmugll! and I!LnJllI!I1.d each other, tHne SCllllti;o[J.8 l'O crises ,o ... er eaeil; .harv.~l1Igcofl:seq!.lIt:ItcC'':;" some unlntended, ~h[ 'Ihe other. Bven C[yst:ll:llizal:io!llss.r.hrilt ~n [priinelpk w~:r,e in .I'tiead-orr!i o'p!p!]&U~:tO!ll often we.f,fj not i!DJp['ri,crrire perceived! as such :.:il1i.Of:. dlBy c:::llftlJe e:f:n ....... inecl W.il:ho;th,e:r cry~lal:tl~z .... tions, ] :~Oicl R.'I;i~.t~enleyer and Ev,ill1I$'$ tillite.::: oo.lld\hof!JS (11@II.ed e;fl!r]~e:!") by c-wlliicih labor .nn.:i;gnt tdump:1l o~rc:ilpa.nd to be 1:00 :r(e"SltrktiV'tl=, I :~fid! tihil!:~ w]uereve,r j;wO !l)[ MlIr.:.::"£ ,QUJ'po$ll;;d dasses oo!liid~",d he ad-o iii , I!ib;e, [jk)'iliIi!l.~iIt!: dLiIIiS,S, - po,s!iJ!.'jssi1li.g all dlle majcrsoarces of :;;odal.powe:r (,e;spec£ally '~bie Miili.ie ~Il!.d!rne. rnilLul:ar]f) - tr.iumphot;;d. Wb~re ~lU,fui(1lr:(3ijFlil<le etasses h<ld. ·Dl~.QiI:'e e&l~nce is w]i'!ere· ~1In,e~]' threat "'<lime 'l:l:t'.w.i~ed ..... i~b orrller llii'l[[lf:aJts, f!J!lotm other eiasses b~~mO',t'e !rnlw~lta:!1!I!!yfJ;'o~i!1i ;l'e~!i!lio.l,ll,l Of milit~ry ractuo.~s. political d~e~ltr:aiizeil:'s,. Oil:' fo,teWglll Powef£. In ruch ruou:mf>~o~sPQ:Uitiial ;r,e;~nlles ,i.!I;l1d d!olil:di1l:e.II1:~ C~l!ISS';s, ooukl! loseilireir power of Q"'itLQe~l~rd'!ion 0111. tlile [IJ'O'ttmti~1 ~~Sl'i. ~iIiI.cmy :ilmod be overwhelm.edibry their i!1~er.sUti.'~~. eme~gen.ce. ThistiJ.<Ippe'mled In l:Ii1e if[\e~rtich :R~'il>Q!fI;!.~iot1! .(~~, Cb~p;t¢r 6) <m.d· ,(li.d [lot h(!P~ZlliiIilCnEl'l"i:ii5-m {:!ie~

Chapter' 15)" ..

Of OlJ!lIIrs.e, di:rferelll~ 'CIJ'S~a:mZ;ll.'~~iCms i~1[ght d!Onll:i.~al'B dirlef·e!1l't :t,ltate iirl:stiW:t~(lfis. Dun WI~gbrt b~ o['(i)SI"!ea. by a; p€rfectly b!JJ!l'e.alll,t;.rntic stal:6 'W'i.~l1! a f,;BtiOifjJl;1lli~d ,division .of IlalOOr. BlI.!t thus, di.d lTI.ote",ist in tITLe rnilflel'eemh ce!l][[llIfY ;;!I.urn. does !1Qt e::,,:±S'1 i[J1l)W', A,g, Q:ftt;[],. tlTl~ .~e:n .~"i1I(!! ,of th.c ;s~ai:ell~s fiOt rno" ..... 11 what tlhe ~~ be.li'ltil i$ d!oh:il£i:_ Allle,rican iIil5!JJ~:ated d:upliomarlS (jabbed i:l1terJ]lJiU~F.II:1f by presslll:re groups;) tool

oare !;If relalioifLS .'wi:th 1:ra~" '?IIW ~dde~l"ir, irlJ, AII,]~st 1'900,'ih;" oo~,seql.l.e:~DfiS of mel!: (pJ,!J5fio:!:'I;(!S!1!ot;:RI-) a~~.ons oo,mpe~.ted th~ p~e.:SI~lI'Jlt s ~mll'~ ;3I~!elil;j;iQ:!l, ~]'j :reoe!l!t, year:s, NATO. IU],cUe.~~u~ma[m.e ~rriI" mfinde:r~ ihti¥e ~nled, seeled o:~dLers, m ~opc~l':ld"lf~~r ocOmnn:!1!Jloo!1!" Ilion:> w~!!b b:e.aiIJqlllJ::lrl!e.b'So were broken" ,h IS beh!1!vecil,l!hese orders roc:lu;],; "L':;I!,I!1Im )'1iJ1!!!:' mi5sik~, ae the 'e~e?l)' 1:ar~e:t8 de;sl:g)llli;mled here: "J In dili~ ease, tHle smal[ 1ID,!il,e:r ,on the l'iI~t (:f!ul!tO):ry) LlJilIJndo] states can act aJutooomoll$.HyW te]J[l!inate the :fi,tll~l:i;. C8{p.it~sm. ,il!nc;i, pte.J!h<l!Pf;']le wart.elL Till} state is u"awareo£ w]mi~ts, me;m.bers uU'; do:im,g.

.. 71'if dimect tese i;rilling, C,HI Wle rnpp]y 'tIl,,zs;soond, illdir.e>c.l; tes,t? S1.al1e c')'~'ta]illnz:;Hio:ns mary~Q!t Qt~~~rollii.de di:alemJkllilllJy ~~;itrlh:\!n .• bil!t are the eff¢ctsOf one er IDQire ,c![y.stl!ll~:iza:I;i\Qm; so ~'Jt,"",,~s~~timgror. the rest tR!~l tile), !.i!nil ;iliO>d f;;I!ttt:m ~hewl1l.tiIl.e. p~[liIaJliJs '~lliIIiYIl.iJSh Uteir.pQ'We;I'(1ll1 un:'lliiticlp.l:Uied oonse:qll)[tI:tC(l:s'? W":1I~ tlb.e1e ~~ le;l,Ls,t GIl.e '''lugher-le\l'le.1 !l: r)'&ta~l[z;a;til(l !l"''2

High,e.r.J.ev.el. ;slale !1:rys:tallw.~ions,

This volume giyes :su~talb~y naaneed IiIIrnlswern 1:0 th-"qu!CIJno]]s j~1 iBSli:.b!:L Di:ff£~rellt stares; 'c~tal~~oo dii!ffie:rre.ntl.y" Ye:I: I ;IJ:!lIil[!d~dlly ]',e;p!y 'jC5~ Over this. reriodl I identify ~ :hig~e!F-:Ueve.l. c:rrystall.izauolil.S ,~.f l1I'eS!tem srates, The first :fi.ve were ascaIpltalist,. i.dooIQgi.ici!ill~m.Qr.d, militarist, alldi .. t 'v,ol:r!abre [pOSilti..ollls 0111 8 .reP'I'~:s¢>nt~tiiV$ OOal.'iitliiill.m'! (from a1(i!~(!Icr.iiLticmonarch!JI to :p!lu'~,)' t],Gmooncy) <!!~di o la, a "'!l!iOIJlio~ar (l(}iliJ1EiJ~nlm ]1r!Q1!!J (le:ntral~ecl natlon-state to C'olliF~der.ai. regime, :I :idega~jJ:y '!!<!rie>di icl.eologiC;3JI.-moralcr~il:BII]jzali'o!l!l!5,. some i1diJg:io!'!s (e.g" Catholic, :ll.M!the\r<l_rl}, (lt~er,s more mi~.ecl [!,2UgiOiWS,..:;ecul.i!!f. :B~~ U~e!i' :som.ewhOl.I !i;!ecililll;-ed !Il s!l!lmg01l!f!~ over this period, l'iis~lig!i.QIl:'l amd :ideologies ibe~rne more (tlflo.:u:gn never entirely) r-edlucible to Hlipms~liIt:3ilm ,::mlilll 1fiI~liom!, i$SlI.~:S. The' ideolQgicail."mQ'.!'~i!:;J),°Yl!~~~~i~l:iO'IIJ emeq:;ei.1 m{)&I: strungly when e[(f~,wiIilJtd with the sixU~ high;e;r-]e'l'eI. ,cl)'~t:iIUiz:!l!tr(JfI!,. which, l1t1f.orll]]nat(i;]Jy, ]:Wl.Iicb >():11< Oillly tigbuly i!lll! [hi:;; ¥Cfl]]m!l: :I;ne ;~llute as iP<i!iiiar¢hall, whicl1 ~ s1I~l~ !f:iili.dl :'ligniifi.clll.'l~: in ]in!kimg. the :mobm!llti'OD1I of. 1nle.n&ive ~o e;<!t,ens:i'l'epower re.lartiioILili" ,Ail the· f;;.:>i:~ ... e ~e!'!\~~ I ~l1Ierali.~' e~.iJh:lSize fuliE !liJJigh(l!['-]It'II'C-.J. ,cf.)'saaIIizM±om;:: ,cap;litali:st, mi~it!iFi~1:, represenrttaltii'i'6, ilIllirl nll;~iD.n ... I ..

Each Qf dD.e.se fou!:' cry.S!ta!l!lizatiO'II!s prO(h~~d its own Ihe~dl(l~ ,di,,,,· ~~1kl3i~ l;:oIT.fti~~, w:hicl:!! in ,wmibimit i.OI1l. oolil$tih~·tetl, the, ~s.t;elll~i.i:d poli:!licll !)[ th.e [p'emjoo, Tru.e. ~Ocm.e~~tes were aliso CHlI:1hI0al,C,. olJle[5 Pr.otes!alril~, otll,",fS secl!Ilatr. !'Ja .... al or :Ui!IImJ F'o~[;!j,. mo:m)\lliug.lI.!ai of rni!llltH:ungu;a~, wid!) vafYing oM.resime ,00[ bur,e.a",eraclc ooloiiiJIJIgs - , .. !Ill ge!ler..liJtil:lJg diiiSJti!l1>ctr!fiB "ry,stO!lfuatillJllIiS" Hut throl1lgh~i.:5 dllrven:in)' .l dis.oe:rn fUlWr hroa,cl. lI,;M:k5; ~Dw,.u:d the .1TiI;3;w:mtiCl'llJ ,0[' ~pita.lis'; .e·oooomk re~atio:~s., tQl!IVaOOi gJNl;aiter

82

[\e~reS€:m.,.,tl?~, tow~rd intel'llsifyini\l !iIi:flltio'J:lJiill ~nl·Ia:~I:z~ti'tlIll.; arid ~OW.flrd p!r>ofesslO(l'lJah41nr,g .and!. bl1![',e-a,ucra!izul1Ig ~1:.o1te militl:l:rism.Mocler.tli WeS1te.ii'~ stal.eSlWlligJ.ll. "':;li~y. thei~ ir.el~gBo(f.ul>, their 1<llJ1JgllJlag.es, .m.d so ifiGnll'l.ibl.!t3J ,. ~mm?~ c.apl~;lI:tUs.t ;a.J:lJ~~( wi;11l :mC),!'e ['ooo~ :fOil' varianee) ~ more !lelPr.~~se!ilJ!aJ' uL".e ;jj~,t!.Ql1Ia~, tll1ldll1l.[itanst cha!f·Q¢t.er seem:;. to have been toroed Olii. 1]]e.m~1' the gef1.e['l'Il~ d\e ... eloprnent cf tl!Je SOurces. of oodi1l! pt;!IW¢L I~ they d.lrl !ilQI:l!Ilooertl!lze all foal', they did ,no:! slJ!;r ... ~ v e.

.' ;rhJa,t == ,be":<l!1lJle ,c~rpjt;ali";i!: is tooobvJ;DII.ls to lJ).e~:abo!r. 'fluolJ.ghl}ll~ I~IS " permdl, ,~~ste:~~l $t,l;lte8,oon:sIS~e.!l!!ly pr~Yi~.egedpriv.lte propeny !1:giH$l1tlldl 'Cif!J.PJ·t:aJ~· a.ccll!m!ll~,[jlt!Ofl., .EIIIJopcallJ states had [101 tr':'tditio'l'll8]~V ~s;se,s§B~, m~l1Y pow-e:r:;. QV'cl!!c.Ae prope['~J! ,o:fIJrneir SJlJ!itJj 0C[S,. By th; t~i"ne . ,~.;a[j:mahst. pro~er1)' .:fI~,j n~ .. It'&;:et fomil~, wl1m~ Ulolr,ou,gJlly iiIJ.stityIJOm!IJzl:ld. (b~'. ~ 760 m ]l~I~~UIll,; uj" 18:-600 alil!O;St ~ v erywl1ere' ill the We.st) :l:ilmast ;dl poht!cll~. actoes .h~o.'iI ll1t'ema.~iz.edl, their hgk, O~!JI!lTnl'~es iJxlcame ~UO[1I3. ~irtl:ilar ~!! . th:ltS c:rys~~I~jza!:~otl:, as they :tIl1l comme''.!!'da~~~ed .liI:rJd !~d!1ls!~laii!2<.ed •• [ ~J]~lli!fJ:I]'·od9C€ ad.j~ct~ .. aiquil!Jillca~k!LftSof ,capj~<'I!~ism .:: ~Im:![.~l c<)iflna~ls:ro. mcll!lstr~~d ;capHOl!i:i£rn, :lIli~di so fortb, Nat i OI1tOl I (and! H)g~{]Inai)t=lCo:rJ,(lIo:ri!~ ~I~ dJU'eroo, lilritain. was t{l:tg 0111111' MlI~y ~:t1(!!.istrdaJ. SOciety of tU1:epeno,d;. 'CermaillY ,"'TId! .t\!'!striia were di&~li:n:cW)\e~y Date developees. S,uc.h. yarJ.,momlrtnlDli'Ig caJpjt"~~$1 crr~~OIIl1izatimIS will matter all!II1'Olilgl.l~e sJml~ see that ~:JlJey IIsl!!aJly :m;;t~!:ered leS:ii ttua.IJI t,be man; eCO!ltom!r>~j)c: theo:ries 0;1' modern :sooif~1 science have :argM)!]di" ,M;II;t'X aad !E:rnge~s wrote, i:Dli lihe CO\rJ'~mi\ol,l\trsl MtO.nif~I{):'T.libe e~eC'IJII:i'll\e 0001' ~he mooe.rlI~. state is bui: ~1 eommlrtee f\J;lOl" .manliging;l:fuJe e>o:lf[!mcn aff~i~!l of tiIJc wi!i.oie bOU~g.BOiL!Oie" (].968:. 3"7)..E:>;;(;~pt fo.!' Uae "b1lH:" tilt's is correct, W~.s~e]!,mJ M<iJli6S were and are c:iiiP~~<iili~.<I, iii Ci)':>ia~J;i2a~i)(jri .relal~'iJ\el.y ILIIIl!hiroalif:;tbed ~)' .!Ilead~o'n {)iPpoo1,jonal datU!enge;s" ]1rI~bJis period, we MoaH ifil1d. litrle iI:J.e·"d·,oIll. ,cOVJfiI~:I;~ Cro.t:~ :felldal mO'!.'¢meIllL~.. In fact feudalism tended Ito ~.l'ansfol'.m i~eiif ~:l1to cilI!pul:a]]Sl]'! wi'lll fa:r !~5S c(li~Hi~ IHlaJ~ ~r~ seern,~ (0 ~ .. ~e IJ,elie;v.ed. W,e iIl.ndrnQ.re $()(;aillli~l !)!pposlti.o.1lI IO?;lIlP'~taU!$rn. l'll:ou,;glil !Defore ·~9:a.4 Uais was .lJiot ~iife-tiI:J.!'etHelli:ng fOI.r C.apJJtru]sl:n, The c.ap:ita]is1: crysmlmi:z:aUon d!ra"ll.rs our ilIltenhol1l tawar!1il, c~:as:lQQ.lJltll~I:, b!ilt ar<S.O iiDWU[,cilcaf).itailisl: he;genulo":Y .i~ ~hi)s .f1el'~!od, ..

We:stem srares we.re a~d iIIlr..e .i!}Q!~ only (;;!i[l'if.atist, t~~o~gh, f'1oralrist:S ~eoeJ::;:~o ,3cddl l1Iiumy >cry~tal.!izaUons. T(~· da:sses they ~cld segmelltai pow,e. act?!r!>, some ~cml!onuc, SOi1tleifiOIll"'!1:CQi!iOrnLL<c:: m~!Il ... ersus rural, hner. regl!)!i!~U '~04:ltli!.¢~~, Cat~ofh: !re~~", P.rol;e8i~ant: !i'e.~sallJ~ ~!l:llla~' •. lilfil~l.idlstic and etllll1lJ,c CO~i~S:" poHtkizedi secncile:r ooJilil'llkts. - i!!~~~ f\'JiFrn;!Jin,g pa[ties; som,er:iimes l.'e:mfOIl',cllIJJg, oomel:~me~ crooS-CY!t~:UIiI,!l: c.Uasses. TI'!~N were a!ro ,~a~re pal!'(iC!,!]l.ui!St~~ pressl!I:re gro!LIf~, AlIlil1dut>~['y, CQ!"por.atilillTl,. 'I o=ll!f·dICl'fI,!l~C,t~, e.ven !'It!'! i!l'il:eJ1ect.UJlal. ,salolill .may d!ol1il:u!!la~e :iI !party hold!!ilJJ,g tlii.e po.hJtI.c.a] o.alSJnce, 'o!['e:l1j:oy good ,cQmmul1lu,CflJti(l~lChan I:lJds,

i!;O d~ds:rD:r1J mak~lIl,g ~ e$pedal~.yilil. fot'ejgmpo.l:i,cy" iE ... ch kl,ta~~, ,e·"o'en '~dl

· .

.. ;_t-,

¢

.' .,:

'j ~,gio .. al and ]~cal go\l'eITtiRe~:iI:, may be uDi~ue_ Hut are the.se .pluralist . r- -!ld'dl~~Q]llS a.dd'i:i1g _:mere de'tai], or do ~he)"d:t8nge Ulle pa.r.amelleJi:l. of ;~ poliitkal poWG~'i' RJ3,llligiO<lJ!scommu~iti.~, l:¢gionaf :p<1!rties, eves s:alons . in a y :J:]Hlh a dlflie:!'e~ce •• but were Ule5'~ es;sel1lJt!iaUiy caplital~t St3Jtru?

F:D'ecJis~ .;:U1SW61S W'lJ!Ednfier a~rdiIlig to d~e and place. In d~:is. peliod 'In 'Ihi: 'IY'e-st, .pow,e,.i" networks :tI~SO c;ry,~tailu~ed .t:UotlInd ofiler Inligjle.rk\ilel i~sues." !'Ilo,.~ 'Ci1i):iliCeme.d citiz~I'llSl:J:ip: Who should enjoy jt, i:lii"ld 'wJjere; should It ,be ~ocated> I t-er.m these the "tr:·:presc:nl.:lUmve ,.,. is.sii,!.le ",uidl tb.~ ".Cl:1lil'i ()I'nd ,,,. issue.

!Rce:'prescIU~i.'lion~u~ne~ on. Dahl"S two democratic f'feCQudlitioIltS, COli!' ·~esrJ!ll!!.o\IJ _ and P;;urtliClI_fHl.trOlll. Coe.t:es-mti!(i!D began as ;II. :struggl!e agaiJlil,5!t mQ:ila/I'¢Jucal dCspo<tism, generat~n.g ".in'" !liRi;J "out, ". "court" alii.<! ''oomlitzy'' parllics. Go~HG!>ta:t!lo11 eme.rg~cl .. fuUy ·wih.eu ii1~te[,Dattve .p'Olrt.ics ,ooulcl OOr-iiJ] .. 8 :so""~w~ gnvemaeent I.!l~on wilililing a f',r.ee iliad faiT ,ero.:tiolU - IlI"st guarasteed i.n dg,e V.S. C(llncs,t:ituUO!l1 and: e:Kcctiy.Ii:.~'V CS"laIb'lim'f~ .illl. ]3riwn ol!,'e.r Un.e f(!!I:rowin~ decades, Pacti<cipa1iQI] co~ .. ~rn~~. w1uc.ftJJ .dasse.s ;and w~iclti ethnfc, rel:iJgiQUS .. i;l.liJd l!iingllistic commrullJlltI~ :SIho!.l~~ll:Ie enf1ra~nCJb:i&e'd ilJrl,d cl'litiitl.ed W .public ,ofia:: and (Iater] 00 stase ed!Jcal:J:oiJJJruJ~redenuaK A'~ tile V'e'J')' end of ehe period, it also <Oil!IIDe t,o oonf;.t![]] toe sssue of 'WIomafi suffrage.

So:mJ.,e; n·gililiie-.'l. ~l'fiLlded more on oon:t\l};!lta~iolil., others on parbicipatio.ll. ~~'"S~. _~~e J0ns. :~m'Gleeliltib '~nt~ry oo~te$tatio:n was a eu m'O're sig.~Ifiwli!I~ 001ffiO~5J)01l1 ", A J!'egLm.e. I:jl wh:ic!l:lJ ,a!lJi oP1K'sit.iomlpll'irt)' could Iilie~e the oo~".eJiel~n go'l'em:me.nt invoJlved <Ii ·degree ,of OPCI'IJ],c;ss 'tfc:~ed to a ~1!,I'e:l'"s~l male ~uf:f:r'~fli re,gjme whose partles CCllU~dI. nO'~ clann :Sm'er:e.gn~!r', T.h~ was l.'e:cog[1l1IZed by 1:I)u:~:noif.itafia[l men <lJrcJilis, the:~,seIVe:S, f~1 more w.il.ling tc ,cQ.i:icedc W1i¥e.r-sal ma~e s!.!fla:,age r.fum p~dmr.ner.II"~.ry s~r,~ty since it still .a)ih}w'i:d t.hem 8,ig,f:l.ir!il;Olll'D. d~potic pl},;ers ,(i.hls !I1IJIls 1bG.'C~ eli,em mere trae of twenti-I'Jth.oeull!l!ty dretator.iaJ u.egum~} Thy!>, U];o'llIg.h. Br..ir!ai~ lruii!<d a. mOrn res~D'lidi.ed(ra_j)dIiIW:lt: than PrUli1U3J-Gef'll'!!:;my iliaibe second baH' of to;::; pedod. I shaM! term Bril"-Im as ~. parly ,dernt<Ct!!L"f,a.cy but IIJ;O,t Pru s.sIca-Ge.rm any- P,~.lialThe:llIt wacG 00'1'et'¢lI.!llil, the ~ichS1!:a'§: ...... as not. We :ihillJ. see <Ii flmdOlim.e'ntw d!tlkn':1Jillce be~'~e]l tln,eJs' jpoilitics: B:r1iti:sh poHticsconcemed parties, ue;m;ta!lJi POhJtICS, c'W'!~~med pa.rt&es .. aJelod' mOliaiJ:'c~y.

R~p!l"e~nl:aJiiion C3l1lmiliulIl> be ruT.i:lnge.d in this period ,a!1"ofDg: a. OCillJ.t:in!JlllDll r!J11l!ti~ f~m despo<tk .m.oilillil:\Cllny ~()o fIJI!]. iJ?alrty ,cBel'!l~oC'l'~'1', .don,g'Vlo-moe.1u !iily OOumne-~ 1JiJ1i.!S¥ealy INo·\'edi.::! !Fir,Set. B;riJt~ia, ~!J];eIDl I:he United S:! .. tes.

.~. The· rtse of clesses 8ad narion-stetes 'I led the way, wllll,e France zi~g~edl be.hind. By 1880, ali three "liLlcm.l" .':~ . eounfries (exceptfor the A!ll.eri.ca!IJJ South) had illl.proved (frle freenes,s a and ~airl!l!e~s. Oil d'l£ir eilie.c-t1a:n.s. allld .tim.:!! ;lUa.i1:1ed sovereign le.giJslatur·es (ait~ol1!gl1! the~ dif£e'u-ed as 1.0 wH"lo should enjO}j' s1J.ff:rage) _ Because ~:he}' . ~ clustered 0!11 t!he represenranve iCOllt~nuUIiii, [ ofm:en cO'.t1Jl.rast Ulem ito me rwo enduring monarchic.ll. A;1!I!5;trb aad ~rn5$!<Ji"'Ger:J]'Ia.ny." w'ti'lidl JLOld nor conceded p.arJiam,emtary soverellgDiity and where toe monaJ'cn.s fanned lI!'1eir own mimsl:ries. However, 'We can distillgl1dSh degrees 0'[

d es(pO<t ism. within the perlod: The Russian ·"8IlJItOc.rOLCll' 'poss,cssee. :mol[~ 'pov>'e:r and more aut·a,EIio!L'tly tha.ll Al.!Isl.riian ·'d)jc.Iili<stidsm,'·; wh~ch pmses·~ more aU:i.ollQm.y (not' more "power c ..... er") than Gt::um.all, '·sc:mi!ll.Ulilo.rlta!rian" rno-n:arc.hy. Yet .i/o .. II. couatrjes ,conilicts betweea ~d",ocQ~es and o:piP'OlIle'n~. 'of :tlJlo:~e party de.mocracy domilri,d'ed much of the pou:ui.cs o:r the period.

But much dlJrne;stic CQlr:lil:roversy flioo rufllJed 011 fW'here !;Q .panicupam_ How oCef.i.tra'lized, ·l!IlJIilotiti'l., and ".n.ationa.l"' sillouldl the: st:;J:~e be"" Cem:rfi!· ~zliltion versus confederallsrn produced clvi:U war .in the Uill:i,~ed States and ·,.,."lll[~ ~~C«b"SS· Geernany, ~tal.y, end H.alb:sb'i,lJr'g. lands, 1'1 p.e:rs.i:stentl, lI~]'I.iI.ct!]['cd ]iiilllnd:me po~i.ti~. Confecl.era!l:i.sm remajnedi impo'1'ta.m in the U ni.ted States throughcu«, German pa·!'ty politics ~er.r~€d rom· plex: Some pa.rties were class-based, others were explliicitly Jfelig·io1Jl':;;. ' (most 'no'tabJ~' the"'a:l:bolic Ce!l:n,er): oilie,l's were limpliciq:ly .religious ('P'.l'Qitesli!Jnrr partles like ~lle Coneervatives, the N~Jti.o~OiJI Liberals ,. and! the osJtens~l;dy sec~dal' Sadabisls; ol:l~ers were ethnic (Danes, P'o'lle~, Alsatians) ~ 31i1.d ~ti[] others, :r'eg~O'n:ll.'l (the Ba ... ·:[uian Peasant iPt:.Qpk's pi1lll!'1tj", Hano ... eruan <Qu.elphs).Yet ool!.lch o-f ~.bis swirl.ed aWi!.IilIdi itbe "'national'; lssue , Catholics, South Germa:rn>, mil¢! ,e-thl'lk pa:rHes were

,dI~c~,mtra·Ui:z.ers, opposed to NQr:tih G;i;!1'litiMl Prctestent centr:.lI:i:b!,m:;. .'~

'TIflie iiiinete>emn-cel'l.ru.ry House of Comm.ons spent Ililore lime dis- ' 'ClISs'1ID'1g [~lig"1L)iI'!! thilln. po:~itic~d economy or etass .. Tholl.gtirJ r,eJl:iJgto:fl. did :~ matter, it ~I&O expo eessed ths issue of bow uItifor,:m, cellltra1ir.z.e:d., al1ld

~I iO:lOI.·[j.oni)U. B.ritail'l :s.:hio'!.lJ!d be. S1:ic()u'lcD. th;:: Anglican chu'rch b~ "'es>t:a:IJ!Lbshed:" -:

also illl. ""Name:>, 5 c.ottand; and I]'d~nd'l Should ~hJl;cati(l'Il and social ' to' wel!l'are 'be unUQITrI. sl::,n:e-glilkleo:i!., and! !l:\e.l:igiol\l:; Or secular? Across a~1

81I:ates m.o:>·t: aCl:i>;>e Cadil.olies o'FPosedi 8ta~:e c~liIt:r,il!J~zamiol'l.. The ,chu~'ch

~ retained 1.r<i1RSfiatiommiWhde stt,ell!l,tllening I~l-'!iegfional o'rg.al1!izatiQll. .,

.AJ~ :5Jt81)eS were :r.fv,e;'n by strug;gJl.es CfV'G'Jj oetl'tranzed veirS~,s ta~l... r;' [egiomd Jl'QW-eirS ... Thus w~ be[]a;lIse 11te're h;;!.cl bf>eJ:b t:WD mi:>lOrioe Wi:lys ('0 :t1ght des.potisrn: by ,centralizing democirati.C' re-g?'resellJtatioD or b~~ :reduc- .. i ~ng 311 C'elirtta~ 'slate. powerS ;lll.flldi. iboootilJg plilira~ ~.ocal •. lie_g~oil1al pard]' demo~ra(: . The mliIl>s..i;;,e ninen:eenlll-ci;l:lItulfY grownbo<f staM~ :inf['Oi!·· s.tr!lJlct:ul<)n pow,e.rs m.a~ ·Ihise's-p~i<lil!.y tro~lbtesQme. Wlfler·e· to nO!:~rte d:1!~rn? Religious, ~Ui!1J~C', ]in.g_uii&t.i.c. and! r<egiOllal minori.Dles. ~o;r e:orarnp1e,

TaMe 33. Th!! i!\I!tltwnat qUfSt~on;; celdnr.{ }!:eJ'l"tl$ loctil iJlfrf,l;JJ,~ruct!ira_l {#J'liiU'IT'

]'i~fi.l'llsm!l;i:!!i:r:3JJ r~we.t

i!j;iC;I!I. i!:gve:rnffii;!;mtt. 1-.0,,",

H~gh

{P'l:1t~odem 51'ate) Con~ral state

[ffed=..:i. n:3JtioE-!i181t~ CeiMr.lll~ n~l:ro;FIL s~~~

tt

~his Da.~ oodifU~di, but only ~o ~oo'!J'~ 4'Q}pe:r~~nt, ThyS milH.<liF.hs,Ull g,till ;n.o";!;'vadiocl smt\\'!s" fisctll~oJitic,s, and the dua!l.repl'l1:sei'itatbr.e-iJl:Oltional

~-... - : e

cry:>ta~l:iiz8;tlion:ltS o"'el!:' citizell:[!il:lJip.

Mii!.il~~:risl!lil also ['e:.lalie,d] toO' oome:sticreplf)e8e:llita,ti v e and !la~ioD'lil!I(!:}Is.

taUi~lt!om., ilS, 1'e'press~oo was :;J!U olJ'I'i01;L'S way to' d!:M with thera, Diffl1:'.FentOQIJJ:luti:es. im3i!il di!t~;e1'(i:rltlllii:o;e5 !i):~ (Qreign and do\ll1!l}~!tic repressian amJd so' i~ 'is not possibk to "'1['1.11: them Oil a s;~Flgi~INIi1~la[i~t oO:lJJtilil.~i;,l~n (as ]. did Wilrn repwse:lltal:rCl'Ili), The Utlii~edi St~~~e.s ·w.as.h:,~~ inl'll'Olvern ant! I.east thrc".l.iem~d 'lDy mi~lit<l[Y geopo.li~ic~; yet "",a·s. oolilltlit, thug dD1H~,ti~ j:l.e nee ide, tlIirol!gihlOtll thor.:: period a,ga~115JtFliuj;re ADII!:ri:~ a ~. wh.He :&tlil .. e~ry ~e'H'!':!!iteod ooru:idierr<li:Ji,e:loClllil :rrepre~io.FI ;lnd tln;~t; 'INTlS ~ pcrv~si"'(l; v.io;l!e;m:e across .AlMerkmlllilk Thulil. t\1iIt,"(fici!li1li geQiPolitvcal :[ljJji~itait'i~Il(!l W~, low" wi~i~e its domestic miliJtarhun was, tp'roiJJi~"b[y the : ~ hig.liu::s~ - '!X!:ItI:sdnI}"I:he moot violenl - of my fi'i'e ,C(li~I!~tr.~c;s" O~!'!~r par:;!.dollle& arc tl:l!a:rrl!hegreal~e~t f'OWR~ of the age, G~M Brul:<l.~[!, wall the m,Q:llt pacll'iic dJ~m~lt~calJly, and (1iI<I~ for Ai!Mltf~.a aomes!j:1;' i'lli'!irl geO'lPohth:;al milill:aris.rn met1':ed as toe regime lJeci!linIJe tllre<ltelliQ~ by ,c.ro'jS~bQ~e:J! rm~ionali;slm" Milit:ar~s,t c:rys!til.llizatiol[];s were (lyal 1lim:'L~lhe!'l

COFlilP'!ex-

Mil~l1!ris.:m lfirloliJil:i!zed .!1Iolo:trliy the military. .hi! I:he Ilnt h[il,~f of~!Ilil'

pdl'odlTililii~~r.)' old~egimC5 ;( [!IlIi;ffidp<llr1Jg,Clula.Ji~~l!;::a:lly [0 mOl!],a~('.J:Ly) hd:.r~d g_i>;,'e ar,dal.lrv.elyte:J:r.ito(!'i[!l1 di(::CllI1u[Lor! tocarH'hilili$~' OOIiLC(:PlLOi[]S of mterest and ta, 1:111;) foJteign pOlicy of emergin;g 'Dl!aDiQI1!-&~Ol.te:;. •. A.t 1m iveg~IiI![l~rng of ~Iit.etwenti,etihee!ll~ur}' ll'leg;e we,re reinforo6.di [by [l;[;ltion.al~sl:

IfNU:'I:~e;S .1:IdV'QClltin,g g.eo'jpcditkalmiJi;tariiSm "mil some capHaSJ."lt di:lls,s!;l$ ad'i'oca!:ung d'om(\:Mk; m:ulitari@tll. All, .mm~llti,MS were dLa[le[lgoo. i1J'j' lVI,ore pacil1i.cliool!'~is an(lls.o~~afult5,mreiy !>t:raq~;hil:[orw:tlI"l~}' pa.,;;illTh~. !II.Q!fe o:tJteilll s;eeldJilJ,!!. '~ilTl!its to;) [i;\f!pre:S:S.ion, rrniLitgJn' ib!1ldJtei:S, ooliLsc:rip1i.o!'!, ;<il!lU:l warS. [t WllIS dJiflic!1Ilt to ban mllitarfi.~:> it! th'!::We~1, becau;,<;el:.lil!e.y laad brouglil 00 Iitl~c.h :GJ'fOt1rt t:o dIe Powers, l)ut ~liIiey ooll.lld verl1ap,s

.. ~

be rd:;:gaiterl to last.lrescrl .. il!l.Stm!1merlt.s. 01 policy. TI~;;I!I: was theho:~e

'Of il!'U:]l8~ .liJbe~ais and! d:~pl.Qm<'L·Ii:'l :al~.ke, t!hO.,ggill 19'14 POW'I'o(! them

.:~

wrol1l.g"

It wOIll~.d be nice to a..e,veIO:IP,8,Ille;neFa] themy ·ofl2he: "1;I!1~im;;'i,me" ~

reialtiO'ns amo.rli!: thJe:5e t"Dll!r hig:her-lejJeilsti.l~e. cFyMrul~;!;atjmiiiS. There -[-

:are, how'e er, four obstacles. First .i;s.~ille probiLem o.f the nIL.llit!be.~ -o:f .~:

cases, 1 l1!ru e i.d~n~ified £~Ii,!Ij:' majoO[ ¢!'y:stalliz:alions. Even ~t" ,c:O:!(lu wec.re. 'j

!i

oa~y ~ dioho,to1my, lDey would y~elds.i:(,teoeJI1 poo.ssibiLe oc;C1mb)1n~ti01i1!s.. 'j

C8iPutaUs.m .i~l:s. true, varied .[eIMi .... ely lLii~tle, but l1'ai1'~ta.[i.$m 'c~;ntaifaecl. t~ separable diraensions (g~po~:i;l:i'Cai ,ilud d)orne:sltic)l, while .re-p-r,etlent~· tlonand the n~~1io!naD issue cJ:)'sl::lIl~ilc.ed iml mIi,lDtip:l~ fo:n'ns. The p05s.:i~le co:mbll1lati,o:ras of .... ariables are l1!11,1.'1ln.ero!!l s. nl'!1I:>, once ~gai.n. macro- 50dlOlogyp!.isln.es lOOyo!1l.d! tile limits of ~I'ile ,eompl;l!l':.lIti¥c method. Th~:re

C«ndwsiOP ~l

~I

I !hia'!!!! borrow,ed froJn al] Ute princ'ipal stale tIneO'ties to ,g>etllerate m'~'

1!'

Q~"n pardy iIlS'!:itul:~OOiil!l, panly :rulitctioi1laI polymoJ.]pboU!s .. tli1~O(~I- :1 1\

accept class th.(:ory's ill:;}s,tenoe tltat .mooe'rn states are Cil!p,ltaIl5~ aDd that polities are '(J/iten domimiltsd by da;ss ~ruggme~, One lug:h:er-Lt:~! !' ~ry.Sitaln.h::at'Lon 0:1 Ute modlen:IJ sta~ is imd~ed ,c:!lipHal~t_, ~u~ l.fe~,e>c~ '~iiI]{ 'D'![!i~iOIi 'El1Jal,me capil8JLtM, or' l)~ller class, Q;[~tanhVlJn'On, Il-S m 00)1\(;:: senese "ultJm~teiUy (ne;I,e,;r.mning," [ ,a,cocpl ph.lr*li$im':s ideH[i~a1tion O'f rnlllbpi;e 'per ..... er actora, l1il.ul,tiple state IfJJ!l1lctnonS, and a (part!~1) developmem wv.'ardi d~mQCI'acy. Dis ledto'l'l~rd a sc'OOod higjlle:r-neve~ ,~ cryst<l:Uliza'uI)!i3S representative, in wJ~id" monaoc.hy fa-ugbt ii, rearguard :aotiQlla~inst pOCfty Ue'f.lllJCracy l(elttit.wkoed with the ,clas:s. s,uume~.lJIf 'Ir.tle fu'SI!. ,cr'l'[';t::iUlizaitimu)" fllllira1lUs.m ]salsa, {lQI[JJOfltabl.e w!G:n, the tliiudi • ~r:ystaIUi~tioEi over the natbollJa~ iss:ue. 'Yet m rejltct plur.alism's OOlfiCe:~ ·1 UQn olf dernoc:rac\l' as, uUimate'!y de-(;i'si ... e;. fuo"e~OIi:1fiS of PQ ..... er llurll " '''''I}t~llI!D' awu shi!ln:~ normS 1l£L:p - ,cl.c~ide Qli.!~o!me:s, With nue elitists. I

~ ~.'

accept 1l1larr renl"r<l.l s.nllllC pel!'lOol];Ulel I'm,:; C'Qllsrta:tullt ,ilIflltDIlIOlilQIJS ~O\~[

actors. liO'.?f.'e,",reit, ~ ide:rrtille<l tWO [!':!IJth~r difte::r(l;.n~ 's.ta~ aCU)JS :m 11)J$ ,~eriodL :M!mmreh!esl:ng,Dif,'; (11111 in !:10ng.e cO'ur!lt~.e5, Jie5is~n.g p,~n.)' ~kt,l'i~ raC')' ;;i;!l.rti gene'ra~illg dicSlti,fIIct feiPresennatlve crysta,~I~(Ii1li~S.. ,A.I~, , · g,eopal:itLcs al1d domestic r:epr\o\ssiQIII, d'QIl~ ust.lai!y m !pal!'~lcuia.i'1SHC aliiaJ[;II!;C$ ''i'I'i~h ci .... il :society actors, gencrMei.il the fourth h!ghoerolevel crystalliz.8~ion; 1iII:> mi~iJtO!liid:>t.. Yet the, fll'stpower 15", on ilrS own, u5;lJa;i~y PUff}" whereas the l.alt~r is more 'emM:iic: [t :iJS toe romlb,~na~io~s O'~.alIl! t'h~e bigll'"r-].evel cryst:rlbatio:~s. (p~w; !n;~lIt:liifrom m~:miib-l~eO'Logu':'iI~ and p!!!.tdal[clii~~U .c:ry5~,aliiz:.ations) that pro'if~de siillcl:Ji "!IIltlma~:e I pal,rern-

illlg of modern states as we can lind. ,1

i.Jke eock-'lIp'-:l:Q~I.up tl1leo:rlsts, J10Wi::"filil", I oo~ieve thil~ s~a~)Il;S <Ire rrl!i~'ssi(:)r ilild! tess is,ysJt,em'ic al'!dllJinH~tlit'y than e~h sitl,gi1e thea,lty sug,geMs,. [ HIm, bor1lo.wed ,b'QlIU aaother t.ype of ~t:atiSJt 'lDoory andi, from Ma~ Webgr 110 develO'p 'what I 1abe'led "tl1smU:ikl~3i! ;stat~sm .. " To ulIlderstand $~ates. and' nppr-ec:i..Q,t;:;: their causal i!J;\rp'3Ct on rocli~tir.:::), we. must ~pecify their im.:>t!:t:I1tii(l'Il""l partiol.l!$!r:i:oies .. BecO'J.use the 'mod!er:rli staile, bas mas:>iVdy enl:i!i[g~d ~ts :ililz.;iituliOIUd iIllF1fasW.l.C1U!rt;S, h: bas oom€ '1>0 pLa~ a IlililCh g;Fea:~ stn.!l~~ll..idng :r'o,le, in !lQcit;:~}", eMa:D1lcillJ,(!. th~ power of all, crylili;allizatiio'l1Js. M,), history Q:~Wes~etfi socue;t)' wnl _f(l~ms incre3s:iml~;ly (lin the I;::ntwLned, ~O.nsyc5Jteil'l~c. dsv,e.lopmel'iil: 0'[ ,r;:a'p!~ahst, repre:;;r::p~:lI' dye. natiO:lla~, ,and llI."ilitw:risl iSh!!t,!:, crystlllljZ,<lti.oIlS-

'mb~ph"

A,br.<Itt1S, 1'. 1'9,88. Nol'IlS (jIn !'he dli'[fjculitll of sIucl'ykng (1'10 stlilW. J'Qi'l'1'1lill{ of

"#is.r.oriC(.ll Sodo.f.ogy l-

~!'

"

>"

,

dYliUllJlilics. Cumprm:rtiW!; PclNir;.~ ]6. ;r,

1.9.85. Si\l'l.Jcr~ Confti.;i: Th.e Thlht World .~g:4"!i!!,l'1 GJ,ot.!iff Libef'llllJ.!1:I .. ~

!BerkeLIe)':; Oru.'~rnt}' of C:dir~ruia f'rc.ss" )

.!,,:<l1.IiilDi.UIn, E .. 0.,. ,'l!~ D, Koo,kc., 11.98:7. 'lhe O\1l>'l'aiztl'jiOJ'urJ S!(lii:l. 'M3d"isoil:

l! ni ... ~ Bit}' of WisOOo:rnsillll'r ~~. .

!Levi; M, 1988, O{R,f,lle. Cf"liItl R§IN!'l'Iue. Ber .... Icy; Uniro'cr5hy of C.nli.forcia f're&!;. I i.iPS!l;E. :S, M. 1959, P'ol.~al ll:/1lIi1, Loru:liUaI: Mc"fl;:ul'rE!i~!k. . ],JlJsa.i'I. C, 19.85, ~)ar~di,w' GIl4f"d.' PttfJe-c.ring F.ornign Cap/,r-elf in ,rhe Nbte.io:en~h .'

and Twt!n'l;t'~'f~ Cer.rJm'ies, BerkeUc}": ~J[lh'end.ty 01 1[_-',ail:i:Forrua fT.(";Ss.

MHII:I¥er', R. M. 1"9.'2:(" '1'h,~ Modem SMl4l, O.d¢ll'd~ O.rl'1l UllIh'mit:), :rnss., :

Miaier, C. 1'931. The 1WO ~t'ffilr 'er~fi. 3JIld the condiliom ("(II' sl~.bilil:y ifil • lWfillliietIH,:enfll:1)' WciU:em El!lrape •. Aml!'l"ic,lln Hi'f,lI)TiG-al Reto'r.e-w :86 ..

M:u.:Iil.liI. M. 1m. Sr#Ws, Wru- airld Capi~'all1l11" '0:-:1000: i8bek'ilfeLl. . J M.aft;ti1i1l111, T. H. 1'963. ScdaJ(1'fj>' ,(.ll the Crossroads ;!11!r:J Othtill" .&r.I1YS, Londioil; ~

Heinemann ,

M.M'X, K."llil'id f', :Em.g,d~, 1~. SdfXfe.a 'Wcrb, M05<!:l;lw:: I'roiV"'~ !Pultl~is.Lle<rs. M.~)'C[. A. 1. )"98]_ TliM .PeJ'S~J'l!rraJ' of ~.IJ'I! .ola !il.egfme .. London: Croom M~lrn, ", ~ml);!lm:l, R. i.%9. TI~i? St<JItt' ,,, Capitj]{i,U SrX-iely. New ""{em}:; Basic Elrtlob. MEIiL'>, C. W, 19:56. 'nie .l'oO'!J'e-T Eliu.! .. O.:c:_fun1: OK!"ord Uni'l'ersit)' Press, Morn.nm.se<il, W. H.l84" T"!J£' A,ge 0:1 Blln!.QUCM()': Per.rprxli"'e;f (,m r.he P{JI!trcm ,;

S,;K;O(G/!,Y ·r;,f M",~ Weller. O-lffor,;!= Bla.cKwell. •

MQ~mrlhali, H. 1978, Polit:ics Amoillg Nf.iltOiU: 'flit Stmgg{(! flJr ,W!!!.,. allld '.

Pe!X~I!'. SIh ed, l"I'ie\\' York: Knorr:. ;J

M~, 0, 193'9, TfJr:' Rulirw elm,):. New YQrt: M.cGra. .... ,-HiII. .,

O'emmqr, 1. 1973. TJI>£' .f'iscaf.risis of (h~' Srlil"fl', N~'oV York: 51. MaTtilll's -,

Press, .:

O~, C. 1.972.. fuLiJtic:.a1 aJ[l~hori.~y ;I'I_'Euii difSS SI:rijC!illte': .1111 8.lJiltlly-siis 001' hn~ ,

~!pit.llliis[ s~·t~I?~, Intemo.t~t;mnJ JountQ.i af Soci6'/Qg}'.2. .,

19")'"4·, Stn»ctur.,lp:roblcli'is. 01' th"Cilip:lttailist stare. ]0 &millll'l' P:oJi\i'i~1. Snr4i~', ,

vol. 1,. ed. K. Vo.rn Be;)I'rne. 'Lom;lmlJ: Sage, '. ..~

Olffe, C, and 'il. iR'Q~e, ]9S2. Tbe~c$ 011 the IfI~~j)' of the state, In Cla",'s&, '.

PDw.r.,... aTj:d' C..arifllC1.. ed, .A. Gi(!dcruS amd D, Held. Beili:eler:: ~ U!lIh'e:I'S~ty (I~ 'CalifI;HHLa Pr.,ess,. -, OppetJ1ln.eimcl"" F. 19'75. 'Till!' SiR-re, New 'York: free Lire E,(fjilWUS.

P.ad,g(ltt, 1. F, l~L H~e[a1"oCh".. iind eQ)ol<IJgU;;::.al 00111:r1il in 'fedel<lJ IYLl,ogetm-y

dec~Km !IlLabmg. A~l~~rl~,jjtllQU",I'al of Socwlogy 81. .~

f'l;)Jmi. G. 1990. The State, ./I<~ Ntlr.r.r1'e, .Dello't!lopm:e~I'l.rooid Plmpmw. Sqfl![I:Foru, ~

Cm1i~I'.; Staruf@ro UnilJe1'!i<i.ty f'~, .1

P(lulil!Uzas, N. 1913, f'olitimi Power aJ'l'd &)'c~I' Clmscs, London: Ni1lw u~ i

]tl,oots., '

1'>'17:8. Political' .PtJ'Wi!iJ' and S;);r~at C~e~'. LoJIdOJii: Verso" .:

RolUi::an. S. [970, Gliz;e.~"~.;, .EI~()1<fs., .. Pllr/Jti!s,,' ApP'l"lxu;'hl!s to I-~'r,c Ccmpa'mlt~ 1 _ SIUtifl' .vIlli'!.' Processe!f. !I}j. DitfflQpmf'.J\IJ~ OsLIo;: 'Uo:ilvef"5i!:e·ts,foilag.e:t. ~ .RAlSE:.Cf8I!lCl1!., R_ 1986. Ttte .Rlu ofrh-e' Tnit:l~ Star;;:; CO.f¥Jml!'rce IIltdOJ'J"l}Ue.!'ll

in ih~ Modem: iV:Q.rJ,a.. New '{cd:: B<lsic BOil'll".!;. j

lRoseOO'IW •. J. 1%6, F'ril!:-lhMi'"ies ~.lbOOi':i.e;s (li:foJ!reU,gn pol1t..-y. [II ,Appmm1les la .

Co.,.tpm"iUtivt' and l~j"i!Tlii#trcmrl .1':olitk:l., '0&. ]t, B. Fan-ell. iBviliMlon, ". W.: NOttl!Lw .... :ot~, "!:)Lli~UI.y Press. ~ ·RI.!e:;et!ilimeliett', D., 9JJ'I.iI1 p, E"'~Jl5 .. 196;):, Tile stalie :n[! ~ioErin(lmK': tnm~r:01111"latio:,...: !i t,ov,'",rciis an rul!llysas. of rhe amwtio'lils ImdC'rli)'m,g ,::f(e-'CJt~vc t~m,fDIT:I:l:1.il"~ion. In BnLlfgi,'S tJire Stllti!' .lilll;:;,1( itl, eel, p, E .... arlil. D,

~

...

.-" __

Rues!;;p.e:meyet .... ..d 'T. S~ocpo'_ Cambrio;J.ge: Cifi:lfrnbricige Ufiliver;sily Pr=,

Sift'"' ..... M. 1984;. Wll"r,u~p~IiiaiJ.j= .a.iid ~~ ;;..tate~y.s!=: it -:r~)tiCjju..;. of orli~~ MilrXIS!!!1 {o:r d~ ~9S&. In War., St;Qte tlnd SQ,!;Je'!}", ed, M. .. Shaw. [3~n~t'iB:.e: Mll:cmilla[!l,

1966. D'i"!;r/8cli<:..soj Wal':' .A" &s.ry "'!" r/lt! SQ:<."ir:l1 TIloory <¥ Ww- ,Qnti .Pea;;r. 1:...0 lIo:IDn: F'11J!Jto Press,

Sk'OC!!'l'V, T, 19'!>I. $,~' a!'1'a Sot:Wl R~II''OfIol.lJit:>M: AI ,CtJmparaiJw.: A"'Ilfy.sis of . Fmnl(;t: s R:UMia. and Cl1i"Q, Ca.mliJrqe.: C3mbtidge ll'1I1'i.versiIY I"l!:=. J~. Hrittgi:l:Ig the state !bile!!:. :i:1l1~ su.ates:ies of .amd.ys3s, in o:;t1rIr:U~IJj~. ~,.clJ .• III Bril1gil"!g tlle Slare lhIck .In, .~~_ P. Evans, D. Ruestherne)'.~!"., ;uu:l: T, Sli:ocpo], Cambridge: 'Qmbtidte lIiJlJ'I'e:rsity P.t'cs·s·.

St<:lill1i1<'>'t!:, G. l~\li), 'iIJ1~e m~'ii:bJ ~d tIie .-eS!H~y of" an .;;'ul:ll!l(>IllQIl'. state: ~IlJn'$lri"ai"'t!;, J~k.er:silrll:d: 5(l,.fal policy mill! Imperi,il!t G~m1ian}'. C"mpa,oM1j,'~ ,Social R£ut1ff;l, ~2.

r.rOlDy, C, i1.975. As Soclmagy M~"t... His-Wry. NE-W YQik.:. A<L:a:dlernal; Pr·e.~.

1m, CQlm;"io.,.!, Cl1pimf air'::! E:Wop'ell'ii StateJi. A.D 9®-1990. OJdo.d:

B.Lllu:ik ... "'U.

'irril!!lberge_r, E. K. 1918. Re"olutJ.OlI· ',;;"n Alul'ITt..: Mili11U]i' Jj,lmM'IICTI10 ,md Devef;opme"li.~ i" J~{H:m", Th.tk>O}', .I!gypl ,<:ilia .Pe.,..,. t-iie'" Bru=>o·i,:;k.. NU., 'W~~!I$lI!C!.O:Ei iE3.:.oJh.

WeDer,. iM. 1978. ECOJ:Wf~Jy an;(1 ,Sacfety.. 2: vels, Bt.f!lwDey: Un&""~'ty ol Q.~iOOm.iIt !Press.

Wei:r. M,. and 1'. $.iWo;pol. 1:935. SIi>I1(' :S"C:nJI.Cl:l!Ims ill!lld me ~jjbjliliiss [<or "Keyne:s.iian" .es;pon~~;;: eo ahe· ~"'.t Depression in S""e4eI'i. Briiailr! and iihe Unil:Cd seares, Jill !i~,iNg file Slat" .Sack In, ed, P. Evam, D. Rueschemeyer, and 'T, SJoo"'~I,. Cambridge: C.~m"li.iidge U:iiiv~rsity P'1i'C<..<S.

Weir, M" tJI , a [, ],98S, TM Pi;Hirics of .socilJi Policy .in lhe ,UHiJed St.at~-$.

PriiillGeoon" N.J,:IP'r1r;ol;t9;n Umive.O'Sity Jil'JI"QCS$.

W:oI!fe. A. l:rn1. The !.tmi'ts rJ! Legit:i.m.'acy: PI)U!keJ Comr4dtc"-lirms ;()I/

COnI4fmponrry Capitalism. N~w Yo.rk: Free Press, .

Ze.mi.n, M. ].9·80, OE'i d~, d~ Qi);rnfliGt, "'~Ibe state: alii! inlll'oiil uct (Ill)' note.

In Claues .• , Class Co:n!ucl oIVl4 iht.· s.to.te .. ' ErnpMrnl S,~ in, Class AJllaly.#, 'ed!. M. Zej~l[ltI .. Cam~rid.ge. M=., Wmttiwop"

19.'114., Tile' ar"U W .. ", '" Chil~. :Pltim:,etllQ .• N.,],,: PMceU:m UniverslJty Pr'1!55..

20 Theoretical conclusions: 'Classes, states" nations, and the sources of social power

T.htls volurae .h.<lsE\wCl' OOIll,d!!u:llin.g, &ilIpt~!r!i, 'Iti'lis. tlJ.e .first ()ne·, begins ~e,e Chapter 1 left ,oiff, ~eneraliixi!Ilig abo!.1tthe difi.!.:: ufMilis tWQ major actors ot modB:FIl time.s - classes a;ndrrl:!lltioIl1-s,t@l~!lS ._ '~ihe;mJ ~OOllit lihe Cour sources of' social. power dhlcing the ~:doo, ~el;;iUI1l:;lG the fi'li~ {'UUJlHies. {lo'Vered (A.Justda,. Bnraln; Franee, P.[1li;s5i:il~G~rnlii:rly, and tlla~ United States} 1111. cl:iiffii:md, .~ must sta:iik~ o!'I balaace between generali.- 1;;Iliom. and acklil.owledgrnJerrl of ~:nKuI1l~!I:l.G8S. B~]~ ibs>cal1l~irI!is.I(ji!]1' pas:sed :U!:S 'OWmJ CO.ndltsa.OI1l. 011 tlim lang lIliril.et~elllltlh (leIlJt~:ITJ'., .. iim. tJhe, :[U[llliO!l' Workl War E, tlile filll;ajclJ~prer will 3n,aJ!yre: the causesodthat Wl:Ir,

e::r::e:mp]ufyLllg ,O'lncl il~~liifyi!!!.g: ~he ~keo!)' uJ!de;rlyi!Jg d1ili5 lI'o[iLl!me" _

A.!l -we have seeiDI. :S[aJ~ wcJleen.tW"lliled: "wi:I[I] botll etasses and flat.D.I,!:>. 1 :s,haa:i not orilre 8J,g;'dn £UnlIm8Jrne l!trIyresear.clll Oiil ;SJtalc;s;mUler, ] liCf:er Utereacler to lneconcl.utSri.o!fl '00 Ohapter :!L4_Hell\fl: I repeat Qnly tih.£ essential. pO:~!'It: As the state Ibeca:me more wdall.y signiliC'ica!lil.t through. ~a!re eijgji:l'tr.eenJt!h..C€nt!ll[},!IiIlJilh:a[), and ]atle. n.i!netooJJJlll-cellluLI:ry industrial cap:itali.st~iIlans.i.olll.,kp!ill'lj,;jl~y '·'riIatl.lllliJlrnsd" the Wesl ~nd ~Ill elasses,

Classesa:ndi &tates

By the time oJ Wmkli Wa.r I,. ehe e'[)ll:ure West wrustt.eoom.irrlg in,j:!.I!Sltitiiat Britain and Beigililm alrea;;:ay wen~: sa, mr)s[ OO'l1Iiltn.eswero e:lI'enly balaneedberween indlu:>1l:f!i' and ;l;l;grkll:~tu1ie,. a!nd agriiculUl!re w:as .a'~so tito!J)O~:ghny oom:rnerdalimd'_ CaJ,Pi,talism .llaQle;nm~:nollis'lyaooe~era[~~ !h!lJl.U1a!1·Qo~mlf:eti:Ye powers, predominantly dJiffus;e:[y, rigtlt:anos5! !ttiu~ !rnI!uftj~pQ'il;\es'"acro!:' c;-l!vJJi z ~tio~" It'> ~e,QO[!d i!'J,di,!Slfj:~[. ~l,Il"t, trom .. ~~e 1800!s o:n, enhanced the. material (lo!lld!i:~io:ns .1[1"] .aillI! classes and I'ml1ru ~~~s, euJjli'%l tlim comqJliI~s~o:f base subsistence iIlnd the n.eard01JoHI[I,g !O'E th.~ human ]iit"e :s,p~, T.I'!oygh!l!lReqj!,u<!lly di:5.:riIb!;!~ed. ttle lJe~elf1:!s were $~ite .. dsll) broo.dlly tb.at moM l'ow·e:r;,!c~.Qt$ <!(greed 'lli<!,tO!!rI.lUi'lOll:i· tM~"'e power jjn$titi!J~!Qil$ ·:;,ooulld !luP'P'OiI:'~ c<!!pi~ .. aiLst e~p~~suli)tll_ The ~swpe Cit sQ:a:te & ... iliaJili iLflfIa$~~li!res now broade:n~(L Ciil.pi:WJisJn,ancl s~ate hi,l.]eii!!iI!(;ita~i;l;aJtiiOn d\':veloped s]li![il<lil1liy acrOlis ·the Wes;t.

Ca!pitall~s.mah!oIJla.I1:s.roml'!i:cl. a[l ()(!It!:il~r.i:~.' dllitrilH!itjjve· power teJ;a· ttO~. g~~:t~gj;ng '~.Jiten!li,ve~J!ig politi;c@!cl~~~s Qfl <!. &~~~~ 1I,lJ~~:r .. UI:I~(j illll. bri~t.o:[)' .. The.re em.ef8,>ed tkM :;Jj bOjjr~~isi.ea:ndl a. pe;IHe boui:geo,iS:I~.,

ttiJ.en ~ IMid;;j~e class, :II 'l\i'(J<tking class, and! a ~~'\"llf!t class -!l~i ,~ dUn:'i[la,!'I~ (ill~s.t~'With _'~tliIarg~d ~tl~ftor.il:a.y~ rmwers of co~~el::~l~~: ;ga.mzarwl'l, ,,~iI th~se .~,a~es l}ehc",~ (de$p,!te .I.~e bene:fi~sJlh"H nt~ '!.Wr~ 'e);;p]lIll~r.ed ,by do~nliualTt .d_<I!lse~,_ and po.Dul::tca~ rogJirne-s,allld 3lnl m_Q~iIJ:~)fdl . c-oJllecb1le lP.ro.te:st seeJl::mg :3Jlt.e.:r!l~tive.!l~ TId:>; Was :z ... ~de~t ito M;;I!!fJl: amil ~Q[UI)O$t slli~eq!!le:n~(Db~T'l'ers_ More im;p(!li1a!ilJi;, 11 'WaS ~;j(1\!:Q e~id~l1It ~(!i dQmi~aiH dasses!lll£i! mli!l!l.§ reg[rneJ;. Yel tlllie.outo(l:mesO:f dl~tr.lb!llWl,e ·c(mth,ct werenot '!AI\I:J ;'!It .iMaP!: e:xiP~eted, for 1'o'U:rr .~.e;!l]5CiIliS:

:~'. Be.~a!!lS!e .e.<!p,~~lill,i5J:Ill. W<l1S II"redlo~jln"alilltiy a d[trl.li>~rl powex {lil'~3il'ii;'::~lJ'OI'l, H5 lIi!lllho!'1lI~<l~T"'~ cla:s ofl1:~ml;mtt.G_1iI eme~ged aLf!eSSG.l];ij;:'Ii~y <!m .. buv:il)emL BQlmg€o!$~e:s., petite !l"ol1lq:,eo~~e<5.,. and m.kidll.... cl.a~5: W~re. economic" n!y .fu.'€item-ge'EliI,';Ollls" Wif,hl[l'U:~ i!!a.'t.e rv ·E:!ntiionFt,om the oltie[ sourees {liE' sodal fi'l)'wc'.I!,. their roEl!~ict~ wi~:n &O!tiliIJi1U'II~ ~la'S~s .a ~d fe. gimes·~i!,:i.:rnlEcii eut p~TH!i!J,mildl, :al1ldlpa!!:'!icui!ari&l~", O\reit ~'he Ei:rst hialf' ~I' the petiocil many ,oompoo(!:uisecil. an0e"i.'e.n mel"1:e>d wullitm.!tml,lciln ,drama" A;grar,i@.:D das5~,. eiSpcci;rlHy tile ~ .. santry, Je!{eh)~d ,as; l:li!lte~ogeil~OI,!!;s i!!~ne.ra~ilil:g thteel,."!O:mpe:ti~i\i t:uJl.osQti'l!,e' ,or~an!z:1JtiOiIJ;s: ,;;1$ ".pt()[f:IiI~~ ,(li~15Ses., ,., as "credlit .;;1.1'15>58S;." Olald!as <l!!!J oeOJiilOmrC seetor ti:iJ a sc_~tail ..U]alilce wHh. liill'g.'e esrt~t.e :f:at:itte-rs. their 1,I$i1i",1 0PFiOl!tI:!IT~S C1(fi!, th:e otb¢r two dim{:[lstuJls). "f1:1~ pmiel:.lll:~a!! .al:sugoeI!J:era!l:0d '~\h'¥'~ (lQUec~jve or" gail1!Ll;;]l:tomi!l t~liIde.l]des:: cnass, seoCticm)lism. and segm~lIlt:3JI!s,m" TiJJlIS the ~1:0n()mi.c c:ie'i'ek!l.i'mC'.DIit 0:[ 'capibl~iwJl produced! ~nlrl1i:p~e collee!tii¥e. ,oifgaJJiiz::JJf]Or!iS, among: wH1idfu. etasaes, ~:hougih in!h:e![~Hly dIe v e,lIoping ~ne di.~lecticml QO.:l!'i!(;,t .MflIrx ,e.:o:;l1e,.;ed, by no .mean:. dO.IitiIIIIJ:ated ..

2.. 71i1.e Gl,I!toom~s ot' C(iii'iilp~titiQ'~ among ~!!Jese oompetillg eco!l1lQmIt: ·OT.g:ani~a!:t~H]$ wc.re ae!D:er..lililiililed: p,~ed!j)l1Ilim;l[Ili!lly lY_'!" the stral:et:ie:.s. OT drifts (]If. ~TI)O'l'~ aut.!i:oritativ.e.])y ,otg)3!rlized' d.O.DliliIliil.l:1t d1<.!sws 31l1a !Fullng reg:i[fc!~$, w'fl:i",h, a!ft:er <:lll, collitro]'J)l1ld el1~~!<1tIJg al.utlQrilt:M~1ve states a.B:u :3!rmed force~. F'r(lIv;i.dILIIIi,g they W\e'F~ CIDII!I:Oe'il£r""t.ilil~ Ilia:rdl olll~:he ennergitDllg dl~ISS colllfr.o!lillaUOn (:Elilild da .. ~ wu n~lil. al:w.a.},::> ~~Q, as we sh .. I)1 see), .mC\.s~ workled out :;1,1]: dFeclt\re' i:;@i!.JI!JteFS'l!:!;'ategy. n~:i\s W'<J>s not ·!iJliIDlU:SU;a,!. :I: n'4'>'s a:rguedururol.:iglllo:un Khat ""'.Iri~re class oon~icr is reh~tu'!'e~y trr,i!liIl~f'<!:rent _ tlh.a~ i$., whel"e it has the capacity (\(to g:e.nerate neii!l;i:-Ol!l class oon(wJ1i.tation oil' tlte ~ype Marl.{ 'e!Xpe.;;t~d .. tQ It'eS!lJllt ~I1 re!lol]IIlI,DI.on ~ then thn is 'W~l.e·1t'e :ru]~1l,g classes 0iJi'l1J. r.egime.s ·t:=anmost effi~ctl:"..ely IlIse~lliIejr. ~real!e,; ]ITlt!lJ!itl;1tloDli1l1il2iedi power to ~'{:iP're:!>;'l 3i1Jd ~I) di""ide~\h:ed:r oppo!rI!::IIlt. R~vo~!1I:I~O.llrs" .r «rgll!!cd, IIJICCl!iJi w.tmr...e irlLlli:tlig classes ~ri~1 r,ltgimes bll!c'C)mfl eonfused Ib<y rhee;rne:rg~nceo:r iIlIililhiiPle" no:('];0i.a~eGt!al bu.: ei!i!l!wifl!ed Co,n~J:iI;I:S., liJI .hils case t~e most ,e:~Iecdve regim:.e .strat.egy a~;;d.i1JSJt transp;areil I. Cll'pHaB-w!Jc,lr (lol1lffict .... 'als. til) ;@I~ke COI1'yeoll!>L{llIi1i!! to same \¥or~e~ :!l!r.!.d pea;s1l:n!s tlltl)'U!lb ",~ct~,Q[!<!ilisnil and :tG:grne.nta~ism whik :repres8oirug t~e rest" Ely this meafi!S tliley CQI!.I~d 1!I:liId.erc~iI: :t:b£ ·!:I81~~ ~JljfY re~.l!J.l~~-dfo1r re\f'QIh:uioo 0'[ a.gg;r-eS:Si'!te, ]\e::form., Ttirlc Viery eliil!i:l'g,em:e., ~s.:i:ml,!llt:.:meousay,

!:l

ioftbl'ce: forms of wOifk,e!!' o~iliza:lioill undercut cl!l.SS bet:al!l~ iJtl'eq'lJlicedi

1!;t,g-tmOIlY Q""ea: w(io'rkers, whereas the Qtherlw.CI did not,

'~. 3. 1ft tum, file: S'trrutegi(1!S Oil drifils of dQIlIl:imn.altlft classes and l'e,sii.Ines., iuril s.olh~J'efo['~· m workers tih'BillIlse.l~, WG;.re p':~ed.o:m.inal'!Uy d!e!~o:dJli~d Itry the other tlihree so,urces of ;social PQ",'o';;;[. I :re:rer '!he reader to '(lhilplCr '7' :ror :my sllIDmary ·olf ttle 'OUlIlOOime~ ·of economic ,:;,.tnliggl'~s up Ii'!' rhe 18305 Of 1840s, TlIIelH~ 1. .s~~s ilitfi!!s:e id~6]og.i.cai 'butt ~p~cm[1)' sutho.it~tjYe :mllita:!:y llllld! then pootical. pOiYi'er sources. ChapletS 17-·19 gj;\'e ~ mere :p!)liiticale~nalii.OI1L of later "i"orker .liod peasElmt mll;!!'io'eJIlE'll.tii. ThUIS, ab~'\lt~ 1'900. outcomes Oiff -C:lllpitaJl.·ll~.borco;o_fdjicl tllrol!.!~Ju:lU~ Iht- We:$.~ were cfererRiJJl:i'ied by (l.) an eSll611'iil.;911y simiJargUo!bail diiffursion ~ 'capiWlis:m .. g'Me.mtrng aI eommen arm.biggit:f <of ,oollectirve; ,o.rga.n~larmtlflS and in'l.er,e-Sts, intleractiill$ widlt (2)1 v.;uiOlil/s aji'~lal.lliiz;l'!tiQns of lutl!JP.ritami,,·e stal!;es; ~ideQ~!lgi.ca[, p .. tnlU'dj,al, miiitary., but ~spedaU,. ibs'~rt;Y() cirtiZen cry.s1aJJlliza,uon.:s. Q;!! "r~re..sentatiV<e;" <Il1d "nal!ionaJ" ~iSSLl,ec5 .•

4. These i.I].ter.aeoo!ll.S were lliJIt hike bi]liillt'd-halll coUisi!lJ:llIli, (Jlf se(pMfllie ~·bjClCI..S. CI a s:ses,~e:llts, Qrn,d Slecli()n~ al~ "efltwineUillotlcliakc,ticaJly'" w,ilh afJ!lltmo:ritati'Y'B po,]ir:i,ca.1 cl:y8taJIli.mJ!:iQns ,tbus ~1te1p]Itg tos!bape one a:ootbel.". Acmrs' yery iden,tillies and I.iue:rests wuec:tJ.anged be hill d rtlLo1r baoks by tlic 1!lIninte:~ckd consequences of aetion. III. :s\l.cll am 'oooertllIm ell ... iJri)mj·u~flt, actors were p«m.e 1>0 make ":s~te!llk: IillliistaJkes." Chilpt.er ,6 sh.ov.'s, 'howl;J;]e FiIr6'llm reg:iime 'of 1789 made di5;astli'OiUS iitistiil;~es· bee;;J.·II!~ 'it djr:i. ]Jill'!. a.pF;r,~c.ia'le the eme:rging, de:'I'c[opiiri,g nat are of its o:ppon.el1lt, ChapWl' 15 :11!1i!S'!tliltesU'te .i~'Ve.rse,. Ratner Wl!llSu31J1y, damiman1 elasses ol]lntrollil'lg a state were facsd "di.31.e;ctic~JIy" lTy a. sLIiig]e, faidy ,h.ontQ,g'en!1!OUS class, O'pponeJ1lt., 'ChilLFl:iism .. Confrolltingbihe er!e~n)' square.l:y, tlae}, ooade mOl mista];;e:!<, tirmlly repre;:;s~g its mili.1:an.ts Olnd ror.dD,g work'£l!liS wi~ great-er m:::iJi'k.et :powe([so lco'W'aJd. 'scCli.o:Il(1li$'m" The lasl: dilil!pter:s l1ave !'~ve:iderm. mOIJ'l! i,'Ieir.S~st>C]lt wondl-hi!iOuuiea! mis- 1[I.t,es made by .e:w~"i;ll.cly 'pf<Q;dructiviis~ and ;s1~~][I1t 1abOO' I:1'tOIVe:me~ts I under II he. i!fl:l'lue!lL-c,e 01 MarXism or l.u.theIa!~.ism. peol!Jllady u:nabl~ io '_pprecirate ~Ite d1~s'tinotj .. 'e ,co:nmpJexiitill!:s of' 3eflliri<1!!"J stl'l1.l.ggles and t~iLUrs

convening, 1'01ielll!iial peasanJt ~'!lies :bluo ,e~emi;e;s. .

The-sr:: fOl1!1." determlrllllnts we:re 'not !!l1eirdy ext'e1!nal ~o ·one ~nol'lle;r, 1ih;ey WQ;'te ellt'Wimedi" Sbillp~g ol'i.t anot!htm-'s form, The .:¢Uevalllc-e of 'rJegime iStmlOegi."",:5-{Iidftll" 'oil' r'epll"es6"l'itati .... ean.d! Gaticrna1 citizeo. strug~e.s" ,cor. ulDiioil:r;lDdeili ooruoequ.ence:s, :and, of !1!lii&t8te$ dli>ri"'ed :from 'Ihe way Ute)' st[·~ngt.hen.ed das!>, secl'lolJJaU, 0;[' ,segmental identities .a.coordiog to' context" Clacss,. s«:t~oD~alIism, and llegmentaJism ,eO'JiJtilll.1JJe:d '00 batHe moer the wuls o,fworms:r.s andpealMUlt'lio. hi 1~1I'm5 .(:llt dl.e;ir re'~ati()I1S 1:0 t'hs means o:fp:r,od!IJli.;"tion .. 'battJie was nOitte.d in lllo'~h illd!\u.stl')' ,aJ'ld. agri<cp.[t!L!LIe On deep[j! amib:iv.a1eat rt.e!['nru;., widll.oIII t. dlecisive (lu.toom.e~ in

th~ peJ'iiod,.,of ool!lrs::. persis'l.e.nU: ~(;~~iQ'I};IJ!is~ and sli}gmclltalism d['id und:e~c,~~ and! li!J!1d~r.,I1IJ!!IiI.e the bUQa~ '111JI'.)' re(~IJ!lPe'd by class a.cItE~i'iJ. In a cll.plt~h5'D _",,:~~Id! INlth(l~t, :;;WMeilo Uus In;;)!), h~"'e.~er.;m.I:~e.nUy 'W!eakefredj I:ll.boiJi' UD;[Cl>iitlOI'l: ['0' capital, aD?-d a]nn.o~t certeinly I:t '!;l,JQi!lld n.ave.:pre'l''CIlJtll!d .~e:o~~tlOml'ry •. even a~~:5SJ,vcl:r n:f?Irn:ili;,t_, OI!l~CO.m~,., Yet ,capitalism I~albued a wo~ of :~ti!J~es. III thiS pen?tiI" <l!rnJb.1f'ira~e~t~en(je.a~ie!'i to,w,ar,ciI class securuml., altd se.gmellta.i organ..2.<lLtfrOIlJ were I1IK~fl)}' boosC:!:rl O.F' r,e .... ersecl! O£i'(l!l];uil1LIJ1tei"ltiolll.aJl.ly, by <J,'Il!!Uu;uitmtuve FepreS>e~tative lind na.tiooal PO_iil!ical crySt.aIJ]E73tiO:I!II>, 1t5]pec:i;;:lUy as the-y iirnfl'IKtedi on labotlt'peMailt!.!Jlu:m.oe8 .. C1.1liS!ii.:i.> were 11101: p!ll[ely eCO'llomic; nor were !j:!:.'i,tI1:S

·pm·e!ypolit.ical. .

COliPrtalism. illnd hldusl:ni:iI!lism have both been overrated. The(ir di.f., [used po'i'l'e~ exceeded their :,U.lUllo'f.itatirvc [pOwers. tor w.nkll tJtey roUe-di m!lt;fi!. on, and w<eJ\~ shape~. or, militar! .and :PQ:tllk:al power organ.'!zaJUouS. lilulJugh bothc~pd"'l:i$m and mlh;l.t<trLi~hs.m Y3s11yino;;;rei!Jsed oollec<ti~e powers d~stril.ht!!.tilie powers. - ~Qci.]·1 :SJtr.a.tific:;ui.on - were 1r::55 aUered!. Modem c'lmi{; [<e,bllto~lS wen':' galv.a!1.~,~i1 'by the 'fir:st. :imd secoM :indi1lst:tial rey,o,lution:;. and 'by the glJo;J'lbi1l!l ,~omm~m;i~:liz:M;iirJl'i Q~III¢,cull,t]!re, lio!!!.t nlley W€['i;l; p:l'opelled [Cl:rwar(U <l!""l'lg mnhe.r¢IIl'lay amihlvi'l1le:nt tracks in whlcb varying OUJtC.QillJeS werre d¢t\erfil:l.~ned bya,i;!!fuorita,H'i'e po!i.tkal ,crysta.llizaJtioms It hat .li1ad bee!] mo:stly mn.5dtutionlillliz~d irlillme;r ea:rne,r ..

Why wen:: states. abe-ady so d:iW'erse'?Ch,3rr~e:s Tilly fei!t1.hiflds us thai: :EllIIoopean 8tl'lltes Iii~d originared jn Ulie' rnL<edJ~e'!'ai period ill many ron]]'8 _ IterritOQ'ia.1 moll1:l1:r'cru~, Joose fretworks oJ prince-lord-vassal personal .el!l.~b~IJl\S., eenquest states, ,city-state!>, ,~1e.si.3i!l.tk:'iJ. clty-:states, .Le8i,g,Ule~, of 'CIt'le:S,CO'!'ru1lUifle.<l, and so fo'rt:h, ,Altlliougil:l 'J'i!lJ}' ~-bart:s Oil dedine, it'!. :5'tat'e ;types. tltrou.ghQut the early mor!Lerrl! period, as terriJ[orii~1 :SU:ll~~ ,~iI;;;I!biiUizedl l'IIii.d! came W domun.:JIJt~, mud, .. ':arrtelty remained. The f~agmeming of Chrlslc:rtdorna.ddled re;ligiol.iJs 'o'ariei!y. St<lte~ varied especLilIUY. i'l!li :t'eU.~ti'O,1W ·lbe.t,"'~e!'! t.ll.e cJtp.ilal and the: IN::,.giQ~I~" In. 1:700 j AriIgjli;clan BritailJ. was mod..eir.l;lte!.y homogeneous ;lind .cc'Jiltraliz0d .. , ab- 80:l"t1'11lg SOO'I.I~h, W,e1:m, and NOD;C0!iJJi:oflJllisl n:gjDIl<!Jli!'>i!IlI, but w.ilh ,an ,u:lj,;aoent Imperia! C(illony, C8th,cili~ Irelallld. GaithoUc Feanoe had a highUy ceillT;liVizedJ moaarehy, bUlt"",itfl h~ly iPart~cul:nil>tic rrelllldo"1B wii:tihr it!> regions {vihiclJ also leU iitHo two d:ill~iflC~ co:nstitutio.llal tY))e$)_ LI.IJt!:iJ.erall I''[u~ia, Wfl.S a fair'ly 'cum.P:l!C;;~ ~hl.l:e clo~iy i:!lirllt;cgr.:a.tlng mOn.arclly and! the ll(Jiti;Jilijty of the d(Ymll1i~,J]t regio'Il: .. Cl!l!thl;l,:Lh::. Alllsltria 'W:lS 8 00 m'e d'e;r <I! I :m.ollaroc;hy OOlllaii'iing regiDn~1 :reliwous m.in()!'itks and llinglJ:i!(gre-s,. Amenc1li. W;I.;US a :>e:ries 0:1 ~lPilllliiIC·. e11:p2J:r:liding i;(I~o!l'i.ie$. AU states di[rf.ered., g]'oos~y. S·~alte!l. are t,en:irwrial "'~ldl t,erritQd~~ ,;}Jt'le I~~d O\lt .in "'ery parn:ilcl!LVar fa:slh~o'll.

li'euito:ria.m putk,l,lV<i1ri'W was eniham;cJ;;a I))' agrnriOiIl1 Ci!~,!:,.o'mi¢s., d'il11F

71:.7

inisitile>c:!. by i[ld~stli:a[ Q"1l.es;- Todary,. in ®dI"':iliil~d (Oli post-) ili.dustria~ soci~,ty .•. Ul~ ':e~1II.0mic acuvitiesi.1iII !Britain, Feanee, and GeIman), are reflil1lrkably ~Sillnll;<lr because mod-emeco:m)mies tra1'l!sforna most ,of 'llie ptodl.ucts, OIl ~tll.!:~e.mamy H~':!i . .B~~ agr.~]'i1J[n eCiil:U1O:rnizs de[pend OIl! -eooIOg)',:~ on Ute so,u;,vege·taboflJ, climate, and wart'IilT - ~lid. l.l'te-~e '''',aor by 'ocaIny" Thiil eoology Q\f agrar:l:ii.1l E-I:!oope was 'I[InUts.!l1:li~'If Y:!I.Ii'll:d, rn economists' j.a,rgoG i)'i'E-er]n;il <lJ "(liisp~rsed pordoUo, crt: n~5:o~n::e;s: .. " ;B,y.!: as .capitalism doq,el'oped. ":n<lJt.io'llWl" ,It>Oo:tl;omies, beC<limemo:r'!3 s.imi!Jla,r (as CitaIlk:;r U i'ii(lllle-s) - -

Oi;p:itlilicslilil is aJili ijilU~1!IaUy di&s.ed form of power Glf,gama:lio!1, whereas ;stat~ are e~&e!~!!t~alJy 3U!t!hiC]l'rit;fJJti"'e_ iEs,peciaUy irn its ill1dtlstri~. sts.ge, :iJm::r,e!llsiI1lJgl.)I l:iber.rnedIT-O([JJ the pa:rtl'cul[1:riJties of territory, capitiillism spread r.iig:lTIt tllfOuJgb. fue West :iii!. r~ther' gjj.mular forms .. Us diffused P(JI\\Ii"e.F_ aliso .aJLbw:s faid]' Hfree'" c:ho£ce of aJit'er!ll<fl!tive s~rate,gi:Iii:5. ]llQn: '1I!Iii1lJfil;S!lied ,oo:mpeUt:ituiI., ror ,t:lQ]lective as 'well R\\I :in.dtiv:ldllla~ actors. Workie'.J"5 and ,ernp:Do'Yers,. peasants a_j)d large· eS~lilt:e fanners ma)' mak.e ''1·arrietli lo;::a'1 ,"-1'I',a:I'l,gements: t'ltlat :pefit'i'iit class, S;Ecmi'Ona~, and :\iegmental 'SUIilIi'.e.giC:ill eo O(Dn~i:l'l1u.e and CUri1Lp.elce. y.et S.t3l1l~ .• Ib:y tll~r 'IIe-fY nature as Q distmet source of sm::-ia~. pt.'ii·wer.; <llJltllo:nitlirtivcly all.ocaa:e- aad ia. s.titunQn~lize. A.lthough p(!rli~ ,~d state 'GI.~tel> may' a.fgne ami reduce state coherence, :1"" .... 1> ·regardling. ciiv:il i1fislits, :5i1,JiOuge, statec.cen~f,id·~z:a:!.tOI}, oonscripl.iiOlll, II.arLffS; 1J1li.O'Wl, and '!>(I Jioil1h, mU'SIt bel~d down <llUhoritaiiV'e1Jy.

The .modem Ilta~ hadfint ill<il!liiwtioo~llzed the manYl:eit:riitorial pitrticulf)Jrid.e~ of tlI!JlIDpe .. Theil stares greatly e;ll:p!1ii.~ded as they faced 'I.WQ. WatVes: Q:[ ,common. regulatory problems, .IiHiiLilJoa'liing from tne iOr creased mili'~tl'5'm a,f: the eight.eeiX!:.1l! cenJUrry .1l1iI.d. ~he· ciipliDaUlhst ,;:ie'l,lleJ).. OiP~.elIlt lasting 1!brougb 1'914,. In this period, :sli:ates booa!~.e .Iarge .• :>lX"la!.b' relle!,ii!lnt., and di:;l:jjD~tiive-~y ··'Ilmcil:em.·' The, wny:!> this hapiP;fme:d i1iOW' bad 3.!m! in~lJI.emle impac~ Olll social &1¥elopmellit_ Y,e't, in thru' exp~nded roles, they 1ir.5t coped with. the pa.rtiooJ:IIlr :~nS;l:h.'IItiom devel· oped am.id d'1!i:' mOl:(: "reril.":ilioil'j~"· ~~r:a- In the. 'Mrsrt p.bMAil 0'1 ·~8!I'Is.:i6n mil.i~aIi50rn interao;:teii;ID witb. these to reslIh in distiili<:tii"ve· "mooemhoo'~ .~nsl:itlJtiO'n'liil1l each sti1lte: .A:m.en,,;;!! hi!:.~:hwrtkl'nali:z.ed its ~~qlUe con:s.titmliol1l; F:ua:m:::e i®stiWliOil1.aJi.l!ed ,conmc:t01'er its ,co:rusti,t~:tioli!; B,ritam institutionalized old. :reg!Me :~iI)e:J!'aiis:m.; Prussia, sem:ia1!llth(Ji]"i.t~ai:'J!ljsirl'll ~ ,all1d Austria 1(less is"uC(;e,$smUy}artternptedi "0' :give its diytililSticism ;mQ,j'":ei!ll]ifil.strW;:-~1!Irany lI?enel'rali.'Ii',e ]lowem,. MQ(J.er.rrI Sit3ite.s - md~d by ,e~gl1t·eef:l!l:lru~t::ellilhITY ndlitar.ism and nineteen.th-ce:rurur},· i~d'l!:i!i!itri::l!1 ,e<1l'!iJIalism - no'1,O,' eifi(imtQU~~~' illlaeoa:5<!:di tlle.i'l!: 'sociai s:i,gn:ilicl!!noe. Thus t~e 5!1:mctl!lr:Ung pil"!'¥'er ,(llf 'lhe:ir e:KiS-l:Un;,8, a;i!i~Ili.mi1i;:ui .... e :insiitlJtiOO-'l., "fD[-gelil in imera.ctiolli between <U:JJ ea:r'lier age. and th.e milit:amt phase;, :lil.li(j' grew. All. r ,i4bo:jJ~ the lS3()S,. m.Q:Sl countries,; political in:S('jtllllions had :it

ns

soHclitl/ iLbsotbirig ,alllUl;s,t aU th.at il'ldl~smal ,socielJ.'C(I!J.lJ,cl d'Utr'lii,' at Ih~rI1I .•

. A second diSiJet:tic_ be-$i~. Man's class di.doctic was ,occYrrin'. !be. tw~.:n w:n~~, .~ .~~bel "nDJte:r:sil:it~aU. emerg,c)I1J,;;;c:"_ ~!1d "'irQ!)t~tJl!ti()l!l;aIi.za~rin." BI;)~~:~se~t;;!~tle~ eee OOIll.stU.tUltor;l by rnu]t~p;J,e, o'l'erl.apping q¢lwtl'rb l~fL 1~.LLen,ctl?I1. tlru:y [l'crelml:lIl[YPI!'odlioo emer,gclllt ,eollcl;itii.v·e .tlcwn w.~~o~ereI3tl!lJ(m; wltl1l. ollll.cr ~~((!D.1! are not 'yet institutionaiized blli~ iJ\o·~. beCQifl~e so ... Cla.~esam.ll natiOns wer7 e1uer·gen.f aetors par e~cellcnGie. !In:c,):. ~o:k d~n:uua~t classes ~l1Id re:gim.e~ 'by ~urr~i.se" aad no exi:s-tnlll,g msm !JUDns were dmeC:I!Jy deslg~cd!ooope w;t~h tih.eU1L 1~ISb:;;:iId, dO-m_i[= nant elassea <lnd_ le~ifi1e-=> ma.dte. do with the institutlQi!!~ d.c:5Jgned i®r O!.d,Iii,·U ,m.oU'! teiJfJ!i.)rJOIlly ~rtL'c~~ purposes ... S¢!1!JI~5' d;i,~ .Got gJrOW prj. m.a!ruly H:I'CCipc 'W[l'ih eme;f~"IIIl;g. das~B.8 aud 1J)!l,btiQ[iS (bl!.!~ ~l) fi\ghD. CI!l$Uie.r 'Wars 8111:<1 '!!bien to a~is[ .iBdl.lStdalkzaJi;&oIII),byt th~,i:t ef:l.l;lli'.~~ !!fI~~tutio~ ti;u~:rc .mwch Q'f tbe- Ib.r:ullt of secial 'co:ntrol. Thus they il'llcrea.s!ngb'del'ermined i()]uss; ,ali'l'f.il l1a.t~oI'll3i. olJ[co-mc5.

. [~i.y~aoe(Xampte oC t~.ilsfr'o~ .~hii:pl.etll,. I7 and 18:. the ,div.crgimr,g ~'IilYd.olPmcl1~ oil" tiIJie Amencan, B:rUliSh, ami Genmm labor :mO'V'e"ments. 1 focu.:;o here on~~;'.'Ort two :i'"Qm~$ o:f 'irlfJthOl:il.~tIiH'\Ie power, s!:t'U'e repre~e:oW~l~ and mllmlil"yi."lj's:tallliizaltOf.lS ~for a f!l.llimcr, more ad)t:qU:a1le . cxplanilil~()II!,. COIls-ult those cbiap~ers) .. iE!1l,I;lJl:eelllth-am.lury Brhaln !had developed an emb,rYDlli1;: form of partll democracy pJjimarilv~u l:DSDi· iutronalize "OOtlrt" and "counery,' dYfia~l:_i'c 3IlldJ:llitigVClUS- aJIi1!Hfcts •. Britlil~:Dl :31100 I.ackied <lin e.ff&:[jj'l'e home ,Um]! (except DIll .[rdand) .. Hence (Jopililg w.itlit e~liiler~[!g mid\dlj])g cila~s iJepe-lildedmostly on Paaliament, and Parhame:nt d~d cope, By 1820, Pll.!Is·sJa had in:;.1:itll'tiOOJal[r.:edi no'ble· plit),fes:.o 0 iii al oollfliot~pr.im:ilJi"il)' wit.hoo I!ts '0:)'3.1 adDlli[[~t[ilti()(!1! -ilIadi. irs !UTIlly. T11e5e also he]pedlh~ regime institutionalize mkl.dJjng classes, espe,dal[), wilen the atmy gatilloe.d Isgitimacy !by turniag Prussla anillo oQ.er:m::l!D.y. Tile Ueu.illta!f'l .regime th.'i1:1] also mil/de il'J:no'l\',ni'!',," use ,of limiJte:(i I)art.y democracy, 'wmcll also bent the mi.ddle·cliliSS RigblW1.l:~d" American p;:])fty dem.ocracy ,origin.M.ed ,primarily to irn!>!lilu!:iOl\C;)Uiize. lJ:'e!:i!iti([llns 00- ~e.etl large '3[1d SI1iI1l!l!l !fa,me]"s_ American lIIiI1ilit:;u}' ~1~dI piJ1iamilitilIY

,o:rg-aniizalkms: d!~lope(} ]a._rge·lyno tn, ]IJ;clia.n:s,. .

Whe,n the,iP·ro1eta.ria;i emerged, domil'lla[J:~ classes and regimes in tbe three ooeuw.es handled, i~, ... -c[}' dille-,rentll.:y. This was. not because dle British hadJ a "genilliis COl]"' 'c~lIiIiIpro<mi~e" (until :il.f.1i"I~r widcentllF\' iJreJ repressed mere thsn !.bey OOt:!'I!P!I"QlJ:llised) O[ because G,e-rrlilill~ wer·e ~lI~ho:r.i~3iri,all. ;1.1: Amei'ka!~:s :schb:upl]]'en:i!::. Moot CIlp:iitruists Hind .poli· tI.eJ)all50 III ,alii tti'iree· co·ufltrte.s· w:rrlll,ed the ;!linne thiiog: to pre-serve Qrder yet keep thc:~[ jfn: ... lleges_ But the.}' had diff(;[enl~ :aulliol['il:a.·~u.",·e s~ate insti,tlJltionlS ain;:adj' to hanrn. fu, aocomplislTIing tIle;!;e ta:sla;, The- !Bri~ish had rompetiti¥ part.te.'l, and a CfBnch.i.sc whoaffe re]a:ti,QAship ~o clm~

729

~u!il!d~[".iie:s had ",aried and ooliJ!dvalFY 38ailll - but not m!1ldho,i'3. i!lom.e army. The Gem::lllns had i!lil,ts,til.liIHO:P31~ed ;<11. ,di .. !ideo;;;!;[l;d-oo]e pj}~ 51ra~gy excju-dln,g radil:'a~parttes. _ 0!:i1d! they imd! a iar_ge ann:}' wll:to~ s:llto'W'llof~of!oe' IbJld o(!!l!lsid.enttlie clOlillIe5~i£ ile1!~JlimQC'!i'" Tille Amefiicam. !bad ro~e~~l~vepante!i ~ IY!.!lJt 'theoy ;[111£0 ibJlldmiillitary ,aIDid ptlramili.tilfY f(\!ro~ exp'eri'ei!J;oed mcnde domestic repression .. llJ:Ii!IS similar eme!li'gilil;g hl;~o:r meveraenes wer.e deflected ibydiitfle.FeUilt a,v3ii~.ab]e !I,ta':e,irlsl:iiu:ltion'l> :!I!~Oil1ig ·dliiltf:ere·rlJ: track!", H.r.Uilain ~.veroped mii.d! ttn.nu1aillism; Ge:miI,any, a ti"ltheit' :rit!jI:l[i2le<l!e·:IilOOUJil'~erlJetw-eei!lJ a, Fea,.ot~onacry!>t:f!Jte. 3il1dc2Ipa., t:ll1L~m and :tm Qst:efl:!!~jb:~y :rel,!()~~ut~o.DUllry :M:arxiism .:md. Altlenclli. g~e.aJtef v.voil.e:IJ.Qe a!lldi :g,ecti.oflali:SrnL a41t-c! ·Iil~~.e· SoclaJliSlll ..

I iii. all these, encoenrers state l[j",titUJtU.G1llS also CItl<UliIg.O~, ib"iJlt more ~I;owly ilha]'JJ ,eiljpit8Jlis:m &e",e~QiPoo. 3111111:1 classes emerged. T.~e theoretical m.o(ltlapp:rr(lp:rrii.:ate for this J1~>llSe of worM 'Il!isrory - wiUI eommon drlfrn;sin,g capit:llJlis.:m el1l.twuned. w.ittil. mDreparrth:l\lI:Da~ a!uJti!l.orih:ati'li'e state g~titU.tii.OfDS ._ is 1iI kilil.d of '!]J~~iltic:ll] lag" tlb:oory, silildl as I teased out 'Ero:m!he, ]filsiJJtii.!tional tlll.cory oil' the :shli~ iaelli!:ii~s"a in Cna:.p~e:~ 3- Yaria~imu between :sta:l.eilllsti.Uu:;uom :~t!.s~red vari~11JS, ··~ooUe(:ti':.,.e I 1l!bm'TM5" .in.~hi5 period. 'This easts oo!,!lbt on ilIlU 'meorie~ !:Is:5etti:ng mat (.~-'piJtalisl de-v-e['opment ]]e>Ge:lsarii1!yb!rif,!:g5 .!!i!it.i:y detett'~il:i1I~ set 0:1' pon,o.ne,t r6lailiol1l5 between eaphal <lllldl labor .~ 'Y.I'heth.« the tn~my .is. MlID:i:st, fe:foifll]l~5t, 'Q"J! mibe!r-<lL 'DecoJJeoti .... e ]albo:rer has been mOt·c; m:!lUeab1e tha.'[! d~.e!Oe theories would :!;u~.est. oOffiplian:t witihi. {OIrllfl1laMe: ttJoCJha:rJige'J a llymbeir ,a!f :re,giim.es. and capable of crys;tllJ.litiug .il1l !I1I~JIlJf f"Olrrn."l"

L~·u:fe-ed,thi.$ pe'li'hxl seems to nave· iru;titflj;I~(m.ali.~e(l. IIlilo:m d:il'l'ense class relarions t~~<i~ ~u,as more i1,ece.u:! .iid'\i',a;(jc~,J caiPitalism, dJo.mnal,ed byp~y d!e:ITlQ<C",ach~£. lliLfOUgllolllt most of the tW'e!!l.'ti!1it!i1 C€lllimry, allt:t.Q',nJtarLa:n re~!!t'i;es fared b>i@lli'y. A~y~oc:rncy :an.d! SC-mi8ilJ.lltl!Jfi.rnt:ilri~[(i1 mo;,.D"!archy dis;<l~'pea:fed. <i£ d.Q".llil!iiltm~: s~t.ategie:s :l'ro.llVl the WC!>l, .;:tliEtlllitJUP OOIifl!IXI!I:'<lible rn.ol]illJi];o11l!liI:~ci:li'caJI :regumes exisl: i:FIJ many developing oo!l!ltn· !:n.e.ll. MD;st Wif~IDe:r". the-Q,ries !Ia.\le II!r.g~d dn.at Ullis decline ilil. ';'aMty and. in 3.1l1iJ]!;()rJiEoU'i:!l!"!ism was ioelliJlablJe" tln.e- wor.kingoot Qf th~ "I,ope O[ 'if!d'I[!f>~.l'!<lligrnt," o:f ~In.e "age 0:[ dem.oc:r.a.cy" ~r~r: th.e "~[LcSJtitli.t~Dn:ill" ll::!I!tiO:rl (1"[ C~a8S: OO!lil:lllict" ~- "'''f.ia;il~ foit':llil:S o,fITiLoc:!.er.niz;atio.l1Jtb;ro[~ r:

E'll'DllITlio!J])a:ry till,eQ,~:";:!'l~~~ ~e!l1! boo$~qJ by t\!J;~ s1l!~en 'cdilliij:!'se -of lW~:l!ni(l:th.centliTY :!I!ullhoritli[['iaJ~ socialism in the SQ',.ril.et bloc- BiI~ bOiS ili-e:rre ~n s!1Idh II "Iogl.t:"? W.hy welie tsariism., Im~<l!~ O~Hl'!!;;l.·~Y ,_ iiilld.eed', m.o.reIJtiJ~uil naif UI.e! ]Il1Iooe[.Illizilllg mgirn6;g, ~ clD[I(I!lT)sod1 Werre they sw![].~hm!i!l a..ild sche'mil1Jg~.(Io ;iJJ "'.i;a;bil:~a]t~liIlI!iIti.v~ soc:! ofl!l1looern. ]Jo'>¥er l'e:hllrorns 10 party deroJ(i1Q'"u;;y,,? Tb:~ 'Questions SiWHit V(l.llIm.~ ]n . .BUlt one issue ,carl be add~essed he~e: B«~!;!se,a'il!th.(llitar.i~ll I~ginl¢slJ!till:g lill!i~!lar.ism rnare di!l)ectliyinto ().~~ :reguila.tiiQJiI,llhrbmay .miik""thsm

vulnf;rrable to w"i!'-i~dJll.lced d'e-'ffiise:. T~)e causes of the Great War ibeoul(Ifie ,"ritk:aioo the fi.r~l sta~~ in ass.e~ing tale1r 'l,i'iab~Hty.

CompleldJtyim slate m)'stauliza~iO"ans alse tll!l:ms '11][1, ti)~""::l["d ttil~ W:'U'.

C(I'I;Ue;m[po,r.ar)' po'W-e:r!ft.~-to["$ fi)l.iru:l h ~s, difllcult t-o aomtr,ol QI1.I~w!Res;:as we fiiUid~t to I;;xplaintllom. TE"le eonsequeaces oftbeir fictions wer:~ on.en. 'J!ni[li~e:ncle(iJ .• O.:.\lSS :stmgg1e.s - a.g,:r:a.ri,(I:rlI" i~dI!1ISI:Fi81, O(r botti!-dlld l10tlProce~d a-ooa:rrdii:l1ig 'to' tl!Jefrr: Gw!LlJ _ pure I~g;lcs, Fro!lnlbeg!~r:v~~glo e:iXIi they wcJ'e ,e.~·!t~vfimlJt! wi:'-h .~,j.eollo:gl.c ... [, ~l]llIt:a.l:}', and poluH,"a[ .pO'wcr relations tih,a,tl'!elped shape classes th,e~;!iSel",e;S" T~]ese·i1lOW ibec;liRl1: even more oompiex I:IJS state n-.i~ti!ta:ri$m itlt,em.Hi.t:ldl, -Qhapter 21 tr~s ~be hegijmllings. of thls catiillcl:.'~mi,cinte['\/e~t~ol1l,

Nia1iID!l~ Il!Ild. :st~~

Chapter" "J p!ll~e!TIlts the '5~ltl:h!:e:.c iPha:les:~J., tI f.'Q_l,Ir~.r~;!l!re:lb.ellllrJ' o~ tile IlatimJJ. The re~~gi(nl:S <:!!~.d Ule commercial calPl.tali~t:.~lansit phaSiC;S ~~~li!.!i[\e-dlbef'],F!': tib.e~ tlme [pcrioe,! oef thds wlrt,(l;me be:gan, ,oonuliJblJ)!:!ill,g oni~!{ wlil.iI:[call "proton;;l.tiol1ls .. " Tt.enthli: .mJlit2Lrist phase, d'eta~J.G(). in CBl3prt~j[ '7, de ..... cloped maticnsiil:Sf.e<lI., part~J ,eross·dass., and eccasLo!llall~y a.ggroe;ss:~'I'€!I,~t.oNL iBllilnilltUo;rliS, carne in ~h<e.e. difk[ent typs.:';,: state n;i:rllJo:rcing (l:Or eli:<l!m'p~e, E!UgUa~cl). stateCJtCa~ing: (Gelflli1i~Ji!Y), and stare SIID'Y'errtil'ig (<l!C,oo$S most AuS"~:ri.a[lllands)" T 11I0W :5i\!!mm~ 'lI;"lerol!!lit'h, ii!\l,du.n.t'ta{ 'r..~~iJjallsl., phase oil' ·~rn.cse · ... ~r!oo l1Iation!!)"

D~lJii:n.g th€ s>eOOI'!(i !:La_]( Q.[ dle l"Ii!l];elElmth ;;entmy ~ililod! the .eai~1y hv~nUelh" thei!lldu8"~rja~ ph.a~ of capiti3JI~.sIil1., its elass :Shl1,i.J!lg~es~ am! Its impact o;t]J thestate [[\el~foJrr~(3.emeil.'ging I1aIWns ', Stailie<5. :!""Oir t,he: .. l1rrst !lime l1.udie·'l1ook 1tI,:lIjor.' d'li'il~;liI]JJ fU[jotj.Q~s. sponsonag (10nrmll[![~C!lJUO'~ S},S1lem<s, canals, ~oorl!i;,P'O'S!t ofifice.s, rnill;."..ays ,I!elegru~~~~ systems, and, mos:t s:Lr1lni.fi:c<J;n~I}', selrools, State;s'l'll(l[¢ lar.gel.)' re:5p'cm,~lllg 1:0 t~~.e neelil[> ..;i'f. irli!:h.llstri,aJlii:;rn., a5!a[1[~.cUJ!IMeod pr.il!l1l.ar.ily by ,!:apit:;)J~gs~. but a!s.!J' ib¥ other dilS5e:5, iby :milUitacies, and! by 5"~;!f,e elites. Eecaillise ::Lmo~t .tI!~U valu.;;~d the, :ific.~ea:sin.g ·coUeeti\ile po",,'·ets. of aili1l i[!;dIilSh"lalso,,~ety. ilie)I I,iJi,&edI the srase (!1~ toward gr.eater ;S.oci:1!J! CQo;roinatio.!i,. l~ tIl!!"".i(I, •. suHe i!l1!fmcs,tn.!otJI!l:re~ el1lhaIITiQ:e~. the d,ell~i!y .!jJ!f soeial 1!I1t1::f,(lChOn, bl!,!l~ bOfl!!i!1I(]ed by the s~.te's territertal !1'eliIc.Il..We '$a.w tha,t :50J)0aial beti"l.a'\rlor _ .e~~ i~tima:w social bi;l"])~!tlio([' such as :;I1:*l,i a ] :mmcs _. became "11I;iltu[!lUj:z.ed!\fIilare t1ai:i'o:u,l~ly homogei1l.eo!!ls.. Q~ite Ill!n.col1isc!ou,sil.)',~OS~.:~t81~ ~I. vltics, fl.i:u~he:J:Ied tlil.e m~)lioil as :oI!J]) ,c(l1!pe,~ef.l.<le,j (lOJ]i'imll'rl:!ilJrnny., l~fllci[!Jg I~e illlt-e:rusive ,;:luJid emoti.~nal Olr~~I1JiZ3til!)ilS o-f -r,amiJy :im£ll l'leigih.bo!1'hoQodiW!th more ex~e!lsr",e:il.nta ini£trl..lr:mmtal powe!1' _O[p"l:ljga~j;{ms ... c" . .~'[

The natiDn was it'Iio1 a t,otal cOil1'ii1l'!!Imty. iLocal!sm :5Ui'\i'!v-ed.,015 d~..;I! u-eg~OI~al •• relLgi(j~, Hng!l.listic, _ i:lnd ,t,'ila&S. bll~rIDers. wiI~llin thil}l[Hl,ti~:m ,.n: 'We$"item lcl.eoIO<.i!lJ,cal ,cam:rnll'filty ;;:Ind ~ob:!:IIl capnahsm al'So rtt:aImtame

731

trarumati.o:li'iIgj) (lIl.'garr~zalwn. Becaese capijtalism., th~rrti'looe;m. state,. mili· t1ili1i~m, mass discol.'sii'l'ebi~·elCacy. and indill:!itria.ti'sm in'Creaosed. {j,'o'eraU social dens.rty, ~ibe.,e"",:a5 room to'r mOl:'e lIaJi(ltJ;ail ame! lrnnsn.utiMa] Oirg!Uiizat~'OiIi.

NQr' was tile t'latio!DJ ail uneontested community, ThG populalr, crossclass .l!lat~o1li'l i1e-ee~[.ilY' i~!,I\(I\lved OO!lOeptio:ns ·olf c:it~[lship (~hoill,gh of va.ryio;g; t}lpe.s). But thes.-e [&sed tben.y,o' domilllan.po]~ti,;;al. ~tal~i.uu:io!lls vI tbe nirn.e,tee,ntih ce;]JhJ],}", tl!Jrnmg (Ill the ··re-pres.eIil1i:a~i¥e" iSil-l.le - w,h,Q *iluidllbe h!lli citilzens - and Ule "'l1Ialio!DJ:;[Jj" iss~e - wli¢i"e ~e~nship :5houM. heUociII.t:edi,. ttn,a'~ i5.1, ho,w C·elll:tJr,al~ed ~Ile stalloe: and nation sh'OiliIkI be- t l'lIa-v·e stressed OlroughO>Ul that toe nationa.1 issue '~'8~ importmt and as OOfl!.efli£lOUS es was represeetatiee, Few :states. Sl'8Jrled liihe peiioo. as;Elatiiol!1!~lIy homogeneol!ls: MQ!l! Qi.uiI!t:(,ined .reg_iPIDIs, w1th dj$~il1ict re~i~ .. is .anJd ~inglili'SHc OOH!IJrnlllrutleS, and l1iI.iIQ)' regio:m; mad their own po!l.rirtkal imltitUtiious, or :rne.morie4l Qf~bc:m.

The miJi.ltaa:y ,andiindustrial capit!lllil>n .phase:; of state exp~!Mi.lDlJi 11)len'Sifiecl boeh represeetative and nallQiIlal iS5~·. Tile lat'e' ei~hJto~tb~n1.u;1')\' lls.cal .1lIDd ,oQ[I[scri,rtit.;ktl 'OIiJi.i'i.S'eq,l!leooG$ ,of .!nCFCaSi}<i militaJism r~llll.edl iJ!l _g[Sat.e1 rqJooselttati!,l\e: pressures !but v,sry ·dtri:er-.eIlit ,erygtiim:zal:~O'llS, on t!liie- 113liolmR ~SlJje. :ranging froil~lhe; c-enWfalizatlon attempted hy .Ja.colDm ifevollUG:iion~!'ies to the ooiltlederali:iim of '(noM Austna~ di~id!(mfS .. Yet the Later jillld.u'sJtria.] c~);p.italis.: pbafre i[l~eils~iled ·pres.'Sure5 'to ..... ard both 1:Il0'.r.;; [l}poosenJtOliHv.e. .8:FI(5,- mol'€! :Ilail{m;a[ :SQC~e;l:ies" "Ma.tlllntlilo:arLion" was 'especially effective because iJt .... as iiH~consepou.s, U.ilWtclIlded, I:Elt,e:r5ti~~a.]. an.d sounoppesed, It iU\"Qllwiil t.he em.otio\iJ'5- ,iii well. ilIs.insLTlimental reas()r.t, s'l£IblJIy ctlil1lJrlgiri18 C:Q:n!:e,ti'c)~80 of COmmljJJ!li1~.e!l of aW'tt::.hilililt:o.t.

1"et olll.e area of state exp.atiiiio'll in liIlduS11ii.31 capila:~~:;m lema.iined con.tentious. Thou.go .mosl state Infrastructures we,r,eex,pSiAlded fairly oomlensllaITIy. mass edtlicatiO:I1 ~ne"41lBd. conflict w~tlti oomorlrty chueches and rtlglQual ~iiqui'Sitk commuJ]!ities. [f mhlilOii'!r}' cburehes we;re, r,egliolil = aUy enU)IMliil!l:d., lids 'could .iflttnsify :5riu~-s'!!!bverting ll>~tio:n.alisJTil (BS illl .lrelaoo OJ 50IDe .Amtdan lands), Edualtwlila]e:tpMilision ooi,lild 11100 t<onvey a !iu.bt'ier allliiiist~tism .• Under grow:i!1g. ['epres~ntatii",.,; preS:SI!l]"~. from em~gjo.g classes, 110 oeOiI'JaI regimem;aw could ~nm.l-'d!f im~Htl'.5e its I.!1!lt'!g'l]~ '(lITh provlnees with tlfLe,ir own a:n.aJti .... e .... em!lCula[s. The ,il!(~parll$ioFi of educai;~on in tbe pWQ\·inc-e of Bonemia, fO'1 eXftmt)h~; diffused a C.z.ech. mora than an. i\ustr.ian :s",mse oi l!If1tioQ:!"I_ {Jonilli;tr8ely. ti:!if'oughoput '''grewte-i Ge:rm,any" a.ni:! tbn;nllghout Ualiy edrl)cati'olil el!1'l:o(lJurt!.~ed :II Se:I1Soe ol m;atimllhood. e:tJtclldinl\l a'Cross e:KU51ii!ili~ :state boundaries. llIllS, according to OO[Jfte~"{t, theiDdllLs1tr:ia.l <:<tpitaJIis.t phasc,oi. tn.s notio[J. e~cn!lJliragei!l ~b.r:'Il!e dtlfe:r'ent t}'pelj or l1.ationls: 1ltale n::-imlfo«:ing, ~1i;ate c:reati:ng, a!lll,ds.t'3te !l~b'llel1wn:!l,.

1'32

Gip'~~.Qh:sm·t!; class ~onruc~ also :f-\J!eledalU dllJielZt)']pBSo'f Ill:l!tmm. a~oordJlIlg to I.oo!il~ t. o()l~i[li?'M.aMe-- The m~~;dj~e elass, pea~nts,. and ",.!.:ukers became li~sr<ne m nanve "ernawlar!j:. whidh ",.,._-'I*.... " ..

• . _ . . --. -1 _. ~1 """"""'''','".'11 ILO

QOfi'te~t, ehher flluth.e:r natll:,a,lized the- ~tilli,g t;t'r!,e 'Q:];" .fnilgJne.Q,r~d 'tb

:5t~LI~ I~IO, mere pOil;ml;lI!l' rt;-gLoliI,a~ ~ati.ons (state (mgl[];~,[ltil1g) Or c~,~s~ :sUUe 1la'llOfaS [state areaJtlJl1ig).. iMhddle class, pe~s;(lIlJ;ts, and 'i\l'Qrtef!l delttiu~t!;ded p<lliticalre'l'resentatioIl agaln with tile same ah,ernative ccnsequences. .!By U'le late nililleteenl'h century, po:pu.la:r natinns - ill ,all three g-ui~cs - were. mohiiizolll:g Ene middle olaSli. ami maDlY !peasall'!r;;a~d

i.\'or'ke.rs, I:tl! 01;11 f:uropean oooJl][G:raes:. -

. _ [fiL_ tl'iis p~~:re, .I'l?ti~ns. also becalll1lemm~ pass:bOrLSite and :a~e$tliive.

Pi~S8IO<1li d!en'lled pr.mc:~paaIybolll1ll:hel ti.gluteir aiEki!; I:Jc,t!.l,i'l;en t:1tt!l state a!lld ~he in~..tns:~ve·, 'e:miO'bo~1lll s.pber,e of:farnily:u:ld :llI:eiJgilJiborhood illJler.a.ctioo. ill '!Nl1I~c:h state edhmcatiO'n an.d pliiysic:!tl ftlldi Jillo.ral health in]lCaS!tll.Ii;;JtDiF'ec5; loomed ~a['~. Ide~Joili.e~ ~aw the natiolll :ilslJlotJIiler or fM;]iie:r I hl}4I!;ih ~ilI.d hQItl¢'W[".it !<JJq;.ge ,. Aggr~$Si.cm resulted beeaase w[ :staies e,onti!llU.¢d to (:'1',;;t .. I~·e .~ m:ilitari'iJt; aH were geopoJiilcaUy m~1it!;\ns!., il'liId so~a.e '!'e~llIU1ed d.omesKicall.,. 500. .

S.tllll'e>-I!lll!l.b'l,llf:.ni!llg nartio;JilJaJism Ibecrune imICt¢!t~jfa:1'lly ... io~e.llt where re]P!re8:,sD.Y,g imper:iJ;rul.rt.:gimes w{ll,ij:md. it'i;01: .gr.lIi:rl: .regio:rIlaJl-C)iilItio,:nat ,jl'IlDOno.IDo.e& a;rud r""IP['Cse.nt~ltjo'n: ',special]y :~~ rdnfof'cea by .religion, regioul dis~~d e u~, deve10ped :mtense, ,emOl:lo[),j,d. prorest. Tb;i;liEr fami[j' !illiidl ~(ljl;.;:d ~omm:lJInJity ~ives re~rfo1cedlliehr sense of di:ite[le..nce fmm the iilO'<!pUoitulliS lmperial I!Ullt~(J-IIi. The ial!:t·er resumed ~11,e :sellti[J]lielilt5 to jlllS,Ufy 'lJlliillll!!, d~)lnestJk militarism agaurost th(;l1Il. Eaelit fueled tIM: passion ~Iildl d];~ Vtolenoe efthe other,

'T.h'iiJS ~:I .. te"'SJUhH!\e.li'itingmttift!l!llJaillililli bas been most passkmate and "fa.I!!:!ltica]" when nO,fIllr€pmSelTllti3iti1re imperial regl.Jtaes 'lbe:~ifl to lase ·~IJ].cU ·re:pte$s:j, .... e grip. Western states that ins.ti~Jl,.i!tion'l!ilvzed class, 'oo:t es:p~i<'llay regi.on.a[-nation:al, 1!'.e:plr,~s~lit:i!tiO'Il !Jjtave "O~ experienced fai!l;;Ji1ic vjomellilCfi even whGIm be:s.et ~y deeply 'rooted illlnerethni.c dis.pu.I£!s.Bele.ium. iltlJd Canada ma:,;r break 'up, Ibl1i:l th:l<g. WOUJld !pro~ably OOt;;UIJ: WilOOI!J!~ fillt~lIili¢:s" in oo·~tr,i1Ist. hillfidr,erb !have been llcilitlld in NO!"!berm JOOIKllrl b~c8l!1~e the; p.l'Q/iJUice never ill!;litutiO:Flalazed! ir,epoos·ellt.atioOn of the mino.lity rommlLll'i~ty wblJie, segrell:,;uin~ '~:he ioti!m.ate lives of both cammunities. ThO'ml~mds are being kiU'ed.~n. Yugosll,lI .... i.a.jID;d rmay be in the fu:tJlHe in mo([~ th!l!Ji'ii (i!ne fl)(;~rly So".Iie·~ cmmtTrY". pU'e:l;ise11' beci'ltJSt'! t~'i:Y :~il~'I; .riIOI'.ill:Si:j~lii:tiOf1:alii;zed. :rep.r·e:;;en.t .. to .... e gP'o'O[]lment ~!Jlnd disHnct IiltgtaliS~.~C. s·omedm.e.s r-e:ligioU!s; f'egboual coIImIWli,ties, mfl!!l}' with theirifo;tl'll historical pcillitical ililstiu.l.tiolilS.. SG<tte-fi;I;!!b";icri.illg eth!l:1te violetta:: is. ~ ]JooctUot:':t (lIf. a.l,lf[~u:nitar:iJarll r-egimes.; ~U~; of party de:mQcra.ci,es. Tlti!j: ..... ~ so in 'lJlIe 1olilgl:line,teelll.th cellw.ry. It ilppe:1H5 sliIIl. trlJ,e 'Iodav.

Tile ioc.r·e, .. :siog Ilioience of stat.e.:reilIfu[dlil:g o:EltirJioalism !la'!> ,e,enteired

{lI1Jint:e!rSt<l!le M1[ll., In 1900, .. :oou~40 percem ,of Uai:G HJndg,e:ms srri!l. went towam prepararkm fm war" Tile u,~ :;l!'!d thre:!l!t (If .... ar w~_;s still celii~raJl ro their d1ipLomaqo Mmit:aJrY'l!urt'U~. were· :S'~ilill a va[~ed pa~t Qf masoCi.d~J:!ie ~ilI!IU!ite,~ '\l;\OmeJili~rG!,i'aUli.edl as theliJe<l!rerll :;l![!d ri!ii;l!rtiU!~~ of ru:~ure'l\'arrio<n. H!IItllow trrm~ ~1\'ilte5 were beco.mi:ng Iillo're !;\epresl}jj;tlltive, and mO<:re na:!J.ofl,aI.. It is oitil!iIJi asserted 1!1:1!a;~ the ~mld(j~e elass, peas~tlts,a:ru:l eve{[i :rom~tultrJ£s worke['s tiJeg;li11J t'o id:em!Hty U~ejiJ' 1:ii~ere:s'tS 3ri1{i!Cho:lr :se.D)s;e of honor with tboseQlF titeir ~~.te agai!ll!&tothw Jlilic:L-ons!!a,tEl:S, iIl:u,()rus:iimJg agg[e!i8i.ve;l 11J00tiofl:a:ticsm, A ~i"'~~ ~tast>~boo[)' looks te S81!ll eKaWY wBio Wall ~rese1'!~ it! tl'!~ stilt~" II: eoneludes that fu~Wpo!itic;a1 d~ui!len~, ~rJ.m_a!!"i!y ~I~e· mldr.Ue da.lls. w~oo thebeerers of 1IJ.~e;s!£ive natlonalism in am.mce wi~1h old regjm~" Inul'!m:i, I Em.rve elit!JiPha!lif2isd~:Ilmr[ oonceptr!]lilll of .c<I!p~~Hs.,!il(: prolJJl were ills.(\! b~o(lmililg. 6mil:Joth:l~d in tills pe.rd.od w.itb <I! iSllllPpOS1ed ":!l!aJtioufll :in~~res!:;"

Ov,C(rul~. [however, I look: rather skepliicaUy ~t these ]'iv:;cltHJeod~.

There ~5,a . considerable -d.i:ffetr"ie:r.J:ce between oOo;t];oe]vi~1i: of o:Ii1e:s"~f <1:S ill member ()f ill national iIJO!llmll!1flity, eVe!!1l if soo~J)i:tGd .iniloa. myth.ology of 'OOiJ]lIiJ],(iIll eUu:dcity, even rommOOfl "race," ami]; sUlJlpmtililgauy paTttcuJ,a,r il1I!3Ii~)Ofl8il po.lic)'., abroad or !lit home., Mmt (ll(l:m;ception~, of w'hal iJile ma.tu(J!I1 s~oo~ fm were strongly contested. In f'Ii':fI_ll(i~ ttitis wa:s OJ]). v:i.OllS".I!l:ll Rep!!lbHcam;, MDm]\lJbricslt:l.,.~odBo!l!apal'bsl:S S!titolil:gl.y, emel.:tolil~l]r adllh;e;:red to :ri.'\i'~1 oom:epti,oms .. 0\[ t~le m.ean~:~:\; (!f "Fraace." ~I.l!~ also iiJi]; mainland Bril:ai:lilline old eadical "·Pro!.e~tas!t" co.ncepti.O:UI of ]!l:te l?oiP!lI~lIr nation, JIOW J]];Oll"e seoobr;follga1!~agalif:l;,~~. mOO"i;;:; (lom:e['i'i!itiv,e irnpetr.iali!l1! oolll.ceplions", <I!ndi s~e Ig,bera~s a:d.v~!t~d :ii oo:f!)(iIiliJ]jpeliallsm. E'l'Eiil'yw.her-e C:~a8s:es and :m:~nQrl:tj,es w:llio e:o!perili;n~~d the sharp end of domestic militarism opposed :mU!ita:rism. i.n gene4'.aII arild :iigl1lre~ siv>B' [])al~<JIna~i8In :till p.a!fl:i(}!,Ila:~·. ![I ,1i!]lcl)i;!ntries, as CI~5 tbaorists argu£, fliB ,r;:i~i:re~s were more lik.ely W, eril.<!o.1'l;:e 1he 8ta!te and .it~ rnii~ri~~ ,~ ~Ji~fii':1l, Uli!t I also d!e:tl1.oI1S;~:rillt~(I tha:~ state dJiph;m1:acy a~d! miHtari!ltn renu!£!Iil,eqj ~~ro:ngly pi[.h'.il!l~, largeJy t:dddenfml'!l tl:l-e $c"r-Ililti_~y o:I pop,U:~a:1' grol!!P;S. GIiI:fflFaD)chitsed Of not. filll'S~.reS$~e na~iQ"~lg£m, (Ot., rnde¢<!, <liny ,,~ro~ f()lf~ig!l policy oo.mllillllitment) did nUl In !foot slxreiild d.¢eply <l!ll!Iong moot midA:lle<I~~ g,IOup5:-· 3[1(3 '~pe:ci~lly :JiliOlI'ruIIlOJl!g the mIE:!'IlililiilJillg;mxl petite hlDU eo~:sie.

Ye~rig:gre$Si ..... e !1J1 - h.i'ld Ibrood!C:D)~d, :ul;s, alP.pe<l!l, A.8 i.Iit!illllslrial,·

ism (l;:l1.p:!llildJed states •. ~WQ 5e~S o~ ~ef1itar;:aes e;:;':.I;~iirl.\oo .iiln embirave Oti'er !D!a~iQIlI;a1 ~dety: ~~e civi~a.1l(!ln(j m;ili'tilty ad:mi:r1isc:r.ationtS,,, BUDI!tiI:mi:ls: of tholl$ao~ gf a{i!nulll.sU'ato.rs IlOw depel1dllHi [OT' th.eii:~· liveli:tiliCiodi on th~ :Sjti;1!~e; f.1'l!JUl!ii)ii'lS .of )lOUIng mt:riI. wern dlscilPlined by <I! mji:~I:a:ry ,cadre .illlt:o ~1tepeoo!iar m~f:~le, 00 erciv,e· y~'!~Iit!J.Qtio:llaUySJ~1i!l!choo, th1lltiJs,~he .haUmarrt of~h.e mmi'el'1lI IDa<;~ ~ml~, These '~'P;\Ooodi.e,s o:~ men, ~l1Id their fa[film~ - ITl:otbI1oild:e:J1 ci;;l!sses (Woomm.ruii~~!i'eS - p:oov:Lc!oli.H most of

734

t~,~ coreot ,e",,:t:H:;me r:i,:u~ofialisrn. 'Ilhery were w~..,~ I Crii:~'··.sIU{pe!l"];Qtalist:s" ' ..... il!t~1 an ,exa~i!!'~t,ecl l.(t(y,1'IU:y to wil'l:l[Jt I!:ih.ey wi1!e~.i'!F'e;J~Q be rhe :t'li'e .] ,·,·L.~'lr "";a'e N' .• 'I·'··· . ,.. . . ., . !i. S of .~I] .... : o. " . '"OL ,1i~~ v;le;U1) :JilillLltali'llstG, 0.1" ·~recss{p,'e :~Mjjo~~<ulist3 '. . •.. .

~~ealbi. \l~r"ie~. Br.ilt,~ • d!ii~~~LIl offida~s might be ,~tta-clle" t'oa~::~ ~dJea[I~, .. ,FToe~~, "t,().~~ubl~""~1[Jj OTles; ailld Ge:mJi,!l!iIl .aiJ!U Alli~t~ia.1], :t~ ,m~~eauttilQrlta[~ua~ ~~eais_. ~l;.~_t ~COl~s,e aJW slates "",~r~. miUilar'i~rr; Ote£r servanrs ''i ... ef~g'~,ni;l!raJ.~y mob.llliiZable a& ~ea3~ to an ·OS.)IZ'Il;-s~tl'Uy "def,e· .•• rnilil;a:~ism. . .'- ,y IlIMv¢

.. So i!l1l'"the f!i)~lr~Jru" ~nd[Jjstr.i,a.1 C"ap.ita'tist, JPh:aige of ~~smlati;~ly .~!h0T1J ~ire lilec IJ!lali:.~D!ll hadl @jea v aneed ~ three e.~elilt~3i1 walts. First, mll!l.iJ of '~h; :POJ~uJla1.Ll]Il1, UMg"~Y IJJiIllC:OIiISt;~'ll~3.ny, .had! become ni!l~.l;i:rnlize,J. Inn"kir.!·· nil::. :rIi;;)j!:~o!n: an .. e~':eujJST'!"e 'ca,mm~~alIity o:f ~nllS'H,,)(:t5oiJ]j m~.di em.Qt~IJII!ia.1 a~~adli. ~ell1lt. TillU.S W]]~t I c:;!11~ ·.":n~tiuiJrual:'OJi'ga.D)izatio.l1 ]j](:!r€ilI:i<ed:attihe 1:3!r~~ c.l[p.eIllS~ of, the I~a~ ~ii!d! ttrll.'J; .re.g.!onM (ulilJ.es..o;. ~1iJ~t nO'W ~lu:med :iJn;!0' Oll 11I.:lI!t.IO~ nseU) andlaJ: ~~~e· lesser expense .of fr.J!!U:sn:atiQofllal orlliaif.!.iza~tg:rn_ Tbls IS; .~I;ne tlile. na~Oi!li ~-.est'M :fO:r most ,of the IP'OPU:!ahon . .s~rond" many Ql'~C;n:;; ~ :lilt thl;5: ~1r.Ji~ dra",:.fiI fmlilil,midldll~:lfJJg a!l:l.d '_'!PiPer. clI.aslles. and frQI11 ,(lo.liIImmlfl .re~ig.ous and' ]!l!1g!Jiis~ic CQIrt!m.Yr!lii.tU.of!8 ~ ~r-e d!m~ :l'iUI:Jrther t'olWa:m;:l iIiI.alj/IJII1l.a~j:Sl! o['ga!ll~:;!:<l!fiii)I1i, f<i::g:ardlil.!!:nati>Oil.d irJ:le~fi.SU:: nridl JilO!I:1Qlr :;1:6 ~~en;ti:lllly c(!II1J;!iIictln_g withtJl:ocJs-e oJ o~]ue!JI natuOrl!!S, Tb:i:i;id!, J!he adlllall.j' ~~'!i("iI1l..lilJ:i\s.t core was displ~olPOnioi1l.ately drawn Fl'O!til state expansion itseillf, in dvilia:F.liIl!tl.dI (liluli13ilY 'OIid:r,e employmc.!JI! •. ]t& idc.t·~ t~1~;t]J. tt:so{flate:o r.littiJ.~r s:llallij)(wly 3IffiO!lllg tih"-1 :Ii'<I!IIl:iJ~ie.s o~ :1iI:m ,eiti!z.ens" Combtned, Lh;e}'cou~d asp'ire 'IQrrbKtb~]:li~e!he IDe,I'ety mMioli1l1Jli1 I'e;IJl!<)ili!l.d~r., As. we sh a i~ :see:ulI1I Ch"p'~<:!t 21, ~he !prolb~erul was that li1Iati:trOiDOilpop!Wla~mub~ "Were now mOO',,:: cOllfined! with:~n ci!llles whose !lle-l;),tio.ns 'Wu~1h other national e:1~es ..... ern delfi!!1oed If];ot by t~:lie pcopt'(l as a wHm~c but filrs!: bY!ilr.uv1ite state aD)d :mjHJl:il!~Y eUiHl:!l; se[)ood by d!le ~a'~j(l'lj]:id:hs!;;:. Agg:.r~~!V¢ natiOllli!IJll:Sm, wlDuldotl!f. bu. largelY behind' jhe b".c};s of

most men who eO!llpOS!;:l(j the 1lI,;l1~~QJiI.. .

_ In the ilildl;!!!;i:rii!l!i 'capHaii::st phase t1i!e iStai:e,.irif:ii.tli!t"or,cililg: :Jfli3!!l"iOIll can Ibe SliliI1IpJJyre.p;r,e:slilllltedl i!i,8. 't!h~~ concellln:n.C: cireular 1':1<111.&':' the o,u'~!Sr Olli!fil c.i.fO'U.ltiJscil'iibecil: !by and 3!trnC:l1Jedi to tih.e tQi~a~ natlonat state, U~e middle r.rL'oltle .Ui!!l.keol~:Q ttl)''!i:~I1Jll];er cif)i;{e .~he ,Sft:;lhs~ 'CO(['6. 'More y.,apJliOi.""diy ~m:ii nu.ore r,1<:1,G.'>'a!1l1 tOVl'hat was !I0' lfoillo,w •. thelil;!IiC:~olll calI be Ie'prese,rr~ed as il!!",,~ cartoonist's de:~J~ht,lill:e .laCie[Jji!ll'e1!eeJilth~oEml.:urj' :;:I!11!:;l!~.nisC:s,bQ;I:n!IJ, a l;ll~elo;., p:uddj~ng·-.sJ]aJPed b<l!l~ wit~ a.p!f:\Otrud~JiIi~ fuse. The f!!!!se :iis oom~ posed ,oi' the :!l,t<l!tis:~' Dl3!tio.mlaIiSts; tl1i,>e oom!;!lI.iI5tilbfemaiierla! is ,oomposedi ,of ~Ille :rul! citizel:l:!l, wlhQ5!e &h,",Uow aggrr:essiv,e, [pregS!lI!I:'B ellrll:lres: 101]:g ,~o;u.g!l to oC:1!llIge ~e ;;lfXp~OcSiof:i., wtili~h. is ~h.e eilitGr.mJliOUlS powetr .0(' the Iu:uh,itOUi'Y :st:aJN. .hlll'~mg outW1I!OO tlileJ3gg.ed ·!:rn.gUlile!ll.~s, 'ClOelfCi'ire!y d~s~ CJ;~~~l)~iJ wurke:r$ill'Id~ peasanlts_ The fu:nse flee~d i.guiting, h.owe'!'e!r"

W~1Jile .EiliIt,Ope. failed !lI) '~!.Ir!J:;. i:!"le h·arnt~o~liaT mililadsm of i~'S stateiS,

. .,..

..... ".'

Offic::ers and gOlJronUnii!iS:tO'lled ofilioe~r~ became a militll.Fy CEis.te SOme. what iiIJsu.ta!:e4 from ,r;:~\!U sO(",iiei)' and! cFv:i_II<lt! _ stare, M~ore ge:f!;lo!!fiiJly, l!bo;ugiJ dentocrac)", bUI[\e.awcr.;;ocy, <lind r.Ulonal _bii.ldg-etiIJg :!!JJ SQugjlu t<O set ,cnner!i!iDI~ [)l1hlical pr!orities, .~~J: ~elill~,ill£d hii.gfiljy i~pe:r(le~t -by Jl9'14._ :!;'\I!:m. ~t'Qd~y d~m];O_~;]1Itoc conl:ml Qver d:~PlO'~~Ii::Y ~[l]jd tbe [(ilDalitary JR::Im:llliW :fi'eeb~e. jh IS d'Jffkuit toregaro the wllJiole ~I,ate as: ;II s~le oohell.fve enhGY; ratite]",. pluiI',aJ eliltes .and parities. 'emliit'l'l'all1e w.i~lJ. one Rruo,thel' ill C!o~lfi~s-ed, .... arying WaY5.

-rhr,oug,nout tJ],e hvemiel:h oentll,!:~y, as st'Ut: .fun~iol1:S, C()1lJ~:I;!_OO' to broiidell_,p()Jitica~ r,.'W,Yst:aIH<!aUo,ru;. if!luther. dj;~r;sifi~d. Toda,y,nfi; Al1u;:rLca.n stal:.; :mi;g_b,t c-[ys,tail~e as. C(LiiIJ.scno3li;,r,e-pa.tirJiardud.CJllis:tiao ,one \!"¢>r;!,k whe;m .res~:rjctirig abortion. rigtlfS;,:iiS ~pjJ.alist ~:be Oe:.lf:iI: 'Wen Hl:WIMjjlilg the :!iavimlg.stlnd' Joan:s. !banking S{:anda~. M Ol! StLperpO'l!llCf lihe lJe}!f '"",JittllJJJ :8!1!iii<lin:g troops ab-ro:8'o f,o~ Oilill·er tliItlin 1l000t~ollila~ ecollQ~ hnelr'fJ!sms. TiIlre-.se "'<!iri-e-d c.ryna]]iz<ttion5- are rarely un flIa;rmoifl}' Or iii di~lecticaW Oppo.siit:iiolJ] to one 31r.t()1Uu::r;. I.!Sl!iJruJy 'Dney j'IIJ~~ diHe.,_ ne.~ Itti;obili~ dllff.e:uing. i!' o'll·erlappa1!l!_g aad in~e[1Stl':{:ting, power l1e~\.mitb. <F!i'ld their :soJlIJtiQ.n::;; maJ'!ile OO\ll!segue!llJ!:!es,. 'S.ome un~illtelill'il.ed fall" ,eaWl o~fgt,'ir. It it· a basic te:net oil" lliIy WQrk that SOcieties are naif: S)lste:rnS. 'There is 1iI0 u1tEmately ool:erminiiiilg struotllilre to O'l;l!r emir.e- social experienee -ttl least, Done that w,e, - :si,tllJJ:!l.ted ~Ill its, midlst;. ean diSo(;ertlL The elites of :t.iiIa.ny bisti(:iric' Slalt·es, w-e!!',e mn[mW~e~ ~., P~j'itkl.ll;)r. ~oda~ tJ['OIl!JPS, - p-r:inC!eS" p.I'l.ieSt5, or- wai:'.l'i.or bands, The!;' e •. lIJoy.edl COmjderubL!e autocnOml.Y. yet Ciig:ecl: ~hll'e of ooci,a~. ~!I1e, Tfite:ir $tiltes emliod:i.e!i[ :SJ'S:t-e.:.r'l1!ic qllJ,a_'hies ar:~S~D.g frm~lil ~hdr OWiU paniC!,!fi\1:Fities. .. But wl1e'['jj states beea:mettle cen¢e-r ;;JJnd rad1ii through wl:tldJ m.'l,U!ch (;If sCl'(:"itlJ mire i~ :r-e~_~a:D.ed!,!lJJey lost tihal S',Ystemfc' ,cuifu.,e:reIJiCe.

PolymQrpnml has .p.mvcd all enduriillg f.e3tur·eof modem states, When st,att:s !became a.linportant regulato.r;.Q!f. .male-niil s!Ulbs:is¢:eI1>Oe and prQ.fit., of j..;ijeo.l&gies. of' irttiima.fe filma.Vy .!!iI"e" as We-JIM of ,rn~p.l'omaocy, !.!f<lJf. and i:'cp:r:e..~siolD., many more pllI:Fties be.::ame aOliVal:ed ~1fl po]~tics. lilt! '~et!l~iln~: wuth indivadual. S'!::;Nfi(l;S. T li:stscil. tl:l.e'ij' p-rin,i:;rpaJcr.lo'S'laiiizai:jjoDllS and i\>!.!Ow-ed how they entwined iII! IOGOt>ystelll1ik, 1il00ndiale~liC<iilways. These :stnlctuu:dl the ve'Ji:yiicienlity or ciaSlielil 3!~d !O!a'iions. o-fiteR :in ways; hirlgen :[rOlllth-e' [jCilQ~ the:mseJV1I;lS_ l pWBl!Je fliJis. a;s, u.t was pursued in re~,y. "'OVer tille top." i.n O<i1pter ;;u.

'lfh.!)! SOU!JI(lf!,$ .0,(' oelal power

Th~8 volume J!t:ar.s, .smtOlln~q tile pnerai iPropo&i'l~(Jn;\1 st.at~d. aD i:he be.glnniJilJ£j; 011' Clbapter 1" It is possibJe to ~tee'Ji"-lbelween Marx andWeb-er, !:O mak,e sJi,g:nific;asnt J'e~ n!ou-nm!terialllSt geiJemlizat£Oai!S rolrnc.el'!l~n:.E; tilJe "'i!iihimale.'" ~tructU.tiR,g- o-f tn.nn .. "l11 socl~lie;s - .. t least wq'tiltiJn the confined

" "

~

"fheo:~etical oollcli!l8.IOn:s

737

~ iime :and! space dii80UtSSEt:i he1ie • .A:&r <Iii qU.3Ii]\.catiO'~$ 'U1:d. discCaIni¢n:! art made', we can. diseem two ;majlOJi phases ir.l both of whiclfl the gil'.erall. sirUC'lUri:n,g of We:5It(;m soclery from 1700 to 11914a.ppeaNd illiS

~red~iU'llUy dlIl:3~: .. . _ .. ' . . ,'. ,

D'l!l!rnil(g Ihefirs,t piltlase, lasting roughly throl1llb t.1iJ;e eJlghl'etntllicentury

100 1815; ,r.ii:l'fu.ssd 'is>cO:_i'i~i.c and :a,ulliorl:taJtive milital")1 iPOw(:[r relations d:o:minp.ileo W,est~m !l(i;Ciie~. Comllilierc:ii~] capitalism ilirid ~he- en.ooring coltwqUeilces ,of th¢ milit<llt'Y r:e ... 'olu,tiOfi eBOlibled EUlmpeaJfi~ anli tll(li:r ool(i!!II[:s,b to dominate the- ,~ilg:be .• oOIDIliiLe[',c!:i!i1 cillipita!ism i'lInd mrili:tary states completed the eJlP1l~Oi1 (){ ma..ss ciisO::a1n:ive, ]ileracy bsglll[], e.ai]ier I)y 'churdJ:es, ao!dillllg to 'oodtd density, extensive;ly" illtensiv.ely,. and <lcr'(l$.'S dacs,s OOl,l.~u:1nlies. Capil;aljsmill{;reasoed C;))]Jec~ive hUDiHiI[I :ilbJili~y ro eKploit mI<I!~ure·, it expanded popllila,tion, ,fHtd :it propelled tile emerg~l1~ 01 ex~elli!'.i;Ye elasses slid i.lldust!['~aJiZ3tii)in.Mili,ti1llrism poli!i~e>d c.~"'iI sceietie s, their cl asses itfld l he ilrfe lIDg!lous aod lnngoot i c t:!l;I namUllin!:!!!,. illr<rYW COm.'eIlitioUil n:pre~m.uive and lliil!lio:J1Lirl is!!lll.cs. Mmt'ilru;~ st[tlilg~liLeilled large s-tat~ amd wi.:ped out :small O:Be5.

l1!l.~l!'e:ilfle[, the national. state (the mwiiil. p.ooduc~ o:~ UII~illit duaL determinaltionll') shed, ii.s [WflY lruisl:orcc<!1 fra:me andleme!rgedl int~r.81~~ia11y .- wi~!hol.lt anyO:JItSi illtelldiingit - as a majolautho'IJi;Wtiv,e power Qf· ~Ol.[I'i';;;;;'Itiorn 'in irlS cwn IilGilt, At tb,~ 'l!'iii4 9'£ theeigE'i!te~1lI!th alllll:!.!IlI:Y, citizcm;liiip struggles were already b~ing strucrured i}f file de:,uee to whi'cli! stares had insti'liil!t!ml.al~zedi cOlllfliCUlO"l'ef :im;.r·e.ase<! t~es and oonsc~tuO!l:li. N:i;nete-mUI.·re~1i'WlFf C!ilpitSiliS!l~. oo.l1ttiillJitu:dI 'tQ,e'\!iJIlu~j;o[j~e collectivepeoducti v e powers, n:s g.eopoilhics became more p;u;bllc ~n" mililarlS:En more varhfli.)le amoru.g SIlate-.s (especially d{lmesticaiL},)., mQre "p.I'i'o'<llet' llJlJd Cii!l~e:~ike'ill'it!hkl]. the stare, TJm:s a seco:I1Ii:! plilase {~lfdual dete'r!tllinati.on emerg,ed.aftsr mWc:loot!!l:ury. A predominailltly ,(tbough iIl.ot en;tit,eJy) diffused iiildustrial 'r:apil1ilisrn and ~liea,'l!!dlo:fit3iii'l{e nationstate bc;ca.Jne the priaWJipf!J~ ·~~trlil.chJ(n'!TSO! Western :S.OOie'l}", 1:1!!e tf.O]Diliei: prm'ldm,g cs:sentiaUy similar thf\.liSts because se difl1li1ioo (and because so des@lI;>rJ '!by ilIllrl). the h!!ti:e,lt -prilld~y tb;_l'1)1JJgb ...:!iwiDSe representative <til'ld ll;aJti.om~~ oC:Q'staLlizatiQm; - ~©"i'Wi[l,g lIiotit o:f ~!Jle .authO'tiJI<JItiVoe, varied so~uho,m.

Be:CRrur>e in both phases tine t",'O pl'it1i(:i.pal trantstbl[:lfie~ w,ere not ooniidio;gbf~Uiillrd baill!) bUI!. e:!lt'!'lim~d., ~il'!:ll boeca!llselhey .!i~lItem~ed eme<.r'" gdot, Jnterpen",ITatiDg ,lJoiTecbv:e actors - classes, nations" and! IfIliioderD Si<l!l~, II:)]IIS tlheirri' ... ai!:\l-it ~ ll;))'t po&Sibie to weight (neil iiDIl>l:rre[ations. Neililer calli bG: 8ccordedli Marxi.avJ-&tyle acoolade ·as th.~ wield'e. ·O'.Eli &mgtd.ar "u]!Jrmatep:!'ii!llacy' :in soctety, i1IIlthDl!Ign of WllJfSCll,. the' eCc!(nI!~ I)m:lc !power O'f C:IIp·ilOi.1is:m lIru'!.1t~eJy remailled :iI pi~rt ,of boitQn. p!hMes of !j\iQlis:m_

T~~s ciVilization ·!i'lllring the fie-Rod .came as :lIIIaarr to a. sjngte generall

738

"k~'II,Ji~opm.er.iJl,a] iP'IOOe<'Ss< atSimy ~v,e:J has, III DO other tome or plaore :~ human ooUcct;ivc power, over nature IlJl]d ever other cUvilizations" expanded. so gl'e-ady or 150 rapidly, In DO other tim.e OF place h:a"o'e ~Il power actors except omcunilitls1S: ~nd anccnsclous inmlgvail:(Drn :ill!: the lead!il1g edge fu1lid 5UcJli :II cJ:e.ax visioll 'of bD'w liO increase pmvers. De.o;i~ab;le models of me fUlYf,e·, wanted byalraosr eveTyone. We;r1; .. "allabl-e nn the: i.at~:>I,.Itr:lJOS~ "'fn.odera'· fonn of i;;~pi'ia~iil;m, ,of t!ti,e S1:ate., ofmililaJiyprof~i'Oilllilism, and 'o,r ij;Cientiik Dde:u'l!tJg~e!i, TIll!S inno Other lime or plaee &""e~oped _ 0 :I:mm.)' theories ·of progress a.tuil. e::VCJ~utiocrrl.

''\/ el developmeat was lDot 'l!I[liitary {)oF .s,ysh:mic" "hlremal'" 'to :II sil'(gie ~oc:iaJU '()'<lgalli:;,m .• Even now tJl!!l'W3S not ,evQIu:~i;(Jn, We '!;a!1l .iii pr.iElMP'le alist:ra,ei a s:i.lI1Jgle irle.alHypucal "J()gic;:" of eaphalisra, We InlJi'lY caUl 11 HIe "law of marrl!lilla:~ 'I1ltl~jltry" O:f the "'Uaw ·q,f 'IIaillle," aCI;:[J(lidmg to p.rd~r.' enCl·:, We: can all-so ahstri:l.CQ, a "logic" Qr miJIita:ri:;.m: (0 f."Oncen~aJQe superior coercion on the forces ,()[ the enemy. 8uI'I as SOQIOJ!!:; we let bo!\l\l: loose together jn 'p'bJ~;se 1, ~mdl at!l SOOIll ~, we ~t:I(l meSil~er, [polyIf!i!!Q'rphous states in ph~~e '2" ~hen ideal-t:.-'pical logics become d~d'e~' implI!l'e and Inutty - 110 tlieu ;S!Ilpposed carriers. ] emphaslee Ithat the relative ",effi;;:ji;;«i;cy" of marke~ (i .e., pure c;;r,pitaluSJI) versus terllit(l1iaJ (more military or polil:ic3Jl} couceprlons .of interesr and profit rernail"l.ed unclear (rom hegil1lnin,g to end of the period. 'Compet.hlg rmi!tic<lJ ecocomres :t',e~,i;iinecl. pl:iius.ib~e means 'of erllimnd!ilgcollectiv,e' ~iQd personal eCltll~lo;mic powers, 'Thf'OU~;'ti'01iJt ll:!e pericd, eertaln s.ecljjllar tendencies (at! be dli!:Ce.med: toward more c<wlmJist :ilDdUlst:r.iatiro!;atilt!lli, toward mi~llu]'y [:irofes~talJ:Lalislln, ·towart:! greflllle-r [;)Olitieai relPr~Gntt!i!'!ion" toward Ino,pe·s.tate t;rureaUC[-atiZ3JtWIil, tOI:'li<!Jrd IDe mO:H~ ,C:l;i;nli;nlli~,I~d .nal:~ou.stHit,e. Ea.cla of these "competed' WiUl alteIDati.,.~stmu;:tJllrnl arrangements ;il..:i'io. ·'·'WOr!." - nd'~' in 3.]i'iY fillal sense but as .~ definite tendency o v er the period. They woll eil,lrIer because they we'Jre, ;mme d'esimhle to atJmad anay of :!,OW'0[ actors, or beeause 'they w-er'e i!l.eIlIlUID.eI.y more ·pO"l'llerf'i.1Jl, BII,]!( nene of these tendencies emerged [oom a S:~llgl.e "iiogi.c-" The nation-state was encouraged b. all of t!hem; so ..... '.as 'C8p:it;dist rn~·U!S1:rializaitaO[l.

AH!h:ough I have sj!1!1igl!lJified "ultima;;;y" into two phases. of (Dou:gllJ~~') dluai de,termiruMn, ] mll.Stalls.o add CijYCarlS, The- other S01Ja:es Oil' !iAX.~al [pOWEr 11150' a.~r;l.¢d tBlei:1" weights, mottPQd1Icldaristi.call)' allild el".rati.(;<lU}', .hlet1,MolQlic-a1 pOI!Me:f relatiens, very sigllificanl. ilH dil.e begi!:!I:I:I1ing ()f rhe: period, rem'ai:ned aJ fOfC'¢ e~pec1aLty where: rellgi.:o!.l aDd linrgtllistic ~On;ln[llInhie;s (the lauer gi'llem !nQr-e c-oUeclive pow.errQ"i'erl:li!.c period ~y the o~he[' power ~oQjroes) did not cailllowe w.it.1it 'e]if;li~g stare. bqyl,Jlnil.ari.e:s, lde.ological power also :made decisi¥e ,contributroflS to dass·es and! ruuioru; ill! the "worJd·ibtis:tori,eal rno.m.ent'· 0'.1' lbre IFTeJ'l.ch Rev,olutimll, Mm~arisln1. rem!llin.ed imPO!!"lflllt :itll the 'l,V~t's dt:aliil;£l,S wil!iJtiJ tile :1'~Sl o'f

. ..--. "[

· ~woddi!.ndilil toe .cJonHlS.'1ioc poilidcs Qf monarehies te"tai.ming. d'e;spotic pe''o'!\cns .:llll.di.of ~ke Uni~d $ta!tcs. The :~J!jta~'.¢aste. was also ~e,c.retfrve'ly ElE$i1!l8 :irIS m:U'sdJes foe ]I:S, own Wloll'ldl·ltllstQncal 1t'1~;:m:l!eiitt •. J1iIIly-AlI.gI.tSt :I.9J4\. For aU tbese .Teasom',my o'Y'eJ:'all. g.el1er.atizalio.Ii.:'l. ]'ll:;:fMain limi.l:ecll :alld, ·,;tude.

:FO'J" these :re~'SQ(1l!5, liOO. West.er:1lI .:iI:i's,ti[io'Ul:mll\e power :r$"':I!'.~Q:r:t$ re:m:!iiPOO umcle9ir to contemporary :tIC'!arn. Theil: identities and eoncIlI'{Pti<;;IlIS of in"t.e;reSI: and ~;m'nO[, were silbdy tr.;ulSt'onnoo bye!~u ... 'inings 'iJ~ nu),re tharrl one ]:lower source and. b}' the ·l,ut'iHt·ande~ eonsequences oil' ar;:tk)in~. F!)" tbes-Ji reasons, WO., dili,triiby,tl."e jJQ'" .... er. ma.ti.ollls also rellilELUfied ·objecth'ciy :amlJi81u'QlU£, di:fncu:ni: fl)(Ji' lIu)'Qrne ~.o fath.o:m .. Bco- 1l.0000i'c 8oto·n emelrged cslrmuiltaneo,Ii.!s;]y as ct .a ~es, :sectk~·D$. Ol;lTIdi. :segmerits, i[endering 1,lI1lI.cert:;;l.:jJl. t'1ii.e Fl!I'tUJe of.e dOIDe;Mi.C s;ttal,illC;;lJlio!Jl. Us sl:atEl'!'i wei[e i1l0W g(l.31 civilliOlIl.-m·i!ita:ry ones, eacb Ri?ickshalf facing .in dil~e.t,e!lt directlous, OO:ITIIoUed by diffeiF·ant baVallgeS of powell' be,;~w.een ·eiLl,I:·e:s and partles.

MO-.I'·e broadly, tlte 'Wes-t comprised sim.I.!I.])~i.Cto·u.s~y· botha s6E,meilt3il se.r.ie:s, o( nf!ltfO!lJr~h}l:e "'soCiedes;'" and .1iI broader UallSJiifl'liQ(nai ,eivi!li • . UI!lionl. Its. ideo!Oil:ies e>li' peace alll!i;I. W'8r; ,a.f co['!,.~nra·iiism, lI~l!;'ailitSm. and. oocialliism.; .,.~ ·l'IeikigiiJ\Ii1.; of racism - all oSl;,rl!laltecl !.I.fie:asil.y i:Jen'''eefil !the llIaUo.li'!<I1 and. ~he. tlr.[lJ[]snatiOlll!id. 'There was no sy~tenlati.; resob<l.tioll oc!' .i!moo,,;ru.e[l,or;::s. Yet. there was, a more partiw! .. r o'IILe.MoSit ambi.g,uitie.s 'W<;;i!:e reooIve>d in reality •. ""lId. an these, am.bI ... al,eftt~tors. and lid.ea.log:ie!!, c·(nltiLIi;nulE'ld to the res.o:lu'~iQIl. Re~lit,)' m~e.rp<rsecl! t!h~ Gl:eat WOII:" SQ, fumlly, we goO '!l)"il'err '!:he, top.

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