Sumerian Lexicon

Version 3.0 by

John A. Halloran
The following lexicon contains 1,255 Sumerian logogram words and 2,511 Sumerian compound words. A logogram is a reading of a cuneiform sign which represents a word in the spoken language. Sumerian scribes invented the practice of writing in cuneiform on clay tablets sometime around 3400 B.C. in the Uruk/Warka region of southern Iraq. The language that they spoke, Sumerian, is known to us through a large body of texts and through bilingual cuneiform dictionaries of Sumerian and Akkadian, the language of their Semitic successors, to which Sumerian is not related. These bilingual dictionaries date from the Old Babylonian period (1800-1600 B.C.), by which time Sumerian had ceased to be spoken, except by the scribes. The earliest and most important words in Sumerian had their own cuneiform signs, whose origins were pictographic, making an initial repertoire of about a thousand signs or logograms. Beyond these words, two-thirds of this lexicon now consists of words that are transparent compounds of separate logogram words. I have greatly expanded the section containing compounds in this version, but I know that many more compound words could be added. Many cuneiform signs can be pronounced in more than one way and often two or more signs share the same pronunciation, in which case it is necessary to indicate in the transliteration which cuneiform sign is meant; Assyriologists have developed a system whereby the second homophone is marked by an acute accent (´ ), the third homophone by a grave accent (` ), and the remainder by subscript numerals. [If the small font size prevents you from seeing whether the accent is acute or grave, click on View and Zoom and scroll up to 125%.] The homophone numeration here follows the 'BCE-System' developed by Borger, Civil, and Ellermeier. The 'accents' and subscript numerals do not affect the pronunciation. The numeration system is a convention to inform Assyriologists which, for example, of the many cuneiform signs that have the reading du actually occurs on the tablet. A particular sign can often be transcribed in a long way, such as dug 4, or in a short way, such as du 11, because Sumerian was like French in omitting certain amissable final consonants except before a following vowel. Due to this lexicon's etymological orientation, you will usually find a word listed under its fullest phonetic form. Transcriptions of texts often contain the short forms, however, because Sumerologists try to accurately represent the spoken language. Short forms are listed, but you are told where to confer. The vowels may be pronounced as follows: a as in father, u as in pull, e as in peg, and i as in hip. Of the special consonants, ñ is pronounced like ng in rang, þ is pronounced like ch in German Buch or Scottish loch, and š is pronounced like sh in dash. Following the definitions, the lexicon may indicate in a smaller font the constituent elements of words that in origin were compound words, if those elements were clear to me. Etymologies are a normal part of dictionarymaking, but etymologies are also the most subject to speculation. It is possible that, in some cases, I have provided a Sumerian etymology for what is actually a loanword from another language. I encourage scholars to contact me with evidence from productive roots in other proto-languages when they have reason to believe that a Sumerian word is a loan from another language family. In light of the Sumerian propensity for forming new words through compounding in the period after they invented cuneiform signs, it should not be surprising to find this same propensity in words dating from before their invention of written signs. The structure and thinking behind the Sumerian vocabulary is to me a thing of beauty. We are fortunate to be able to look back into the minds of our prehistoric ancestors and see how they thought and lived via the words that they created. The lexicon's etymological orientation explains why the vocabulary is organized according to the phonetic structure of the words, with words sharing the same structure being listed together and alphabetically according to their final consonants and vowels, as this method best groups together related words. This principle has been abandoned after words of the structure CVC(V) in this version, as words that are phonetically more complex than

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


this do not group together by meaning. The phonetically more complex words and the compound words are listed alphabetically simply by their initial letters. The lexicon has been in development over a fourteen-year period. Primary sources included: A. Deimel, Šumerisches Lexikon; Rome 1947. E. Reiner et al., The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago; Chicago 1956ff. W. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch; Wiesbaden 1958-1981. R. Borger, “Assyrisch-babylonische Zeichenliste”, Band 33 in Alter Orient und Altes Testament (AOAT), Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments (Series); Kevelaer and Neukirchen-Vluyn 1978. R. Labat and F. Malbran-Labat, Manuel d'Épigraphie Akkadienne, 6º édition; Paris 1995 (this is the cuneiform sign manual used by most Sumerology students - it is available from Eisenbraun's - see my links page). M.L. Thomsen, The Sumerian Language: An Introduction to Its History and Grammatical Structure; Copenhagen 1984 (this well-done grammar is currently the standard text - if it is on back order at Eisenbraun's, ask your public library's Interlibrary Loan department to obtain it for you). J.L. Hayes, A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts; Malibu 1990 (beginning students can start with this book before graduating to Thomsen- if available, order it from Eisenbraun's - see my links page). R. Jestin, Notes de Graphie et de Phonétique Sumériennes; Paris 1965. B. Landsberger, as compiled by D.A. Foxvog and A.D. Kilmer, "Benno Landsberger's Lexicographical Contributions", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol 27 (1975). H. Behrens and H. Steible, Glossar zu den altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften; Wiesbaden 1983. K. Oberhuber, Sumerisches Lexikon zu “George Reisner, Sumerisch - babylonische Hymnen nach Thontafeln griechischer Zeit (Berlin 1896)” (SBH) und verwandten Texten; Innsbruck 1990. Å.W. Sjöberg et. al., The Sumerian Dictionary of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia 1984ff. Letters B and A through Abzu have been published. M. Civil, unpublished Sumerian glossary for students. S. Tinney, editor, Index to the Secondary Literature: A collated list of indexes and glossaries to the secondary literature concerning the Sumerian Language, unpublished but now expanded and searchable at: E.I. Gordon, Sumerian Proverbs: Glimpses of Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia; Philadelphia 1959 (with contributions by Th. Jacobsen). D.C. Snell, Ledgers and Prices: Early Mesopotamian Merchant Accounts; New Haven and London 1982. P. Michalowski, The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur; Winona Lake 1989. C.E. Keiser and S.T. Kang, Neo-Sumerian Account Texts from Drehem; New Haven & London 1971. J. Bauer, Altsumerische Wirtschaftstexte aus Lagasch; Dissertation for Julius-Maximilians-Universität at Würzburg 1967 [appeared under same name as vol. 9 in Studia Pohl: Series Maior; Rome 1972]. J. Krecher, "Die marû-Formen des sumerischen Verbums", Vom Alten Orient Zum Alten Testament, AOAT 240 (1995; Fs. vSoden II), pp. 141-200. K. Volk, A Sumerian Reader, vol. 18 in Studia Pohl: Series Maior; Rome 1997 (this practical, inexpensive book includes a nice, though incomplete, sign-list). B. Alster, The Instructions of Suruppak: A Sumerian Proverb Collection (Mesopotamia: Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology, Vol. 2); Copenhagen 1974. B. Alster, Proverbs of Ancient Sumer: The World's Earliest Proverb Collections, 2 vols; Bethesda, Maryland 1997.

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


Å. Sjöberg, Der Mondgott Nanna-Suen in der sumerischen Überlieferung; Stockholm 1960. V.E. Orel and O.V. Stolbova, Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary: Materials for a Reconstruction (Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abt. 1, Bd. 18); Leiden, New York, & Köln 1995. M.W. Green and H.J. Nissen, Zeichenliste der Archaischen Texte aus Uruk [ZATU] (Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka, 11; Archaische Texte aus Uruk, 2); Berlin 1987. P.Damerow and R. Englund, Sign List of the Archaic Texts (electronic FileMaker database collection of ZATU signs occurring in catalogued texts from Uruk IV to ED II); Berlin 1994. P. Steinkeller, review of M.W. Green and H.J. Nissen, Bibliotheca Orientalis 52 (1995), pp. 689-713. J. Krecher, "Das sumerische Phonem |ñ |", Festschrift Lubor Matouš, Assyriologia 5, vol. II, ed. B. Hruška & G. Komoróczy (Budapest, 1978), pp. 7-73. M. Civil, The Farmer's Instructions: A Sumerian Agricultural Manual (Aula Orientalis-Supplementa, Vol. 5); Barcelona 1994. M. Krebernik, Die Beschwörungen aus Fara und Ebla: Untersuchungen zur ältesten keilschriftlichen Beschwörungsliteratur (Texte und Studien zur Orientalistik, Bd. 2); Hildesheim, Zurich, New York 1984. M.A. Powell, "Masse und Gewichte" [Weights and Measures: article in English], Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie,.Bd. 7, ed. D.O. Edzard (Berlin & New York, 1987-90), pp. 457-517. K.R. Nemet-Nejat, Cuneiform Mathematical Texts as a Reflection of Everyday Life in Mesopotamia (American Oriental Series, Vol. 75); New Haven 1993. E.J. Wilson, “The Cylinders of Gudea: Transliteration, Translation and Index”, Band 244 in Alter Orient und Altes Testament (AOAT), Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments (Series); Kevelaer and Neukirchen-Vluyn 1996. D.O. Edzard, Gudea and His Dynasty (The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Periods, Vol. 3/1); Toronto, Buffalo, London 1997. W.W. Hallo and J.J.A. van Dijk, The Exaltation of Inanna; New Haven & London 1968. The Sumerian lexicon has benefitted from several classes at UCLA with Dr. Robert Englund. I dedicate this lexicon to the memory of Dr. Robert Hetzron, with whom I had the pleasure of studying during every week of the four years that I attended the University of California at Santa Barbara. Dr. Hetzron was a professional linguist and expert on the Afroasiatic language family. If you are a Sumerology student who wishes to add entries or make changes to this Word document, please do so in a colored font, so that your changes can be identified and incorporated into future versions of the lexicon. The home page for the Sumerian lexicon is

a, e4:

n., water; watercourse, canal; seminal fluid; offspring; father; tears; flood. [A archaic frequency: 519]

interj., alas!. prep., locative suffix - where; in; when - denotes movement towards or in favor of a person. def. article, nominalizing suffix for a noun or noun clause, denoting 'the'.

á: a5: e: é: è:

(cf., áþi ). (cf., aka ). (cf., ég) . house, household; temple; plot of land [E 2 archaic frequency: 649; concatenates 4 signs] . (cf., éd) .

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


(raised) high. i) ù: n. éd. to nourish. insult. u(3.. middle.. support. þà ). Beschwörungen] . v. aba) [AB archaic frequency: 384... to board (a boat). vegetable.. raised area (sometimes written ù) [U 5 archaic frequency: 1]. 'tears. a pronominal prefix in a compound noun. (cf. n. screams. the grunting. defeat.. conduct. adj. u. nook [IB archaic frequency: 252. v..for this reading and meaning in Fara period. (cf. (cf. (cf.e11: (cf. strong. v. to ride. powerful (man). prep.. nook. to bend over. (kuš) ub3. overcome (cf.. complaint' ?) [I archaic frequency: 17]. liquid'. angle. an expression of protest. to derive a more specific meaning. to steer. see Krebernik. concatenates 2 sign variants (sign also used for èš and aba . grass. especially land or ground (sometimes written ù).. ib: corner. v. pron. totality.. v. + íb. u6: u8: (cf. angle. a small room [UB archaic frequency: 124]. cry of pain (derived from ér.'middle') [AB2 archaic frequency: 288]. ù. ír.8): u4: u5: n.. nook (cf. to be on top of.. (cf. waist. after. cock.. ud ). concatenates 2 sign variants] . ug 6).4. to flare up in anger. è. [according to S. éb: n.5: a drum. dispute. ab: window. Sumerian Lexicon. èd). opening. concatenates 3 signs] .0 4 .. to mount (in intercourse). ub4: cavity. panting of battle. earth pile or levee. Lieberman. n. plant... u18[GIŠGAL]: u20[ŠE]: barley. when. pitfall. ída) . huge.. to capture. Version 3. áb: domestic cow (a. to curse.. adj..'water. load [U 2 archaic frequency: 225. and.. niche. male bird. bread. ìa) . the prospective modal prefix: if. food. ub: corner. sleep (cf. íb.. i: ì: i7: u: ú: n. often used as a polite imperative. us 5). loins. fight.. u 5)... hole. cries. to sleep. and u4 were pronounced /o/] v. pasture. to be angry. thighs..

. ùñ: (cf. set. which is sometimes reduplicated. bund (a. prep. uþ. suffixed to ergative agent. in the immediate vicinity. e11: to exit. to drain (èdè(-d) in marû). concatenates 2 sign variants] . ag: (cf. glance (['EYE' + 'HOUSE']).. when. embankment. dug 4.6: (cf. i: to go out. ada). to send forth. + ig. Version 3. ùz). to sprout.. e: n. dead person. malice... say (e = sing. u4: úd[ÁŠ]: (cf. laþ ). to look at. to fetch. to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun)... to appear as a witness (the final d appears in marû conjugation) [ED 2 archaic frequency: 12. áña). prep. sun. to lead or bring out. fury. gaze.. amazement. storm (demon) [UD archaic frequency: 419]. demonstrative pron. concatenates 2 sign variants] . adda). ad3. áñ: (cf. 'water'... itud) . v. v. this one.7. moth. anger.. marû. froth.8. Sumerian Lexicon. cf. è. ád: (cf. to be or become visible.É]: n. n. íd: (cf. ug6. uþ(3): lice. uþ: (cf. to die (singular and plural marû stem. and plural marû.. to import. concatenates 2 sign variants] . time. spittle. ída). gaze. to speak. to descend. dike. íg. adj.5. cripple. e4. ég. astonishing. flea. u6[IGI.8: n. also di ). àþ. light. slaver. adda4). insect.. vermin [UÞ3 archaic frequency: 14. 'door') [EG 2 archaic frequency: 12.. to rise.. to water. ad4: lame. ug(2): lion. to kill. day. locative/terminative suffix . to rise. emmer (wheat). ug4..0 5 . to bring down (or up). ig: door. it4: ud. since. aþ: phlegm. venom. cf. levee. to be impressed. to remove. concatenates 5 sign variants] . v... death. plural hamtu. id4. plural hamtu.. emerge. parasite. ak). to stare at. entrance [IG archaic frequency: 43. weather. ud5: (cf. paste. èd.. úš ).. toward.. ék. éd. ùña). nit.. louse. úþ.ad: (cf.

ím: (cf.. indicates: 1) distance.. úllu). ùña). in front. flower.3): n. ag: ñiš genitival suffix: 'of' (cf. ancestor (statue). who. sky. il5: (cf. also. ám: (cf..g. áña).. gim4). enduring. a rope made of reeds (cf. em: (gi) the Sumerian enclitic copula .. until.0 6 . Sumerian Lexicon. dignitary. enigmatic background [EN 2 archaic frequency: 17]. spade [AL archaic frequency: 95] . remote. concatenates 3 sign variants] . pickax. ùl: (cf. high priest..AN]: im. occurs after a noun [e.. (cf. al: verbal prefix: used immediately before stative verbs. umu ). she. to rule. Version 3. prep. ul4: to be quick. satisfaction. which.. adj. shine. star. àm and áma). ornament. ul: n.. insult. diviner [EN archaic frequency: 1232. William king-is]. al: digging stick. distant (in time).ak. lord. prep.. adj.. noble. a capacity measure of 36 liters in Presargonic Girsu. am: (cf. v. íla). adj. to glitter. what. 2) the speaker is not involved. time. en(2. v. harass [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. ili5).. en: n. to be high. grain ear/date cluster ('water' + 'high') [AN archaic frequency: 806]. hasten. íl: (cf. ára). wooden mattock. (same) as.. or 3) the lack of a transitive relationship.. aka ).. heaven. joy... forked hoe with from 2 to 4 teeth. ara4).. pleasure.. the god An. ancient. offense. to hurry. àr: (cf.. like (in scholarly lists). straw.. v. bud.'to be'. concatenates 3 sign variants] . invective [IN archaic frequency: 21].. in: he.. um: an: n.. þar). ár: (cf. àm[A. high. imi). un: (cf. ar: (cf..

beam. uzmušen: domestic goose or duck (cf. fragrant. to weep. ñíš ). sweat. unique. root. in the same way. interest-bearing debt. carnivorous beast. to roar. lamentation. v. v.. to drive. to moor. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . ur11: (cf. tàš ? ašte ? [AŠ 2 archaic frequency: 5].. leg(s).. to belch. complaint. adj. úr: floor. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . spleen. interest. rafter (cf... obligation. ùr: roof. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . block. bibad) (loanword into Akkadian) [US archaic frequency: 18. his. loan. mow (reduplication class) (cf. young man.. soul.. foundation. to drag (over the ground) (often with -ni -). n. wish. er: ir3.. to be bowed with grief. to come near to...0 7 . v.. slave-woman (cf. trunk of a tree [UR2 archaic frequency: 78]. demonstrative. ur(2. dock.. inanimate pron. uru4). liver. . profit. humble. servant.. side. to desire. hers. to curse. scent. to imprison. theirs. reap. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . áš: n. fragrance [IR archaic frequency: 53. to rent. smell. scented.. adult female sheep [US 5 archaic frequency: 86]. in geometry: length. to chew. asa). ur: n. to transport.. aš: one. to let reach. edge. to be next to. gur 10). reach.. to rub something in. base. thighs. lap. these. in this way. to shear. to erase. to lead away (Emesal dialect for túm . main body.. tears.. perfume. curse (abbreviated v. height.. dog. alone. adj. to follow. to throw overboard. bulk. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . u8: mother ewe.4)) [UR3 archaic frequency: 27. mountain pass. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . burp. v. ír: ir(10): n. vertical.. so. ur(2. as: (cf. entrance. us. aš(5): spider. to flood. ús.. cf. it. to clog. loins. arad (2)).. thus.11: v.14) [? UR4 archaic frequency: 41. heart. to lean against (cf.. to smell.3. warrior. the referenced. border. ) Sumerian Lexicon. perpendicular.4): to surround. distance. perfumed.3.ér. ir(10). úz [UŠ]: n.. surplus. wipe out. to tremble. enemy (cf. to join. prayer. re7). Version 3. téš) [UR archaic frequency: 114. odor. us5. ur5[ÞAR]: n. repayment.. bring. gur10.. mur ) [UR 5 archaic frequency: 34. to bring. followed by a negation: not at all. þar. (cf. ur4: (cf.

. omen. v. charm. ùš: placental membrane. éše).0 8 . concatenation of 2 sign variants. ús). blood vessel. iši). uš7: spittle. v. Version 3. adv. to divide.. base. iš: (cf. ba4: Emesal dialect.. many. UŠ: a length measure. uš8: foundation place. to anoint. concatenates 2 sign variants] . conjugation prefix. blood. ñá. poison.16. ba: n.. much.. a scraping tool. wages [BA archaic frequency: 523]. eš: n.. to give. death [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65.. ut5: she-goat [UD 5 archaic frequency: 109. bà: liver. asa).21: uš. concatenates 2 sign variants] . possessive or demonstrative suffix (ku6) -bi plus nominative -a.. èš: shrine [AB archaic frequency: 384. bar).aš3. spittle.. to die. concatenates 3 signs] .6. ús: three. distribute. 'one').. ñíš) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16. adj. éš: (cf. liver model. spell.. dead. az: (cf. úš: n. v. foundation (cf. us). share. portion. to support. 'house'.8: six (ía... to kill.4. úz: (cf. + aš. ba: a shelled creature (such as a turtle or a snail). uš11: venom. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ba7: (cf. v.. to block (singular hamtu stem). eš5.. n. rations. slaver. moistening.. uz: (cf. adverbial force suffix (sometimes followed by -šè ). ud5. ùz. concatenates 2 sign variants] . reading unknown. used when the subject is inanimate and/or non-agentive (intransitive). = 6 ropes = 60 nindan rods. apportion. cf. UŠ archaic frequency: 101. lift. to pay (interchanges with bar). 'five'. to stand upon.. afterbirth. Sumerian Lexicon. [UŠ archaic frequency: 101..

this (one). comitative suffix. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . da5: (cf. bu5: to rush around (cf. i-bí).. bi[z] ) [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261.. to escape (di-dé used as non-finite marû form of dug 4. form. side. sing. to protect. prep. to hold. poss. decide. arm.. to increase.. buzz. re7.. to come (sing. to tear off (with -ta -). cf. be full. de6. mention (cf. conj... súb) [DU archaic frequency: 299]... to go. decision.. de 6. v. ég . neuter + e 'to speak'). differentiates the semantic meaning of certain verbs. and. to shape. 'its' applies to inanimate (things and animals) and collective objects. carry (-ši . twitter. adv. (cf. that (one) . Used like the terminative postposition -šè after verbal phrases to indicate intent or goal. 'and' (mainly in Sargonic date texts). di: n. to judge. to murmer..or -ta .. cf. bi7: (cf. ðe6: to bring. to water. di5 [RI]: to advise.2. bul).. v. Sumerian Lexicon. bad). say (accusative infix b 3rd pers. tur). dè: ashes. lessen. bi6 [BA]: bu(3.. marû. hum. suffix. adverbial force suffix.3.denote direction). bìd).cf. nearness (to someone) [DA archaic frequency: 227. bul ) [BU: archaic frequency: 393. copula. ñin. bur 12. 'to speak'). ðú: n. bi. the. (cf.. Version 3. to go. dù(').0 9 . 'with'..dé ). marû form suffix . work.. dab6). di4: (cf. bé: v. to speak. howl. conjugation prefix. da: n..6): to tear. pron. dé: to pour (often with -ni-). to continue on (singular hamtu. to remove (earth clods) (reduplicated). to conduct oneself. bí: (cf. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . judgment. cry. demonstrative suffix. sentence [DI archaic frequency: 99].in this sense can occur with animates.often indicates a present participle to be translated by English -ing or connotes future sense.... dú: (cf.. Emesal ga(14)). du: to walk..2. to instruct. laþ4. chirp. it. lawsuit. to be near.. to sink (for other meanings . art. gù. tumu2. totality. concatenates 4 sign variants] . to diminish. biz.. case. verdict. tud).

. to reject. gi(17): gí. gir 10). to stabilize. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . to be necessary. adj. and with -ni-) (circular motion + to go out.. to answer (person to whom answer is given resumed by dative prefix. make. struggle. orig. ga: n. gùr). adj. gi25[DUGUD]: frequency: 53]. milk (chamber + water) [GA archaic frequency: 245... flax. besiege. gu: string. young man (small and thin like a reed). Version 3. dislike.. fight. duþ).. to restore. du10: du11: du12: du14: (cf.. (cf. net.. 'also'.. length measure.. fixed.0 10 . ñen). ga6: (cf. cf. wool yarn. strengthen. just. to act justly. reed = 6 cubits = 3 meters (circular + to sprout) [GI archaic frequency: 484].'be true'.. ñin. word for needle (circular + grass-like) [GU archaic Sumerian Lexicon. Akkadian kânu. to plant. gi: reed. hemp. du7: to be finished. tuku ). to fasten. small. Orel & Stolbova #1403. to establish something as the property of someone (dative) (loanword from Semitic. quarrel. (cf. cohortative. to lock up (circle + to descend into). to build.. du5: (cf.. gore. gi7: (cf. dul(6)). ge4: n. reliable. ge9: gi17: (cf. gi(4): to surround. thread. dun5). gíg ). du8: (cf. gi9. sug5) du6: (cf. *ka'Vn. ge(n): v. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . toss (reduplication class?) (regularly followed by rá ) [DU 7 archaic frequency: 7]. gig ).. complete.. (cf. dùg ).. to send (back) (with -ši -). cast. apply (dù-e in marû). to return. to set up.. to erect something on the ground. trustworthy. dug 4). to confirm. modal prefix. snare.. to mould. conjugation prefix. send) [GI 4 archaic frequency: 37.. 'and then'. gi(n). to raise up. reed mat. ge(2.v.6): girl. (cf. fitting. gir15). to be suitable. used with hamtu forms. come back. gé: gi4. to butt. du9: (cf. firm.

to utter a cry (said of an animal) (throat + u(3. ìa. pulse. consume. gu2. ñál. to feed. abundant. noise. side. diverse. front. kú: n. fish (not the usual word for fish. Orel & Stolbova #982. 'cries. to exclaim. gu7. benefit (with -ni -) (throat + ú. gù: n.8). 'on top of'. kua) [KU 6 archaic frequency: 282. kas7 and níñ-kas7/ka9). my. concatenates 3 sign variants] .. indeed.. nurse. gun. v. ñe26 and ma(3)). ñar. gud(2)). my. gíg). chick pea (for 'land.. ñá: (cf. fodder. þe(2): abundance.. Sumerian Lexicon. sound. but the fish sign may get its syllabic reading of ÞA from *þ 'many' + a 'water' = 'fish'. gú ) (circular + u5.. other side. to eat. use. sustenance.. food. angle [GU 7 archaic frequency: 236]. concatenates 2 sign variants] . ñá: ñu10: *þa: I. oil. ia2. i4: pebble. district' cf. ka: in late usage the difference between a rough measuring and a final measuring of a quantity of grain.. ñe: (cf. assorted. *gun"occiput. house. ka9: (cf. Version 3. ia4.4: (cf. fat. river bank. ñe26. þi: þà. swallow.. þù..7. ñar) [GA2 archaic frequency: 125. an alternative to the usual ku6. þi-a: þe. me). neck. concatenation of 5 sign variants] .9.. impersonal verbal conjugation prefix. gún. cf. talent' cf.gú: neck. counter. stable (cf. voice.. nape. edge. ka: mouth [KA archaic frequency: 108.. for 'load. þu: bird (earlier word than mušen). to eat up. þá. ká: gate [? KA2 archaic frequency: 11. land. gíg). a6. ten (usually written: u ). myself.. 'food'). indicates distance from speaker. þa: precative and affirmative verbal prefix: may. screams'). gún. let.4. cream. þé: precative and affirmative verbal prefix (same as þa). ka5-(a): fox. ñá: basket. í: five. nape") [GU 2 archaic frequency: 34]. mine... v. finish off. ì: n. u: to mix [ÞI archaic frequency: 291]. numerous. ñe6: (cf.0 11 . concatenates 4 sign variants] . mixed. ñi6: (cf.

. 'water') [KU 6 archaic frequency: 282.. behind. concatenates 3 sign variants] . sheep. trouble. lug ). lu5: (cf. ku5: (cf. kuruš). mù). kur9). sprout') [KI archaic frequency: 386. oracle. ku4: (cf. whenever. lu: n. genitival suffix 'of'. male. kud). lub. lú: grown man. ma: to bind (Emesal dialect for ñál.. kú: (cf. mì. area.-ke4: often occurs at the end of a genitival compound which functions as the actor or agent of the sentence (ak. ku: to base. pierce. alaaku). ñe: n.. to mix. much. wealth. + a. to look after. someone. concatenates 2 sign variants] . place. blend. concatenates 2 sign variants] . force a way into (in order to see). where. Sumerian Lexicon. bliss. fine oil. to be/make numerous.. agitate. to lie down (reduplication class) [KU archaic frequency: 64. location. gentleman [LU2 archaic frequency: 85]. me. to know. ergative agent marker). no one. many. kù: (cf. build. li9: to glisten. responsibility. frequency: 20. happiness. divine decree. + e. ñá: ñiš to go (Akk.. youthful freshness and beauty. men. mà: (Emesal dialect for ñá-e).. shine. desire [LA archaic lá: to penetrate. earth. found. anyone. (cf. the phenomenal area of a deity's power. ñá) [MA archaic frequency: 250]. ki: n. to multiply. gu7)... ground. lù: to disturb. embarrass.. pasture (reduplication class [?]) (cf. gíg ). ideal norm.. kì: (cf. depart. prep. lí: true measure. man. wish.. function. people. ku7: (cf. ku6. abundant. la: abundance. to have a beard (cf. to stir. luxury. v. cult [ME archaic frequency: 363. kìd).. to fluster. ñiš li: juniper/cedar tree [LI archaic frequency: 14]. human being. mud6). grain ('base' + 'to rise. ma5: (cf. concatenates 3 sign variants] . wherever. go out (cf.. to graze. lal) [LA2 archaic frequency: 57]. concatenates 4 sign variants] . kua: ku10: fish (kú. ma4: to leave. Version 3.0 12 . 'food'.. lul). má: boat [MA2 archaic frequency: 6]. ma(3). also.. office. kug).

awe. nud ). concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ní: self. feminine. conjugation prefix. to burn (reduplication class). to be. speak (cf. word. ná.. host. to say. vigor..9: battle [ME 3 archaic frequency: 4]. ne4: fear. suggests involvement by speaker. this (one). pebble.. one's own [NI2 archaic frequency: 34]. 85) (cf. ordinary stone. concatenation of 4 nè. year. that one (human animate pronoun or possessive suffix) [NI archaic frequency: 263. me3. concatenates 3 sign variants] . prohibitive in present/future tense.. mú: (cf. mu 10. box. rock. he. body. violence. mur10). also. used especially before dative infixes. Version 3. forces. mud6). ma5[KA׊È]: to mill..en: sign variants] . Hallo & van Dijk. munus ) (compounds are more likely to preserve an older word) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. grind. suffix.v. gíg). also. incense [NA archaic frequency: 105. that (one).7.. tell. na: strength. ñu10) [MU archaic frequency: 99]. mù. roar. demonstrative affix [NE archaic frequency: 303.. modal prefix. to name. the Sumerian copula. preferred for animate and agentive subjects. stone weight. mu5: well-formed. woman. ne(-e). mu7[KA×LI]: mu10[SAL]: to shout. she. line on a tablet...0 13 . mu4: (cf. beautiful. respect.6. p. oath (cf.. v. nú: na4. plump. prep. ne. emphatic in past tense. mu: n. mé: (cf. mi: (cf. na5: chest. na: n. gíg). female (this pronunciation of the sign found in compound words and verbs or in enclitic or proclitic position. scream. mí. behave. mug ).. no.. ní. human being. exorcism ?.. adj. hailstone.. token. frightfulness. Sumerian Lexicon. poss. because. adj. ní: ni. our. name. na: (cf. fattened. woman. me6: to act. mí[SAL]: n. munus) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. female (cf. entry..

to exchange. to stir. advice. sprout. sweep away (with -ta -). adj. sa). pool. cord. regarding that (where the reference is to something outside the view of the speaker .. lead.. nu11[ŠIR]: (ñiš) light. slay. lamp. glean. far. er. rá. to break open. v. ri: v. to inundate. pron. rà: (cf.. ir: to accompany. haul. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to pack. image. n. v.. dike. net. remove. alabaster [NU 11 archaic frequency: 32]. dù). pú: 7. prep. pà: (cf... ni9: (cf. figurine. to impress.denotes the animate being towards whom or in favor of whom an action is done. ru: n. small canal. present. to be located. pa: leaf. to gather. to moor a boat. fountain. to stir. to blow (said of a storm). pa4.5.. depth [PU2 archaic frequency: 37]. put into. sinew. to go... to send (cf. negative. tendon.. stamp. . rúg ). not. si. that.. to emit. no. wing. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to measure.. ri-ri-g is plural. mix (plural hamtu e.over yonder). to flood. to expel. statue [NU archaic frequency: 101]. to roast (barley) (cf. to beget. to strike. Version 3.nì: (cf. demonstrative affix. a pronominal prefix in a compound noun describing a person. súb ). to give. to bear. feather [PA archaic frequency: 378... buds. to plan something (ri is hamtu form.. cast.. ru5: to send forth shoots. stab. to butt. cistern. rá: (cf. adj.. cf. ir10. mat. string of a musical instrument [SA archaic frequency: 54. RI: calendar month 5 at Umma during Ur III. or a phonetic writing for lú . to gore. dative suffix . ri6. pàd). e-re7. nìñin). to place. ñin . throw away. sá: n. pour. Sumerian Lexicon. overflow.. to place upon or against (with -ši-). to throw. or roll (a seal into clay). rig ) [RI archaic frequency: 1].. picture. v.for . & adv. to branch out (from the side of a canal). bud.6(-r): ra(-g/þ): irrigation ditch. to touch. likeness. cf. nu: n. those. du . or blossoms. or throw away (with -ta -). to drive along or away.. to take. inundation [RA archaic frequency: 25]. rù: to be equal in size or rank. níñ). branch. ri-g is marû form. re7).. sa: n. gift [RU archaic frequency: 120]. to blow. rú: (cf. re7. fire. ara4).0 14 . without..

v., to approach or equal in value; to compare with; to compete (with -da -).

sa4: to name; to call by name. sa5: n., red ocher.
adj., red, red-brown.

sa6: (cf., sag9). sa7: well-formed. sa9[MAŠ]: sa10: sa12:
half. to be equivalent; to buy (cf., sám ). (cf., sañ ).

si: n., horn(s); antenna(e); line; ray(s); light; plowland (cf., sig5) [SI archaic frequency: 417].
v., to stand upright; to be straight; to be in order; to become completely still. adj., regular, normal.

si; su; sa; sa5:

v., to fill up; to fill with (with -da -); to survey a field; to inundate; to be full; to be sufficient, enough; to increase; to compensate, repay, replace; to grow weak (probably reduplication class) (cf., sum , sug 6, rúg , sig , sig 5).

adj., suitable, fit.

sì, sè: si14:

(cf., sig 10).

si4, su4, sa11: red [SI4 archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 5 sign variants] .
a small pot.

su: n., body; flesh; skin; animal hide; relatives; substitute (as verb, cf., si; sug6 or rúg) [SU archaic
frequency: 188; concatenates 2 sign variants] .

adj., naked.



su(3): (cf., sud, sug4) [SU3 archaic frequency: 6]. sú: (cf., zu) su4: to grow; to multiply. su5: (cf., suþ5). su6: (cf., sun4). su7: (cf., sug8). su8: (cf., súg, súb). su9; ša4: su11: su13:
n., red ocher.

v., to mourn, grieve. (cf., zú ). (cf., sud 4).

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


sux (TAG): šà: (cf., šag4). ša4, še13:

to spread (cf., sud ).

ša: to dry up [ŠA archaic frequency: 97].
(cf., su 9).

ša5: to cut, break (reeds). ša6: (cf., sag9). še: n., barley; grain; a small length measure, barleycorn = 1/6 finger = 1/30 cubit = 1.67 centimeter in Presarg.OB period; as a surface area measure = 432 square linear barleycorns = 12 square fingers; as a volume measure = 1/180 gín = 1/3 gín-tur = 1 2/3 sìla = 360 cubic fingers = 1/10800 sar = approx. 1.667 liters; 1/180 of a gín or shekel of silver = ca. 0.0463 grams (cf., še-ga/ge ) [ŠE archaic frequency: 639; concatenates 3 sign variants] . demonstrative affix, may indicate 'there' within the view of the speaker.

šè: n., portion [ŠE3 archaic frequency: 152].
prep., to, unto, as far as, up to; as regards, concerning; because of, for the sake of; until (terminative suffix and in Old Sumerian period terminative prefix).

še4: (cf., sed). še6: (cf., šeñ6). še7: (cf., šèñ). še8: (cf., šéš). še10: še17:
excrement, dung. (cf., sed 4). (cf., šaña ).

še29[LÚ×KÁR, LÚ-KÁR]:

ši: contrapunctive modal prefix; terminative prefix after Old Sumerian period (cf., šè). šu: n., hand; share, portion, bundle; strength; control [ŠU archaic frequency: 360].
v., to pour.

šú: (cf., šúš). šu4(-g): šu12:
to stand; to be deployed, set up (plural, reduplication class).

šu4: (cf., šuš).
(cf., šùde ). n., nature, character [TA archaic frequency: 34; concatenates 6 sign variants] .

ta, dá:

prep., from; to; for; by means of (ablative-instrumental noun suffix and verbal prefix; as a noun suffix can be a locative with remote deixis, as in an-ta and ki-ta ).

ta6: (cf., taka4). te, de4:
n., cheek, chin (cf., temen ) [TE archaic frequency: 199].

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


te, de4; ti: v., to approach, meet (someone: dative); to attack, assault; to be frightened (alternating class, hamtu stem; cf., te-ñe 26) . tè: an alkaline plant (?); soapwort (?); cardamon (cf., naña). te8[Á]mušen:
bearded vulture.

ti: side, rib; arrow (cf., te, diþ, and tìl) [TI archaic frequency: 105; concatenates 2 sign variants] . tu: to interfere (cf., tud and tur5) [TU archaic frequency: 54; concatenates 3 sign variants] . tumušen:
(cf., tum 12


tú: (cf., tam). tu2,3: (cf., tumu2,3). tu5,17:
n., bath.

v., to wash, bathe; to pour; to make libation (probably reduplication class).

tu6: exorcism; conjuration; exorcistic formula. tu7: soup; soup pitcher. tu9: (cf., túg). tu10,11: tu15:
(cf., dun ). (cf., tumu ).

za: you (singular). za: to make noise (occurs as the verb in compounds with repetitive, onomatopoeic syllables symbolizing a
repeated monotonous noise or motion (Krebernik, Beschwörungen, p. 70, summarizes the different compounds that occur in ED IIIB texts).

za(2): precious stone, gemstone; bead; hailstone; pit; kernel [ZA archaic frequency: 9]. zà: (cf., zag). zé[ZÍ]:
to cut; to shear, cut hair; to pluck (Emesal dialect for dùg , cf., zil;


zi: n., breathing; breath (of life); throat; soul (cf., zid, zìg) [ZI archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 3 sign
variants] .

v., (with -r Auslaut) to destroy; to annihilate.

zí: stench; bile; bitter. zì: (cf., zíd). zu, sú:
n., wisdom, knowledge. v., to know; to understand; to inform, teach (in marû reduplicated form); to learn from someone (with -da -); to recognize someone (with -da -); to be experienced, qualified. adj., your (as suffix). pron., yours.

zú, su11[KA]:

tooth, teeth; prong; thorn; blade; ivory; flint, chert; obsidian; natural glass.

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


zu5: (cf. crowd. á: arm. concatenates 2 sign variants] .0 18 . n. time. (cf. upper part. main canal. adda(2). ag. to check. this one. ugu4[KU]: to bear. 'that which is opposite') . capacity). small cattle. after. length. shrub. to see. to make into (something) (with -si. circlet. ugu(4)) (ù. 'door') [IGI archaic frequency: 21].. ùñ. strength. send. glance. to drive away. concatenates 3 sign variants] . wing. voice (cf. egir2/3). un(-ñá): people. procreate. pron. concatenates ída.. on top. him. ubu [AŠ]: ada. work performance. to measure (area. top of the head. concatenates 2 sign variants] . her.. ugu4-bi). carcass..6: adda4. azu).KA]: debits part of account tablet. area measure. watercourse (éd. ak. skull. úgu[A. prep. before.12) (abbreviation of igiñál. + a.. them. sea [AB archaic frequency: 384. over. to measure out. skeleton [ADDA archaic frequency: 4]. concatenates 2 signs] . ugamušen: egi(2): égi: igi: (cf. ad: v. Version 3. mete. a marine and fluvial fish [UBI archaic frequency: 7. population. ùgun. aba. [A2 archaic frequency: 3] aka. áka. wether [UDU archaic frequency: 452. horn. áþi. ad3....'to issue'. concatenates 3 sign variants] . ram.'water'). v. eye(s). top side. raven. ád: 3 sign variants] . diadem. upon. shout. ugu[U. prep. i7: river. face. (cf. to balk. produce (cf. thornbush [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. corpse.. looks. a5: to do. father.) [AK archaic frequency: 149.'neck'). crown (of legitimate kingship). front (reduplicated ig. to place.. igi: reciprocal of a number (= the multiplier that will give 60.'after it'... íd. aspect.. turban [TUN 3 archaic frequency: 96. ab: abba: ubiku6: lake. ab-ba ). ègir). áñ. áña. wages.. aþ5. concatenates 2 signs] . Sumerian Lexicon. ám: ùña.GÙ]: n. ùku. act. n. comparative enhancer of adjectives. moment. side. udu: aga(3): sheep. = 1/2 of an iku (= 50 sar ). to dispatch. + gú. the igi of 5 is 0. song [AD archaic frequency: 36. in front of.

ara3. v. ummud). ár[UB]: v. she-ass. únug). ék. n. to praise. íl: n. úllu[KIB]. to endure... em: umu. to support. feast. form of ég. loam. concatenates 2 sign variants] . plow's share. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ùnug). ùnu(-d): unu6: (cf. (cf. direction. nurse. a utensil. cloud. rain ( cf. (cf... tongue.4). living room. um: ùmmu: únu: old woman.. im. ummeda (2)). am: eme: ñiš mother [AMA archaic frequency: 241. chief cowherd. to shine. storm. glorify. wise or skillful teacher. glory. ili5: to rise. bright. to carry forward (in accounting). to bring. illu: ùlu: ama: high water. íla. wild ox or cow (aurochs).. to lift. clear. resin. (cf. tablet [IM archaic frequency: 67.. reins [KIB archaic frequency: 7]. to blaze. leash.. tumu ). wind. flood. u18). (amniotic) fluid. ùl: áma.5: ùku: (cf.àka: iku: fleece. to deliver. Version 3. weather.6: imi.. eme: emma: émma: éme: eme3. im. v.5... (cf. ára. polished. carrier. get up. uku2. praise. ar. (cf. a surface measure of 3600 meters 2 = 100 sar = 1 square 'rope' = 1/18 bùr (plural Akk. em: imi. to shine (íl-i in marû). áme: women's quarters. ara4. enmen ). énmen )...5).. clay. (cf. 'levee'). ùña). mud. (cf.5: (cf. speech.0 19 . to be high. rà: adj.... ama(4. Sumerian Lexicon. carry. jenny. ukur3. þara). íli.

UNUG archaic frequency: 206. watch fire.5..'ten'). strong. uru(2)(ki). adj..3): eša. high. strength. 'much'. ur11(-ru): uru9: stanchion. deep. measuring tape/cord. thirty (eš5. (cf. ùri[ŠEŠ]: (cf.3.4) with the marû aspect -e suffix and vowel harmony. éše. clever.5: (cf.16 hectares or 6 iku . iri11: uru2. concatenates 3 sign variants] . a surface measure = 2. support. town. to be satiated. moonlight. district [URU archaic frequency: 101. eše4: éšša: aša5: (cf..0. ašag). eight (ía. to protect. uru12: to plow. 'three'). leash (can be an adverbial suffix like eš ) (eš. éš[ŠÈ]: rope. Sumerian Lexicon... mighty. itud ). emmer wheat flour. cage. guard. cultivate. (cf. = 6 iku. concatenates 3 sign variants] . devastating flood. URI 2 archaic frequency: 1]. ud). city. iti: d iti6[UD. a surface area measure. as. 'five'. urim 2. bear. fetter. 'much') [ŠE 3 archaic frequency: 152].iri: uri(2): uri2. pit..5).0 20 . èše: iši: eššu: ušu: ùšu: itu. iri..0 [60 ] fingers.dNANNA]: utu: the sun as a god (cf. mountain [IŠ archaic frequency: 88. uru4[APIN]. till. thunderstorm. ussu(2.. az: (cf. urin ). Akkadian ( cf. village. uru16(-n): esi: isi: usu: (na4) asa. length measure. n. to watch. + eš.'three'. valiant. uru).. myrtle [AZ archaic frequency: 13]. ùru(-m)[ŠEŠ]: n. + þà/u. light. rope = 10 nindan rods = 20 reeds = 120 2 cubits = the side of 1 square iku in area = 1. luminous object.. a crop-devouring insect.18: concatenation of 5 sign variants. clay pit. same meaning as ur (2. full. Version 3. skill. v. ear of barley or other grain.. glowing. rí. kínda ) [URI archaic frequency: 35. + eš5.. esig).

to beset.5). hammer.4. to hire. zu5: izi[NE]: uzu: fire (cf. Version 3. v. dab6. úzu. to hold. the left was the hand that stank from wiping excrement) [GUB 3 archaic frequency: 15.. a left-handed or ambidextrous person (?) [ÞUB 2 archaic káb: kib: flaxen measuring string ?. dab(2. gilim[-b] ).. þub. to do service (with -ši -). to receive (motion into open container) . lub[LUL](-bi): a cut of meat. document (motion into open container) [DUB archaic frequency: 229. to rot. flesh. to stand aside (with -ta -) (to be long and throat-like in open container) .. túb: gaba: gib: gub: gúb: gùb: þab(2): to kick. doctor (cf. defeat [ÞUB archaic frequency: 1].. heap up. quake. an object. azu. side (of a field or mountain) (ga. to stink. to shake. iz-zi) [NE archaic frequency: 303. resin. and slaughtered animals). concatenation of 4 sign variants] . to bind. chest. erect. to send over. to dye (fabrics) (reduplication class ?). þab and þúb.. uzu5: evening. to sprinkle off. grease (abundance collected in open container) . 'goat'. cut of meat. to set.. fetter. libx[Í. knock down. a-zu) [AZU archaic frequency: 7]. to strike. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . 'to give') . besiege. to rumble [DUB 2 archaic frequency: 2]. + zé. flop (said of fish. to stand by. 'milk'. da5: dib(2): dub: frequency: 6]. to (make) tremble. dib(2): n. that could be made of gold. þúp: frequency: 2]. to set down in writing.0 21 . kibx[GIG](-ba): wheat. foul smell. malodorous. v. to serve (with -da -). cleanse. dúb. + ba.. omen (ùz. to store. Sumerian Lexicon. a type of weaver (?). to stand. breast. concatenates 6 sign variants] .UDU]: mutton fat. gall(nut) (attracting many vermin in open container) . strew (with -ta -). (clay) tablet. newborn animals. catch. seize. left (hand) (cf. sunset. to infringe upon. depth. to wander [? DIB archaic n. to take away.. þup: þúb. v. n. adj. 'to cut') . to pass (by/along). install (singular). cross.útu: a dish prepared with milk. to pour out. to take. acrobat. to purify.. to traverse. tie up. to move in a circle.. athlete.. to surround. (cf.

stock. ascend. + aba. respect'. color (izi. ab. šub6[ŠID]: šuba(2/3): v. to fall (upon). shackle. to be bathed. sabad. to clog.. to snip out. to bind.. 'fear. stamp. to open. Sumerian Lexicon. to stand. clean ('licked clean' ?). ñin . bàd: v. brother. such as a herd.. 'thigh'). to be higher in rank. šip: šub: to cast.. (with -ta -) to throw out. to tremble. remove (šu.. respect' + íb. sting. 'fear. sea') [NAB archaic frequency: 10] . to be cast. tubx: (cf. to be/make double (sometimes reduplicated) (side + open container) . leopard (ní. 'lake. snare (to slide + open container) . draw. to join (with -da -). to subtract. clasp. be: concatenates 2 sign variants] . pab. also du .. re 7). to be at a distance. together (precedes the modified verb).. to bite off. pretty. to go away (Akk.IB): sign variants] . sickle (zú. sub2/3: (cf. Elamite word for 'god' (ní. pillory.. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . father. to gather up (portion + divide). middle. to make haste. remove (regularly followed by rá . throw. stem (cf. sub. to fell a tree. nab: nib: (ñiš) cheetah. to fall out. to burn. šib. cut off') [? ZUBI archaic frequency: 2. 'hand' + bu5. sipad ). dug šab: pot. bara 4 and semantics of bar ) (open container with motion away from) [BAD archaic frequency: 23]. to bless. cf. to hold. ocean.urudu lub(-bi): an ax for use in agriculture or as a weapon. to separate.. let fall. to go away. fetter. to lick. tun). (city) wall [? EZEN archaic frequency: 114. zib(2): haunch. + bu[r]. n. to suckle. shake. chip out.... to travel (plural marû su8-bé.. pap. musician. disappear. tab: n. sipad ). rap: ring. n. brand. concatenation of 2 v. distinguishing mark. 'flint. su-ub: súb. rabbu). adv. su8: to lead out. companion. (with -da -) to drop. a precious stone . to let out. súg. deduct. vessel. fever.agate (?). said of two or more. 'to be angry') . šab) [ŠAB archaic frequency: 61. zubi: bad. to drive away. leader [PAP archaic frequency: 501.0 22 . man. to suck.. pair. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . cf. tooth'. to climb. pail. shining. Version 3. 'to pull. 'fire' + íb.. 'to rush around') . to pray (naked flesh + open container) . dug šab (PA. to apportion (lots). pa4: rib: rab. v. adj. a priest (cf. n.. zubu. clamp. exorcism.

bad4: fortress. 'to protect') [GADA archaic frequency: 96.. to dry. a pestle (abundance + motion). gudu4: (cf. warrior. to give birth. adj. 'let it become'. þad(2): v. adj. kìr . cf.. to frighten (closed container with motion out from) . bi7: dida: didi: gada: n.. gudku6. dry. adj.. to shine brightly (þé. difficulty. kìd. and gur 10) (base with motion away from) . + dág. to manage. heel. hardship.. sign variants] .. to build. inarable land. to tie. carp ('dancing.8: kud. 'brilliant'). v. gu-udku6: gud(2).. to make.. to draw. to weave a mat (ground/floor plus motion).. leap (cf.g. to open (ground with motion away from. gu2. ku5: lud: mud: to cut off (with -ta -). to urinate. leaping fish') . handle.... gur 5. cf.7: to pinch off (clay). reed mat [KID archaic frequency: 76. to dance. fish). gud8: short (related to but opposite in meaning to gíd). gudug). thread'. dim. to be afraid. to levy tax or tribute. kad6. bull (regularly followed by rá . concatenates 5 sign variants] . anus (open container with motion away from) .. 'to nip off clay') . flax. a small bowl. to remove. a right-angled tool [MUD archaic frequency: 88]. kur5. cf.. to divorce. kìr.4: gùd: nest. dried (e. linen (clothing) (gu. dark. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . white. + da. concatenation of 2 n. length [BU: archaic frequency: 393. v. Sumerian Lexicon. beer ingredient.5: gi morning [UD archaic frequency: 419]. to defecate. to dispossess. to measure out. v. to curse (regularly followed by rá . to reach out (to take) (to be long and throatlike with motion away from)... concatenates 4 sign variants] . gu4: n. guðx.refers to the bellow of a bull) [GU 4 archaic frequency: 182]. Version 3. distant. to act (ground/floor plus motion). kid: kid2. pull. small. domestic ox. þáda. bind together [KAD 4 archaic frequency: 13.. long. to breach (a dike). bìd.0 23 . beer. gíd[BU]: v. gud. n.. to lengthen. kì: kid6. 'flax. þúd: kad4. gur (4)) (voice/sound with repetitive processing . young. tow. gu 4-ud ). to separate. gúda.

18. 'soul'. long. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . changed (to approach and meet + to go out). to immerse. to find. truth (zi. to be long. to sleep. v. to break off. to cane (tu. multiply'. branch + to go out. zid. to be born. to spank.. v.. to rejoice.. processing) [? PAD archaic frequency: 38. su: v.23: n. archaic frequency: 139. to sink.10. long (duration). 'to go out') . to gnash (the teeth) (su9. mud5: exultation.. fashion. to lie together with (with -da -). faith. call. sud. + motion). transformed. give birth to.. + motion). tu. (cf. dú: túd: v. 'to lie down' + nominative [from R. an amphora in the 30-60 liter range with two neck handles. 'to go out') . paðx: + éd.. 'to show. to be/make remote. + éd. bite. šùd. ér. to strew. zi: Sumerian Lexicon. to abate. to pray. súd: to pound. 'to go out') . to sip.6). to blow. cf.4. cold water. to choose.4: blood (closed container with motion out from) .11. sù. šu12: tud.5. nú: pad. pàd. provide. 'to grow up. couch (ná = nú-a. 'to hail'). to give. to swear.. še4.11. adj.éd. v. feel delight. to sprinkle. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to make grow. n. šed7. distant. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . šed: šid3. 'red ochre'. 'hand'. subside.múd: mud3. to drown (reduplication class) (regularly followed by rá ) (su4.pàd) [PA 3 archaic frequency: 30]. ñiš rad[ŠÌTA]: a tree. far away.12: šid. + éd. to be calmed. 'not'. a large vat for beer [MUD 3 archaic frequency: 27. pà: to show. to declare.6)). remote. to beget. + éd. confidence. su13: adj... pa. 'to fill up'. present (regularly followed by rá ) (narrow line + repetitive process) [BU: archaic frequency: 393.. to pacify. small repast (regularly followed by rá . šùdu. take an oath. to sprout. to ignite. sanction. mud6. kindle.0 24 .10. to choose out of (with ablative prefix) (pà-dè in sing.. cp.. to prolong.5. to furnish. ná: bed. blessing [ŠU 12 archaic frequency: 1]. šita 5). prayer. to wag (a tail). nud. (cf. ñiš nàd. concatenates 4 sign variants] .. jubilation. quieted. Englund]) [NA 2 archaic frequency: to lie down.. to cool down. possibly a citrus tree [ŠITA3 sed(4. reveal. sud4.17. cf. to last. šed7.. to stretch. to be reborn. n.. + éd. coolness (si. to seek.. create. bur and búru ) (sprout + repetitive 72.. 'to go out') . pà-pà-dè in plural marû) (sprout..5. to kill (nu. mud8[NUNUZ-ÁB = LAK 449]: ku-li. Version 3. to make..12. Presargonic Girsu. lasting. to bear. to repose. concatenates 4 sign variants] . n. 'to go forth') . marû. mú: to sing. to lay down (with -ni -).5: (cf. appear (reduplication class) (mu. lengthen.. + dé. crush. to make appear'. bless (šu. sed (4. = 50 'word'. šita (4)). legitimacy. 'to interfere'. šùde.

pleasing. legitimate. adj.. vessel.v.. illness. standard size earthen jar.7. resting-place. war (might be reduplicated ug5. swallow. to die'). gúg: gug5: hostility. to be black or dark (ku 10: reduplication class). adj. ég). du10: n. faithful. to be/make sick.. dág: dig: dug: brilliant. n. collected mass (abundance + round). the levees of a canal). adj. night (sounds represent the throat chamber or the mouth as an enclosed dark chamber) [GI 6 archaic frequency: 105]. dwelling.0 25 . kù: n. good. beautiful. circlet. to reject. adj.. to order.. workable. painful. 'to eat.. money. ñi6. pressed-date bread (gu7. kib x) (throat + i. gi6. dùg. converse (with -da -) (singular hamtu form.. gi25 v. kak: peg. zíd. build' + aga(3). noble (ku... command.. fresh (water). ñíg. flour. to become moist. cf. 'diadem. also. v.. ku10. to make cultically pure.. consume' + round and neck-like) [GUG 2 archaic frequency: 70. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . nail.. injury. purify. circlet. v. bone. speech. vagina). jug. kug. pure. gub) [KAK archaic frequency: 46. hinge. to strengthen (e.. v. crown'). meal (life + motion as in grinding). white.8. lap. cf.g. gug: ninda monthly offering. loins. Sumerian Lexicon. chamber (motion as in traveling + throat-like chamber) [DAG archaic frequency: v. n. to speak. dark (cf. crown') [KU 3 archaic frequency: 181. (ñiš) gag. gig. right (hand). ñe6. mi.... dug4. appropriate. pot. adj. 'to kill. lag. mé. sweet. black. concatenates 3 sign variants] . knee (reduplicated to be long and neck-like. Version 3. moist. except at Presargonic Girsu = 20 liters [DUG archaic frequency: 581. to roam about. righteous. + throat) [GIG archaic frequency: v. 'cry of pain'. soft. gob. member (motion + throat-like chamber. gladness. to speak with. sacred. adj.. cake. v.. n. to be painful to (with dative). concatenates 2 sign variants] . knee(s). clean ('to go out' + aga(3).. joint. holy. silver. gi17: 16] .. brand. lump. to be in a weakened state (motion + throat-like chamber. bulk size. kúkku ). clod. to stretch (out). to enjoy. zì[ŠÈ]: dag: 4] . precious metal. to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun) (nonfinite form = di) (to make a motion in the throat). firm.. concatenates 5 sign variants] .. good. ge6. to be/make enjoyable. wheat (cf. lawful. carnelian (with na 4).. du11: n. 'to base. 'diadem. favorable. gíg. spike. lañ: piece. to sing. to cleanse. to add. = 30 liters (sìla ). pure. true. bright. vagina).

damage. v. to tend. mug. + gu7. 'to throw' + ug5.7: to bring. šag5.. 'to build').7. n. 'to be still' + throat for vocalizing). to receive (reduplication sag5: (cf. lead. to engrave. grant (see etymology of sa 12.. silence. to please. shake. to abrade. 'strength. ru: class) (ru. pudenda (mu10. to be friendly (with dative or -da -) (reduplicated in hamtu.. sig3. sig5. to pay back. nib. grain-fed (ní. sa6. to stay silent. late. adj.rig 7). weapon (ri. (divine) grace.. favor. sì. entrance') .. 'noise. short. respect. sweet. narrow. n. sty. mu: n.8. raze. and adjective in compounds) [SIG archaic frequency: 66]. drive along' + ig..7. 'to accompany. sound') . cf. verb. to (make) totter... erode (chamber + ku. 'door. rúg [SU or NAM. good fortune. to remove. to replace. a perfume plant. carve. 'door.. 'body' or níñ. níñ ). 'thing'. to beat (rhythmically. temple ward. leopard') . to silence (si..18. to pull. sè: v. 'to kill'). síg: (cf. niga(2): pag. entrance') . si-ga as noun. to become still. to demolish. sag10: (to be) mild. doff. blow. slave.8. to hew out.. rig.3.6). v. to be in heat. satisfy. 'well-formed' + ge(2. for instance a drum). to flatten. sag2.. low. pick (reduplication class) (flowing motion such as re7. to deed. list. to restore. v. muk.. lu: to swarm (said of birds and fish) (lu. hollow out. fear' + ig. si: v.DU8]: cupbearer (loan from Akk. beautiful. brickwork. chisel. eyesore. cf. bag[ÞU]: to cage. good.. si(-ga): adj. entrance'. weak (cf. 'cheetah. 'girl'). mace. to chop down (trees). ri: rìg: rig5. sweet.11. mug(2): nug: nig: níg: n. 'to feed. 'to stand upright' + ug5. fine + throat for eating). good. fruitful (sa7.. sig4: sun-dried unbaked brick.ŠU. eat' + nominative a).0 26 . šeg5. broken wool fibers. sig. 'door. n. to strike. tow. ša6: n.9. šaaqû). crush. bitch. sig6. nigu. sa 6ge in marû).. 'female' + ig. nakedness. lioness (ní. pleasant. fattened (e.. to glean. sig5.g. Version 3. sagi [SÌLA. 'to be numerous' + gù. settled (si. (cf.10. sag9.. oxen or sheep). wall(s) [? SIG4 archaic frequency: 2]. v. to send' + entrance). quake.lug. of fine quality (narrow..SU]. zàg).. shelter (birds) (branches + round chamber) . siki ). stroke. hurt.. Sumerian Lexicon. 'to give.. sug5). to be/make good. 'to kill'. small.

. to garden. etc. (cf. inside. sug4. sig3. tigi [BALAÑ. destitute. taka4). threshing floor. sur12. šaþ . su7: šag4. to make flat. break' + ug5. šeg4: frost. 'to knock down'.. súb) (su. to match (cf. to live.. to bring low..NAR]. body.. at. sig 3) (combination of meanings such as: sux. 'cat'). sig3. si: to be narrow (narrow. fine [ + neck-like]). gub. to replace. to knock down (also read dùn. set. empty. abdomen. concatenates 6 sign variants] .11.. sì. gut. swamp. su: chamber) . rúg ) (to fill up + entrance. sum ... sig10. return (a loan. sallow. concatenates 3 sign variants] . sug5[GÍN]: sug6.. cloth garment (side + to encircle) [TUG 2 archaic frequency: 311. stomach.10.sig7. 'to compare') . sig14. mood. to empty (su. 'body' + ig. taka ). womb. 'to restore') . sag9).. 'life'. in. yellow. sigga ).. šag5: (cf. šeg8/9: šug: tag: snow. fertile land (to fill. 'entrance'. dike') [SUG archaic frequency: 15]. to let live. sa7(-g): v.8. + gi4.. green. to sweep along. to do. to surround. to compare.'nakedness') . tug4: (cf. 'upright stalks' + ég. to complain (in meanings 'to live'. šag5: to slaughter (ša5.8. ice (cf. 'body' + 'long and neck-like'). se12(-g).. inundate + ég.18. sè: to apply. flood basin.. cp.. sù. pale. even.. sig9. to engrave. to create. 'to cut. cf. subdue. tígi [NAR. su-a . meaning. Version 3. cold shudder.7.. tu9: lú harp (ti.9: sug: súg. intestines. šà: n.3. will. chills. a small animal (cf. tùn) (si. to stand (plural marû) (cf. content. to pull out weeds.. su: adj. su8: wild mountain boar ? (cf. 'to spread'. prep. mug(2). 'to kill'. du5 with this meaning) (cf. grain pile. place. adj. tuku4). sig17 (GI): the color of the low or setting sun = reddish yellow or gold (cf. to complete. tag4: (cf. to be/make pleasant or beautiful. cause. bed of a river. šenbar ) [ŠEG 9 archaic frequency: 10]. sag2. sì. midst. 'levee.) (reduplication class) (cf. 'to stand upright' + ug5. sug8. to subject. sigga. sig). heart. entrails. and sá. restore.. put in. 'to water') [SIG 7 archaic frequency: 61]. sul4.BALAÑ]: túg. to tear out. to dwell.7. šuku ). lake. TÚG: fuller. to strip naked. v. šeg8.. cloth. significance (grain/excrement + water/urine + chamber) [ŠA 3 archaic frequency: 137. (cf. sè) [SUG 5 archaic frequency: 67]. volition. lay bare. plural stem of tìl) (si.0 27 . interior. 'to kill'). Sumerian Lexicon.

lu9: nañ. v.ÑÁ]. zàg). taþ: to heat. individual (sá.. cook. 'to dry up' + to mete out).. valuables. 'to drink'. break. impudence. substitute.. to seek. zi: n. saña11.. partition (úz. zàg. bake. head. extract.. nì: property. zàñ. to rise up from (with -ta . sa12: adj. sag5. n. human. first. place. concatenates 3 sign variants] . percentage. + a. 'door'). to recruit (zi-zi in marû). siñ18[KIN]: to cut. zug4[KA×LI]: (cf.. present. 'to pour' + to mete out).. 'to equal'.. to multiply. a matter. sañ11. fetch (with locative-terminative -ni -). + áñ. harvest. to go out or make go out. wall. message. myself) [SAG archaic frequency: 420]. na8: n. archaic frequency: 125. + ñe26. task.. + ig. giñ4: (cf.. to order (reduplication class). to add. drink. chosen. sañ2/3: to scatter. 'water') [NAGA to crush. to spend or credit. v. right (side). to spread + to mete out). to send. še6: zàñ: daþ. lú-éše). + a.4. þun(-ñ): to hire or rent (someone or something). point. assets. to choose. something. zàg ). (with nominative -a ) pestle. to take out.. work (to build + to mete out to) [KIN archaic frequency: 9]. high. used as a prefix to form concrete nouns (self + to mete out to) [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. to repeat.. territory. treasure. 'water'. adj. to be hot. to help (motion into numerousness). 'side. class) (ša. irrigate. naña3.7. a measure for fish. prep.. to introduce (to a job). 'body. sañ5[ŠID]: zìg. boil. nañX[GAZ. edge'. v. weed. to rouse. to rest. to stand up. outside of (life + to encircle) [ZAG archaic frequency: 71. (cf. captive (tied up with a rope éše. ñá.. naña: [ñiš] soda. limit. gín). to drink out of (with -ta -) (na 8-na 8 in marû) (ní. in front. alkali. an alkaline plant. rise . cf. to rain (šu. abusive remark. soapwort (nañ.. luña[PA. to approach. beginning. error. 'to name'. še7: rain. leader. repose. šaña. Version 3. replacement [DAH archaic frequency: 21]. þuñ. kin: n. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . thing. sañ5: (cf. border. 'to mete out to') . fault. zà: boundary. first-class. þeš5[LÚ×KÁR. side. to tear out. še29. kíñ. slave. LÚ-KÁR]: šeñ3. self'. bad. ú-zug4).zag. uproot. KUM]: níñ. to water. order. sañ.. sa4.or -ra -). v. to dry a field (redup. potash (used as soap). district. to say further. prime. sanctuary. lúñ[PA]. to abate (many + to mete out to).0 28 . front. Sumerian Lexicon. cusp. shoulder. šeñ6. gift. to drink. scattered (to multiply.

. luþ. + þe.. to relocate. 'to mix'). 'mother of'.. a mark or impression. + kud. luþ. rob (zú. bran (motion + plant.3. wool. concatenates 12 sign variants] . provision. to gouge (eyes). 'portion'. + ku10. torpidity (?) (cf. loosen. the ancillary meanings of imin.. fur.. ñišù-suþ5) (ussu. transfer. suþ4: reed matting (fine. shine (cf.. potsherd. Version 3... take away.. to fling (away) (plural form.3: domestic pig (grain + water + numerous (offspring) . + þá. beard.. barb. allotted field plot (regularly followed by rá) (šu. to sparkle.pigs efficiently turn feed into food) [ŠAH 2 to be calm. portion + mouth).3) (íla. to be or make large (ama. àþ[UD]. by-product. encircling wall (cf.GÀR]: female goat-kid (ùz. duþ. heavy' ?) [SIG 2 archaic frequency: 224.. to spread. sting.0 29 . narrow + plant + numerous). 'to separate') . 'eight'. just as þúb relates to gùb). lofty. shell. to wash. to adorn. 'boundary. sublime. uþ: to dry up. abundant). to uproot. clothe (reduplicated). to dry out.5: to bring (plural). + numerous. great.. to sweep (la. v. + numerous. to clean. ti ) (motion + cry of pain + insect). fresh. district'. leg. 'seven' . v. eight is confusing) [SUÞ 3 archaic frequency: 4]. esp. concatenates 2 sign variants] . open. 'thick. dry. cf. foremost. 'youthful freshness'. làþ). gag ). on the liver. to abandon. to plunder. to bake bread/bricks. 'to bring'. Sumerian Lexicon. šug: allotted food portion. zuþ[ZÚ]: kak: to steal. máþ[AL]: paþ[LUL]: suþ( more than seven. šuku. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . 'teeth' + numerous). 'long.ÁŠ.5): an adjective for cows (as opposed to ñiš for bulls). du8: concatenates 3 sign variants] . súkud ). šaþ(2): zaþ: zaþ2. displace. to be lost. laþ4. ration. cf. point. secrecy. adj. residue. capture. fever. hide (si. zeþ[SAL. body).. to caulk a boat (with pitch). tranquil. 'black' ? or kul. 'goat'. siki. to remit (a debt). to prepare the threshing floor. exalted. grass + numerous times) [DU 8 archaic frequency: 29. n... high. 'numerous'). rind (hand. n. síg: hair (of head. adj. de6.diþ(2): to sting.. to drive off. to hide. laþ. sickness. làþ: maþ: to be clean. to perish (describes workers/slaves who have fled state control) (derives from zag. tumu2. + numerous) [MAÞ archaic frequency: 6. border. to flee. to become confused. carefully chosen. (cf. to untie. v. v. n. confusion. adj. disorder.. archaic frequency: 39. adj. suku5: šika: (cf. to crack. thin things'. free.

v.. leave open (reduplication class . heap. ba. to be angry (probably reduplication class) (tu15. to shine... 'conjugation prefix' or 'turtle shell'. to have a claim against somebody (with -da. tuku4. rotating fund. annual contribution to the state [BALA archaic frequency: 19. to sing. 'ancient. 'to bal. 'turn from. sprout. n.'to hold.'to hasten') . tug. ta6: tuku. foot-race. to divorce. turn. taga. be high). to play music (da. bal: n. be near'. to decorate. bring. 'to do. dúk. to have. dul(3. Version 3.taka. compound sign verb. 'share'. 'to hold'. Sumerian Lexicon. dil: one. tug4: enter') .. 'to pierce'). to abandon. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] . 'tell'. tag4. to fly (towards something. to strike. to weave. to revolve. to chase (da. to be or make bright. tak4. + íla.. neglect.). dili. conspicuous. tag. dul(6). spindle.ta 6-ta 6 in marû) (ta. to be far away. restore') [TAK 4 archaic frequency: 128. spade') . dellu: mast. hit. tuk. place. from'. make') [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. to acquire. du6: mound. tu12 : v. hunt. to pour (as a libation. to start a fire. tà: to touch. to leave with a person. excellent. deliver (to someone: dative). 'to carry. to transgress. 'with'. to marry. du6-ul) (dù. + lá. entrust. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'to approach' + aka. out of. + ku4.'remote. to quarry.4.. concatenates 3 sign variants] .. eldest son. to open. to blow.or -ra -). kindle. to protect. dálla. adj. sanctuary. dála: dél: (cf. unique.. dalla: n. to disregard. 'needle' when made with a bright metal). to ignite. with -ta -). concatenates 2 sign variants] . get (in marû reduplicated form). catch (can be reduplicated) (te. to transfer. handle.. enemies (cf. to tear down.. + ul. only. ruins. to change. enduring') [DU6 archaic frequency: 37.0 30 . to tremble. ray (cf. push. to cover. to remove.. to receive. in plural) (cf. to pass through. tak. go back (bala-e in marû) (ba. support') . shoot ('it rises'). deliver. distant' and ul4.5). needle (da.. 'to build. to revolt. to roast. dílim ).. v. taka4. chief. own. + al. beam. to heat (soup) (container + to lift. bul(4).. hostility. to sprout (onomatopoeic). bil: bìl: dal: to burn. with -ši -. to dig up. to cross over. hold. 'digging stick.. creditor [KAB/TUKU archaic frequency: 105]. bar. term of office. single. 'to build. bala('). + ge4. dálla. v. to lie down') . a large cup. gal. + n. to dig out (a ditch). dal: n.. cleft. cave (redup. to hide (the object covered often takes the locative case) (verb can be reduplicated as in du 6-ul-du 6-ul-e) (to protect + ornament). hoe. 'wind'. + ku. protection. du12 . demolish (ba. v. ñal: n. bala ). bu(5): n. tuk4. adorn.. v. 'to. alone. to turn around. with -ta . to fish. to clothe. erect'.

also.. to be available.. numerous) [ÞUL archaic frequency: 1]. to extinguish. 'let there be' + ul. lá ). *pahal.. to hold. to pay. hated. police chief (?). hostile. valuable (cf. light... to obstruct. evil (vermin + abundant.). 'to carry. joyous. to dwell (ñá. Orel & Stolbova #1928. transvestite (throat + la. to dress oneself. 'cellar granary. denounce. to esteem.or bi-). þa-la and pap-hal(la)) (loans from Akkadian hallu I and pahallu. minus (cf. bad. also.DÚR]: gal4(-la). Sumerian Lexicon. þúl: n. adj.. unite (base + abundant. gilim ). adj. put (with -ni. vulva. to wreck to pieces... set. to hang (from) (with -ta -)... to be rare. to be possible (with -da. kul: heavy. to fall back. gal5: to overwhelm. but also -ši -). 'mouth' + la.. to cease. v. value. evil. upper thigh. to destroy. demolish (as preparation for rebuilding). to strap.. concatenates 3 sign variants] . to make dear. lá ) (reduplicated íla. malicious.5).4.. crotch. a demon (cf. to carry. to place. gùl. to lift. to be appreciated (cf. numerous). gála: gala3.. to be with someone (with -da.. cellar (cf. n. to divide. diminish. numerous) [GAL archaic frequency: 1004. support') [LA 2 archaic frequency: 57]. large. kala 3. kal-(l): v. v. sexually mature. enormous. extend. excellent.. adj. to load. big. ñèle: þal: (cf. gala[ÑÌŠ. *pahal. 'to be high') . endear. ñál. 'to consume' + ul..5: store-pit. harness (with -ši -). ritual singer. portion.). kalag ). enduring') [GUL archaic frequency: 24]. distribute (þal-þa in marû). to bring together.secret. share (cf. to be destroyed. (cf. ki-lal/lá. lal. to fall upon (with -ši -). to lessen. lamentation priest. to deal out. kala3. v. freshness and beauty') . cf. to place into (with -ši. gullax: (cf. cantor. reach..4. thigh" and #1929. to stream. v. 'youthful vagina.). 'joy. pleasure') .. precious. evil. Version 3. gal 5-lá ). to deduce. to be happy.. to ruin. 'ancient. mighty... great (chamber + abundant. female genitalia (throat-like chamber + lá. ñá: to be (somewhere). run. to accuse.. to be high. ñala7. gala3. abundance') [KAL archaic frequency: 60. 'storage basket' + íla. split") [ÞAL archaic frequency: 53]. to have on one's person (with -da. míli ).. to bind (a reed pillar). to take an oath."break through. to destroy utterly (with -ta -) (reduplication class) (gu7. silo' with vowel harmony). joy (þé. to stretch. to weigh.5.). þul(3): n. v. to harm. divination expert.4.adj."leg.0 31 . to place. kalag ) (ka. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . thick.4. to destroy. 'to penetrate. adj. 'youthful beauty. pierce') . to rejoice over (usually with -da -. lá: adj. deficient.5: gil: gul: galla. retreat (cf. be few.

sila(3): street.. bud'). Semitic root which manifests in Akkadian as qâlu.. + íla.. wind. clothing (of gods and rulers) (cf.. to recline (in preparation for the love-making implied by sil5. tell' + ?.5. spacious. and si. suspend. 'star. 'to trouble. + ul. míli. planet. mél.'to mill.'to burn') . uterus. moron (lallation word = unintelligible baby talk.4.. v.. v.. disturb') . to lie. concatenates 2 sign variants] . bliss (si. Syriac. deficient'). n. and lal/lá. bait (cf. kir 11) (síg. lá-ìa[NI]. 'arrears'). 'uterus') [SILA 3 archaic frequency: 57. but cp. 'night'. path. meteor (ñi6/mi. 'to extend. bliss') [LAL 3 archaic frequency: 14.. Version 3. ñèle. to cut into. šál: measure of capacity. 'abundance') [SILA 4 archaic frequency: 73. shine.. a destructive insect.. to infect.. 'to carry'). joy. la(l)'u(2. deceive (reduplicated lù. lul. defiled. sal. vulva (narrow + numerous) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. 'inner sanctum'.. sun 4). mèl: milla[IŠ]: (cf. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'to weigh'. back or open country (reduplicated li. (cf.R. mu7[KA×LI]. pleasure') .842 modern liters in the Neo-Sumerian period. malicious act. p.. 'joy. + lá.. to be narrow. zíd-milla).(ú) lál: n. wide. sìla. sila4: sùl: Sumerian Lexicon. infection. measuring pot (si14.7): debt. zil.'to say. si-il: penetrate. to hang. ornament') [MUL archaic frequency: 6]. glow. ñìli[KA×LI].. lu5: n. + la. treacherous. road. sìl. to (let) sparkle.6: v. reach') . 50). méli. vestments.'to fill'. lil: líl: fool. and Ge'ez [P. disgraced (could refer to soot from bil.. pharynx. trail. cf. 'to drape' pala(2.'to stand up like a horn'. lie. 'light.3): pil(2): as in túg-níñ-lal).6. 'long and narrow'. to belittle. but which means 'voice' in Hebrew.6). v. pa-paþ. síl. to be/make obscure. v. cf. noose. thin.0 32 . breath. to persist. lalla: shortage. concatenates 5 sign variants] . Comparative Semitic Linguistics.. sil. false. + lá. šal: sil: sil5. wool'. grind'. also. market place (si. pleasure.. 'be silent'. 'a small pot'.3. mèl: 'scorching' = heartburn (?). liar. caterpillar (mù. sal. 'cedar scent' ?) [? KID archaic frequency: 76. deficiency (reduplicated lal/lá. to divide (si. to bind. 'anything long and narrow'. 'deficiency'. to spread. 'hair. Bennett. spirit (of a place). constellation. mul: mùl: n. + ul. to silence [LAL 2 archaic frequency: 27. + lá. star. làl: honey. n. + ul. to be/make dirty. 'to sila. (male) lamb. liter = 0. concatenates 4 sign variants] . voice (me. date-syrup (reduplicated la. owed amount (cf. lasso. 'flower. to praise. or lal/lá. concatenates 3 sign variants] . throat. 'luxury. malicious. pierce') . adj.

to spread. to keep alive.. n. tie. 'to build. 'bath'. to cease. v. fashion.. 'to shear. 'spouse'. dam: the (curved) beam that connects the bottom of the plow to the pole. protect'.. n.. 'to be born'.5. clinging vine (cf. zal[NI]: v. + íla.. to shine' ?) [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65. to tarry. sila ) (zé. 'to plunder. 'side.. to continue. pú-lá. make'. zalag ) (za. + to lift. to make fast. 'joy. dim4: n. 'to be. n. ti: til4. tendril. broad... to be/make wide.. Version 3. to pare. to flay (cf. understanding (sides.. to spend the day. sickness demon. Sumerian Lexicon. be high. ti. gentle. nearness. to be loving. begging. 'to be frightened'. affectionate. + ul. to be ripe. well. pleasure') . adj. elapse (said about time). weak (di4. pole of a water lift. pleasing. šul. wait (often with -ni -. deep well). rope (dam.. dim).. young man. tìl.6. 'clay. + íl. cf. cistern.17. spouse (husband or wife) (da.. tál[PI]: til: v.. dìm: adj. zi... proud. shout. to caress (usually reduplicated) (cf. tìla. pluck'. dim). + im. (cf. scream (te. 'to be high. carry'). to flow.sul4: (cf.. to rub into the skin (duplication class). + àm. to peel off. + àm. complete.'to keep alive' + nominative) [TILLA2 archaic frequency: 5]. that indicates long and narrow as in si) dim: [DIM archaic frequency: 52. zil).'monotonous repetition' + numerous).. ul4). to put an end to. to live.. to dwell. 'to be' ?).in a temporal sense) (cf. sug8). hasten.. finish. concatenates 3 sign variants] . tal: large jug (sides + abundant). n. n. deep. sal ). 'to sprout'. splendid. character + abundant). 'moon'. to hold.4.5: túl: v.. to pass. to be full or abundant. unfold (said about wings. warrior. tal3. strong. 'small'. breadth. 'to lift. tílla: market place. mud'). cry. heroic. to survive (with -da. to deprive') . build (dù. dím: post (cf.. public fountain. modified by i. a bad disease involving skin eruptions (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu. arms). + ?). to hurry.. sìla ). life (tu. to shell.0 33 . speed up (cf. dím[GIM]: ñiš to make. cf. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . create. invader. sig 7). with -ta . perish (iti. sul: v. who') [DAM archaic frequency: 10]. zil. crossroads (tìl.. n. bond. to make beautiful.). cut. šal: šál: (cf. to pluck. lowland (tu5. to be halted (singular stem. supply. zé: zíl: dam: ñiš to undress.

. direction: terminative). 'mouth' + imi. + àm. Akk. aga(3).. to approach.. kaš 4).. 'wind'). kìm[BU]. Version 3. kum). 'woman'). to thresh grain. v..6. subservient (di4. mortar (for grinding) [GUM archaic frequency: 47. dima. kum4 [UD]: lam: variants] . kim. dím) (syllabic spellings indicate both gim and gin7. daughter (dú.. þum. like. to banish.. son.áñ. to beg. luxuriance. gum: kúm: willow tree..8). 'old woman'). kneel (for someone: dative. 'milk' + um. cf. workwoman. sickle. 'to come back' + im. 'tool'. v. n. lám: an awe-inspiring quality (la. summer. + mú. gin7: prep. gun5: to wrestle.. probably pronounced domu). maid. give birth'. to make grow luxuriantly (la. to grow luxuriantly. 'clay'). 'acrobat. information.. v.. to paralyze (many + u(3. alternation between þ and k/g like the alternation between þab. to shrivel. intention. gim7: kum. slave-girl (ñeš. to bow. punch. dimmu: dumu: gam: news. 'to be' ?). run (mainly said of animals) (gi4. 'fight. decline.. dispute' + me3. glitter (like a crown. athlete') . disk (of metal or wood) (ka.. drive out (these verbs make me wonder if this became the Sumerian word for a changeable wax-coated writing tablet). to trot. death. as. gúr ).. fever (kù. þúb and gùb). n. to overturn. to heat. kìm). géme. v. depth (cf. curve. kum] and bread. to smash. láma.eemum). ki.. to influence.. power'). netherworld [LAM archaic frequency: 47. to bend. n. to shine.. gàm: n. v. gim7: (cf. heat. to change. 'battle'. instead of. + mí. decision (loan from Akk. almond tree. gúm... to succumb (like a circle + to be). ím: n. incline..0 34 . just as. runner( cf.. cf.. break. 'bright' + to be). gum: þum: kam(2): kàm: (cf.7.'to bear. ñéme(?): woman. to crush. 'abundance' + me. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .... abundance.'to sprout. grow'. Sumerian Lexicon.. + to be). n. v. to desire (cf. to bruise.... bruise (cf. grip. grasp.v. t. 'small'. gim. v. gim4. n. kiima with same meanings).4. n. adj. 'abundance' + to be). concatenates 3 sign v. during (cf. an adjective describing flour [that would be ground in a mortar.. to be passionate. tablet. adj. 'function. ignore (ga.9. child. hot. equative suffix. þúp.. to neglect. 'to love'). to bow down. þúb. handle (like a circle + to be).

n. sale price. sum: garlic. lùm[DUG]: nam: a small drinking pot. šám. early. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to see through (fine. v. high.. 'kingship' or nam-maþ . n. (area of) responsibility. flying insect. 'to be') [NAM archaic frequency: 30. sínmušen: swallow (Akkadian sinuntu). sa10: n. to be high. enclitic copula. merchandise (Akk. spice. sám) [SUM archaic frequency: 43.. fertilizer. 'to make grow luxuriantly'. cloud [LUM archaic frequency: 23]. Version 3. Orel & Stolbova 2185. v. lím: four (cp.0 35 . productive. + àm. medicine'. perfume (see comments on šúm. above. cf. šag5. plant + to be. province. behave). herb. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . lum: n. limi. destiny. 'to slaughter') [? TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. such as nam-lugal . resin. 'precise essence'. v. used mainly as a prefix to form abstract or collective nouns. sím.. lot. (barter) purchase. v. planning ability. 'garlic'.5(zabar): šum: tambourine (þalþallatu drum in Akkadian) (many + me. morning (high + to be) [NIM archaic frequency: 109. šim. equivalent. narrow + to be). fragrant.. full. lim: thousand (four hundred greater than ñéš×u. tutelary genius (lam. 'poison') . cf. to be fertile. sám. sum. to buy (with -ši -). filter.'sell. sam-. purchase'. to grow luxuriantly.. 'plant.4. sim. num: concatenation of 4 sign variants] . 'functions') . way. šem. Sumerian Lexicon. lam). sam is 'spice' in Hebrew. šem3. lend (with dative) (sum-mu in marû) (cf. noble (time. manner. sim: variants] . fate. related to šammu .. governor. drug. šúm. to soften. soak.. loanword from šâmu(m) . lima. 'six hundred'). ším[NAM]. + a. to bear fruit (abundance + grass. high + to be) [NAM 2 archaic frequency: 375].. prince. buy') [ŠAM 2 archaic frequency: 51]. east. to sift (flour). to multiply in arithmetic. manure. adj.. 'to cut.. sì: sum4: (cf.d lamma.. 'to buy. to slaughter... rim4: (cf. fragrance. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] . concatenates 2 sign adj. to give. utensil' ?. aromatic wood. n.5). onion (Akkadian loanword from šuumu . sickle with serrated edge (ša5. sign. prince. 'tongue. office. break' + eme. ablative) (sa 10-sa 10 in marû).. to make productive. to sell (with -ra -. destiny. to be satiated. adv. làma: a female spirit of good fortune. sun4). highland. nominative suffix) .. saw. sín[NAM]: to strain. limmu(2. 'greatness' (n. Orel & Stolbova #2281 *su'um.... nám[TÚG]: nim. sim. kaš4). cf.. butcher. šúm. ir-si-im) [ŠIM archaic frequency: 50.

333 grams. (cf. 'to bring.. to strike. tum12mušen. pestle. (cf. suñin). 'from'. field parcel. and zar. pupil.3.. bathe'. laþ 4) (in marû plural. shekel (of silver) = ca. v. go out') . bun(2). genna.. to break wind. 8. furrow. seep. tumušen: zum: ban: bán: bàn: bird of the pigeon and dove family (cf.šum4: (cf. lamp. tu10.. to bring forth. to be suitable. tu15: tumu2. to heap. work. du24. to shine brightly (cf. bu(7): din: dun: (cf. cultivation (cf. n. rack. shiny.. tumu4. light. class) (see instead sun 5 if the sign is used as an adjective) (to move + to raise high). to complain (redup. tumu. iku ) (cf. tú: tum: tuma: polished. kajjamaanu. v. 'food'. to open (to move + to raise high.... 'portion. gena. cf. + ma4. emit flatus (tu15.. the planet Saturn (possible loan from Akk. to carry away. support. + na. giñ4: constant. 'to flow'. to sway. bear. + mú... *gan. 'food'. cf.. = 6 liters at Presargonic Girsu (cf. to lay a warp (onto a weaving loom) (to move + to raise high). ward. bànda )."field") [GAN 2 archaic frequency: 209]. pile up. rations'. to ignite') . 'to leave. tùm-tùm[-mu] or túm-túm-mu ) (ta. gana. + ma4. gina[TUR+DIŠ]: gín. 'to blow. de 6. n. overflow (repetitive motion + closed container.4. a measure of capacity or volume = 10 liters (sìla ) in the Ur III period. reflective. tin ). tun. 'lamp' ?).. direction (ta.. wind. action. tu11: dùn: dun(4): v. tum9. dul(6)). tam. n.. ta(5).. (flat) surface. to obtain. to leak. to churn butter. regular. warp (threads on the frame of a weaving loom). tum4[NIM]: to carry (ta. bul. small. hole). blister. carry'.17. stand. dun5. gan. pana ). flow') . concatenates 4 sign variants] . cf. 'to leave') . shape. banda 2. to blow. 'to be'). bag-type of bellows. pure. vessel. + àm. tu2.0) square fingers. cf. 'from'. dig (a field. arrow quiver [TUM archaic frequency: 48. small ax(-head) used as money. tum2. + ú.3. gi(n). + ma4. 'to wash... 'from'. kajjaanu. 'wind'... to be swollen.3: to bring. crossbeam. Orel & Stolbova #890. kan: v. stagger. and the term "carrier pigeon" for a homing pigeon). measure of surface. 'human being') . + ú. a volume measure. = 0. (cf. plane. rebellion (hollow container + nu11.0 36 . concatenation of 4 sign variants] . 'to blow'). fit. to scrape..5) (ba. ge(n) and ñin. sug 5). dun. du9[BÚR]: v. zur4. 'to spout. grinding stone (circular + to raise high) [GAN archaic frequency: 125. 1/60 square nindan (sar) = 180 surface še = 2160 (=36. gán: tract of land. and kaanu 'constant'. reliable (tu5. to prepare (marû singular. 'to leave'). ginna.3. subordinate.3 Sumerian Lexicon. outline. cardinal point. smite. gána... a surface area measure. n. depart. ñen). Version 3. zal. tum2.

'woman'. v. partner. þuñ ). men5: men(4): mén: men2. constancy (to be + at a distinct point).. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . second (mí. kin: na4 (cf. population') .. solid. worry. gùn: n. + na4. decorated. gìn: lapis lazuli (igi.. gin7: (this is sometimes the preferred form. concatenates 4 sign variants] . two. concatenates 5 ? sign variants. 'to make grow' . staircase. burden = a talent in weight = 30 +/. steadiness.5. Orel & Stolbova #892. *kin. gùnu. súb ) (Akk. re 7. spangled. ladder. Version 3. kiinu 'true measure'. kín[ÞAR]: kun: (ñiš) tail. un. affliction. to decorate with colors. gùnu. to put on antimony paste makeup. lines. gú: gún. spots. adj. urudu KIN: (cf. spots') . to come (with dative or -ši -) (sing. kíñ ). MUNU3 archaic frequency: 15]. ñen: n. to sparkle. mìn. 'eye'. mìna. both. un.. trouble (ka. alike (cf.. 'fear'). threshold. 'distinct things'.. cf. v.. dot. 'pebble. spotted. kun4. + na. gun[GÚ-UN]. district (gú. a caustic salt (mú. reliability.. stairs. *gan-/*gin. cf. saltpeter is the oxygenating ingredient in gunpowder) . two (cf.3: concatenation of 2 sign variants] . reservoir. hamtu. equal. ñin.. to be troubled. ne4. because a woman has two breasts). crown. 'people. concatenates 3 sign variants] . gim). storage basin. to go. gú). (cf. + nu11. gú: back of a man's neck = load. 'two').. embellished. nape' + ùña. 'edge' + ùña.."count") [TUN 3 archaic frequency: 96. kan3. mana ). gúm). du . doorsill (base/ground + high).6): múnu: munu(3).cubic meters (Akk. lines. speckled. ur4).. dappled. brilliant... 'function..6): mina. 'lord') [MEN archaic frequency: 48.. firm. kana3. mina. man. 'fire'.5: n. gun5: (cf.. 'decorated with colors. þun: (cf.. gún. tribute (gú... 'neck. mun: salt [MUN archaic frequency: 24 ?.5: mana..5."go"). spot (circle + discrete point. outlet (of a canal). to send. but cf. land. millstone (base/ground + stone) [KIN 2 archaic frequency: 11. cf.. cf. companion. gana 'come!'. variegated. ordinary. Sumerian Lexicon. striped. office' + en. slab. min(5. I. ugun) [GUN3 archaic frequency: 23. multicolored.. adj. grasp (base/seat + high) [KUN archaic frequency: 2]. v. cf. stone'.0 37 . myself (cf. me-en). but cf.14. apprehension. tiara (metaphor of divine en-ship) (me. 'people'.2 kg. hand mill (saddle quern for grinding). gur 10. 'mouth' + ní. mina and mana ). min(3.. Orel & Stolbova #1459. region.

be on top of.+ un. with bowed head. shiny. respect'. fifty (nimin/nin5. to enter (plural ?. to trample.. great. respect. thin things'.. érin. heaven') . beard (cf. grieve' + ní. allay. body.. cf. kur 9) . coolness (te. near' + en. to shine brightly.). BU 3 archaic frequency: 21]. adj. v. suñin ). v. to cool (te-en-te in marû). te-en: v. the predatory owl with its human-like face probably gave rise to the demon Lilith myth. mun4 [ŠEŠ]: queen. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . munux. lady. wild cow. nin9: sister (reduplicated ní. 'time' referring to shorter days ?). fine. dominated (su9. + þà/u. mirror (?) (liquid + stone) [ŠEN archaic frequency: 66. pan. 'pebble. 'branch'. sum4... pure.. to attach. n. deep. aurochs cow. 'nature.. sùl. beerwort (su. awe') [NIN archaic frequency: 75]. prince..+ un. šen[SU×A]: n. 'ten'. to rise up (n. master (ní. chin. 'fear. 'to lie down. sín: sun: sún: (cf. v.. sim ). 'fearsome lady'.. bow (pa. + nud.6: nin: malt . 'people' ?) [NUN archaic frequency: 652. respect') .. + a. 'lip') [SU 6 archaic frequency: 1. pana. n. 'to mill'.. (cf.. and tùn. + to be high). to become clean. ban: sign variants] . rín) (ara4. su6: sun5[BÚR]. free (ta. mistress. star. concatenates 2 ? rín[ERIM]: to be/make bright (reduplication class).. one's own') . 'to be high'.0 38 . lord (reduplicated ní. where reeds and rushes were seen as belonging to a young woman goddess similar to the grain goddess Nisaba).. vessel. raised high') ... šén: verdigris. 'to mourn. si. humble. 'fear. character' + an. sleep') . sun4. pail. rà. discord. light. concatenates 4 sign variants] . adj. polished. n.. nominative suffix. be sufficient'. 'bright'. bulrush (reduplicated nin or nin9. cf. 'long. sun7[KAL]: quarrel. extinguish. hitch (cf. ar.owl (nin. 'sky. lower lip. 'to approach. noble.+ u5.munu4. a copper pan. + na4. cold. šún[MUL]: tán[MEN]: ten. alkaline. 'self. clear. brackish. frightfulness. 'people'). adj. 'to mount. clear. ninu: ninni5: nun: a rush used in basketry. 'forty'. join. 'fear. dnin-nínnamušen). stone') [BAN archaic frequency: 27. noble. mušen nínna: nocturnal bird . ninnu. Sumerian Lexicon. Version 3. to soften. 'to fill. proprietress. modesty.soaked and germinated grain for use in brewing (mù. su16: n.

sipad ).. dun ). n. bára: (cf. 'cheeks' + nu. remove as in ri). mix.. tun(3). case.. 'to weep' and ur5. 'to divide'. wrinkle one's nose. the plural hamtu for 'to go'. bara4[BAD]: bara5.. to scatter. to sniff. v. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . to blaze') . mix') [BIR archaic frequency: 9..0 39 . to break (of the day) (cf. to dry up. n.. separated.7: locust. (cf. to distribute. soul. pare.. v. pap: rap: sipa: bar: (cf. to bear... to be healthy. shriveled up (said of a penis). flame up (cf. to select.. lip (te.. + ra(-g/þ).7 for similar semantics). 'likeness') [SUG 5 archaic frequency: 67].4): n. wine [TIN archaic frequency: 93]. pàr[DAG]. barag ). mistiness (of the eyes) (ba. to pass over. 'to accompany. (cf.7: (cf.. innards. ara4. to go. to uncover. + ir10.. 'to smell'...6: bir: to spread out. to keep away (with -ta -) (container plus to expel. intact.. bìr[ERIM]: team (of donkeys/animals) (ba. v. 'to overflow'... to break up. because of. fleece [BAR archaic frequency: 306]. pouch. to see. to blaze. to live. foreign. shell. (out)side. pab. bár: bar6. bound.. white. pàra. v. bir9[NE]: Sumerian Lexicon. and cf. to wreck. + ir10.. bir for similar semantics).tin: n. to remove. to defeat. bandage. 'inanimate conjugation prefix'. bìr for animals in plural numbers). Version 3. to drive along or away'. 'to shine. bárag ) (interchanges with búru) (ba. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . to divide.5: bir6.. with possibly a hidden meaning of 'to dry' for Vr or ara4 as also seen in dúr). tu10: tùn[GÍN]: to constrict. barag ). concatenation of 3 sign variants. to cure. compound word. (ñiš) pa4). 'to stir. rab). be bright. 'to expose'. re7) [?? BIR 3 archaic frequency: 23. flaccid. to be stretched or spread out (cf. stomach. which refers here to the sun. to split. 'to apportion. to peel. lead. prep. (cf. adj. par4[KISAL]: to stretch or spread out. bir4. open wide. ír. cf. cf. to open. bir(2. to murder (ba... adj. bàr. bar6. para4. to massacre. to be absent. smash (cf. life. to shine. shrivel up. 'inanimate conjugation prefix'.. bar. divide'. to release. ba-ra(-g)) [BARA 3 archaic frequency: 13]... released. bàra. wrap. adj. barag ). to break (cf. ZATU-143 ERIM archaic frequency: 175. expose. adj. re7. to rip to pieces.. + ér. sparrow (cf. pocket.

loosen. bur12) (cf. rations. supple (dé. donkey foal (pack animal . 'base. 'sides'. dára. 'to divide' + úr. 'floor' the u vowel especially correlates with round objects or openings). cf. concatenation of 4 sign variants] ."well. to slice. pack. to dissolve. dirig). bar and bàra for similar semantics). distance"). to interpret (a dream).. 'to water' + ru5. Orel & Stolbova #120. + ur4.5mušen: raven ?. harvest time (bur12. repast. and bur12. to pull. grasshopper (cf. donkey stallion (usually written du 24-ùr or dur 9 (ùr) duru5. 'to send forth shoots'. buuru 'cistern. concatenates 2 sign variants] . sash (compare dur. to go over') [DARA 4 archaic frequency: 81.. thread [BUR2 archaic frequency: 45]. to bore through. stone bowl.. flake off (flint).cf. v. anšedùr(ùr)). umbilical cord (da. 'to surround') [DUR archaic frequency: 58. thread. to dispose of. pheasant [DAR archaic frequency: 36. fresh. n. duruna). irrigated. depth (Akk.. tie.. ñar ). 'cavity.. ) (cf. to open. "hunger".."vomit"). a-dé. + ur. to despoil (reduplication class. to pay (with -ta ). búru. dar4: dark. dara4. dur: bond. opening. n. dir: (cf.. to tear out. 'plant' or a. pot (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. 'to tear. Version 3. pierce. + úr. 'lap. berry [rare word]. locust. to remove. burin. 'to slice.48 hectares = 18 iku = 3 area éše = 1800 sar = the amount of land that supported a family (also cf.. reap') . arû IV . to receive. split. bu(3. dim. 'to shear. 'bond. string. cf.. búru ) (ba. but cf. to be drawn. dúr: (cf. dur10: gar: ax (compare dar. concatenation of 9 sign variants] ..6): to tear. sparrow ?. cf. to shatter (reduplication class) (da. draw. nominative suffix with vowel harmony). 'arm. + úr. hole'..bur: meal. root') [BU archaic frequency: 393. open container'. bir for destructive wreckers. buru14. necklace. split'). parû III. to knap. hole.0 40 . belt. dúru. high (compare dirig.6) + nominative for anything that harvests or destroys plants)... to break into (a house). release. moist. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .. bùru ) (from Akkadian buuru IV. ub4. 'to be darkened. well'. buru4. "space.. side'. bur14: dar: harvest. 'strap') . to spread out (a garment). legs') [BUR archaic frequency: 51. dur5[A]: (anše) dur9[ŠUL]: (cf. bii/eeru IV.. cf. *ba'Vr-/*bu'Vr. dár: n. fruit tree. dàr: (cf. francolin. hot season.. keep away (ba. cut off'. v. dur. v. dàra. bar. mine. bur12. bur(2): n... bu(3. fruit. diri. cut off. (anše) dùr(ùr): 'fresh'). amulet chain. tie').. buru7[GURUN]: buru8: to vomit (Akk. + either ú. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . crow ?. duraþ). strap. thighs. to tear out. 'to vomit'. Orel & Stolbova #164.. to bind. could also be Sumerian from. bìr for animals in plural numbers. bùr: a square surface measure = 6. he-ass. 'portion. pit". *'or. bùr: v. receptacle. uproot.. bùru(-d).

civilized. giri11. to curb..'place'.Biblical kor (= 300 sìla in Old Akkadian and NeoSumerian periods. to run.12: thick milk. gur. harvest. gir10. to separate. gam ). Version 3. silo. 'fluid kiln (for lime or bitumen). gi9. to turn away from (object has ablative -ta ).9. 'bull'). to bow down. cf. carry. blaze') [GIR 4 secretion') [GIR archaic frequency: 28. preeminent. gud. to wipe off. to make a circular motion.. appearance (to be + to send) [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. a capacity measure. in admin. loop. 'to shine. kur5. nape' + ra. + ir(2). domestic. ca... 'to strike'.14. cheese (cf.. 'basket') . very strong. kùr: n.gàr. kara6: grain heap. gur(4).. circle.. gir11[KEŠDA]: to be tidy. kud.. neat (cf. to turn. gúr: n. v. gir8: v. gur. to catch (in a net). fury (compare bir9). copper sickle (semi-circle + flowing motion).. 'to bring'. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ge9[NE]: anger. 'basket'). to cut. gur8 [TU]: high. coarse. ñiri5). v. gur7. adj. to be or feel big. reed basket. = 144 sìla in Old Sumerian Girsu/Lagash.. granary. to gallop. divide. ur4: n. storeroom. to die (cf. contradict. sphere. v. loaded. 'to sweep away') .. archaic frequency: 1]. gur5.9. gir15.. roll over. saña 11[KIN]). fangs. guðx. mir ) (circular container + er. laden (Umma reading for íla sign. ga-àr-ra) [GARA2 archaic frequency: 106.. hoop (circle + ur. gar4[GUD/GUÐ]: gara2. þir) (gi4. ñar: n... to pluck.. kùr. gi7 [KU]: noble. cf. great (cf. guru7. to reject evidence (in a legal case). to gather together. cream.. filled sack (of silver ?) = purse.. form. submit.'to restore'. cf. Mercury. gir5: (cf. used for round and high objects ('circular' + 'to send forth. gar2. gùr. 'neck.11. pommel. to be endowed with. to be full. (urudu) gur10. subdue. oven (cf. gur. texts = 2 bariga ) [? GUR archaic frequency: 14] (circle + to reap.. guru5. kàr: knob. deep. to give back. to reap.. to return. plump.. kir13: cow or mare of intermediate age. to protest. to send). to gather in. + ara4. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . kir: gir4. guru8.0 41 . + ri. ga6: to bear. to grind (reduplication class) (circle + flowing motion). Sumerian Lexicon. udun ) (ki.. ring. to come back. cake. bright. frequency: 152]. and gúgur5. 'to surround') . guru6: (cf. gir. pull (weeds) (gú.'place'.dug4/du11/e). kur12: n. belonging to the native in-group (circle + city) [ŠE3 archaic giri17: (cf. cf.. thick. kára ). kur4. v.. a fish. gu4ud). can only be seen right before sunrise.10.10. to protect') .. kìri). early (the 'bull of the sun'. to shear (sheep).. to join in assent (probably reduplication class) (cf. hair lock on the back of the head (sign of a slave). possibly a carangid (ki.. 909 liters (cf. fattened. measure of capacity .

kikkin.. lightning flash.. to be taken. to dig (many small explosive sounds + ùr. þara5: spout. ur5: n. young. sketch. n. to chew.. 'cow or mare'). ur5) (many small explosions + sliding motion) [UR5 archaic frequency: 34. úr.. 'fluid secretion'. 'to branch out from the side of') . way. produce. trip (ñiš. yield (abundance + to go out + to flow) . ñíri. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ara3. ñiri16. to take away. captive (additional associations of 'road' and 'sword') . cf. + ra. 'to shine') [? KAR 2 archaic frequency: 68. path (ñiš. to squeeze.3: n. 'to drag') . 'millstone'). kín . kar: n. small. vessel with a large spout (þa. + ra. cf. a large vessel. (cf. mooring-place. scorpion. send. quay-wall. giri 11). besiege. to pillage. ñir16 [ÑÌR×KÁR]: fortress. v.. 'to strike. ñir2. kàr: kir: kír: Sumerian Lexicon. v. kir. v. coil or spiral of silver or other precious metal that can be worn as a ring or bracelet and was used as money (cf. þir[KEŠDA]: v. gir ). handle (þù. to grind. place. to scratch. 'tool'. hole... adj. kára. lighten. to escape. guru6: to encircle.. ñìri. port authority (place + water + to flow. þara. foot. ara3. to pulverize (in a mortar). restore (with ši-). to steal. miller (reduplicated þar/àr. þara. to be bright (of light.. thorn. ring... + ir(2). (cf.. v. flash. nominative ending. expedition..3. establish. ten. gir. where a round hole was the symbol for 10) . n. þar. capture... ñír: n. + uru9. to stab. day) (reduplication class) (sometimes written for kúr ) (place + ur. kár.. + ra. ñir5[KAŠ4]: v. to destroy. kur9. take. deposit. to avoid. to impute.5. v. to seek refuge.. accumulate. accuse. 'tool'. Version 3. inscribe. to store. millstone. outline. to run.. set down upon. þur. to deliver. via. ur5[ÞAR]: n.0 42 . to take away. slay' with vowel harmony) [GIR 2 archaic frequency: 114].. knife. ñiri2. crushed. pillage. link (in a chain). to put. prep. to remove and set elsewhere (with -ta-). embankment. step.v. sword. 'to impress into clay'. 'support'. adj.. illuminate.. feet.. pulverized. to raid. to make. limb. stem. ñìr: n. road. cf. marketplace.'place'. 'leg(s)'. trot. to shine. refugee. to capture... ñidri and ñušur for similar and different phonetic developments). milled. refuge. stranger. v. 'entrance') [KAR archaic frequency: 7]. tighten (cf. to drive away. to expel (with -da-) (ñá-ñá in marû). concatenates 2 sign variants] . precative prefix. to fulgurate. run away. booty. beer keg (ki. and ara4. stab.. àr.. gàr ). ñiri5.5: n. drive away. harbor. 'to surround' + a. to make groats.. ground. draw.. dagger.

gùr: n.specifies delivery location). wagon. muzzle (of an animal). reap'. mur: worm. adj.. giri17: nose. concatenates 3 sign variants] . to blow' + úr. mill.4) (ki. + ur4..'mountains. north(wind). kir4.9. kir6. kùr: (cf. garden. v. highland. 'root. v. 'to send forth shoots. kur7: kur9. to bring. 'roof. adj. 'to pinch kiri3. (foreign) land. gur ).. marru "shovel. lungs. kuru5. kur4: (cf. 'entrance') . 'earth'.'hoe') [MAR archaic frequency: 117. to let enter (with -ni -). kiri 3. angry. hostility (from kur. kur6: (cf. 'to sing. cf. foreign land') .kìr[LAGAB]: off').0 43 . lock up.. (cf. turn into. furious. to sow.SILA4]: female lamb [KIR11 archaic frequency: 3]. kir6.. an encircling snake (var. 'fluid secretion'/ ra. + ùr.. or blossoms') .4) (ki. Orel & Stolbova #1738 *mar. + ùr. Akk. ku4: (cf. mer(2). storm wind.. liri: (ñiš/urudu) (cf. to break a seal (often with -da -) (kúr-re in marû). also. fodder for fattening. to reach. to get angry.'place'. + flowing motion. base') . to don.. + ir(2). + ir. to be different..'place'. earthworm. to grind. belt. concatenates 2 sign variants] . hostile. mountain. entrance (ki. kud ). waistband.'battle'. ñar7: n. Sumerian Lexicon. alien.7. to immerse. scatter. violent storm.. to turn round. kud.. kur5: kuru7. apply. of gùr ) (me3. lirum ).. 'to flood') . kir13: kur: (cf. liru. to coat. kiri6: kir11[MÍ. buds. mir(2). mur. v. to rise (sun). cf. to enclose. gir 4). mú.... ñá. sun 5) . to change. 'root. spade". 'place'. v.6. palm grove (ki.4: ñiš stream dam..'to go'. v.. + to flow / circle + ur. mar. kurum6).'to shout'/ mud6. lattice. stranger. to kindle. to blow fiercely. ur5 [ÞAR]: n. to enter before someone (with dative prefix). gur4).4. kúr[PAB]: n.7. kurum 7). fierce. orchard. to surround.. + ru5. 'to shear.. winnowing shovel. to shout. 'to surround') [MER archaic frequency: 48... 'place'. enemy. n. to enter.. weir (cf. transform (with -da -) (singular [?] reduplication class stem. in the future. kur5. the netherworld (ki.'place'. hyena (cf. 'smell')... Version 3. base') [KUR archaic frequency: 145. strange. and kid2. to deliver (-ni . anger. liver. grate (mu7. mountain pass'/ úr. enter into the presence of (with -ši -). to guard. concatenates 2 sign variants] . attain. spoon (ma(3). v. mar. n. to nip off (clay) (ki.

Sumerian Lexicon. drive'. which derives from Akk.. kar for such a progression from the noun to the verb)... to write. nir: n. to disturb someone. to winnow. 'equal in rank') .. deep furrow. n. vegetable(s) [SAR archaic frequency: 102. but meaning probably derives from the act of chasing vermin from the vegetable garden. sa. so. šar: a surface measure.. cf. to stretch. prince.UD. driven out. depth. 'to surround'. deliver punctually.5. to delimit. vanquish (to be high + to go out + to flow) . na4 nír[ZA. to overcome.'woman'. mur10. suspend.. si-il. divide') . weak. chaff. rushes. drain (to fill. reach. 'to follow. proper. to make hurry. sár: sír: adj. + ir(10).KID. sar. victorious.. adj. to drive (with -ni -). a precious stone with black and white flecks.. to dress oneself (reduplication class [?]) (mu10. murgu ). ditch. dense. enter.. to drive. cf. 'long and narrow'. sil. naaru I. to hang. to clothe. murux [GI. + ur. 'flood basin') . sur6.. par3/4: sar.. brother-in-law (mu10. šár ). chase away (with -ta -)..MAÞ]: singer. pursued. šar: n. ús. musician (loan from Akkadian naaru II. sumur ). to support.18. density.U4. 'high. 'height. contrast sug. + to flow). sa5. v. "river" in the same way that Sumerian nab means both "ocean" and "musician") [NAR archaic frequency: 69]. cf. (cf. to grow weak'... sila.7). síl. foundation pit (ús. v. "musician". sur: sur: (cf. v. ner: adj. mist.'woman'.GÍN]: (cf. chopped straw [? SUR archaic frequency: 6].. bound. reed mat..0 gur [= 60 gur ] of capacity = 1. 'garden plot' = 1 square ninda = 60 surface shekels = 1/100 iku = 4 square reeds = 144 square cubits = 36 meters 2. mu4: muru9: nar: muru5[MÍ. šur ) (si. + uru2. lord [NIR archaic frequency: 45.. + ur. 'sweat') . 'to cut into. concatenates 2 sign variants] . inundate + to flow. a volume measure of one square ninda times 1 kùš = 144 kùš 3 = ca.'to be full. zara 5).0 44 . 'to surround') . adj. frog. sir5. nir. clean grain.demonstrative. haze (mi. feverish (si. divide (reduplication class ?)(cf..0 gín in weight. + rù. Version 3. mur7. su. to hover. foundation. zil. thus. run (to be skilled.RU6 = SAL. to pay. to wear (cf. sur5: height.8: (cf. súr: sùr: sur6. lift'.. suru5.. to insert. precise + flowing motion. in this way. concatenates 3 sign variants] . uš. deep') . bàra ). n.'to be dark'..EDIN]: fog.7: (cf. omen. to begin. 18 cubic meters = 1. to raise high. n.. a garden plant. extend. for 'to drive away'.

7). child. sír ) (Akkadian loan from šaraapu(m) . guard.tar) [TAR archaic frequency: 56. to shine brightly (cf.. šìr: (cf. cf. sug 8). destroy (ta. šèr ). to submerge. to spray out. sick. gleam (šu. decision. the number 3600 = 60 (many... to spout.. 'to pour' + to flow. 'to shear. young. to decide. to process wine and juices. to produce a liquid. all. to break. to determine.. tur5: tur5. to flash. to decide (éše.. sur: šúr: tar: adj. to be/make small. much + àr. tir: tur: forest. v. rafters'. 'to watch. grove. 'arrows' + ùr.. totality.. to make abundant. šur. 'from'. explain. little. newborn. to slaughter. lament (Orel & Stolbova #2258 *sir-/*sur 'sing'). to cut. 'ring. to spin (a cocoon) (cf. tur) [TUR 3 archaic frequency: 121. concatenates 3 sign variants] . second in rank (tu.. šír: šèr.. to extract seed oil. innumerable. concatenates 4 sign variants] .. 2 šár. to sing.. sir4: v. nir. judicious. testicles (many + to go out + to flow. byre. and ñiš2. sur8: to tap. sug 8) (repetitive motion + to flow) [? ZAR archaic frequency: 15. cf. to be or become sick. adj... 'to be born'. þir. world.sur8: (cf. dar and nam. to smoke. + ur4. implore (reduplication class). adj. weakness. 'rope'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . (cf. thicket (ti. deliberate. 'to burn') . Version 3. to multiply or mix (with -da -). + ur. to brew (beer). cf.. to request.0 45 . sumur ). to exude. the graphically similar sign. a frequent metaphor for a temple. šar8 [NI]: šér.. sur12: šar: (cf. to be many. 'to surround') ... + ùru. v. concatenates 2 sign variants] . reap'. zar). counter.3) [ŠIR archaic frequency: 24. n. numerous. ball. early example of asyndetic hendiadys). zur4. sar. sár: n.. to rain.. protect') [TUR archaic frequency: 272]. n.. young (of herd animals). to flow. lú šár: a military officer = commander of 3600. to inquire. drip. Sumerian Lexicon. v. to bind. pen. weak. (cf. šar). song. zar. stable.... to be insufficient.. sanctuary (cf.. small. to press (out). šur: v. coil'). pour. adj. n. to reduce. šìr: šir. tùr. sickness. šeñ3. tu: birth-hut. 'beams. flow. horizon.. n. to interpret. sheepfold. šìr[EZEN]. v. token.

'urine'. + aš. cf. 'water'. ñiš2. 'strength'. wood. alcoholic beverage (ka. awesome. v. þáš.. Sumerian Lexicon.. kás: kàš: beer... (cf. ñeš: one (dili. man (self + to go out + many. an ass or equid used as a draft animal in front of plows and wagons (du. used in working at the lower levels in excavating a canal. transportation basket. thigh (numerous + foundation. + si14. nisi. nisig ). with its similar appearance. ñeš2.. cf. šaña). þaz ). þaš4: þuš: þeš5: (cf. 'beer'.6). 'two').. zara5. terrible. base).3. lower abdomen. twine (yarn or thread).3. + áš. ruššû).. kas7. offering. 'one'. ñiš2. uš: penis.. v. tool. Orel & Stolbova #1766 *mi’es. plow.KUR. mina. concatenates 2 sign variants] . would have to be forced so much. tree.. that the homophone kaš. ñeš2. wild (said of animals). to be angry (compare guz.LIBIR]: walk'. adj. scepter. ñiš2. ñeš2. dúsu [ANŠE.'tree') [MES archaic frequency: 32]. possession (back-formation from níñ-kas7/ka9). þaš: (cf. prince. ñešta). sur: to spin. tend. 'a small pot'). fiery red (Akk. diš(2). sheaf. zur: dusu: n. zar[LAGAB×SUM]: zara5 and zar). to rock (an infant). 'to fill up'). chamber pot (kàš. wooden implement. sacrifice. concatenates 4 sign variants] . nissa: šes: (cf.3. min(5. organ. probably replaced the use of a. hackberry tree in the elm family (me. settlement of accounts. 'to stand upright') . prayer (repetitive activity + to flow/protect). provide.. deš: ñiš. + usu.(ñiš) zar: wagon shaft (cf. to roll up (repetitive motion + to flow). Version 3. adj. to mean 'urine' at some point). natural phenomenon (describes a trunk that goes out into many branches and leaves) [GIŠ archaic frequency: 381]. þuz).. za-ra ) (Akkadian loanword from .3. + usu. 'to desire') [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261. son. 'hackberry tree'. 'excrement'. cf.4. zàr[SUM]. furious. zar5.. to offer.3. young man. loins. kaš. šeš ).. corvée (du.3: (cf.serru(m) II). mèš: deduction. 'mouth'. concatenation of 2 sign variants. urine (an etymology involving š 'endowment'. 'single'.RA): horse (reduplicated si. n. cf. 'strength') . describes an animal assigned to the plow (sometimes ñiš-šè ).0 46 . Akkadian loanword . to furnish. sheaves (rolled up and bound stalks and ears. 'to + si. 'to walk'.meesu I. UŠ archaic frequency: 101. nitaþ(2) and šir) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16. sisi (ANŠE.. sir5. to pray. back. the form resembles that of the semantically appropriate male body part. ka9: kisi: mes.. to arrange.

'to do. totality.. bitter. noncitizen. 'to desire') [MUŠ 3 archaic frequency: 284. next to'/ šè. kas4: n.3: n. tourist (place(s) + locative + many) [KAS 4 archaic frequency: 1]. the etymology of muš. kišik (2)).. 'fish'. valet. maš: máš: n. build'. 'to be joined. to glisten. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . turtle (cf. to be out of breath.. 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133]. where 'whale' must be meant) (ku6. frequency: 14. (cf. snake.9: cover') . nonresident. kišib 7. 'to kúš: kùš: to be tired. channel (cf. kuš6: (cf.. terminative suffix/ šú.. ŠIM×KÚŠU . 'to cut'. sacrificial animal [MAŠ 2 archaic frequency: 60]. to worry.8. + ús. he-goat [MAŠ 2 archaic frequency: 60]. kiši16/17: kiši4: half. reptile (eme. n... 'to base. contrast gàr. fluent. to calm (kúš-(ù) in marû) (aka. entire political world (name of the powerful city in the north of Sumer that first bound together and defended the cities of Sumer) (places + many) [? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46]. mes ). depart. go out'. yield (of a field) (ma4. body-servant.0 47 . šè. destruction.. 'portion'). 'female'. aspect.. v. leather (ku5. (cf. interest (of a loan).. + úš. 'to cover') [? UÞ 3 archaic morsel (happiness + small + šè. + šú. kuš. 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133]. concatenates 2 sign variants] . maš.. one-half. kešda ). boy (ki. 'tongue'/ ma4. kàr) (ki. go out'. forelock (sign of a freeman. kuš7: devastation. groom. diadem. messenger. kéš: (cf. šu-da) (ku. + úš. extispicy (divination based on the entrails of a sacrificed animal). v. Sumerian Lexicon. forearm. appearance.. to travel fast. keš: ñiš kiša(2). cultivated territory. to run fast.kaš4. a city's irrigated. depart.. inspect.. esquire. 'venom. depart. kušum x). Version 3. speed.. act'. + áš. mèš: muš: (cf. shine. adj.9). kuruš). face. + úš. muš4: a biting insect (cf. concatenates 2 sign variants] . + šè. 'portion') [LIŠ archaic frequency: 4]. 'place'.. BU: archaic frequency: 393. 'to kill'/uš11. courier. 'to leave.. hide.8. to scrutinize. máš: máš. 'place'.. runner. found. 'to leave. kušu: kúšu: liš: maš: (cf. 'to leave. kiši7. profit. + kid. go out'. kus[SU]: skin. 'snake'). ell/cubit = 1/2 meter = 30 fingers [šu-si ] = distance from elbow to fingertips. quick. surface (mu10. rent. to gallop. + many). poison') [MUŠ archaic frequency: 3. muš2. v. 'to kill'). kiš. twin (ma4. 'dead') . adj. + šè. produce.

cry. cf..6. tuš). ses: v. river pebble. to throw down. péš. together (often with suffix -bi . shame. to reside (su. 'plant'. 'many. home (te. pešx(KI. 'portion') . much'.A): púš: suš: suš2.. n. v. šuš(2).. fig tree (moist container + šè.. peš5. + uš8. to erase. each of them (te. sex. valuable. to make an incision. + aš. scent. šub) [ŠUŠ 2 archaic frequency: 243] . river bank. cf. 'self.0 48 .16. 'three'). šeš).6. three [GIR archaic frequency: 28.muš5[ŠEŠ]: niš. 'spider'). 'hand'). twenty (ní. to go down. bitter. peš10. womb. šuš5. pa. colleague [URI 3=ZATU-595 archaic frequency: 77. become dark. piš10. brackish. to wail (reduplication class) (to become moist ?). 'fig'). 'to desire'.. to conceive. to comb and clean wool. v. to be dense (reduplication class) (reduplicated eš. 'placental membrane'. adj. Version 3. cf. šeš. base'... šu5. all kinds... a type of edible mouse (probably derives from pèš. to cover (with -da -) (reduplication class) (reduplicated šu. eš5. palm frond. wide. to pluck apart. 'one [finger. tightness. be overcast (said of the sun). šu2.6: n.21. all sorts. + áš. aš(5). spider. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to weep. + ú... 'body'. fluff (cf. 'to approach'. body'. adj. to breathe deeply. deep breathing. v. peš(7): ñiš child... v. branch'. feed. to mourn. 'foundation place... base') . toe]') . šuš4: to fell trees. 'to anoint') [ERIN=ŠEŠ 4 archaic frequency: 105]. 'body. neš: peš: bitter (eme. to feel ashamed.. adv. sexuality.4): šeš2. + eš. píš: pèš: fig. anoint (with oil) (su. peš4.. to set. + eš. pain. 'to anoint') . to taste bitter. brethren. Sumerian Lexicon.. fodder (scattered for animals) (reduplicated uš. -ba or -e ). combed wool. relatives'. to chop away (reduplicated šu. šes: šeš. to rub.4: to overthrow. + eš. n. ašte).13: n. myrrh (reduplicated eš. + uš8. brother. difficult circumstances (derives from peš4. 'to be pregnant') . precious. cf. to be pregnant. 'tongue'. 'foundation place. 'to stand upon') .. tuš: n. litter. 'leaf.3: shore.6: téš[UR]: bedding. 'to anoint') . son.3. 'to approach'. to be thick.4: to anoint. concatenation of 4 sign variants] (moist container + ùš. to expand. to sit down. modesty. 'hand'. šeš(2. n. to rub. 'to anoint'.

. 'portion' + ída. trim.. šed: šita6: n. [ñiš]naña3. KUM]). concatenates 7 sign variants] . 'to anoint'.su . adj. loanword from saasu .. to lie down (singular. 'main canal') [ŠITA 3 archaic frequency: 139.. šid3. gaz(2): gazi: n. intact. + barag. band.. + zú. + ta. to couple. téš).. bi(z): n. small canal (šè. 'by means of'/ dé. þaš: nuz. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . + ta. defeat. to push someone away.. bathed. to castrate (reduplication class: þu-þu-uz ) (gù. 'ruler. þaz. abrig: a purification priest (a. 'portion'. fracture. tie (šè.4.. cf. 'by means of') [EŠDA archaic frequency: 26]. íd. used on meat ('let it breathe'..'pebble'. + te. nook'. èšda: (ñiš) clean. a spice . 'flow of tears' and ba. to consider. Sumerian Lexicon. a type of drum (function + repetitive noise). ašte. 'to sift'). nita: (cf. slaughter (with -da. accuse.saa.. v. Akk. i. + uz/us. link with.. 'nature. to calculate. ešda: šìta: channel. šita(4). 'noise'. emmer (wheat) (reduplicated zé or zi). 'niche. loanword from bi. cf.). to set up. to (cause to) dwell. to be at home. also. 'to (let) drip'.4. war (chamber + repetitive motion. dá. to crush. be wet'). kasû II) [GAZI archaic frequency: 14]. + gal. 'teeth') . a type of vessel. reside. to rinse off. + lal. to read aloud. dá. clip. cf. to settle.'insect') . + ta. nus: meze: ziz: zìz: to break or cut off (twigs. šíta. to vanquish. to cut. measure. v. egg (na4.'goose'. establish. 'niche'. nañX[GAZ. 'great') [ABGAL archaic frequency: 31]. abgal(2): ablal(3): absin(3): sage. to sit. powder. 'water'. to be together. sing. Orel & Stolbova #1034 *‘açuç. trickle. 'to pour. nest (ab. number (šè. cf. adj. to dry (cf. þuz[LUM] v. break. wise man. šita5. + zé. figure out. šita. 'to approach'. to hang') . to ooze. guz. bi-bi-zé). Version 3. dá. pluck') . tears (Akk. mace (úš. nunuz). èšda. 'moth'. to bind. to kill.. 'moth' and ašaašu .. biz. + sín. to pour. to thresh grain (þá. cf.0 49 . wizard (abba. branches).s. bond. a priest (eš. Orel & Stolbova #256 *baz. duruna ). long. to recite. throne') [ABRIG archaic frequency: 9].. to rage at. to join. cf.. bird niche. to bare the teeth. to gnash the teeth. plural. zíz[ÁŠ]: a crop-devouring insect (see etymology for ziz). to impute. shaggy (hair).su .. šid.cassia.'flow. bound. 'elder'.v. moth (Akk. 7 n.5: v.. (seeded) furrow (ab. character') . nitaþ ). water') [ŠITA archaic frequency: 373. to memorize. šit. 'numerous'.. v. to cry. 'to kill'. 'to be high. 'portion'. to drip. 'to cut. to count.

(cf. akan: akar: alad: udder. uþþur(2. powerful [ALIM=ZATU-219 [GIR 3] sign per P. beer-wort. conduit. father. swamp (a.3): over') . + lal. appearance [ALAN archaic frequency: 51..DIRIG]: addirx: agam: wages. image. (cf. alañ. ferry.3): calf. the 'sentient' sea . vat. alal: alam: alan: alim: pipe.3). 'sea' + zu. to check'. abzu: 28] . 'water'. lintel.the sea personified as a god (aba/ab. Version 3. 'house'. ritual wailing.3).abul[KÁ. añarx[IM×IM. cattle-pen (é. a life force. + ñar. carry'). ugar: agarin(2. ákan.GAL]: city gate (loanword from Semitic for 'door'. aka4[KÁ]: door-frame. alam. cloudburst (a. grant') . IM. agrun: inner sanctuary [ZATU-413 archaic frequency: 4]. mother. superintendent (áña. akan: agar(2. alla: amar: amaš: amagi(2. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . Sumerian Lexicon.3): akani. 'water'. ál: concatenates 6 sign variants] . 'to go adamen(2. gutter. + rig7. crucible. akkil: lamentation. alañ ). Steinkeller.0 50 .3).PAD. sheepfold. imþur ). aþþur(2.. crab. 'wild cow mother'.DUGUD]: to deposit') . 'to accompany. 'to accumulate. 'lift. womb.ÑISAL. wild ram. 'to deed. young animal (áma. alan. commons [AGAR 2 archaic frequency: 16]. leather armor. incline'). + maš. statue. archaic frequency: 73. alañ ). (cf. + gam. ágan. ice. allalx.5: field. net. plural') [AMAR archaic frequency: 297].. 'goat'). (cf. 'water'. Orel & Stolbova.PA. seine. + dirig/dir. + re7. agargaraku6 [NUNtenû]: a fish. #287). 'to decline. pipe for making libation offerings to the deceased (a. a male protective spirit. bridge (ída/íd. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary (1995). mabi(2. añrig: steward. aurochs. heavy rain shower. figure. 'to measure. akani ). 'to know') [ABZU archaic frequency: argument.3): agarin4. addir[A. bison.. fight. 'river'.

báþar: potter [BAÞAR2 archaic frequency: 50.. 'rope'.UŠ. seeder plow (a.4. reeds. plot (cf. 'to cleanse'). mud'. + te.. asilal). to be sympathetic.. container [? BANŠUR archaic frequency: 7. aša5 [GANÁ]: field. vigorous. + bar. taboo. table.5: bànda(da): ñiš prop. concatenates 5 sign variants] .. man-servant') [IR 11 archaic frequency: 10]. ašag. arþuš: n. asila: (cf. root'. a mythical giant bird. subordinate (Akk. 'base.. pack animal (an. banda2. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'water'. the rising sun (reduplicated bar6. urdu(2).5): joy. + bun. arad(2). 'to weave a reed mat'). ir3.5)). fierce. describes a plow animal (also apin-šè ). storehouse. 'lower abdomen'). cf. currier (kuš. + kid(6). azlag(2.5. + gúb. 'male slave. pity (úr. 'youthful freshness and beauty') . v. balañ: lyre (?). aškud: wedge (as a device to bar a door). banšur(2..? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46]. canebrake (imi/im. lúazlag). reed pulp.5): (cf. high'. white.3. support. asil(3. drum (?). young.4. vulture. concatenates 4 sign variants.'sky. necessity. compassion. 'seed'. ašte: azag: lú need. asilal(3. arali: the netherworld (þara/àra. junior.3): Sumerian Lexicon. 'leather'. cf. + zalag. servant. ú númun) (éš. 'clay. impetuous. white') [UD archaic frequency: 419]. equid. anše: male donkey.ambar..MI/DUGUDmušen]: archaic frequency: 1]. terminative postposition = 'up to' = 'to raise up. anzu(2)-(d)[dIM. launderer (a. concatenates 3 sign variants] . abbar: marsh. 'to pulverize'.0 51 . 'to obtain'). 'to desire'. (ú) aški: bulrush (Typha grass.4. Version 3. ásar: Euphrates poplar tree [ASAL 2 archaic frequency: 16]. 'to blow') [APIN archaic frequency: 181. + la. felt-worker. a-šà-(g)).GÍD. asilal (3. proud. téš).. ramp (?). loanword from wardum. fuller. desirable or beloved object (áš. womb.DA]: (male) slave. ñiš ásal. carry') [ANŠE archaic frequency: 48. 'to approach'.. + þáš.4. 'to cleanse') . ašlag: babbar(2): bright. adj. eagle [ANZU 2 anzalub: anzud(2). arala. ašgab: leather-dresser. 'bright.6). funeral song [? BALAG archaic frequency: 20]. + šè. onager. gladness.11: araþ4[É. ašlag: (cf.4. ñiš apin: n.

'to rush around'. barley malt. secret. living quarters.5): bùzur: hand.. + zil. adj. trough. box. ordinance. support. 'to fly'. make grow. riot. bàra. + ra. tornado. dakkan. búgin: basket (for carrying food) (cf. clear (reduplicated dág. needle. + nun. dañal: n. ñarim ) (dag. to be swollen'. billuda. Equals 6 bán . frightened. palm. foster child [BULUG3 archaic frequency: 19].. 'to flood. overflow'.bappir(2/3): beer bread (a sweet and possibly pungent bread made from barley dough . enlarge.AN]: bugin: basket. to grow big.4. chamber (dag. 'to cut. + gan. stand. + gal/ñal. buñiñx. worship. 'to pack') [? BARA 2 archaic frequency: 69.mixed with malt [munu 4] to make mash [titab ] for beer). vicinity. + þa-mun.6: throne dais. king. pure.0 52 . copious. concatenates 2 sign variants. v. + aka/ag. Version 3.. width. 'the bán from picking. buluþ: to worry. duststorm. seal pin. 'dwelling'. rite. awl. whirlpool.4. border (bul.. 'to sprout'.. peel'). noble') . (bán-rig-a. pupil. precinct (cf. boundary post. bùluñ: n.. 'to bear'). opposing or contrasting') . 'big') [AMA archaic frequency: 241.BAR): (meteoric) iron (bar6. bibad[UZ.TUR]mušen: ñiš duck. 'side'. bár. concatenates 6 sign variants] . to be nervous. cult. bárag. 'resting place'. daggan: dalþamun: dalþamun4: harem. 'to shine'. 'valuables') . fields. chamber. clean'). safety. 'brilliant. Euphrates river (bu5. nest [BARA 3 archaic frequency: 13]. to grow. fright. 'to run fast'.. brilliant. cf. v.UD]: dagrim: coarse (?) barley flour.36 sìla in the Old Sumerian period and 60 sìla in the Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian periods. + níñ. 'to do') [BULUG archaic frequency: 4].. buniñx. sprout.. puzur(2. to hasten.. crate. v. novice. Sumerian Lexicon. 'mutually confusion. a merchandise tax. 'great. hurry. . gleaning') . adj. broad. barag. to clean. barzil (AN. tub (bún/buñx. vat. bara5. cult platform. bàr [DAG]: bariga [PI or UL(in Old Sumerian period)]: a measure of capacity . concatenates 2 sign variants] . bunin: buranun: bitumen-coated reed container (for carrying liquids). bar-rim4). sacred. brewer [BAPPIR archaic frequency: 28. security.5). mystery. to widen. + rim4. violent storm. bulug: shoot. breadth (da.ŠE]: dadag [UD. to rear. ruler. biluda[PA. disorder. puniñx. wide. sack. revolt (dal. dwelling (container plus ra(g). buzur(2. dabin [ZÌ. drill. buniñ). 'blister. bára. ? ZATU-764 archaic frequency 21].

noted for its sweet water springs (cf. 'root. to be erased. 'to fly.danna. + áþi.. 'bond.DÚR]: dwelling [DUR 2 archaic frequency: 52]. kiln. adj. funnel-shaped bowl containing seeds for the drill plow. the island of Bahrain. + gul. cf. drain' + úr.. clothe.. weight. air vent (dè. dwell. hide') . 'skeleton'. 11. ibex (dur. amount by which credits of an account tablet exceed debits . 'arm') [DARA 3 archaic frequency: duraþ.. to go over. buttocks. 'to lessen') . massive. ebir(2). v. 'fish'). diri. 'complete'. dir [SI. Sumerian Lexicon. 'potash') . 'tears or any bodily secretion') . single (reduplicated dili). beer mug. a watery type of beer . to be supreme over (with dative/locative). to be darkened. 'to bring down (or up). duruna). intercalary month after either 11th month or 12th month (based as much on whether the winter crop will be ready for the harvest month as on the need to reconcile the lunar year with the solar year. crucible. v. place (objects) (plural. eclipsed. 'enormous') . 'decision'. tie'. difficult. cloud [DUGUD archaic frequency: 2]. dúruna. diñir. to set down. to surpass. heavy.0 53 . dìlim: oven for baking and roasting. cloudbank. addition. to pour'. to be seated. durunx [DÚR. Version 3. and dul. duruna.. mountain goat buck. to exit. dinig[KI. IM dungu: cloud. adj. ñiš dubšik[ÍL]. dana: road-length measure. 'people'). dìlib: hair.appears in the credits section of the succeeding period's account tablet. additional. trouble. very small.. plural.. (gi) which required an average of 7 intercalary months in 19 years) (cf. dàr: durun: (cf. 'needle'. young. tilmun ) [DILMUN archaic mast (dim. stand out. surplus. + gud... separate. 6. epir(2): ebla: edakua(2): small pot. to exceed. to sit. 'march' = 30 UŠ = 21600 cubits = ca. n. 'to store. 'bull'). ušub). + ñar. to break wind. durun. remove'. thighs'. superior. brazier. to be greater than. salt.8 kilometers. 'to bond. tie'. 'tongue') . hard (du7. dal. frequency: 35].'light beer' (íb. dilina. to occupy. locks (cf. 'to deliver'). dirig.. 'ashes'. double hour (twelfth part of a full day) = the time it takes to march a length of 1 danna (Akkadian etymology from 'place of strength or safety') [DANNA archaic frequency: 2]. dúru. to float (with the current). + lal/lá. 'to cover. dálla. + ùña/un. + eme. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . superfluous. spoon (dal. determinative for divine beings (di. outstanding. dàra. to be extra. dél: dìlim[BUN]: dilmun : dimgul: ki god. singular tuš ) (èd. various. didila: didli: assorted. excess. individual. dúr.. overdraft. anus. deity.7 miles/10. ray'. dubur(2): testicles (dub. + ku6/kua. fish bones (adda.A]: n. to dry out. lap. 'waist'. dugud: n. dalla. + ir(2). dupsik: basket.NE]: potash. + naña. 'beam. dingir: dílim.

+ ñar. adv. + ku6/kua. 'of').edimx.3. 'lord'. inheritance. cook (en. ñiš enkara: a weapon. émmen. imma: énmen.. crush. ímma: ensi(3): frequency: 8]. emma. on. brick wall (é. enku: fishing overseer (en. root'. endib: cook (en. 'enigmatic background' + sig7. winter (en. immin..GI]: 22] . guardian deity of the foundations [ENKUM archaic frequency: 14].4): bladder (éllañ. + si. future. eden: prep. 'plowland'. Akk. ímmen. slaughter') [ENGIZ archaic frequency: engur: subsoil water. 'to deposit'/ ñar8. nísañ. emedu(2): émeš: house/estate-born slave (eme. behind. hoop or wooden ball ?. back. 'floor. + ten. + dub. queen. summer. to drink beer. 'kidneys'.0 54 .. endub. eñer: prep. shake') [ENDIB archaic frequency: 6]. 'lord'. 'to mortar bricks').. ereš. elamkuš(2. an-gur4). edin: earthenware vat for oil and fats. + nañ. + in. 'to move in a circle. farmer (en. ellañ [LAGAB]: éllañ: kidneys. ímmin.. intelligent. driving stick ?. engar: irrigator. against. immen. n. 'ikkar from Semitic "to hoe. 'fish'. emmen. lady. spine (éd. city governor (post-Sargonic) (en. dream interpreter (en. bow ?. edin. 'to fracture. + mun. iñar: eñir. limit. knowing. 'water'. eñar.ÞA) as ešsad). 'lord. 'straw') [EDIN archaic frequency: 5]. 'salt'). 'mammy'. + a(k). 'to dwell. to complete' ?) [ENSI archaic city ruler (Old Sumerian). n. émma. ereç ?[NIN]: ereš5[GAL-AN-ZU]: erib: daughter-in-law. Sumerian Lexicon. stern (of a ship). 'to be born') .. block of wood. plain. cf. + kuš. + gaz. egi(2): princess. engiz [ME. + tud/dú. 'governor') [ENSI 2 archaic frequency: 1]. steppe. enmen. 'to send forth'. 'lord'.EN. afterwards. cf.. + úr. Version 3. 'field'. back. cultivate"). 'to drink'. 'cold'. 'house'. thirst (en. + agar. énsi(-k): enten(a): + genitive. a number word. grazing land between the two long rivers.3. end. manager'. 'time'. 'lord'. enkux [ZAG-ÞI-A]: enkum: temple treasurer. 'time'. 'skin'). same signs (ZAG. egir2. abyssal sea of fresh water (a. tax assessment official.

mash tun. 'rope'. enemy. storehouse.ŠE. + en. same signs (ZAG.. (na4) esig.ÞA) as enku).5: (ñiš šim) treasury. stairs. eren: érin. Sumerian Lexicon. (cf. (cf.. gagig: to lament. 'first. feast (uzu. strong. éren: érim. É.. + gig. 'nose. muzzle').. fine. high. ingenious.3: slavegirl. ezinu: grain. šíta ). esañ: heir son (a/e4. shoe. gamar: to be overwhelming (gam. eškiri. olivine-gabbro. ezen ). offspring'. + mer. 'rope'. 'house. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . zeþ) [? EŠGAR archaic frequency: 12]. prime'). solid. celebration (éše. concatenation of 3 ezen. the deity Ašnan [EZINU archaic frequency: 24. ešsad: fisherman (éše. bridle. troops. caraway seed. to ascend. us5.. granary. esir(2): kuš crude bitumen (usu. v. gamun: cumin. 'first.erim. cereal..SAÑ]: temple'. 'strong'. sink'. complicated.. hostile. treasures. 'illness. evil. galam: n. servant. u8). + kìri. 'both. tall. 'seed. É.3): ešgar: (cf. 'violent storm'). 'rope'. + ir(2). people. 'strength' or esi. erin7. ésañ[ÑÁ׊E]. adj. jumping rope (éše. frequency: 175. 'to kneel'. injury'). two') . ešgiri: eštubku6: ezem: nose rope. destruction [ERIM 2 archaic frequency: 20]. artistic. Version 3. esi: good. + sañ. erim). (cf. gagar [KI]: gakkul: area. to anoint with cedar-oil [ERIN archaic frequency: 105]. festival. 'to exclaim'. climb. cedar. folk [ERIM archaic n. èsir: ešda: èšda: ešemen(2.3.4. clay brewing-vessel. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . clever. esañx[É׊E. + sañ. ebony. ganam4. army. 'liquid secretion'). + sud. 'cut of meat'. erin. prime').0 55 .. sandal. jump rope.. šita ).. play. man. 'to immerse. + men. to wail (gù. 'time') [EZEN archaic frequency: 114. ezem: sign variants] . rín: balance scale (cf. gang of workers. elaborate. rim(3): adj.. diorite. a river carp: binnî. erum2. érin. gana4: (cf. erim3. storeroom (é. eru2. halter. soldier.

'to be sick'.7): ñiš spirit. 'warrior'. to be twisted.4): man'. gi16: 'abundance') [GIL archaic frequency: 1]..4. or gi6.3): ewe. wheel(s). artisan.. job. 'black'. gukin(2): entire inhabited world. cleanse'. coach (reduplicated gur4/gir8. queen (cf. gúdibir: war (gud(2). 'to purify. 'reeds'. + bil. 'to burn'). tangled. + dìm. + dim4. pile of sheaves (on a harvested field) (guru7. to detach a piece of clay.4). linen-clothed priest who cares for and feeds the gods. the netherworld (cf. stake.5): shock. to fence off. gir8: piece of clay. wisdom. + lam. gana6 [DARA4]: ganzer(2. catastrophe. + tun(3).3. chariot. gudug. gazimbi. girim. to twist. 'to consume'. supply master. bar. wagon. gukkal [KUN. + lam. gili. gilim-(b). spouse (nitaþ. gurun). gudu4. gaššu: intelligent. gidim(2. ga-an. to cross. mistress. gidi6: eclipsed. to be corrupted.4: leek(s).3. 'black'. nit(a)lam(2. cf. kungal ). garadin(4. 'to shine') [GIBIL archaic gíbil: to burn. gìrim. 'to approach') . darkness. gírin: (cf. destroyed. 'male.. gáraš. price equivalent. 'luxuriance'). moth. new. fresh. divide'. honeymooner. dancer. gurun). + imi/im. ghost (gig.0 56 . 'to separate. ga-ša-an) (Emesal dialect word. ganba: marketplace. work. gazibu: gibil(4): frequency: 77]. gil. oracle.ganam6. girin. 'clay'.5). gazinbu. to creep or glide on the ground (gur5. garaš: straw. decision. gúda: divinely anointed. murder'). skilled person. reed bundle. beam.. pole. in which nin becomes šan). + bir. gàrašsar: garaš3. bride crown (gi. lover. gidim6. gigir(2): 37] . + ul. 'to constrict') . + dím. karadin(4. to go across. adj. 'to make').. to lie athwart. v. gašan: lady. karaš: military encampment. office holder. gitlam(2. 'sickness demon'. to cross plow. opaque.GAL]: Sumerian Lexicon. 'to turn. gašam: craftsman. (cf. 'grain heap'. bow. renewal. Version 3.zír). burning (gu7. giriš: butterfly. 'to wreck.. to renovate (gúb. a ritually pure. roll') [PU 2 archaic frequency: n. darkened (gíg/gi6.. to mess up. to bend. first husband..

eclipse. hearing. 'great') [GANUN archaic frequency: 3]. reflection. rules. girim. guru5.. 'tree'. consideration (loan from Akkadian milkum. gurum[GAM]: v. + zu. appearance' office. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . 'wooden tool'. bunch of grapes (ñiš.gunni: kiln. gur5. young man (gúr.. ñárzu. ñarzu[PA. ñeš2. to throw. counsel. gigir]. ñarza. chief') [GALGA archaic frequency: 16. kurušda ). to determine' ?). concatenation of 2 sign variants] . + dub. + tin. 'penis'). throw-stick. intelligence (ñiš. 'sphere'. custom(s). + ñìš/uš. to understand. + tar. malga: advice.0 57 . 'to cut. clip (a part of the body). to subdue.. pile. the netherworld.4. heap.. gurin. 'clay. dagrim) (ñar. ñeštug(2. ñuruš: sledge (archaic pictogram). gírin: rin) (gúr. cf. to cut. gi- guruš. to be parted. mud').DIM4]: fist(s). ñešpa[ÑIŠ-ŠUB]: pull. + tuku/tug.. stove. laborer (human sledge). 'storeroom'.3)[PI]: v. kurun). ear(s). gìrim. girin.DIÑIR]: or ñar. rite(s). + an. chair. 'to stand upon') [? GURUŠ archaic frequency: 68. ñagia: cloister. berry. incise.3. duties. 'high'. flower (cf. relieved of (gur10.3). ñéšbu. 'storeroom'. kur5: gurušda: (cf. fruit. reed basket. + bu(6). grappling hook for a wrestler (ñiš.'stranger. Version 3. + imi/im.4.. ñadub: tablet container (ñar. guruš3. granary (ñar. ñarim: pool. wise one. ñanun: barn.. strip. 'wheels' [cf. 'life. ñéš×u in compound section). 'form. 'to store'. ñirza[PA. to hear. gurun. storehouse. draw'). 'tool'.. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ñasisx: darkness. cf. grape juice. 'tool'. 'to know') . cf.ñá. adult workman. gúrum: inspection. to be bent. Sumerian Lexicon. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . 'to deliver'. boomerang. ñalga. n. ñeš'u: (cf. a measure of fish. to fell trees.. n. ñéšpu[ŠU. gurdub: gurud(2): reed basket. 'to receive') [GEŠTUG archaic frequency: 108. pond (cf. 'to ñešta.. 'clay tablets'. + nun. understanding. ñešba. ñiš2. vine. wine') [GEŠTIN archaic frequency: 42. bending. ñárza. to notch. divine or royal orders (ñar..LUGAL]: ñešbu. to circumcise (?). Orel & Stolbova #1791 *mulak-/*mulik.ñá. ñeštu(2. to trim away. arched beam. + uš. lúša13[ÑÁ]-dub-ba). 'sickle'. ñansis. wine.3: ñeštin: sixty (ñiš. guzza: throne.

chair. 'hole').ñiš ñidru. 'to go'. it did not built up its bed as high) [? IDIGNA archaic frequency: 25].3): (ñiš) þarub[DAG. infant. + kíñ. + sal. þašþur: apple (?). þuluþ: to tremble. izkim.. 'tool'. (now read as kù-sig 17). 'to sprout. duru6 reading of PA and še ñiš-è-a). þenzer: weakling. 'abundant'. 'to stink'. trunk of a date palm tree (cf. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . + zal. ñizzal: ñuškin: þabrud: attention. stalks (þe. 'root. + nominative a. 'straw'). + gal. + gurun. omen (ñiš. 'river'. 'abundant'. + in. it was less likely to overflow because. Version 3. ñiškim. 'wooden tool'. + ì. station (ñiš. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . 'wood'. wild.3). intelligence (ñiš. ñuruš: (cf. þilib: netherworld (possible foreign loanword). 'to rot. the Tigris was a faster-moving river than the Euphrates. (gi) þenbur(2): 'harvest') . + bùru(-d). 'impersonal verbal conjugation prefix' . ibila: son. cave. þubur: netherworld (þab. cesspit. þirim: the root stalks of the spikenard. 'thin.MI]: ñišbun: ñišgal: ñiš shadow.. tool'. throne. beam'). frost. "the river that goes". weight. staff. successor. 'tool. + ñin. ñizzu[ÑIŠ. to sink. 'to break off (twigs or branches)'. + ir. founder (reduplicated ñiri5.'to pass time') [? GIZZAL archaic frequency: 1]. distinguished. stink'. 'wood. great') [GIŠGAL archaic frequency: 9]. a weed grass (þe. raging. þalbi(2. freezing. appear') . + mú. pit. + su. underground water. 'message') . mad. heir. 'roof. + buru14/bur14. 'wooden thing'.'tool'. ñušur: rafter beam (ñiš. ñiñri(2): ñiš ñisal: oar. þirin. sphere') (green) reed shoots. 'low end. base' where stick was thrust to the base of a grain pile. tarib(t)um]). inheritance (íb (subj. 'big. hole. base') . signal. to dive.. cripple.gúr. 'to seek refuge') . not depositing as much silt. prefix) + íla. considerable. sign. adj. iskim.. ñizkim: ñissu. ñiskim.KISIM5]: carob. to be terrified. ñidri[PA]: stick. nimbar) [GIŠIMMAR archaic frequency: 55. and used in perfumes. scepter. guruš). rudder (ñiš. agent'. 'perfume'. (cultic) feast. 'substitute'[Akk. + úr. + ùr.. cf. spring. ñiš ñišimmar: date palm. 'fruit. + in. cavern (þab. idigna: the Tigris river (ída/íd. idim: n. shade (ñiš. þalba(2. 'he carries it'). [ÞAŠÞUR archaic frequency: 101]. to terrify. 'discrete individuals'.0 58 . Sumerian Lexicon. wide') [GISAL archaic frequency: 3. + dúru. 'river'. apricot (?) (þaš. stick used to measure the height of a pile of grain (ñiš. imported from India. mass (ída.

+ discrete individual'. 'to tie together'. + nu. gift. + limmu.3: n. 'two'). moaning. swift [GURUŠ+2-N14 (wagon pictogram) archaic frequency: 7. im-ma-al ). it4. 'one shoot. descendant (i. ildu(2/3): crowd [ILDUM archaic frequency: 5. + dág. itid. 'to approach. moonlight (te. illuru. + aka/ag. 'five'.. ímmin. isim2. 'clay'.. clean. baking oven (imi/im. affair. illar: husked (?) emmer wheat. ímmen. totality. imñaña(2. to repair. decree. + ru. offspring. isimu2. javelin. variants] . immindu: inim: roasting. 'sun') . ildum(2/3). incantations. 'sprout'. arc (íla. uncultivated land (ki. 'bread'). bow. Version 3. 'gate'.3): a species of poplar tree (íl. priest who performs exorcisms. 'excellent'. innumerable. + bar. idi: meet'.3): imin(2. 'five'. mend (kal... nation [KALAM archaic frequency: 91.3: mú. throw-stick.. itim. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . immen. + si. itima. 'excellent. to weep. order.. immin. anointed. agreement. ilduma(2. Sumerian Lexicon. v. išin [PA-ŠE]: stalk. 'to grow') . + ud. kankal: hard soil. strong. ñiskim). oath. 'earth. matter.ígira: heron (igi. milk cow (cf. adj. subject (in. iti. 'brilliant')..3): immal(2): seven. ímma: (cf. 'to make').. kapar: (cf. bribe (kad4. imþur[IGI. to shine'. 'speech') .id4: moon. illulu. + ninda. statement.A]: foam. 'to strike').. + eme. long. + min. itud. + ra. narrow'. adj.. + kal[-l]. itu. month.. all (ía/í. 'to be high. sprout. izkim: (cf. 'not'. + ru. to laugh. imma: (cf.0 59 . lustrations and purification. command. concatenates 6 sign variants] . 'to lift'. énmen). isiš2. id8. 'to send') . 'the eye'. iskim: (cf. kal: shepherd boy (ká. 'four'). 'present. concatenation of 2 sign ilimmu: ñiš nine (ía/í.3). enmen). word. valuable'). kapar[PA. laughter. kabar. v. ñiš ildag(2. place'. išib: n.3. chapel. 'straight. ñiskim). gift') .DAG. concern. 'to open') .KISIM5×GAG]: kadra(2): kalag. kabar).. kala. cella. kalam: the land (of Sumer).

'to snatch. + sílig.ÞAR]: kìlib.. kínda[URI].. commander. 'place'. rodents or other very small mammals. five-sixths (5/6) (kíñ. mill house..5. to fasten. + bír. 'to travel fast'. to bind. group of (wild) animals. ki-sug8).. cf. kišib7. road. kindañal(2): kingal: kiraši: overseer of a group of (five) slaves. hand. milling. gilili: kinda: barber. Version 3. receipt (cf. kingusili: greater part. journey (kaš4/kas4. caravan. 'task'. 'swift') [KASKAL small beer. for milling women (reduplicated kín.0 60 . taboo. 'place'. tie. ñiš na4 pitchfork. gílim. n. kišib. 'hand [of five fingers]'). kikkin [ÞAR]: mortar. knot. to bind') .8. mouse.9: ant. adj. + kalag/kal. pen. 'beer'. 'high'.UD]: kissa: supporting wall. n. + gal. emmer wheat for making beer. kéš-(d): archaic frequency: 6]. threshing floor (ki. concatenates 3 sign variants] .3. + luþ/làþ. + bùru/bùr. kešdr?. concatenates 5 ? sign variants] . inhibition (ki. spoiled milk. cheese maggot. 'place'. kiši7. bird's nest or perch (ki. Sumerian Lexicon. to harness.5: milk-processing wasters. + šita4. kislaþ(2)[KI. great') [KINGAL archaic frequency: 39]. seal.6. ñiš kešda: kíbir: weir. smelly cheese [KISIM archaic frequency: 67. kindax[LAK-419]: a type of vessel for measuring barley or holding water. 'to sniff'). 'hand mill').7): kisim(4): kisim2. kéš. 'spacious') [KISAL archaic frequency: 145 ?.9. sealed bulla. kindling. kilim. kìli: kinbur: kilib[LAGAB]: package. 'receptacle'). weight measure (ki. fist. totality.. wrap. 'to sweep clean'. to snatch. kisal: courtyard. to seal. 'to order'.. kešda. empty lot. + an.10: kišib(3): v. stable. star(s). bundle. kisim(3. 'place'. + sal. to join. director (kíñ. kíbir: firewood. kíkkin [ÞAR.kaskal: kašbir: expedition. 'big. 'to bind') [KEŠ 2 archaic frequency: 35].8. sweet beer (kaš. v. kiši5.

physical strength.PIRIÑ]: herd of cattle or sheep. kurušda). traditional.. + tán. liri: Sumerian Lexicon. to watch. kilib) (lag. gurun ). kuruš. gukkal [LU.MUL]. kurum7. kúkku [MI..ÞÚB]: laþtan(2): (divine) vizier. plump.ñiš kišik(2). + gub. 'place'. n. + bír. bitumen (ku. fat-tailed sheep (kun. + ušum. 'abundance'. lagarx[SAL. kiši16/17[Ú. share(s). Version 3. anger. kušum: to scorn.AN. to abandon (ki. honey (cf. wine grape. libbu 'heart'). ancient. beer vat [LAÞTAN 2 archaic frequency: 7]. kuruça ?: sweet fodder (for fattening cattle). v. 'to beg'). lirum.. abundance (reduplicated kur9. lookout. bounty. concatenates 4 sign variants] . 'sweet. core. kušumx.. 'to watch. heart. ŠÚ. kuru7. lillan: stalk with ripe ear of grain. 'youthful freshness'. old age [LIBIR archaic frequency: 1]. adj. 'big') [GUKKAL archaic frequency: kuniñx. fattener (of cattle). gurušda. n. to surround' ?) [GURUŠDA archaic frequency: 61]. kurun(2. 'to become clean') . fat. a basket of food-rations. kunga[ŠÚ. + níñ.. 'to wash'. ku7: sweet.. used.AN]: kungal. stock-breeder (kuruš. a high ranking cultic functionary. donkey. to steal. 'to build'. old. hurt. 'assets') . kuš6. kušu[U. piece'. kurušda.MI]: dark. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . lilib[IGI.3): sweet red wine. + gal. libiš. spy (ki. a thorny bush [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. guard') . lagar: temple servant who pronounces invocations to the god [LAGAR archaic frequency: 51. 'to shrivel up') . kur7: v. kúnin: kurku(2): kurum6. liru. libir: n. or grape cluster (cf.. family (Akk. laþtanx. grapevine. kur6: refined asphalt.. mule. 'solitary'). lagab: block. 'to deliver'). to live long. slab (of stone). worn (la. + dim4.0 61 . reject. kúnga[BAR. 'place'. + da(5).ÞÚL]: 36. kukkuš. + ùru(-m). lidim: to receive (in charity) (la. trunk (of tree) (cf.. 'side. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'clod. 'to stand') [LAGAB archaic frequency: 84.ÑÍR]: concatenates 3 sign variants] . kukkuç ? [IŠ]: a type of flour. kiša(2). laþta: a washing vessel (luþ/làþ. fat'. 'tail'. to last long.IGI]: liliz: a drum. onager. lipiš: courage.

'egg') (cf. 'to scrutinize'. hair. lunga(2. lú ningi(2. múru: neck. baker. powerful. palm fiber. + dím. mí ) (mí. wailing. mí/mu10. + gud8. 'great'. battle (mur10. loins'. nun. 'to divide. 'to clothe oneself'. + kíñ. megida(2). nunus[Emesal]: female. 'devastation') .11. launderer (mur10/mu4. 'hostile'). múdru: fuller. vulva.5. 'to fashion. barber ('it falls down oneself') [? MUNŠUB archaic frequency: 3. strong. sheriff.. lumgi(2. ridge (mur. munus[SAL]. 'relatives'). 'sky') [MUŠEN archaic frequency: 178]. middu(2).. interval. stake (mud. + a(k). itimurub4). mezem [ÚMBISAG]: maintenance. 'to make. and etymology of nitaþ). cf. murgu(2). error' + éd.adj. 'to emerge'). mudla. monitor. support (?). 'woman'. nail'. cook (mù. commissioner (máš.. nunuz. mitum(2): mace (the weapon). 'to hang') . máš-lulim) (Akkadian loanword). waist. murgu: dung (sheep). woman (this pronunciation found in absolute inflection. master (lú. urum: brother-in-law (mí.AN.8: murub(2): murub4. destitute.0 62 .? + kuš7. Version 3.3)). mur7. 'man'. 'grown man'. 'to dress oneself'. serous fluid (lúñ. hairy skin. lulim: stag. mušen: bird (muš. 'work'). short person (lú. 'to inspect'.. 'person'.ŠEŠ. mašda: drawing. hips. lúgud: short. grind'. back. + íb. in-between terrain. megidda(2): sow (female pig). 'short'). hide. + an. 'fault. muru3. courtesan (?) (lú. concatenates 2 sign variants] . bast (man. 'middle. clamor (maþ. ú munzur[KI. gazelle (máš. pelt. mašda(2): maškim: commoner. + kúr. portion'. cf. + gag. 'woman'. luñud(?): pus. shoulders. create') . lugal: king. hart (male of the red deer. 'lungs'. + gal. 'a right-angled tool'. owner. Sumerian Lexicon. + dù. 'neck'). lugud. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . 'to watch.3). + duru5.KI]: bitter plants. murum5.. 'reptile'. lu-þu-um).3): makkaš(2): mangaga: (cf. 'genitive').. sexual charm [MURUB 2 archaic frequency: 4]. luþummu[ÑIŠ-MI]: mud (cf. 'moist. central. mudul: muþaldim [MU]: mùnsub: munšub(2): shepherd. 'big') [LUGAL archaic frequency: 80]. fresh'). middle. 'partner'. pole. woman.. inspector. cf. + gú. apply') [? DARA3 archaic frequency: 11. + ùru(-m). + lal/lá. 'to mill. 'peg. madlu. + þal. median area. lukur: chaste priestess. + nuz/nus. guard' or úrum.

LAGAB] for marû form) (ní.. kilib and gur 4-gur 4) [NIGIN archaic frequency: 11]. + nam. 'twenty'.NE]: kiln. niñir (2)). + min. 'destiny' or just reduplicated nam).5). concatenation of 2 sign variants] . potash.ñá. pure-bred breeding bull. índa: nindaba(2). miñir(2): a bride's male attendant. 'to slice') [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. 'valuable thing'.3): 'a small pot'). (cf.4. 'valuables'. nin5: forty (niš. reliable. brewer (nañ. pewter (níñ.. nimru(m) I). (cf. nanam: n.3). Sumerian Lexicon. 'to drink'.7.. nindaba) . nidba(2): nigida[PI]: deliver'). 'to be high'. monstrosity.'to niñin(2): n. to halt. malformed child.muššagana: voracious hunger. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . (cf. hopper or seeding apparatus of the seeder plow. 'stone'. Version 3. 'food'.'morning'. 'two'). lùm. 'garden plot' square measure (from Akk. enclosure.. inda. + bar. to surround. 'to release. to wander about.bariga ). capacity.8. true measure (na4. nañña. ninda: a length measure. tube. bakery good. + ñar. faintness. namešda[ŠITA. ancestors (from Akk. true. nínda.. + ñír.TUR]: leopard. nimgir(2): nimin. night watchman. + dar. town crier. v.bur.3). mindatu. ñiš nimbar: date-palm (nim. king (lit.ne4. lunga(2. whole (cf. + ñar. 'to go'). herald. + ñar.'woman' and nim. thirst. carpenter.. dizziness. to turn round..'premature birth'. niññi [AN. naña: niñir(2). to assemble. one side of a sar/šar . ni9: niñin5. food (níñ.9. niñar[NI9.'to deliver') [NIMGIR archaic frequency: 62]. ninda: bread. ni-gi-da . counter'.. craftsman (na4. d nanna: the moon as a god [NANNA archaic frequency: 49. 'knife') [NAGAR archaic frequency: 168.. 'fear'. 'to store') . full'. nañar: adze. honest. premature or stillborn child. 'to be satiated. wood-chisel.3): vertigo (as a disease). turn away. funnel. panther (from Akk. bailiff (probable conflation of separate words: mí. province. nidba(2): lú ningi(2.ÑAR]: a dark room. 'to measure') [NINDA 2 archaic frequency: 20]. to make the rounds (usually níñin[LAGAB] for hamtu form and niñin or ni 10ni10[LAGAB. middatu. 'to give') . food offering (ninda. to pen up cattle. adj. meal'). bushel. + ba. middatu. 'the power of the mace'). milt. premature or monstrous fetus (ni9. nimurx[PIRIÑ. niñin(2. 'to measure') . lum. flower. decent. to circle. lumgi(2. + ñin. nimur[KI. rod = 12 cubits (kùš) = 6 meters. fish roe. nindan.NA]: tin. nìñin. nimen(3. mindatu.ÑIŠ. circle. 'token.NÁM]: top warrior. district.0 63 .

4 [ÑÁ×U. + taþ. sab [PA. Sumerian Lexicon. + tag. dry land (as opposed to marsh land or water) (cf. speckles') [NUMUN archaic frequency: 22]. sañtušx[U+SAÑ]: hat. ÑÁ×BAD. nita(2): wife.ñá. sañdulx[U+SAÑ]: hat. dust. suþub3. inda4: oven. green. nuñunx. concatenates 3 sign variants] .. vegetables (níñ. nisañ(2). 'egg') [NUNUZ archaic frequency: 134. nundun: lip (reduplicated tùn. vigor'. 'green. + šúš/šú. ÑÁ×SIG7 ]. beautiful. leader (bala. mud. sañšu: helmet. 'self. numun. pisañ(2/3). niñunx: v. (open) basket. concatenates 2 sign variants] . sañña(2. Version 3. concatenation of 2 sign variants. middle (su. man. female (reduplicated nuz. 'first') [NISAG 2 archaic frequency: 94. + níñ. 'men'). nissa: n. 'to reside.4: bar. light (bar6/7. offspring. stove (cf. píriñ: bright. protect') . greens. nunuz. (ú) n. pulverized'). sabad(2. headdress (sañ. nisig. buniñ x). box. earth.PAB.'self'. bar-rim4). 'head'). + sañ. economic director of a temple or occupation (such as all the smiths) (sañ.ME.3. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . + lú. sit'). 'lip'). ninkum[NIN. headdress (sañ. 'to hold') .3. palil(2): piriñ(3): advance troops. + bad. cornfield. 'to open'. nitadam. 'head'. 'head'. nundum. 'to cross over'. blue. 'to cover. šab. lion (poetic). male. 'body'. 'to open') . rushes (cf. (written) wedge. nindu. frame (bad/be. nitalam: nitaþ(2). rubbish.IB]: hips. loam. sand. sowing.NUN.4).. + ñar. immindu). 'red-brown'. to produce. offspring. wine cellar ?. 'valuables'. 'thing') [PIRIG archaic frequency: 103.4): ñiš triangle. yellow').. 'dots. adj.UBARA]: temple treasurer. pisan(2/3): puniñx: (cf.. cap.. governor (ní. used for ritual cleaning. + gùn. nisi. 'thing'. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . spring time (month). parim: arid land.. 'to cover') [SAGŠU archaic frequency: 14]. shock troops.3. santak(2. manly (ní.. 'to shine'.3).. nesañ(2): first fruits (offering). loins. sad2.. kuš7) (sa5. guardian deity of the foundations [NINKUM archaic frequency: 11]. buzur). + þara.4): a sprinkler. 'head'. dough. 'crushed.SIG7. númun: a type of grass (halfâ'). + sig7. bolt (of a door). sanña(2. + sañ. 'head'. headdress (sañ. sañtag. nunus: egg(s). sediment (cf.'to multiply') [GIŠ 3 archaic frequency: 16. puzur: (cf. chest. progeny (níñ. seed. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . saþab(2).3. UŠ archaic frequency: 101. + tuš. 'to store') [SANGA archaic frequency: 530. foremost. + dul. 'head'.. single (sañ. saþar: silt.0 64 . ú aški) [NUMUN2 archaic frequency: 2].ninindu.

cf. date orchard administrator (sañ. + en(2. 'to bring. to slay. cf. 'to weep'. to be/make clean. smith (si4. cf.. sipad. to decay.. sañña ). Northerner (su. + dug. sumun. rot. sil5.3). 'to shine brightly'. 'to be hot') [ŠANDANA archaic frequency: 3. + -/ak/. to scratch. šuba.. healthy. + þirin.SUM]: the threshing floor with the piles of grain and straw (su7.0 65 . pit. 'sweet smelling grass') . d suena.3: sipar: (cf. (cf.dug sáþar [SAR]: clay pot. loanword. 'of'). keeper [SIPA archaic frequency: 4]. 'to keep in order'. 'to let out'. sig7. silañ. suku5. + lum. to make an incision. n. sílig: hand. 'to grow luxuriantly'). sibad. + tin. šandan: concatenates 2 sign variants] . hair. + ùr. 'hair' ?.3..... shepherd.3): sanña(2. 'to engrave') [SIMUG archaic frequency: 13]. 'to shine'. decay. ancient. or pàd. 'to cure'. old. sikil: v.3. crest (su6. offering. 'to create. suþirin[SU7.ZU]: the moon (sú.. 'foreign'). horticulturist. Version 3. v. šum4[BAD]: v. to trim or comb the hair. 'pleasure. simug: metal-sculptor.4): yoke. cf. šeñ4. 'beard'.. the past (su. rites.. barbel. 'threshing floor'. adj.. + mug. 'chills' and šeñ6.4: sin. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . adj. also. narrow'. n. scalp.. santana. 'time'. 'knowledge'. human'. tree top. clean. to sacrifice (isiš2. 'red'. dsuen[EN. + bar. or rope (for an ox). 'body'. suþur: n. 'to go') [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65.. sidug: ravine. sizkur(2): n.. sun. sila11: to knead (dough or clay). pure (siki. v. sub2. herbalist. prayers. suþuš) [SUÞUR archaic frequency: 239]. deliver'). something rotten. tend (si. šilig). pure. pitfall. 'roof'. 'body'. silig3. sacrifice with entreaties. to ruin. virginal. silim[DI]: to be/make in good shape. + kur9. + þe. to pray. sipa.. to make beautiful') [SIKIL archaic frequency: 7]. siskur(2). Sumerian Lexicon. saman(2. 'abundant'. leash. 'head. subar: slave. to pasture. complete (usually considered Akk. v. root means 'peace' in 18 of 21 Semitic languages. joy'. 'to find'). 'to be straight. fresh. trap (si.. + bad. suþurku6: giant carp.. zabar). 'vessel'). silig: (cf. šandana. suñin. but Sumerians used word in greeting and root not in Orel & Stolbova's Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary. + ul. + ñin.

birthmark (su.. bedbug (šár. suku5: to measure. + ru. churning. + kir.. suñin). sumaš: a common marine fish [SUMAŠ archaic frequency: 3]. šandana: šaran. . súr: n. susbu: clean. šákan: official in charge of expenditures .4. 'cow' + /ak/.mar). + kalag/kal. 'stomach. 'steady. + kir. 'flesh'. v. šúr. military governor (šag4. sty') . 'long') [SUKUD archaic frequency: 15]. šaggina. a priest. + þe. (cf. pitcher (šag4/šà. to flash. to be/make high. šagina: ŠAGINA archaic frequency: 1].. envoy.. 'to bring forth'. genitive) [ŠAKIRA 3 archaic frequency: 56. disgrace (cf. + in. 'body'. šakan: a large jar for oil. šakir(2): henbane... furious. tall. shine brightly (cf. commissioner (šab.. + uš. + gan.kud/ku5). vizier (su.. šà-ñar). 'to grow. 'guts'. 'cow'). foundation. sukud. zú. minister. 'abundant'. su(11)-lum. + gi-na. fierce. súkud. suþur). sulummar[KI.. surim: (cf.šamru .AL]: [ŠABRA archaic frequency: 1]. adj. 'to engrave. mole. concatenates 3 sign variants] . sumur. šapra [PA. representative. cf. stubborn. bathed. zugud: n. multiply'. to be enraged (against someone: -da -).. height. samag(3. courier.. depth (su. to lift. concatenates 2 sign variants] . also.. wild') [ŠUR2 archaic frequency: 17. reliable') [? šañar: hunger (cf.5). support (su4.suþuš: roots. santana ). fierceness (Akkadian loanword . 'to give') šagan. enraged. ú šakira(2). + gíd. container'.DU]: sumug(3.. šarñeš[ŠÁR×DIŠ]. 'to bring forth') [? ŠAGAN archaic frequency: 55]. šakan: (cf. container'.. Version 3. container'.. Sumerian Lexicon.. dug šakira(3). šarin: tick. šaggin.. 'to be numerous'. churn. support. v. šardiš. high.SAÑ. 'to gather up'. surin). 'straw'). 'body'. šakar: milk jug (šag4/šà.comptroller (šu. šaggina). 'strong. šakir(3): butter tub.4. šagan). cf. šargalx[ŠÁR×GAL]: šassuk[SAÑ-GÍN]: registrar of deeds..0 66 '216000'. adj. 'fierce. + gan. temple administrator.5): sumun: (cf. šabra. 'to support'. 'stomach. god of wild creatures (šag4/šà. distribute. + mug. 'stomach. swift') [SUKKAL archaic frequency: 130]. 'portion'. sukkal: messenger.

. + imi/im. stove grill (šúš..5. a fruit tree. uštil: yoke. šidi[GIM]: [ŠIDIM archaic frequency: 35]. šurin4. cricket. concatenates 2 sign variants] . suþub(2) [MUL] : v. n. to lay aside one's work. passage (šìta. 'rope'..3. to bear') . spear.0 67 . 'to lead. 'to bind'. šušana: šušur(2): one third (part). 'boar'. + dúr. 'part of a weaving loom'. Version 3. Sumerian Lexicon. 'hand'. mason (šid3. ñiš (kuš) šuþub(2). šennur: šerim(2). shepherd's staff ending in a curved end. šembi: kohl. šutug(2): a reed hut for purification rites. 'channel'. 'to stand') .šedur: caterpillar cocoon (éše. + un. šerimsur: cocoon]') . 'people'). to spin [a šibir. luminous metal'). salve.. urudu/ñiš šukur: šurun. slanted. quince or medlar [ŠENNUR archaic frequency: 11. 'dwelling'). šidim. to step.4. sérim: a part of the loom . concatenates 7 ? sign variants] . + kúr. deprived person [ŠUBUR archaic frequency: 181]. gi šukur: fence. šurim: animal excrement.. ointment. ñiš caterpillar cocoon (šerim. šidim). + gub. stop. to trample. basket. 'to cover'. ñišbun). antimony (as makeup). + dun(4). šilig: šinig: axe. extremely powerful.. strong(cf. 'to build..3: a jar for body oil. a crook. dung. lance (šu. šiten: course of march. 'warp yarns connecting opposite sides of a loom frame' and dul. 'to exude. tamarisk. šurun4. 'hot.5: cockroach. šitim. 'to cover'.4. stable (šur. i. slave.. to cease. boots (šúš/šú. 'foreign'). ñiš ñiš ñiš šilig and nam-šilig). + ùru. architect. make') šikin2. 'to cover') .e. + zar/sur8. mud').. adj. šubun: (cf. 'to cover'. 'abundance') . šuba. crooked.. šilam: milk-producing mother cow (šu. šitim: (cf. + re7. + lam.5). crosspiece (šúš/šú. šudug(2). + dím. šenbar: ñiš a type of wild boar (?).5). adj. 'to pour'. šilig(5). also such a staff used by a god or king as a scepter (sipad. drip'. 'clay.4.either the harness or the heddle [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. šubur: earth. 'shepherd'. šerin. Mesopotamian fallow deer (?) (šeg9. 'to flow.3. sibir: n. ñiš šudun(2. 'enemy'). ñiš šudul(2. + bar. to feed by grazing.5. silig(5): v.

wisdom (reduplicated tál. + lal/lá.bappir mixed with munu 4 and allowed to ferment (tìl/ti. reed bundle.0 68 . beer mash . a weapon. please. tabira. a figure on the ground made of ropes stretched between pegs.AB. Sumerian Lexicon. + ir(2). blow. + bil. tukum. troops. 'plant'. campaign. ibira: open hand of the customer) . túkur[KA׊E]: to gnaw.5. tešlug: small young animal. 'cloth garment'. + ùru. protection. female breast. experience. 'liquid secretion').5): hand. tidnum[UG-UG or ÚG-ÚG]. certainly (usually followed by hamtu verb form).UL]: lizard. captain. ubilla(2): ubur: soot (ú. hard wood) (may be taškarin. tukun: if.6. tibira: taltal: ñiš metalworker (tab. ugnim: crowd.10): herdsman (udu. respectful (same sign as dilmun ). box shrub or small tree (or its heavy. udul/utul(3. cloud.108 describes how the peddler 'flays' or 'skins' the tiger ?. foreman (loan from Akkadian waklu where Christopher Ehret's 1995 Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic has *wax "to look at"). weapon. + íla. 'to lift. thigh (túg. temen[TE]: perimeter. distinguished. silence. ubara[EZEN×KASKAL]: patronage. foundation-charter. tukumbi: if. 'man') [UDUL archaic frequency: 32. midnum: tilþar: tilmun: titab(2): burn') . (ñiš) tukul: mace (thigh bone ?). ugula [PA]: overseer. loan). light. palm. útug: variants] .šutum[GI. + lú. 'to be deficient. udug. clasp'. merchant. 'to burn'. taskarin[TÚG]: Akk. 'understanding') . + tab.4. Version 3. army. teat (ub4. oven. utug: údug. release' ? 'the beggar's open palm') . tibir: carving knife. foundations. foundation platform. workgang. excavation (often written te-me-en) [TE archaic frequency: 199]. pitfall. 'to ki tugul: hip. high') .3. at once. a demonic being. leopard ? [? TIDNUM archaic frequency: 1].4. knowledge. 'cavity'. nibble. tíbira. in case. 'luminous object') . concatenates 4 sign udun[GIR4]: ugra: kiln (for pottery and bricks). 'life'. fledgling. tibir(2.NA. strike ('life' + 'open. tradesman (Proverb 3. carry'). 'sheep'. in case. 'to hold.

'discrete point') . umun5.ÈŠ = TE. 'people'. elevated shrine. unkin. butcher (ug5. unkin-ñar-ra) [UKKIN archaic frequency: 108. ukkin: communal assembly. folkmoot (ùña/un. decision (u6. marsh. concatenates 3 sign variants] . binding. swamp (u. secret..AB]: uraš[IB]: úrgu: earth. raw form or material. + lal. 'door') [UNUG archaic frequency: 206. 'ten. unu6 [TEMEN. ukum: úkur: dust (devil). + sañ. poverty. application. 'nurse'. inspect') . many'. a swamp plant. 'plant'. any deadly cat' + n. uku2. nail impression (on a clay tablet). ruler. ug. genetic. + maþ. ukur3.. unug(2).0 69 . sanctuary. reflection.. jewelry. v. attention-getting. Sumerian Lexicon. 'to examine. (cf. uš4: (stagnant) pool. the city of Uruk (ùña/un. mammy (umu/um. úrdu[ARAD×KUR]: ferocity. úmun. 'individual human') . 'to strap. 'high'). arad ). wheel (of a chariot.. ointment. talon. poor man. + kir. leash. 'ten.DAR/GÙN]: adorning speckles and lines. rage (ur + gù. v. + ig. 'barking dog') . (goatskin) water bag. adornment. éme: umun: ùmun: ummud. ugu(4): n. protect') . ùmmu[EDIN. hair pin. ùgun. úgunu. progenitor. temple. 'to seek. emmer beer. hoof. attractive. umbisañ: kuš scribe (umbin. mold. living room. intelligence. umbin: nail. louse. concatenates 4 sign variants] . wagon) [UMBIN archaic frequency: 34. 'cow'). úgun[GAŠAN]: lady. ummeda(2).. harness. úkuš: ulul(2): ulušin: úlutin: umaþ: cucumber.11: umuš. chain (u.4. Version 3. to be or become poor. 'to be impressed' + máš. consideration. 'lion. fetch'. discernment.5: n. ùnug. + da. 'to hold. cheek. unu(2): dwelling.. cf. 'nail impression [on a tablet]'. claw. loincloth.6. swamp. 'to decorate with colors' may be popular scribal etymology. harness') . many'. inlaid decoration (u. scholarship [UMUN 2 archaic frequency: 114].LÁ]: title of respect.. concatenates 3 sign variants] . Emesal dialect form of en . + kíñ/kin.. umum: flea. fortress. natural. mistress. idea.ugun[U. cf. 'to kill'. to beget. + gùn. wetnurse. bear. 'people'. adj. knowledge.

. metal (ùru. powdered milk. 'dragon'. uzalag. usug: uzug2. urudu. 'to support. composite creature (uš11. ú-si4 an). + šár. menstruating woman. (cf.4. 'to be many').KA. 'bronze' borrowed before vowel harmony changed Sumerian word. monster of composite powers. 'to support'. uru6. juniper (cf. pot. uri2.. cauldron (ú. 'snake venom'..5: (ñiš) tithe. breed bull (udu. tenth-part set aside (þà/u. father') [UTUA archaic frequency: 74.. lift'.. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'bright. ušub[SI. ušur(2.3. urud: copper. neighbor (uš. blood [ŠEŠ ZATU-523 archaic frequency: 25.3. fry. = 1/4 of an iku (= 25 sar ). zé. usar: ušbar: weaver. udul ). 'semen. ušera: reed bundle (ú.. emblem.3. 'outside of') . Version 3. Akk. ursub(2). ušbar(3/7): (gi) (female) companion. hole'). urrub(2): (cf. + dù.A/DIRIG]: basket (uš. + am. father-in-law. níñ-ka 9). breed ram. person under a taboo (cf. dragon. 'large jug'). sovereign. 'iron') [ZABAR archaic Sumerian Lexicon. urum. 'man. + gal. mother-in-law (ñìš/uš. concatenates 2 (cf. adj. + tal. evening (cf. ušar(2. penis'. alone. banner. woman isolated after birth. uttuku: utua(2): utul: utul2. uru7: usan(2): ùsan: usug: relatives. zabalam: zabar[UD. standard. 'to praise') [UŠUR 3 archaic frequency: 3. concatenates 2 sign variants] . cast') [URUDU archaic frequency: 61. 'wild ox'). útu: dried. solitary.4). whip. 'plant'. kin. + gal. + bar. kettle. siparrum. 'to pare.. 'cavity. uzug ). sign variants] . concatenates 2 sign variants] . go out') . concatenates 3 sign variants] .7: (cf. za-ba-lum ) [? ZABALAM archaic frequency: 45. uzalak[GE22]: uzug. foreign') . zurzub(2)). ušu: n.urim2. 'food'. sky.. cf. + a. ur7: úrum. cut'. zi. + bar6. barzil.BAR]: frequency: 1]. + ára/ár. dragon (ušum. bronze (zil. + zag. 'city'.4)..0 70 . area measure. 'big'). uruda. 'to mould. 'luminous object'.. ušumgal: lord of all. solitary. urugal: the netherworld (uru.5: doorpost (cf. ú-sug 4) (úš. 'to expend.. 'blood'.5. + zìg. spawn. 'great') [UŠUMGAL archaic frequency: 21]. 'sheep'. utaþ. urin. ùri[ŠEŠ]: eagle. 'ten'. 'outside. ušum. white'. ùru(-m)) [URI5 archaic frequency: 21]. + ub4.

'blister'). aba )... i-da-al-àm: a-da-mìn. caterpillar (zi.. aþ-du 11-ga ). urrub(2): (zur4. fresh. 'to spout. to illuminate. to irrigate. Version 3.aka: a-da. adj. radiant. sukud). + lú-ùlu. who (a. to mourn'. half. to compete (with someone: -da -) ('contest' + 'to do. zubud: a kind of club. brightness.. 'turn. to step on (súg. pure. 'burning tears' ?). make'). peddler. make').dug4/du11/e: to compete ('contest' + 'to speak. stone cutter (cf.. 'to be dry. vagabond (zil. zukum: to trample. gleam.. pare' ? . to flood ('water' + 'to pour'). + kum. roaming. zugud.. + bala. + bun.. the light before dawn.tuš: a. flow'. 'people'). ursub(2). 'to'. from now on ('now' + 'from').approx. early morning. zizna: fish roe. to live near the water ('water' + 'near' + 'to dwell (singular)'). 'life'. 'to flay. 'water'. zapaþ[ŠU. Sumerian Lexicon. to shine. + bi. zanbur: zibin(2): prowling. + sub. 'to crush') . chrysalis. bright. a-ab-ba: a-ba: a-aþ-du11-ga: a-ba-al: #2519). a length-measure. to walk on. a-dar-túnku6: a fish ('water' + 'to slice' + 'to smash'). may be Orel & Stolbova drawing of water (a.. pupa. now ('now' + 'to be'). do. (ŠU. luminous. duty') .ÑIŠGAL]: zipaþ. a container provided with teat-shaped protuberances a-a: father (reduplicated 'offspring') . zalag(2). a-bala: a-da-ab: a-da-al-ta: a-da gub-ba: a-da-mìn: a-da-lam. to pour out water. v.dé: a-dé: contest ('when' + 'with' + 'an equal').BAD: zilulu[PA. water duty ('water' + 'near' + 'to stand' + nominative).. also. to cleanse.. foraging (said of animals).0 71 . (cf. a type of song (also written as a-tab. + a. (cf. za-dím) [ZADIM archaic frequency: 2]. light.zadim: jeweler. distance measured by span of outstretched thumb and little finger) . 'to suckle') . 'the'). a-da-mìn. a fish (cf. 'dry' asphalt (Akkadian loanword .BAD]: 'open hand' . zurzub(2).. plural 'to stand'. zal: n.. abnormal growths on a fetus.abaalu. purify (often reduplicated). 'it'.. span = 1/2 cubit = 15 fingers = 25 cm.

a-kúm: hot water ('water' + 'hot'). loanword). a-gáb: (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. a-þur-rum: (cf. after.. a-ga-bi-šè: a-ga-zu-ta: afterwards ('after' + adverbial force suffix + 'towards'). to be submerged ('water' + 'to store. a-ga-aš-gi4: the most awkward one ('in back' + 'the one' + 'to send. a-ga-am.. a... a-ga-mu-um: artificial pond . back. to turn back ('back' + 'to return').ñar/ñá-ñá: a-ñi6(-a): a-šè. fresh'). back room (cf.0 72 .gur: a type of copper. to go to fetch water ('water' + 'to the' + 'to go') . carry'). úgu ). inshore fisherman (?) ('water' + 'lowly student' + nominative). (cf. Version 3. carry'). a-ga-àm... a-gal: overflow of flood waters ('waters' + 'big'). marshy.dug4/e: a-dun-a: to irrigate ('water' + 'to do'). eñir)... reject'). leather sack (for flour) ('water' + 'to store' + 'to lift. a flat area (measured in sar ) (cf.a-dé-a: the yearly spring flood ('water' + 'to pour' + nominative). to deposit. þu-ru(-um)). a... behind you ('back' + 'your' + 'from'). high tide. how! ('if. seed' + 'cake' ?).. a-dùg: freshwater ('water' + 'sweet. as (= when) .. the metal.. a-è-a: overflowing or breaks in levees ('water' + 'to emerge' + nominative). e5-ñar). a. and permanent or semi-permanent lake used as a reservoir to dispose of flood waters (prob. a-gig: bitter tears ('water' + 'pain').. ugu4-bi). a-gar5: -a-gin7: a-gúb-ba: kuš lead. Akk.íl: a-ka: to carry water ('water' + 'to lift.ñin/gub: to irrigate.gu7(-a): a-ñá-lá: holy water ('water' + 'to purify' + nominative).. when' + 'like'). flood ('water' + 'to be black' + nominative). backside. A... early flood ('water' + 'river carp'). a-e. a-gàr: irrigated field ('water.EN-da-urudu: a-eštubku6: a-ga: a-ga. a-ia10-lum: stag (Akkadian loanword)... a-ñá-ri-in: A-ñar: (cf. deliver') .. eroded by the water ('water' + ergative agent marker + 'to consume' ( + nominative)) .. in that way.a large. ñarim ).

+ ni. overflow'). rushes') . duck ('water' + 'to go [plural]' + 'to pull. waste land ('where' + remote demonstrative affix + nominative). a-pa4: funerary pipe (a clay pipe through which water and beer were poured into the grave) ('water' + 'small canal') . remove').ri: a....aka: a-na-aš(-am): why? (why is it that .. exuberance ('tears' + 'happiness') . mighty'). prayer. a-MI: a-na: (cf. times (multiplication) ('where' + 'to go. water of the first seeds = watering of seeds just planted ('water' + 'seeds' + 'first' + a numun-sañ-ñá: a-númun: reeds. what (a. quoted speech in the texts]. + a.e: a-rá-bumušen: a. Sumerian Lexicon. a-maš: sheepfold (cf.... a-sal-bar: architrave ('water' + 'to spread' + 'to distribute. e-ne ). to ejaculate ('seminal fluid' + 'to strike. a-ru-a: to engender ('semen' + 'to pour into') . a.. desert. bursting of a dam ('water' + 'high. adjective for small cattle. a-nu-gi4-a: genitive). a-ma-ru: destructive flood ('water' + 'to go' + 'to send'. amaš). a-na-gim. propitious water ('water' + sa6-ga. a-maþ: flood. carry [plural]'. u 18-ru)..'to'. tear out'). a-ri-a). ú (cf.. a-na-àm. how ('what' + 'like'[ + abstract process]) . á-nu-gi 4-a ).. a-na-gin7-nam: a-ne: ( a-silim: way. cf. a-ñi 6). a-na-àm: thus. 'to win fortune') . a-la-la: a-lu: exclamation. often of joy. to give as a votive gift (with dative) ('water' + 'to send') .?) ('what' + 'one'[ + 'to be']). overflow. what (will/did) X do?. a-nir: lamentation.'he. district. cf. a-lum: adjective for sheep. potion ('water' + 'health').... rite ('tears' + 'to overflow' + 'to inform').. dirge ('tears' + 'to raise high'). Version 3. rushes ('water' + 'grass... road. a-na me-a-bi: as many as they are.. a-ri-a. to be filled with water ('water' + 'to fill up')..0 73 .ru: a-sa-ga: a.a-la.ra: a-ra-zu: a-rá: a-ra-zu.. why ('what' + enclitic copula). to dedicate. all of it ('what there is of it'). to say a prayer [often introduces direct.'the'). she'.

what one needs ('strength' + 'to wish. break' + 'to do.. to command. hollow (of the furrow) ? ('water' + 'birth-hut' for a plant seed ?.. orders ('strength' + 'to check'. at one-half its hire price ('wages' + 'its' + 'to divide' + 'to go' + 'from').. hirelings ('wages' + 'to hire').tab: a. date clusters. ally ('strength' + 'to add') . spring flood ('water' + 'high')..ñál: the father who begot one ('semen' + 'to procreate') ."darkness" ?). a-tur-ra. at the cool of the day ('when' + 'day' + ten. a-tùr. ('when' + 'away from'). + a.aka: to bathe ('water' + 'to wash').'coolness') . to dam up water ('water' + 'piling up an earthen dam') . a-zu. cf. á-še ).0 74 . high water. to flow with water ('water' + 'to bring.. brackish water ('water' + 'bitter. a-u4-te-na: a-ugu4[KU]: a úš-a: a-zi-ga: á.. take away' + nominative). a-tar.. a-šà-dib(-dib)-ba: a-ša4: a-šed12: (cf.áñ: á-áñ-ñá: ñiš a-u5-ba. desire') .búru: á-dab5: to open the wings ('wings' + 'to spread out') . to play. high' + 'date fruit').. the act of trimming the fields and levees of vegetation in preparation for drainage and irrigation ('fields' + 'to seize. raceme ('arm. to be at its high tide ('when' + 'on top' + bi.. rainwater ('water' + 'rain' + genitive). -a-ta: after . a-su: physician (cf. + 'to be') . rising waters ('water' + 'to rise up' + nominative). carry').. to mock ('water' + 'to cut.. á-bi ba-ma-ta: á. lamentation. lustration ('water' + 'to wash' + nominative).'its'... a-gàr. a-(IM)šèñ-ñá: a-šeš: bitter. ašag). levy ('wages' + 'spouse') . a. brackish'). *hadar. azu). area ('seed' + 'womb'. a-zu5.. bind. a-še-ra: cool water ('water' + 'cool').. nominalizer). to instruct (someone: -da -) ('strength' + 'to check') . é-tùr: a-ù: related to Orel & Stolbova #1323. act') .. á-daþ: help.nominative. á-an-zú-lum-ma: á-apin: á-áš: part of a seeder plow ('arm' + 'plow').tu5: a-tu5-a: a.tùm: to hold or block water ('water' + 'to hold'). instructions. wing' + 'sky.a-šà-(g): field.. Sumerian Lexicon. á-dam: settlement.. Version 3.. + a.

ñar: reimbursed wages ('wages' + 'to return....gur: á.. á-šita4.è: to bring up.... bolt.5). á.. equipment ('arm' + 'to join'/'to complete'). á-nu-gi4-a: kuš á-sàñ[PA]: disease. a device for moving irrigation water. nominalizer). á-kúš-ù: á-lá: ñiš fettered legs. á-še: attention-getting exclamation: 'hey now!'. á-si: whip ('arm' + 'antenna-like').sud/sù: (urudu/zabar) to move [intransitive] (reduplication class) ('arm' + 'to stretch'). at night ('side' + 'dark' + 'to divide' + locative). components (of the plow). iti to bend the arm ('arm' + 'circular motion'). kuš á-mi: áme). by means of the strength of ('strength' + instrumental suffix) .. to prevail ('strength' + 'to be tired') . plow extension ('arm' + 'strong').. á-ní-za. wing' + 'bed'). á-suþ: elbow. á-lá: á-lá: ('arm' + 'to hang'). to take care ('strength' + 'to emerge'). to flap one's wings (with -šè and -ši -. (cf.. á-gàr: embrace (?) ('arms' + 'something round and upraised') . á-ná-da: bed chamber ('side. á-sikil(-la): pure.. á-sur: a type of ax ('arm' + 'to divide'). restore' + nominative). bar ('arm' + 'to relocate').dúb: to be (supported) on your own ('wings' + 'self' + 'your' + 'to flap'). paralyzed arms ('arms' + 'to bind'). month 6 at Drehem through year 3 of Šu-Sin.. ama (4. to reinforce ('strength' + 'to establish') .á. to act strongly. to fly towards) ('wings' + 'to á. migrant harvest workers ('arms. + a. return' + nominative). á-šu-du7: á. involving a water bucket hanging from a swinging beam drum ('side' + 'to bind')..dúb. early morning ('arms' + 'necks' + 'rising'. workmen's wages ('wages' + 'workers' + 'its'). á. parts. rear. á-gú-zi-ga: á guruš-bi: á-ñe6-ba-a: á kaskal-la: genitive)... journey' + á-ki-ti: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III.. calendar month 7 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.dar: to confiscate ('wages' + 'to split') . caravan.. to oppress..0 75 . sickness demon ('strength' + 'to scatter') .aka: flap' + 'to do') . Version 3.-ta: at the prompting of. to resist. Sumerian Lexicon. á-gi4-a: á. á-dúb. undiluted strength ('strength' + 'pure' + nominative). Á-KAL: strength. work performance' + 'road. irresistable ('strength' + 'not' + 'to answer.

to wail. 'reed mat'). violence ('arm' + 'good. to resound.ša4: ad-tab: aga(3)-ús: reed mat plaiter ('father' + kid. rein(s) ('shout' + 'to hold.gi4). phonetic writing of ablal (3). agarin (2. right' + 'with'). to spread') . á-u4-te-en: limb. extremities ('arms' + 'legs': Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys).. ada). á-zi(-da): right arm. attendant. wicker-worker. strength' + 'to have') . ab-ba: father. to be double') . wings' + 'to be broad. ab-ba-uru: city elder ('elder' + 'city'). furrow ('niche' + 'to sift'). in the evening ('side' + 'daylight' + 'to extinguish.á. aba ). áb-gir15/gi7[KU]: áb-máþ[AL]: áb-sañ: áb-gud-þá: herd ('cow' + 'bull' + 'assorted. ancestor (Akk. and containers. iti ab(-ba)-è: calendar month 10 at Nippur during Ur III... Version 3..gi4: to echo. (cf. Sumerian Lexicon.. firm. limbs. domestic cow ('cow' + 'domestic'). possibly for drainage ('furrow' + 'to cross plow' áb-ama: áb-amar: mother cow ('cow' + 'mother'). to ponder. áb-úr: a piece of tableware (?).tál: á-tuku: á-úr: to have broad arms...3) or agarin 4. ab-sín-gilim-ba/ma: crossing. ad.5). to converse (confidentially) (cf. able-bodied. to take counsel (with someone: -da -) ('shout' + 'to answer') ... unobstructed by weeds ('niche' + 'trimmed')... transversal furrow. ad. mixed'). ñiš-ab-ba(-k) ). a piece of tableware (?). ab-ba: (cf. ad-da: (cf.gi4-gi4: ad-kub4[KID]: ad-kíd: ad.. to sing ('song' + 'to mourn') . ab-(ba): ñiš (cf. with hitting. cow in 3rd year of life that has calved ('cow' + 'calf'). clean furrow.. ad. àga-rí(-na): aþ-du11-ga: spittle (of sorcery) ('spittle' + 'utterance'). mighty man ('arms. to spread wings or arms ('arms. companion. aþ.. ab-sù-na: ( + 'its') + nominative).. boats.0 76 .. ab-si-im-ma. cool down') .uš7[KA×LI]: to spit ('saliva' + 'spittle'). policeman. mother cow ('cow' + 'calf'). to give counsel.. soldier ('crown' + 'to follow'). reed weaver. maker of reed mats. elder. strength. loanword). ab-ki-iz: ab-làl: ab-sín.

oak tree (Akk. high plain ('high' + 'steppe') .. barzil ). to work at hoeing ('hoe' + 'to do') . in-ga-na-nam ). to hoe ('hoe' + 'to handle') . to punish ('hoe' + 'to break open. al-ñar: musical instrument ('hoe' + 'form. to demolish with the hoe. to strike') .0 77 .. al. al. al-gazumx [ZUM+LAGAB]: an exotic spice.tag: ñiš am-si: elephant ('wild ox' + 'horn. antenna'.. noon.. ama-ar-gi4: iti freedom ('mother' + 'to shine' + 'to restore') . dirt ('open air' + 'to give up'). cf. a type of net (for crabs ?) ('crab' + 'to stink').. ama-a-tu/tud: (cf. 'oak'.. insist (often with -ni-) ('hoe' + 'to make the motion of').. emedu). (cf. to fell'). Orel & Stolbova #31 *'alan-/*'aluna tanning agent used to produce a white color. demolishing tool (?) ('hoe' + 'to cut. ama-gan.. shape') . al-la-an: 'tree'). demand. enkara ).ri/ra: al-šub: al-tar: ax-like hoe ('hoe' + 'to throw. al. ama-ugu: amar-a-a-si: amar-kud: AN. litter. protection ('sky' + 'to cover.di/dug4/e: to desire. ray. a type of ax (phonetic harmony variant of al-šub ?).dù: ñiš ñiš ñiš because (genitival suffix + adverbial suffix) . loanword from allaanum. pray.aka: al.. an-ñá: and yet (affirmative prefix ? + 'exists'). šu-si. an-ba: refuse... suspend' [suru5 ?]). al-ñar-sur9: musical instrument (ñišal-ñar. appearance') . (cf. 'finger').. ugu(4). protect') . natural or birth mother ('mother' + ùgun.BAR: calendar month 10 at Lagaš during Ur III. cf. an-bar: an-dùl: an-edin: an-ga-àm: an-gur4: an-kára: an-bir8[A-SUD]: noon.-/ak-eš/: al. 'to beget') . likewise (cf.. al-la-þa-ru: al-lu5: al-lub/lu5: al-lu5-þáb: ñiš ñiš crab ('digger' + 'to deceive') . midday ('sky' + 'to be bright') . to hoe ground that is already broken ('hoe' + 'to mould. shade. + 'to hang.. Sumerian Lexicon. (cf.. engur ). midday rest ('sky' + 'to be hot' ['WATER' + 'TO SIP']). separated. Version 3. break') . an-bar7[NE].. weaned young animal ('calf' + 'to cut away from')..

an-ki: universe ('sky' + 'earth'). the beautiful sky ('sky' + 'to be beautiful' + nominative). 'tin' + 'to be calm'). an-ta.. high' + 'from' + 'to be'). (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. an-nisig(-ga): an-SAR: beautiful sky. but cf. an-ta-sur-ra: a stone ('heaven' + 'from' + 'boundary marker' + nominative). "quarter" ('sky' + 'corners' + 'with'). the whole sky ('heaven' + 'totality. universe ('heaven' + 'earth') . fort ('heaven' + 'stone' + 'round. anše-bar-an-nita2: male donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'male'). an-za-kàr: tower. ass registered on a tablet ('equid' + 'tablet').. cf. boundary') . anše-du24-ùr: anše-ñiš: ANŠE-ka: anše-edin-na: wild ass ('equid' + 'steppe' + a(k).MUL: starry sky (verify than AN is not the rare sign ŠÚ . deliver'). AN. anše-bar-an-mi2: anše-bìr: anše-dub: female donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'female').. an-nisig ). is probably an Akkadianism. an-na: tin. an-ta: above ('heaven' + locative with remote deixis). floor'). anše-bala: pack-ass ('equid' + 'to cross over.dug4/e: to say yes ('yes' + 'to say') .gi4: to meet ('heaven' + 'from' + 'to return').place name for powerful city in Elam . yes ('sky' + 'stone'..MUL] ). kunga[ŠÚ. an-zà: an-zaþ: where heaven ends ('heaven' + 'side.. Civil thinks an-na. barley').. 'yes'.Tall-i Malyan near Persepolis in the Fars province of Iran. 'indeed' and in-nu. dur 9[ŠUL] ). all of heaven. an-ub-da: an-uraš: an-usan: regions. blue'). an-ta-ñál: high. blue sky ('sky' + 'beautiful. Version 3. one of the best groups of people. (cf. an-zag.. genitival postposition). superior ('sky. high thing') . an-na.. evening ('sky' + 'evening') . workass ('equid' + 'tool').0 78 . ass yoked in a team ('equid' + 'team'). 'negation') . an-pa: zenith ('sky' + 'branch' of sun dial ?). an-úr: horizon ('sky' + 'base. an-sig7-ga: an-ša4-anki: Anshan . an-šár(-ra): an-še: ear of grain ('grain ear' + 'grain. affirmative nanam. heated or fused lead (an. heaven and earth. horizon') .

bariga ). neck-stock ('fetter' + 'neck')... ki.dug4/e: to curse ('curse' + 'to speak/effect'). to praise ('praise' + 'to bring').. áš á-zi-ga. to be next to') .za). Version 3. to curse ('curse' + 'to blow. insufficient') ... ar(2). bad.. it is short (conjugation prefix + earlier/later ablative case prefix + 'small.mú: áš.with marû denotes vetitive. apin-dug-a: apin-numun: APIN-lal: ñiš cultivating leasehold land ('plow' + 'to pay'). bara4).gi4: áš. chariot or wagon ass ('equid' + 'wagon') . ba-an: a measure for bread and flour. aš-me: sparkle. to curse ('curse' + 'to write'). plow fitted with seeder attachment ('plow' + 'seed'). to send forth') . sufficient'). to answer with a curse ('curse' + 'to answer') ... flee (cf. áš. a coniferous tree (Akkadian loanword ?). áš. speak') . calendar month 8 at Nippur during Ur III. glimmer. ba-da-ra: poniard (Akk.. malt-sweetened porridge.. ba-ra: modal prefix . ba-rV: to fly.. to channel ('to divide' + 'digging stick')..bal: SAL to curse with violence ('curse' + 'raised arms' + 'to deliver')... with hamtu denotes negative affirmative. apin-ús: ñiš plowman's helper ('plow' + 'to follow. bar). square-based measuring vessel = 6 bán in all periods (= 36 liters in Old Sumerian period and 60 liters in Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian period) (cf. ba-lá: it is less (conjugation prefix + 'light. ba-ra-tur: ba-za: halt or lame person (cf. to curse ('curse' + 'to deliver').bal: áš. pattaru ). power')..sar: ñiš az-gú: ba-ab-si: ba-al: to dig (a canal)... ñiš ba-an: a container. zeþ ).GÀR: (cf.anše-kunga(2): anše-mar: iti mule ('horse' + 'donkey') .. star symbol. ba-ta-tur.e/i: to praise ('praise' + 'to speak.. sundisk.0 79 ... rosette ('unique' + 'function. ba-ba: pudding. ñiš ba-rí-ga: bushel. Sumerian Lexicon..de6/túmu: ar-ga-nu-um: ár. deficient'). it is more (conjugation prefix + inanimate direct object prefix + 'to be full. patarru . ÁŠ. ba-ra(-g): to spread out (cf..

bar-rim4[KAŠ4](-ma): dry land ('to uncover' + 'to travel fast'?. balañ-íl: bàn-da: balañ-ír-ra: (cf. bàd-si: parapet... narrow').sir5: to spin with a spindle ('spindle' + 'to spin'). a good price ('to split.. chameleon ('sides' + reduplicated 'to be multicolored' + nominative with vowel bar.(ak): (ñiš) ñiš to choose ('to open.. worker hired to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to hire' + nominative). cf. to see. bar. to select' + 'to do') . bàd-niñin: circular city wall ('city wall' + 'enclosure. to examine ('to open. bàd-šul-þi.. bar-edin-na: bar-ég-ga: outer side of the levee ('outer side' + 'levee' + genitival a(k)).. bar-tam.0 80 . bar. bar. circle').aka: to choose. parim).. to see.. harp or lyre carrier ('harp' + 'to lift'). shiny' [ + 'to do']) .ñál: to be outside.. bar-ta.dab5: ñiš bar... bar-ñál-la: bar-lá: bar-LU: unsheared ('fleece' + 'to be in place' + nominative). bàd-si-an-na: high battlements ('parapet' + 'to be high' + nominative). bar-bé-da: a tool. bàd-sìl-þi: bala-šè. Sumerian Lexicon.aka: bala-dab5-ba: bala éš-kàr: bala-gub-ba: ñiš outer wall ('city wall' + 'invader'/'path' + 'numerous'). to select' + 'polished.dag: to wander far away ('outside' + 'to roam about') . Version 3. fraction of an assignment ('term. to be extra ('outside' + 'to be').gub: to withdraw from ('side' + 'to stand aside') .. worker stationed to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to stand' + nominative). one of the best wool blends. part of an irrigation system ('outside' + 'to lift').. bar-dil: a type of plow (rare outside of lexical lists). to escape ('outside' + 'to take away') . lamentation harp ('harp' + 'lamentation' + genitival a(k)).. distribute' + 'to knock down' + nominative). bar-bar: part of a weaver's loom (shuttle ?). bar-gùn-gùn-nu: harmony).ba-zi: dispersed ('to divide' + 'to go out') ... edge of the desert ('side' + 'steppe' + genitival a(k)). bar-dúb-ba: ñiš bar-e11-dè: rope braiding lever ('outside' + 'to descend' + participial ending)..gub: to step outside ('outside' + 'to stand') . bala. bànda ).. portion' + 'work assignment') .. to transport ('goods delivery' + 'towards' + 'to do') . battlement ('city wall' + 'long..

bu-luþ: gi gi wagon yoke ('team' + 'wagon'). bún-ñìr: bún-šu: feet bellows ('to blow. mist ('outside' + 'to rain' + loc. metal?' + 'to drive'.. tend') . da-ra-an-šub: negligence ('to drop. with dative) ('to protect' + 'to exchange') . Sumerianšèñ-ñá(-e): (mi) violence. 'to pour'). da-ri)... suffix) . bellows' + 'foot') .'to scatter. bi-iz: drop (of water). da-pa: part of a seeder plow (?). monotonous noise') . calendar month 1 at Nippur during Ur III.'a repeated. bí-ra: mixed.. cf. to dehusk ('to scatter' + 'to do') .SÁ: bur-šál-la: drown') .. cf. melting (cf. to tremble ('to tear out' + 'saliva' or 'to clean'. ri. bir. contractually bound worker ('team' + 'oath. bábbar ). to belch ('to tear out' + 'to be numerous' + 'saliva' + 'to tear apart') . biz. buluþ). Version 3.. da-ri: to bend (limbs) ('arm' + rig. bìr-inim-kéš-de6: bìr-mar: bu-lu-úþ. to have the harvest be drowned (by spring floods bursting the dikes) ('harvest' + 'to bur-BÚN. (cf. agreement' + 'to bind') . mingled (bir. chamber ( da-ba-ri-ri: contortionist (cf. 'to pour') . and ('with it').'to pull'). hand bellows ('to blow. kak-ús). lú buru14. dog chain ('outside' + 'leash') .. but cf. bí-za-za: bír-bír: ñiš frog (za. ri. bar6-bar6: (some prefer this bu-úþ. (cf. bar-šu-ñál: midwife ('innards' + 'hand' + 'to place').ri: to pay off a delivery (?. babbar ). da-da-ga: ñiš da-ga: organization....0 81 . bar-TÚG: bar-úsurudu: iti bar-ùl[KIB]: bára-zà-ñar: copper-tipped goading stick ('side?. mix' + nominative)./term.. flames (reduplicated 'to shine' + nominative). bellows' + 'hand') .'to stretch' + nominative). a stone vessel ('stone vessel' + 'measuring pot' + nominative). da.. da-ri: driver (of animals) ('to protect' + rig..'to bring. let fall')...aka: to sow broadcast (not in furrows with a plow). dripping. a stone vessel. a long coat ('outside' + 'woven garment') . dadag ). bar7-bar7-ra: -bi-da(-ke4): bi-bi-zé: to drip (reduplicated biz.

water clock (onomatopoeic or reduplicated 'to pass.. 'beam.dab5: di-dab5-ba: di-di: to play (an instrument) (cf.... di4-di4-ba: walking about (phonetic for dib. Version 3. touch' + nominative). conduct oneself' + 'it' + 'with') . ñiš dib-dib: clepsydra.dug4/du11/e: effect'). traverse') . di.. to conduct a trial.. to appear.da-ri-a: da-rí-šè: lú driven (animal) (da-ri + nominative)... ray' + 'to divide' + ?). forever ('eternal' + 'towards'). eternal ('near. to judge ('decision' + 'to cut off') . di-til-la: law case for which a final decision has been given ('verdict' + 'to complete' + nominative). dam-gàr(-a): dam-þa-ra: battle (Akk. dili-du(-a) ). cf.. merchant (Akk. to make clear. to make resplendent ('beam of light' + 'to become visible'). dam-ab-ba: (professional) mourners ('spouse' + 'elder.è: to shine.0 82 . ancestor') . widely based ('wide' + 'to handle. present' + remote demonstrative affix ?).. di-ri: (cf. loanword from tamkaarum... dried (?). 'merchant'. makaarum 'to do business') . reduplicated + nominative).. decision ('decision' + 'to take' + nominative). to give a claim. dug4). to take up a lawsuit ('lawsuit' + 'to take'). cultic organization center. between (dalla. di. lock up' + nominative).. loanword from tamhaaru(m) ).kud/ku5: di-kúr: di-li-du-a: alien. to sue someone (with -da -) ('lawsuit' + 'to di. dar-ra: dè-dal: cured. city quarter ('dwellings' + 'to surround. judge.gub: di-ir-ga: di-kud/ku5: to judge ('judgment' + 'to set up') . judgment ('decision' + 'to cut off') . da-rí[URU]: dab5-ba: dag-gi4-a: dañal-búru: dañal-tag(-ga): dal-ba(-an)-na: dalla. Sumerian Lexicon. di-bi-da: di. hired man ('to hire' + nominative). ashes ('ashes' + 'to fly') . long-lasting.. di4-di4-la: children. ñiš dam-apin: part of a seeder plow ('spouse' + 'plow') . dam. enduring. donkey ('to go..tuku/du12-du12: to marry ('spouse' + 'to get') . hostile judgment ('decision' + 'hostile') . dirig). (cf. spread out over a wide extent ('wide' + 'to spread out') .

(cf. loosen') . work ('to walk' + 'to make productive') . individual (dili.. da-rí). young'). du14. to heap up. laþ5).nu-me-a: without a (personal) god ('god' + 'with' + 'not' + 'to be' + nominative). didli) (reduplicated 'one')... adv. dirig-. young scribe ('scribe' + 'small.. bear (the animal) ('sickness demon' ? + 'domestic pig') . treasure chest ('to store' + 'shiny') . road ('good' + 'to follow'). dub-ba-an: pillar made of reeds... walking alone. friend. leader ('list' + 'head').. platforms on either side of a portal ('to heap up' + 'to lift') . Version 3. (cf. dùg ).. companion ('gladness' + 'to repay') . thump (see the definition for za). speech ('to speak' + nominative). scribe ('tablet' + 'to write').. duruna ).. to thud.. dub-bi. du6-ul: du8-du8: du10: du10-sa: du10-ús: du11-ga: du7-na-bi: weaned young (reduplicated 'to untie. copper box.. DU-zu: (read arax-zu.diñir-da.. dur 9[ŠUL] ).ak/ñar: to quarrel (with someone: -da-) ('quarrel' + 'to do'). dili-du(-a): dìm-šáþ: DIM4. du6-kù: calendar month 7 at Nippur during Ur III. utterance. to go over the account (with -da -) ('tablet' + 'its' + 'to pass through') . dub-alal-urudu: a temple servant ('to pour' + 'pipe' + 'copper'). dil-dil: one by one (cf.. Sumerian Lexicon.. dul (6)). 'alone' + 'to walk' + nominative). maltman. du-rí: (cf. dú-ru-na(-àm): iti (cf. dub-sar-tur: scribe ('tablet' + 'to write'). du14.-še: beyond ('to go over' + 'to the') .. suitable' + ? + adverbial force suffix) .. labor.SAR(-d): DU...mú: du24-ùr: lú gi to start a quarrel ('quarrel' + 'to ignite').bala: dub-lá: dub-sañ: dub-sar: dub-sar: dub-šen: dub-dab. a fence made of such pillars ('to heap up' + 'to divide' + 'to be high') . in the proper way.DU: (cf. dili-dili. du-lum: burden.0 83 . a-ra-zu). if you please ('fitting. store.. gather (cf..

dùg/du10. dumu-mí-lugal(-/ak/): dumu-me-KA. satisfied ('gladness' + 'to be available').aka). dùg... dum-dam. ibila ) ('child' + 'masculine').. for someone: dative ('knees' + 'to place'). dùg. di4-di4-la). dumu-aš: only son ('child' + 'one'). dumu-KA: dumu-lú: dumu-mí: grandson. Sumerian Lexicon.. dùg. to rest ('knees' + 'to bend'). son. serf ('child' + 'to seize.. prince ('child' + 'king' + genitive). dùg. cause') .eš8: deputy (?) of a merchant ('child' + 'merchantman').. gentleman ('child' + 'gentleman').dúb: to rub the knees (?) ('knees' + 'to flop'). princess ('child' + 'female' + 'king' + genitive).. dumu-lugal(-/ak/): daughter ('child' + 'feminine')...... dumu-dab5-ba: DUMU-DUMU-LA: (cf. twin sons ('child' + 'pair'). Sumerian [in contrast to slaves from foreign countries] ('child' + dumu-gir15/gi7: 'native group') . dumu-zi: DUN-a: dependent (on). to repair ('gladness' + 'to make.. subordinate ('subordinate' + nominative).. first-born child ('child' + 'principal'). son (born) of ('child' + 'to beget' + nominative). dumu-gal: eldest son or daughter ('child' + 'large').. hurry ('knees' + 'to open'). dùg. freeborn man.. flee ('knees' + 'to cut').dug-a-nag-nag: dug-níñ-nag: dug-tur: dùg/du10..bad(-bad): to stride.. dùg-tuku: strong-legged ('knees' + 'to own') ... hire'). dumu-ga.aka: water drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'water' + reduplicated 'to drink') .zil: to run. a standard capacity jar = 5 liters ('jar' + 'little').ñar: to kneel down.ñál: to be pleased. drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'object' + 'to drink'). dùg. (cf..gúr: to sit down. dùg-ud-ak: politeness (cf.UD: dumu-nitaþ: dumu-sañ: dumu-tab: dumu-tu-da: iti d (lú) a cult servant ('child' + 'function' + ?).za: to grumble (see the definition for za).0 84 . kuš dùg-gan: leather bag ('gladness' + 'to bring forth') . calendar month 12 at Umma during Ur III. Version 3.

dig' + 'reed' or 'firm. dúr-ki. in the streets ('sandals' + locative). to dry out') . èsir ). e-íb-ùr: siege shield ('dike' + 'middle.. he is indeed (formal 3rd person pronoun + 'to be') .. ditches'. 'clear.. tuš). they. you.. duruna. dúr-šáþ: dùr-KAS4: ham ('buttocks' + 'domestic pig') .. a type of canal or ditch. strong'). asyndetic hendiadys). shoe (cf. (cf. loins' + 'roof').. dúr. house of mourning ('house' + 'lamentation' + genitive).ñiš dun-gi: a tool.. duruna. ì-si-na: e-sír: e-sír-ra: e-še-á: e-ùr: e-zé: sandal.dug4/du11/e: to immerse'). e-ne. 'elevation'). e-el[SIKIL]-lu: kuš a (pure) sound (Akkadian ellu. (cf. e-si-na. dùn-lá: dúr-dúr: durunx) (reduplicated 'buttocks.ñar: to sit ('buttocks' + 'to set down upon') .. to rejoice. her. Version 3. dur10-tab-ba: dusu. e-re-sì-ki-in: e-ri-iš: kuš queen. pure'). to play (3rd person pronoun + 'to do') ..ñar: to establish one's dwelling ('to dwell (plural)' + 'place' + 'to establish'). kuše-íb-ùr).. ñiš dúr-ñar: chair.. dúr-ru-un: to sit (plural). a type of yoke (?) ('to scrape. throne.lá: to carry a basket ('transportation basket' + 'to lift'). íl-lá. double ax ('ax' + 'to be double' + nominative). she. armor (cf. e-ra-núm: eren). cf.dug4/di/du11/e: like himself (3rd person pronoun + equative). him.. e-li-lum: e-ne: e-ne-àm: e-ne-gim: e-ne-ne: he. depression ('to bring low' + 'to hang'. donkey foal.0 85 . é-a-nir-ra: Sumerian Lexicon. erin.. to copulate (with -da -) ('to play' + sud... culm or stalk of barley. e-pa5(-r): ñiš hydraulic system (of a particular farmer or of the land as a whole) ('levees' + 'irrigation a tree and wood used for construction (cf. dam to create a reservoir. lady. cry of joy. 'to lengthen.. them. servant (?). e-ne-sù-ud.

outer house ('house' + 'outside' + nominative). archive..LAM: é-na4kín-na: a storehouse ('house' + 'place' + 'abundance') . *dar. shape ('house' + 'form.3): é-me-eš: é-mí: beerhall.. summer ('houses' + 'are' + 'many') . é-ganba: é-ñar8: é-gi4-a: é-ì-gára: iti warehouse ('house' + 'marketplace'). é-gal: palace ('house' + 'large'). é-a.bùr: é-dù-a: é-duru5: é-ta. to break into a house (reduplication class) ('house' + 'to break into') . é-da[-di-a]: é-dub-ba: house plot ('house' + 'to build' + nominative). é-éše: jail ('house' + 'rope'). é-iti-6: é-kaš: a public house. suburb ('houses' + 'fresh'. mill ('house' + 'millstone' + genitival a(k)). pub ('house' + 'beer'). appearance')..é-a-nir-ra-gal-gal-la: euphemism for the netherworld ('house of mourning' + reduplicated 'big' + genitive). deep'). dairy ('house' + 'fat' + 'cream'). a flour offering..ti(-l): to live in a house ('house' + locative + 'to live'). Version 3. Sumerian Lexicon. hamlet. Stolbova #658. outpost' and Orel & to leave the house ('house' + 'from' + 'to exit'). sanctuary ('house' + 'Heaven' + genitive). "woman's house" ('house' + 'woman') . rural settlement. Akk. school ('house' + 'tablet' + genitival a(k)). é-KI. é-ad-da(-/ak/): é-an-na: é-anše: é-ba-an: é-BAPPIR: é-bar-ra: é.'dwelling place'). prospective bride ('the one who restores the house') . (cf. é-mar-uru5[GUR8]: arrow quiver ('house' + 'to immerse' + 'high. donkey stable ('house' + 'equid') . adurû..0 86 . eñar ). brick wall (cf... brewery ('house' + 'brewer') .. é-lunga(2..è: the house of one's fathers ('house' + 'father' + genitive). an adjective denoting a very fine quality. 'village. cf. é-ñar: form. é-kišib(-ba): storehouse ('house' + 'receipt' + genitival a(k)). daughter-in-law. calendar month 8 at Umma during Ur III. mill house. é-kur: prison ('house' + 'netherworld'). é-lùnga ).

treasure-house ('house' + 'things' [ + 'piled up'].. ég-ég/e ú-sañ11-e/a: reinforcement of the levees with cut/bundled plants/reeds ('levees' + eme-dar: a tool. sañ- é-níñ-ka: (cf. tangled' + nominative). armory ('house' + 'weapon') . storehouse ('house' + 'rafter beams') . ég dal-ba-na: a dike that is shared by two watercourses or by two fields ('levee' + 'between'). lú storehouse. to keep watch over a house ('house' + 'watch fire' + 'to reach out. ég kal-kalag-ga: to reinforce the levees ('levees' + 'to repair. kitchen ('house' + 'baker. cf. surround' + 'to bind') .. lú-é-níñ-ka).. the work of piling up a levee ('levee' + 'to increase.. bakery. dagger blade ('tongue' + 'dagger') . house interior. agrun). to stick out the tongue ('tongue' + 'to send forth') . smash') . cf. é-níñ(-gur11[GA]-ra): níñ-gur11-ra(-ak)). fill'). é-ùru.. mend' + nominative).0 87 . é-ri-a: é si-ga: é-sig4: é-šag4/šà: é-šu-sì-ma: é-ñištukul: é-tùr: cattle pen ('house' + 'stable').é-muþaldim[MU]: é-NI: treasure-house (?).gíd: fattening house ('house' + 'goose' + 'milk'). manage') . é-u4-sakar[SAR]: é-u4-7: é-u4-15: é-ubur: é-ùr-ra: é-uz-ga: e5-ñar: new moon ('house' + 'day' + 'to begin') . a quiet house ('house' + 'silence') .. ég si-ga: 'fascines') .. eme. (cf. Version 3. a-ri-a ). warehouse ('house' + 'portion' + 'to put. utensil ('tongue' + 'to slice. iz-zi). Sumerian language ('tongue' + 'native') . (temple) cella ('house. cook') ..è/e11: eme-gir15/gi7: eme-ñír: eme-gilim-ma: confused speech ('tongue' + 'to be twisted. eñar ).. temple' + 'midst'). ég sa-dúr-ra: wide levees at the low-lying end of a field which halted and contained the water for irrigating the field ('levees' + 'low-lying end of a field'). milking pen ('house' + 'teat') . full moon ('house' + 'day 15') . brick wall (cf.. first crescent moon ('house' + 'day 7') . É-NUN: (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. wall ('house' + 'brick'.

.eme-þa-mun: opposing') .. wintertime ('time' + 'cold' + genitive). to burst into tears. imprisonment. heed for how long ('time' + 'if' + terminative postposition). to ask (someone: dative).. as long as . to lament ('tears' + 'to complain'). until. prison. weep ('tears' + 'to show') . until the time ('time' + 'this one' + 'towards'). eme-sig.sá.. ér.. enigmatic background' + nominative). ér-ra: mourning.. to cry...ñá-ñá: ér.. to slander ('tongue' + 'low. lizard ('tongue' + 'to consider. note du12.tar: until when. lamentation ('tears' + nominative).sig7: ér-šem3. inquire') . to investigate.gu7: eme. Version 3.. to guard against..'to sing') . ñiš eme-sig: ship plank ('tongue' + 'small'). possibly myrrh ('lord' + 'lungs'). reeds (cf.dù/ak: en-nu(-un)(-ñá): en-nu-un/ùña. everywhere ('time. to take care of..pàd/pà: ér.. cf. to watch. watch (as a division of night time).. how long ('time... èn-du: song ('time' + 'to walk'. measure') ...dug4/du11/e: eme-sig. èn-tukum-šè: ér.. 'to do something in the right way' + 'not') . compositions concerning the gods sung by the gala priests in the Emesal dialect to the accompaniment of a tambourine ('wail' + 'tambourine' + genitive). guardian.šeš2. small' + 'to speak') . ambar.. until' + terminative postposition.. weep ('tears' + 'to weep'). likeness' + 'to send') .. 'reed-bed') . to set up a lament ('lamentation' + 'to make'). ('enigmatic background' + 'to determine. ñiš ñiš contrasting speech or languages (e. introductory formula for exorcism/incantation texts ('enigmatic background' + 'house' + 'image. eme-sa-du8-a: a tool ('tongue' + 'net' + 'open' + nominative).. Sumerian Lexicon..dù/ak: én-é-nu-ru: gi watch..4/še8-še8: to cry.g.... èn-bar: reed.-a): en-na-bi-šè: lú en-nu(-un/ùña). en-na (. a resin. to pay attention to. to lick with the tongue ('tongue' + 'to lick').5-ma engar-gu4(-ra): ox-ploughman ('farmer' + 'ox'). to guard against.. to handle. eme-si-nu-sá: describes a person 'whose speech is not right' ('tongue' + si. small' + 'to consume'. èn-šè(-àm): èn. inim-sig.0 88 . to watch.šub6[ŠID]: eme-ŠID: en-mur: to slander ('tongue' + 'low.. Sumerian and Akkadian) ('tongue' + 'mutually eme-numun: an agricultural tool ('tongue' + 'seed') .. en-te-en-na(-/ak/): the cold season.gu7). 'up to' [ + enclitic copula]) .. until now.

esir-è-a. ga-áb-kù-ga: ga-áb-sig7-ga: milk from pure cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'pure' + genitive).ZU(Sin): calendar month 8 at Drehem in year Šu-Sin 3. éš-kàr. ga-ab-kar-re: (cf. gaba-kar). harvest workers ('gang of workers' + 'grain' + reduplicated 'sickle.3-dam: éš-gán: ceremony. ka-aš-bar). pronounced decision ('decision' + 'message. decision ('much' + 'to divide'. calendar month 10 at Umma after year Šulgi 30.. Šu-Sin 3. éš-gàr: lú task. calendar month 10 at Ur during Ur III. calendar month 8 at Lagaš during Ur III. tavern ('shrine' + 'spouse') . iti iti iti ezen-dBa-ba6: ezen-dDumu-zi: ezen-dLi9-si4: ezen-maþ: ezen-maþ: iti great festival ('feast' + 'great'). calendar month 9 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. goblet ('shrine' + 'with.. calendar month 3 at Lagaš during Ur III. érin še-gur10-gur10: eš-bar: ésir-é-a. one man's daily work assignment. calendar month 6 at Ur during Ur III. eškiri ) ('rope' + 'muzzle/nose'). milk from beautiful cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'beautiful' + genitive). surveyor's rope ('rope' + 'surface measure') . to be near') . calendar month 12 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. order' + 'to speak' + eš(2. the oxen or plows which perform a task.3)-da: eš2. calendar month 9 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. ezen-dAmar-Sin: calendar month 7 at Umma during years 6 . cf. calendar month 8 at Drehem after ŠuSin 3. calendar month 8 at Ur during Ur III. calendar month 11 at Ur during Ur III. calendar month 10 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. nose rope (cf. ésir-þá: eš-bar-kíñ-du11-ga: nominative).. calendar month 12 at Ur during Ur III. to reap') . iti iti ezen-dŠul-gi: calendar month 7 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. calendar month 6 at Drehem after ezen-dŠu-dEN.. iti ezen-me-ki-ñál: iti ezen-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 5 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3.erin-bábbar: white cedar (wood) ('cedar' + 'white'). calendar month 11 at Drehem after ŠuSin 3. asphalt ('bitumen' + 'to go out' + nominative). a type of vessel. éš-gíd: éš-kir4/6: iti iti èš-èš: a festival (All-Shrines) (reduplicated 'shrine'). to be assigned for someone's benefit ('measuring tape' + 'something round and upraised') . ga-an-tuš: (cf. Sumerian Lexicon. calendar month 6 at Lagaš during Ur III.0 89 . calendar month 7 at Lagaš during Ur III.8 of Amar-Sin. calendar month 11 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. epithet of a temple of the bride-goddess Inanna. surveyor ('measuring rope' + 'long') . Version 3. gan-tuš). brothel. ezen-An-na: calendar month 10 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3.

the Akkadian is kaa. suckling foal ('milk' + 'to feed' + nominative). ganzer ). leek(s) (Akk. the milk of mercy ('milk' + 'womb. cf. escapist ('rival' + 'to flee'.ñál: gaba. quarrel (either related to gaba. 'rival' or Akkadian qablum. a type of cheese ('milk' + 'strained in cheesecloth' ?). chest' + 'to deliver') . entrance to the netherworld (cf. gaba-diri-ga: enormous strength ('rival' + 'to go over. ga-zum: ga-sa10: ga-sub-ba: milk sucking ('milk' + 'to suck' + nominative). gaba-kar). 'to finish. to put out one's chest. gurun). Version 3.. to nurse/feed with milk ('milk' + 'to feed').sum and gazzum).. merchantman (compare ga-sa10). ga-zi-in-bu: stake (for impalement). gašan). tradesman ('let me buy!'). to challenge.. gaba(-na). smash..ñál ). loanword). ga-ba-kar-re: (cf.gu7: ga-gu7-a: ga-kug: lintel (above a door) (? + du7. ga-ti: plea.ñál: 'controversy' + 'to make') . to boast ('chest' + 'to be available') . strength ('chest' + 'to be available') . compassion' + genitive).. sour milk ('milk' + 'barley' + locative). comb (don't know why some read ga-ríg . ga-murx[LAK 490]: ga-ra-an-da: ga-rašsar: ga-zum: ñiš ga-nam-me-àm: it is indeed (affirmative + 3rd person pronoun + 'to be') . exceed' + nominative). ga-an-zír[ŠÈ-KA]: ga-àr-ra: ga-arþuš-a(-ke4): ga-ba-al.... carding (wool).za(-za): to drip. ga-du(7): ga-eš8: ga. contradict. gaba-kar(-re): Sumerian Lexicon.ñar: to speak against (someone) ('rival' + 3rd person with locative + 'to speak') .dug4: gaba-gi4: gaba-ñál: gaba.. opposition ('rival' + 'to besiege'). complete')..dù: ga-ba... milk for barley porridge. powdered or finely grated cheese ('milk' + 'to grind' + nominative). bearing fruit (cf.. to defy ('breast. ga-ša-an: ga-še-a: lady (cf. 'rival' + 'to overflow' + 'to wrestle.zi)..0 90 . ga-ba-ra-þum: revolt (gaba. air' + 'to make a repetitive noise')..... gaba. to bubble ('milk' + 'sky.. gaba... (cf. break').. (cultically) pure milk ('milk' + 'pure'). petition ('let me live!').

tab: to encounter ('ú): gaba-šu-ñar: gaba(-a).. gag-si-sá: arrow ('nail' + 'to make straight'). gada-maþ-ñiš-lá: spread out linen ('linen' + 'large' + 'tool' + 'to extend').. greatly ('great' + adverbial force suffix) . 'to oppose') . bailiff. gal-zu (gal-an-zu): wise. shriveled') . chest' + ru-gú... gada-níñ-dùn-dù: a linen garment ('linen' + 'object' + 'to bring low' + 'to make').ri: to confront ('breast. to look after' [ + 'big']) . clever fool ('ingenious.zi: to retreat ('breast' + 'to take out'). exalted one ('elaborate' + nominative). deputy.. tenant ('to bring forth' + 'to occupy') . gan-gan-è: calendar month 9 at Nippur during Ur III. gaba... intelligent ('large' [ + 'heaven'] + 'to know'). loanword from kaparrum I). gag-þa-þar-ra-na: gag-maš: ñiš a peg or nail ('peg' + 'roads' ?). copy. judge') . minor tenant ('tenant' + 'little' + nominative). gan-tuš: gan-tuš-tur-ra: Sumerian Lexicon. a demon ('to overwhelm' + 'to force into. gaba-ri: n. clasp') . resistance. chest' + 'hand' + 'to place on') . galam-kad5: galam-ma: ku6 iti ñiš artfully made ('artistic' + 'to bind together') .0 91 . overseer ('large' + 'people'). duplicate ('breast' + 'to exchange' . hillbilly'). gal-gal-di: head musician ('large' + 'musician'). elaborate' + nominative + 'idiot. withstanding attack (describing a door or weapon). mighty (judge) (an adjective for the god Enlil) ('large' + 'to decide. omniscient. gába[KAB]-ra: shepherd boy/girl (Akk. to hold to the breast ('breast' ( + locative) + 'to hold. Version 3. gaba. gada-dilmun-ù-lal: a dress of Dilmun linen ('linen' + 'Dilmun' + pronominal prefix + 'to hang').. gada-bar-TÚG: long linen coat ('linen' + 'long coat'). galam-ma þu-ru: gam-gam(-ma): a fish (Pomadasys stridens) (reduplicated 'curved. ñùl-lá(-gal): police chief.. gal5-lá(-gal).. gag-zag-ga: gal-bi: gal-di: gal-nar: gal-ùña: adv. gendarme. rival ('breast. rival. side (?) peg ('peg' + 'side. a peg or nail ('peg' + 'one-half').gaba. adj.imagines the two breasts as copies or duplicates). boaster (reduplicated 'large' + 'to judge') . boundary') . chest' + 'to throw out') .. gan-na: grinding stone (?) ('rack' + nominative).

high-quality writing stylus ('reed' + 'to make' + nominative). gi-dub-ba: stylus ('reed' + 'tablet' + nominative). blooming. Sumerian Lexicon. a class of persons ('hair lock signifying slavery' + 'to go') .e. spotless. gi-sa. gàr-du: ge-eš-tu: gi-a-dag: gi-dili-dù: gi-dù-a: reed hut.gána-ga: gána-íl: iti ñiš hill country ('land' + 'milk'). ñéš×u). hut ('reeds' + 'small. ('reliable' + 'bright' (?)). firm' + nominative a). used to make measurements ('reed' + 'to cut' + nominative). reed fences. cut reed. shining.. taxable land or field ('land' + 'to carry'). reed wall. swaying reed ('reed' + 'fresh'). gi-šà-sur: sieve ('reeds' + 'intestines' + 'to flow. gi-gu4-ud: gi-gur: catapult ('reeds' + 'to leap'). abutment or platform ('reeds' + 'mat. gi(n)) ('just.0 92 . kí-sa. to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut') . gi-dùg-ga: sweet reed. fruitful. gi-na-tum: security deposit (Akkadian loanword). gi-sañ-þul: gi-sal: gi-SI. reed screen on the roof ('reeds' + 'to be thin and wide') . gi(-níñ)-sa-þá: bundle') . gi-gun4(-na). gi-izi-lá: torch ('reeds' + 'fire' + 'to hold up'). gi-rin[LAGAB]: pure. gi-gur-še-bal: gi. cf. weak'). gi-kud(-a): gi-muš: punting pole ('reed' + 'snake'). gi-NI: a scented substance ('reed' + 'oil'). Version 3. 'fruit' bundle of reeds. raft ('reed' + 'water' + 'resting place').A]: supple. (cf. calendar month 1 at Lagaš during Ur III. six hundred (geç -u (?). (gi) ušub). i.ku5: ñiš basket for carrying grain ('basket' + 'grain' + 'to transport') . a single-growing reed (idiomatic expression) ('reed' + 'single' + 'to plant').. with a sweet. gi-duru5[GI. gi-na: consent (cf.. gi-gù-na: reed basket ('reeds' + 'basket') .. gána-maš: gán-ùr: harrow ('field' + 'to drag across') . a syllabic writing for gurun ...A: gi-sig: a type of reed ('reed' + 'head' + 'bad'). gi-šul-þi: a reed or plant that was used as a medicine ('reed' + 'invader' + 'numerous'). drip'). edible marrow ('reed' + 'sweet' + nominative). sacred building ('reeds' + 'decorated temple') .

...dúb... to set out a snare ('string' + 'to place.. Version 3. to be great. gilim). chair-bearer ('throne. set. gu-ul: to enlarge.. high'). cultically unfit ? ('to reject' + 'heaven') .. stoker ('kiln' + 'to burn'). gu.. to be angry at ('injury' + terminative + 'to set'). slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'he. gal...zé: (cf. gal. gín-sal: a light metal hoe. guzza ). gig(-šè). of lasting value. basket. to treasure highly. 'to destroy' (cf. extend') . gu. chair' + 'to hold up') . great (cf. sometimes = gul. to adjust (with a string) ('string' + 'to strike/to touch') . gir15/gi7-nun: gu-du: anus. to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut') . chair (cf. kib x). impression on a tablet (a wedge) ('needle' + 'to give'). lofty noble (an adjective applied to Enlil) ('noble' + 'royal')... exalted. kìri-zal). gil-le-èm: destruction (cf.. gi-gunu 4). gín-tur: a surface area measure. come back' + 'office.. little shekel = 1/60 shekel = 1/3600 square nindan (sar) = 3 surface še = 36 square fingers = surface of the side of a cube of 1 sìla capacity. gi-zi: a kind of reed ('reed' + 'good. gi6-an-na: gi7-nun: at night ('black' + 'heaven' + locative). gu-za-lá: Sumerian Lexicon.aka: (cf. gir-ab-ba: sea fish.. she') .ñar: urudu to cause trouble. gu-la). slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'master'). ñiš gu-za: throne. gi16[GIL]-da: gi16[GIL]-sa: gibil-bi: gig-ba: gi16[GIL]-sa. fellow (cf. function' + locative + plural suffix) . gu-la: large. to make numerous. to increase. gi4-me-a-aš: colleague. gi. the first time ('new' + adverbial force suffix) .. throne-bearer. lasting. giri17-zal: (cf.. nam-gi4-me-a-aš) ('to return.tag: to align. gir4-bil: furnaceman. stretch.0 93 .lal/lá: gu-sum: gu-ul).. gi-1-ninda: gi4-an: gi4-in: measuring reed ('reed' + 'one' + 'a distance measure') ..

zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ ). an agricultural tool ('neck' + reduplicated 'long') . Version 3. gú-tar. edge' + 'to extend') . úgu. to bow down.gur: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'insect. gú. collect..lal/lá: to style or dress hair.mar: gú-mun: GIG to pile up.. to submit ('neck' + 'to set down'. and still') .ba-a-ñar which is the later Neo-Sumerian form of this Old Sumerian original) ('neck' + 'upon' + 'to place [a load of debt]') . wrap. (cf.dirig: to submit... vermin') .. to bow. chick peas ('chick pea/bean' + 'large') ....ñál: to submit (to someone: dative) ('neck' + 'yoke' + 'to place').... lift'). caraway ('pea' + 'salt'). to Sumerian Lexicon... amass (often with -da -. gú-en-bar-ra: outer throne room... bank' + 'that' + 'from')..0 94 .dù: gú.... to kneel. throne room ('river bank' + ?)..gíd: gú-gir: gú-gíd-gíd: processing of bitumen.dug4/du11/e: gú.. to embrace (with -da .... extend') .. to bind an animal's mane ('neck' + 'to cut.. in order. gú... cf..aka: gú-an-še: gú-bala: gú.. to sum accounts ('loads' + 'to add') ....ñar/ñá-ñá: gú ñiš. to peer out (with bàd ..ñar/ñá-ñá: gú. organize ('necks' + 'to be upright. to someone: dative ('neck' + 'to do'. determine' + 'to gú... to assemble.. to cut down ('neck' + 'to separate' + 'to effect') . cf. gú-nida[NUNUZ]: gú-ri-ta: from the other side ('side.or -ta -).. bull'). a type of (high-quality) wheat (cf.. 'city walls') ('neck' + 'to hang. ñiri16.kud: gú ñiri16.lal/lá: to breach walls ('to submit' + 'fortress') . gú-gur5.. often reduplicated) ('chick pea/bean' + 'basket') .è: gú-è: gú. plant') . gú...gú. to cover ('neck. gú-gú-UÞ: gú.ñar). to neglect ('neck' + 'to fasten. the turning edge ('edge' + 'to revolve') . to despise.. to cut (off) the neck ('neck' + 'to cut').ñar/ñá-ñá: gú-a.. all things considered ('land' + 'sky' + 'barley'). gú.aka). gú-gú-GUD: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'ox.. gú-ñiri3/16: breach (cf.ñar). 'to stretch the neck' as something that mourners do ('neck' + 'to stretch out') . gú-en-na: gú-gal: ñiš river mud. gú gú.

gù.ñar: gù. great. breeding bull ('bull' + 'cow' + genitive).dé: gù.tumu2/4: to call ('noise' + 'to carry'). gu4-ud: 'sun') . to read aloud ('voice' + 'from' + 'to pour out'). foremost ('neck [for carrying ?]' + 'to have') . bray' + 'to do') .... to dance (reduplication class: gu 4-gu 4-ud ). stud farm manager (?) ('left-hand' + 'speed.zi: gù.sum: gù. chattering.. do') .. gù-téš-a. gun). to be united ('voice' + 'to come together' + locative + 'to surround') .. deep' + 'to say.sì: gu4: (cf. to the other side ('side..mur: gù-mur-aka: to be lax with respect.. to make a pleasant/loud sound ('sound' + 'fine.... to raise the neck ('neck' + 'to join'). shape') .0 95 . the planet Mercury ('bull' + great (cf. hero. noise-making ('sound' + 'to strike repetitively. gu-ul). to scorn (with -ši -) ('neck' + 'to make fall')... to make obedient ('voice' + 'to apply. back of the head ('neck' + 'to cut (hair)').ús: gú. gud-áb(-ba): gud-alim: bison ('bull' + 'bison'). load (cf..šub: gú-tar: gú-tuku: gú-tur: gú. bellow ('sound' + 'lungs') . gù... fluency') ... shake') . to roar. gú-un: tribute... to make a noise or sound ('noise' + 'to effect')... to echo. mighty... to say ('sound' + 'to pour out.. to gù. gú-za: a jewelry (?) ('neck' + 'precious stone') .. to shout ('voice' + 'to make tremble'). gud).gú-šè: up to the edge.di/e: gù-ra-aþ: gù. gu5-ul: gùb-bu: gùb-kaš4: gu7-kur-kur-ra: bread-basket of all the lands ('food. gù. to scream with an ear-splitting voice ('voice' + 'to split').ra(-ra): to shout. to call. professional mourner ('to roar.dug4/du11/di/e: describes the twanging of bows ('sound' + 'to deliver') . sustenance' + 'lands' + genitive). lend') . to have success ('neck' + 'to raise'). bray. Sumerian Lexicon... Version 3.. to cause') . gù-nun...sè(-g/k): to repeat. roar ('sound' + 'to strike'). to flutter.dúb: gù. bank' + terminative suffix) . gal... gú. to talk to (with dative) ('sound' + 'to give. to cry.. lentils ? ('chick pea/bean' + 'small'). left arm ('left-hand' + nominative with vowel harmony).ta-dé: gù.

gore. a capacity measure of 72 sìla in Presargonic Girsu. ki-gul-la). ox' + 'assigned task') .. gur-sañ-ñál: a capacity measure. gud-dub: ox (recorded) on a tablet ('bull. oxen for the harrow ('bull. suitable. gud-si-su: calendar month 2 at Nippur during Ur III. work ox ('bull. year' + number). full-grown ox ('bull. adv. 'to drive along') . ox driver ('bull. ox' + 'fattened'). gud-numun-diri: gud-numun-gána: gud-ra: gud-sún: gud-su7-ra: gud-šár(-a): gud-šu-gi4: gùd. ox' + 'to exit'). to extinguish' + 'to uproot') . oxen for sowing on the field ('oxen for sowing' + 'field parcel'). toss') . gu4-dam: gud-apin-níñ-túg: iti a mythological entity ('bull' + 'wild ox'). to slaughter' + nominative). where Civil says the difference is that this gur has been filled from measuring containers topped off with a 'head' of grain instead of being leveled off at the top ('reed basket' + 'head' + 'to place') . ox' + rá. ox' + 'complete. to butt. gud-laþ5[DU-DU]: x years-old ox ('bull. join'). ox' + 'threshing floor'). cf. blanket for a plow ox ('bull. GUL-BU: gul-lum: gur-ra: gur-2-ul: gur-sá-dug4: a capacity measure. gud-dun-a: subordinate ox ('bull. destroy. perfect bull ('bull' + 'to be many. ox' + 'plow' + 'thing' + 'cloth garment'). ox' + 'to step. = 240 sìla . ox' + 'subordinate' + nominative). cat ('to fall upon. a kind of wood ('evil.ús: ñiš reserve oxen for sowing ('oxen for sowing' + 'excess') .gud-am. ox' + 'aurochs cow'). ox' + 'name. in return ('to return' + subordination suffix /-a/). ox' + 'seed'). ox' + 'tablet'). ox' + 'beam. gud-du7(-du7): perfect. = 160 sìla ('reed basket' + 'offering.. to graze'). measuring container of either 24 or 40 sìla'). Version 3.. fierce. ox' + reduplicated 'great'). ox driver ('bull. wild-cow ('bull. goring ox ('bull. old ox ('bull. unblemished bull. Sumerian Lexicon. gud éš-gàr: gud-gal-gal: gud-ñiš: gud ñiš-ùr: gud-mu-x: gud-niga: working oxen ('bull. gud è: oxen taken out (of work) ('bull. fattened ox ('bull. ox' + 'old'). gud-šúþub: grazing or trampling oxen ('bull..0 96 . extinguish' + 'fertile'. harrow'). threshing ox ('bull. gud-numun: oxen for sowing ('bull. ox' + 'to drive'). to build a nest ('nest' + 'to moor. ox' + 'tool').

I am one who..uš(11)).. residence of the en priest or priestess ('night' + 'to stretch out') ... 'to go.0 97 . ñeštug(2. ñe26[ÑÁ]-nam-ma-da: come with me! (ñe26-na. understanding' + 'great storm') .3). ñeštug(2. ÑÁ-nam-ma-da: (cf.. cf. raisins ('grape vine' + 'dried'). and oil..sum: ñeštu(2.. to listen.3). plump') . it is me.. ñe26-nu).ñar: [to]'). grain depot ('granary' + 'interest. round. stay to midnight ('night' + 'half'). profit'). addition (reduplicated form of ñar. to pass the night ('night' + 'to go'..3). ñá-la.dag: to cease (doing something) (often with -ta-) ('to be somewhere' + 'resting place') . ñagia).. possessing intelligence ('ears. cf. guruš šà-saþar: ñá-e-me-en: I.. ñéme-maš: ñeštin-þád: ñéš×u.u18-lu: to forget ('ears.3). understanding' + 'to make available to listen to (with dative) ('ears' + 'to give'). beer. to set the mind to (with -ši -) ('understanding' + 'to set') .. Version 3.3). ñe26-nam-ma-da). ñá-gi(4)(-a): (cf.. imperative form of ñen.. ('I' + enclitic copula + 1st or 2nd person ending). come' + conjugational prefixes î -ba with locative force + 'with') ...gub: ñeštug(2. pay attention (to: with -ši -) ('ears. stay to midnight ('night' + 'to make equal').. gur5[KA×GU](ru.3)-tuku: ñi6. ñá-nun: storage area (ñar. ñá-ñá: adding. ñeštug(2. to bare the fangs (sign for 'mouth-needles' ( + 'to send' + guru7-du6: guru7-maš: ñá-e: grain stack ('granary' + 'heap') ... earth moving workers ('laborer' + 'essence' + 'earth') .búr: 'poison') + 'to release') .. ñalga-sùþ: nitwit ('consideration' + 'to be confused') . ñe26-nu: come!.. 'storeroom' + 'noble') .. Sumerian Lexicon.sá: ñi6-sa9: ñeštug(2... ÑÁ-nu: (cf. 'to accumulate').di: ñi6-par3/4: ñi6.. understanding' + 'to have') . myself ('I' + subjective ending).. = 10 liters (reduplicated 'thick.šú: to stop one's ears ('ears' + 'to cover'). ge-eš-tu).gur4-gur4[LAGAB+LAGAB]: a standard size container for wine.. ù-di). ñál.taka4: to open ('to be somewhere' + 'to open') . female tender of goats ('work-woman' + 'goats'). ñeš'u: six hundred ('sixty' + 'ten'.

díb: ñìri. footstool.ñar: to clear the way ('road' + 'to place... to be subjected ('foot' + 'at their place' + 'to be located') ....ñál: ñìri-šè. fruit-cake ('way.ús: to follow on foot.ñar: ñìri-gub(-ba): ñìri. slide ('feet' + 'to remove'.. cf.nú: ñidru(-mu)-u4-sù-rá: far away' + genitive)..ñar: set down') ..dug4/du11/e: effect').. domestic(s) ('foot' + 'to apply. fine')... ñìri-saña11[KIN]. to take a path. ñidru-šè. ñír-lá: butcher ('knife' + 'to weigh').. ki-ma-an-zé-er).. scalpel ('knife' + 'to shine').. step. establish'). pass along') .ra: to stumble ('foot' + 'to strike. ñin-na: ordinary ('ordinary' + nominative). trot' + nominative). to trample (with -ni -) ('foot' + 'to place.ñi6-ù-na: down') . to cut off (?) ('knife' + 'to erect').. to take an unfamiliar path ('path' + 'strange' + 'to traverse') ..0 98 . ñìri-saña 11.siñ18[KIN]: (cf. path' + 'abundance') .zé-er: to lose one's footing...díb: ñìri-kúr. to join'). ñir5-ñir5ku6: ñir5-ra: a fish (reduplicated 'to seek refuge') .DÙ: lú ñír. ñìri. an inexpensive fish ('knife' + 'length').dug 4). to place something under the authority of someone ('foot' + terminative + 'to place. ñìr-šúþub: hoof ('foot' + 'boot'). ñír-pa: ñír-tab: ku6 ñír-ús: ñír-zal: ñìri. ñír. slip. set down') . anše ñír-nun: a type of donkey ('expedition' + 'great... do').. to step on ('foot' + 'to stand') ..... in the middle of the night ('night' + ù-na. Sumerian Lexicon. 'triumph').. ñìr-pad-rá[DU]: ñìri. pedestal ('foot' + 'to stand') . bone(s) ('foot' + 'to break off a piece' + nominative). scorpion ('knife' + 'sting').... ñìri KU-bi-šè. butcher knife ('knife' + 'branch')..gub: ñìr-lam: to step forward. stir'). courier ('to run.. to lay (heaped-up grain) under the (measuring) stick ('stick' + terminative + 'to lie a scepter of long (years and) days ('scepter' ( + years) + 'days' + 'lasting. ñìri. to stamp out ('foot' + 'to harvest'(?) + 'to ñìr-sè-ga: menial(s).. Version 3. be on one's way ('path' + 'to traverse. to set one's foot on ('foot' + 'to follow. ñìri. to trample.

ñiskim-ti: recognized ('signal' + 'to stay alive'). ñiskim...tuku: ñissu...lal:

to get recognition ('signal' + 'to get').

ñiskim-zi an-na: good omen from heaven ('signal' + 'good, firm' + 'heaven' + genitive).
to cover with a shadow ('shadow' + 'to extend, reach') .


plow ('the' tool, par excellence). a type of thorn tree; a wood used to make boats and sickle hafts ('wood' + 'sea' +


ÑIŠ-BAD: ñiš-bad: ñiš-búru: ñiš-dù-a: ñiš-e11: -ñiš-en:

in the Akkad period, a length measure equal to 1 cubit, 1 kùš . a basket with a wooden handle; threshing sledge. net, trap ('tool' + 'to spread out' + nominative with vowel harmony). timber ('wood' + 'to build, erect' + nominative).

key; door pin ('tool' + 'to exit'). irrealis suffix, 'unreality' form suffix ('tool' + 'enigmatic background') . to conclude a sale ('pestle' + 'to hand over') . harrow ('tool' + 'field' + 'to drag over the ground') .

ñiš-gan...bala: ñiš-gána-ùr-ra: ñiš-gaz: ñiš-gi: ñiš-gaz-mè:

cudgel ('tool' + 'to crush, vanquish') . battle cudgel ('cudgel' + 'battle').

reed bank, thicket, cane brake ('tree' + 'reed'). answering chorus ('tool' + 'to answer' + 'to be') .

ñiš-gi4-ñál, ñiš-ki-ñál: ñiš-gíd-da: ñiš-gíg:

long wood; punting pole; javelin, spear ('wood' + 'long' + nominative).

a date palm ('tree' + 'black, dark').

ñiš-gú-ba: a piece of tableware ('tool' + 'chick pea, bean' + 'to give'). ñiš-gù-di: a loud musical instrument ('tool' + 'to make a noise or sound') . ñiš...ñar: to assign ('tool' + 'to deliver'). ñiš-ñiš-lá: ñiš-ÞAR: ñiš-þé: ñiš-þum: ñiš-þur:
battle ('tools' + 'to raise'; cf., ki-ñiš-ñiš-lá).

dredging (?) work in the canal ('tool' + 'obligation' ?). firmament, sky ('tool' + 'abundant') . bench on a wagon ('wood' + 'to bruise') . plan, drawing ('tool' + 'to draw, sketch') .

ñiš...þur: to draw; to make plans ('tool' + 'to draw'). ñiš-ì: (cf., še-ñiš-ì). ñiš-KÁ: ñiš-kad5:
(cf., ákan ). stepladder ('tool' + 'to tie, bind together') .

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


ñiš-kar2/3: ñiš-kíñ-ti: ñiš-maþ: ñiš-ná: ñiš-nañ: ñiš-nu(11): ñiš-pàr: ñiš...ra: ñiš-rín: ÑIŠ-RU: ñiš-si4: ÑIŠ-ŠAR: ñiš-šu:

task (cf., éš-kàr).

ñiš...lal/lá: to be silent ('tool' + 'to hang up') .
craftsmen ('work tool' + 'side'). (cf., ñiš-kad 5). bed; bedspread ('tool' + 'to sleep' + nominative). wooden water pail ('wood' + 'to drink'). lamp, light ('tool' + 'light, fire, lamp'). (cf., ñiš-búru ). to thresh ('stick' + 'to beat'). weighing scale (cf., érin, (cf.,



a date palm ('tree' + 'red-brown'). (cf., kiri 6). shackle; haft ('tool' + 'hand'). (cf.,



ñiš-šub(-ba): lot, share ('tool' + 'to cast, throw, drop' + nominative). ñiš...tag: to make a religious offering, sacrifice (often with dative) ('tree' + 'to adorn'). ñiš...tuku: ñiš-ùr(-ra): ñiš...ùr: ñìš...dù: ñìš-zu:
to hear, listen to ('tool' + 'to get, have') . log, beam, rafter (e.g., of a roof); harrow ('wood' + 'roof').

to harrow (often with -ni -) ('tool' + 'drag').

ñìš á-zi...e: to commit rape (ñìš, 'penis', + 'violence' + 'to do').
to have sexual intercourse (ñìš, 'penis', + 'to plant') .

ñìš-nu-zu: virgin (said of animals) (ñìš, 'penis', + 'not' + zu, 'to know').
having born young; open (ñìš, 'penis', + zu, 'to know').

ñizzal...aka: to pay attention ('attention' + 'to do', cf., sañ-kéš...aka). ñizzal-kalam-ma(k): the most intelligent person in Sumer ('intelligence' + 'land (of Sumer)' +


vandals (þa-lam + nominative ).

þa-bu(2,3,6)-da: a heavy copper hoe (Akkadian loanword, hap/buutum).
to ruin; to destroy (often with -ta -) (cf., þul(3)).

þa-la: (inheritance) share, lot (cf., þal). þa-lam:


þu-lu-úb: oak (?); sapling (?) [one Akkadian equivalent means 'young maiden'].


(cf., þu-luþ ).

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0



mutually opposing; contrasting, harmonizing; clashing (þum, 'to wrestle' conjugated as Akk. huud, 'joy', conjugates into hadûm, 'joyful' - except in Sumerian there is no syllable 'mum', just the syllable mun ).


þa-šu-úr: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('abundance' + 'to pour' + 'tree trunk') . þa-zi(-in):

þa-za: to hold, grasp; to retain (Akk. ahaazum, Orel & Stolbova 25).
urudu ñiš

ax (Akkadian loanword, Orel & Stolbova 1318, cf., 1305).


a musical instrument; chain (reduplicated 'ring, bracelet') (cf., kíkkin).

þar-ra-an: road (a city on the route to the Mediterranean, Akkadian loanword). þaš4...ñá-ñá:

to rejoice ('lower abdomen' + 'to deposit') .

þaz...aka: to slaughter ('tool' + 'to thresh' + 'to do'; cf., gaz, 'to slaughter') .
[that] is our wish ('wish' + î + 'to be') .

þé-àm: 'so be it', 'let it be', consent, approval, wish (precative prefix + î + 'to be'). þé-àm-me-àm: þé-du7:
be') .

decoration ('let it be suitable, fitting').

þé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: it is indeed (precative prefix + î + na-nam, 'indeed' + enclitic copula, 'to þé-ñál:
overflow; abundance ('let there be available') . let it be. abundance, fruitfulness ('may it be; numerous' + 'great, fine, deep') . knowledge (reduplicated [with vowel alternation]:

þé-...nam-...: þé-nun; þi-nun:

þé-zu-þé-zu; þé-zu-þé-za:
'numerous' + 'to know') .


(cf., þá ) ('to mix' + nominative).

þi-li: beauty; (sexual) charm, appeal; luxuriance ('numerous' + 'cedar oil, fragrance'). þi-li...aka:
to behave gracefully ('beauty' + 'to do') . to apply adornments ('beauty' + 'to adorn; to spread') . to be full of opulence ('beauty' + 'to bear, carry') . joyous (?) beauty ('beauty' + asa, 'cage, fetter' or ingredient in asilal(3,4,5),

þi-li...du8(-du8): þi-li...gùr-ru: þi-li-ma(-ra)-az:
'joy, gladness') .

þi-li...sù(-sù): full of appeal ('beauty' + 'to rejoice'). þi-nun:

(cf., þé-nun ). (cf.,


to scare; to become scared, frightened ('birds/fish' + 'to sweep away') .

þu-luþ, þa-luþ: þu-rí-in:

þu-nu, þu-þu-nu: helpless (þuñ-(ñ), þun-(ñ), 'to hire' + 'none').
eagle (Akkadian loanword, urinnu I; Orel & Stolbova #52 *’ar-/*war- 'eagle'; note that AHw says that urinnu II, 'standard, totem', is a Sumerian loanword). idiot, hillbilly, boor (Akkadian loanword ?).


Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


isiš2.. waste'). cause pain ('evil' + 'to create.3.. lament (cf.lá: to sit in anguish (isiš2. i-lu: song. Sumerian Lexicon. rise' + 'to rise....0 102 .3).. slab. sing'). very happy... mountainous region ('holes. heap up'). ì-dùg(-ga).. fat of cows. i-gi4-in-zu: indeed!. pitchers ('oil' + 'to store.ñar: i-dutu: i-zi: í-kú: ì-áb: i-si-iš. i-si-iš: i-si-iš. inclination (e. clarified butter.gig: to hate ('evil' + 'to be sick'). to wail (to someone: dative) (isiš2. complaint... 'moaning' + 'to hang').. outcry. ì-dub: storage jugs. as. cream (?) ('fat' + 'cow'). lament. Shamash!' ('cry' + divine determinative + 'god of justice') . þul-ñál: þúl-la: þur-sañ: i-i: evil ones ('evil' + 'to be').. rise' + 'to burn') .. ghee (Old Sumerian) ('cow fat' + 'to make flat [by boiling away the water]') . Emesal dialect for igi. þu-úr-sá-ñá/ne: þúb-gaz: þúb.g. perfume ('oil' + 'sweet' + 'fine'). þur-sañ ). 'Oh. þúb. slaughter ('athlete' + 'to slaughter') . ì-dùg-nun(-na). cross') .. make') þul.. þáš). contrivance ('to go out' + 'to traverse.þu-su: (cf. 'moaning' + 'to set') . (reduplicated éd ). to trample (?) ('athlete' + 'to cover') . waves (cf. cream. go out') . iz-zi ) ('to go out. hill-country. ibila ). complaint. 45 degrees . porter. cry for justice. þuš-a: something red ('angry' + nominative). i-lu.the angle formed by animals eating fodder) . i-dib: threshold.. good oil ('oil' + 'sweet'). inclined angle. to see' ('to go out. i-ti: (cf. þul.sar: to run ('athlete' + 'to run'). ir). i(-r): (cf.du11/e: to sing a dirge ('dirge' + 'to speak. itud ). device.šú: (cf. dirge ('cry' + 'to multiply'). peaks') . joyful ('joy' + subordination suffix /-a/). door keeper (impersonal verbal conjugation prefix + 'residue.dím: to hurt. 'face.. flagstone. ì-du10-ga: (lú) perfume. like (used in hypothetical comparisons).. valleys' + 'points.3. ì-du10-nun(-na): ì-duþ/du8: janitor.. i-bí[BIL]: smoke. Version 3.. ì-áb-sè-ga: ì-bí-la: (cf..

. underwear (?) ('hips' + 'to hang. íb-ùr: íd-a-dug: ñiš irrigation project ('canal' + 'water' + 'vessel'). clarified butter.DU: 'unto') . stretch. predict.. igi(-šè). fine oil'). 'word' + 'to make. to put the evil eye (on someone) ('eye' + 'evil' + 'to fashion'). igi-a-a-na-šè: igi. ì-dùg-nun(-na).. ì-šaþ: pig lard ('fat' + 'pig'). itud ). ì-sañ: best. for a lead animal. shiftiness ('eyes' + 'to turn. ig-šu-úr. adj... to bolt the door ('door' + 'hand' + 'base' + 'to go') . fine oil (jar) ('oil' + 'true measure. a profession (impersonal verbal prefix + 'to fling away').ì-gu-la): perfumed oil ('oil' + 'flax' + 'beauty. moonlight (cf. ghee (Neo-Sumerian) ('fat. mix').dím: igi-du: igi-šè. þi-nun).bar: to look at ('eye' + 'to open'). oil' + 'noble'). turncoat. to walk in front of ('to the front' + 'to walk'). ominous remark (inim.0 103 . e-si-na ). 'to grumble').du: to pass in front of/before ('face' + terminative suffix + 'to pass by') . ì-nun: butter. before his father ('front' + 'father' + ni-a(k) . igi-bala: traitor. ì-udu: fat.bad: to open one's eyes ('eye' + 'to open').... ointment ('oil' + 'perfume' + nominative)..ÑAR]: to promise.. i5-ñar[KA.. ì-ñiš: sesame oil ('oil' + 'tree'). revolt') . (cf. igi-dañal: wide seeing eyes ('eyes' + 'wide'). fish oil ('oil' + 'fish'). þé-nun. 'his + genitive' + terminative suffix.. Sumerian Lexicon. íb-dam-za: anger ('to be angry' + dum-dam. ì-rá-rá: ì-si-na: ì-ti: ointment mixer ('fat' + reduplicated 'to stir. Version 3. extend') . tallow ('fat' + 'sheep') igi-zi.. fine oil ('oil' + 'prime').dib(2): igi-þ to choose... igi. change. kuše-íb-ùr).. establish'). (cf. to strengthen'). desire'). ì-ÞI-nun(-na): ì-ir-a: ì-ku6: ì-laþ4: ì-lí: (cf.. leftover ('middle' + 'to disregard'). leader (also read as palil ) ('front' + 'to walk'). ib-si8[DI]: íb-lal: íb-tag4: kuš square ('eye' + 'to crack open') . to legitimate ('to look at' + 'legitimate.

. igi(-tur).. vanguard ('before. mun-gazi ) ('eye' + 'to be good') . look at (with -ši. front' + 'battle' + genitive). to spy. to look over ('eyes' + 'to lift'). igi-íl-la: choice ('eyes' + 'to lift' + nominative). to appear before someone ('eye. unskilled worker ('eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open').dù: igi.. igi-níñin: treachery ('eye' + 'to wander.. to witness ('eye' + 'to crack open') . visibility (of the moon) ('to see' + nominative). igi.. inspection. igi-gub(-ba): coefficient ('inverse' + 'fixed').. to view. igi-gu4: a stylized biconvex geometric figure constructed from 120 degree arcs ('eye' + 'ox'). to examine.. sañ-ki.. igi.íl: review. to unite ('eyes' + 'to soften.. face' + 'little' + 'to lengthen'.. (cf.. turn away').....gíd: to despise. igi-lá: (cf... igi. igi-nu-du8(-a): blind person .. to understand. igi.ñar: to face. igi-6-ñál: 1/6. igi-gùn-gùn: igi-4-ñál: 1/4. IGI-ÑAR(-m): igi. igi-X-šè: in the presence of X ('face.suþ: to stare with wide-open eyes ('eyes' + 'to pop out') . retreat'). knock down'. flashing eyes ('eyes.kár: to look upon. igi-sig5: igi-su: pulverized (onions) (cf.from Sumer either the east or the northwest ('to face' + 'east'). to direct the eyes to (with -ši -.igi.. to look upon (often with -ši-) ('eye' + 'to place [into]'). face' + 'to sparkle.. look upon with disfavor or anger ('eye. igi-tùm-lá ).. allay') . supervision. to have on makeup') . Version 3. at a specific object).. igi-sìg-sìg[PA-PA]: an insulting face ('face' + reduplicated 'to strike.gub: to look at ('eye' + 'to set').. to select (often with -ši-) ('eyes' + 'to illuminate'). front' + X + terminative suffix) . cf. ka-sìg). inspect. face' + 'to set') .gíd). intelligent ('eye' + 'to place [into]' + nominative).ñál: to (be able to) see.te-en: igi-te-en: fraction... igi-mè(-/ak/): before the battle. cf..or bi -). to see ('eyes' + 'to fill'). igi.. igi. proportions. i-gi 4-in-zu ).du8: igi-du8-a: to be on the lookout for (with -ši -) ('eye' + 'to raise erect') . igi.. igi.a slave.0 104 ...lal: to close one's eyes ('eyes' + 'to diminish.adds intensity to the gaze). igi-nim(-ma): upper country . Sumerian Lexicon. to see (often with -ni . igi-ñál(-la): clever..

whirlwind ('weather' + 'to blow' + 'mutually opposing'). im-mar-tu: westwind ('wind' + 'western desert').mir: im-nun: to be windy ('wind' + 'storm wind'). im-lá: container. im-ru(-a).ùru: to be on guard....0 105 . pluck'. lightning storm ('storm' + 'lightning flash').. im-gíd-da: small. clump of clay ('clay' + 'piece'). pleasant poplar tree ('poplar tree' + 'good') . earth' + 'contrasting'. earth' + 'weight'). igi-u4-è-a: igi. also. edge of the civilized world ('writing tablet' + 'great').igi-tùm-lá: weigh'). select. íl-lá: elevation ('to lift' + 'to hang'. guard') . 'it is too much' . whitewash ('clay' + 'white'). shear. lump of earth or metal (cf. cf. im-babbar(2): gypsum.. width ('clay' + 'to hold'). facing east ('face. ní. imri-þa-mun). im-sa12-ti-um: eastwind ('wind' + 'eastern mountains'). igi-zé-zé: dry-eyed (?) ('eyes' + 'to cut. Sumerian Lexicon. im. im-du8-a: wall of rammed earth.. 'depression') . coveting.. im-ma-al: milk cow (cf. . vigilant ('eyes' + 'to watch.. dùn-lá.suhhutum means 'pressed out') .. to register on a clay tablet ('clay tablet' + locative + 'to write down'. im-ma: last.dirig ).. precious ('eyes' + 'to choose' + nominative). cf. clan ('the sent out') . igi-zàg-ga: igi-zu: (cf. adobe wall ('mud' + 'to build. 'sunrise' + locative). im-ri(-a): relatives. añar x) ('clay..dirig: im-dugud: im-ñíri: (cf. íldag[A-AM]-zi-da: im-ba: loss ('the paid out') . im-me: to be the one for (ì + me + a). greedy eyes. cf. erect' + nominative). im-þul: im-lag: evil wind ('wind' + 'evil').. Akk. immal (2)). im-dù-a. carry away' + 'to facing the sunrise. longing. previous (year) ('the named'). igi-zàñ-ñá. one column tablet ('clay tablet' + 'long' + 'side').. a starving person ('eyes' + 'to obtain. im-ri-þa-mun: storm. IM. family. Version 3. im-šu-gub).gub: im-ma-si-im-ma-diri-ga: travail (a deverbalized fixed form). i-gi 4-in-zu ). before' + dutu-è.the scream of suffering men or of women in im-ma... im-þa-mun: a dark-colored earth used for a high-contrast dye ('clay..

to call back one's word (with bi -) ('word' + 'to to (produce) slander ('word' + 'low... to translate ('words' + 'to revolve') . im-šu: paragraph. bul).. to be cut out.. storehouse (rare variant of uš-gíd-da). in-nam-gíd-da: in-nu(-da): inim. 'yes'). fix'). to have a conversation..gu7). extract (on a tablet) ('clay tablet' + 'portion').. inim. to rain ('storm' + 'to rain'). to claim ('word' + 'to set. im-si-sá: im..gi4: return') . marked out border ('straw' + 'to heap up') .. loosen' + nominative). im-ma. hubris ('words' + 'to exceed'). im-šu-gub: list tablet ('sections' + 'to write down'. to interpret. fetch') . in-na: insult.. equally (frequently follows -gim ). in-ga-: again. straw ('straw' + nud.. cf.bu5-bu5: chaff ('straw' + 'to fly'). section.gub)..gu7(-gu7): sig... an-na. cf.. inim. good') . document ('clay' + 'to write' + nominative). excessive words..dúb: to insult. eme- inim-sig.IM: im-u18-lu: in-dal: in-dub: southwind ('wind' + 'storm'). to answer (with dative prefix and -ni -)...ku5(-r): to swear ('word' + 'to cut.šèñ: clay tablet. wisdom ('word' + 'word' + genitive ?). im-šu-rin-na: oven. to cut. 'to blow'. to blow away the straw/chaff ('straw' + redup.ñar: inim. small' + 'to consume'. arrogance.. in. to seek or find the right word ('word' + 'to seek.kíñ: to bring an action against someone (before the court).. inim-inim-ma: compositions. curse'). IM×TAK4. northwind ('wind' + 'straight').. 'bed' + genitive)... in. Sumerian Lexicon.. TAK4..dé-a: cleaning straw after winnowing ('straw' + 'to pour' + nominative).bala: inim-búr-ra: inim-dirig: inim-dùg: inim. IM. Version 3.... in-ga-na-nam: it is also ('equally' + emphatic + 'to be'). to taunt (with -ni-) ('insult' ( + terminative suffix) + 'to knock down') .dug4/du11/e: to say ('words' + 'to speak').. in(-nu)(-šè).0 106 . good word ('word' + 'sweet. cf.. in-nu: negation (cf. TAK4.TAK4.. breach of treaty ('words' + 'to dissolve.

to purify with fire ('fire' + 'to raise up').. make'). ka-gáraš-a: ka-guru7: granary supervisor ('mouth' + 'silo'). no indication of ir-si-im. catastrophe ('mouth' + 'military encampment' + nominative).. iz-zi8[ÑIŠ-KAL]: house wall.. izi. to accuse (reduplication class) ('mouth' + 'to build. small' + nominative). to extinguish or calm a fire ('fire' + 'to calm. to search for clarification ('word' + 'to request. scent ('perfume' + 'to fill up' + 'wind'.. is-þáb: ñiš fool ('organ' + 'foul-smelling'). *kalVy-. current.inim-ma..0 107 . izi. 'vessel'). a tool.. demolish'). ízi[KI-IZI]-ur5: ka(-al)-lu5: a vessel.. izi... cf. bowl (Akkadian loanword. a leather wrapping for part of the plow.. learned ('words' + 'to know') .. flood ('wood' + 'to rise up'.dù: kuš to render a decision. fierce or accusing mouth..šár: inim-zu: inim-šùd(-da): slander ('word' + 'low... izi-gi6-eden-na: izi-lá: izi.te-en: ka-al: clay pit. eš-bar). fragrant aroma. ir-sim: Afroasiatic cognates). soul').. Orel & Stolbova #1423.. IŠ-gi4: iz-zi[ÑIŠ-ZI].šub: to hurl fire ('fire' + 'to throw'). ka-aš. extinguish').. conceive an idea ('in a word' + 'to place'). torch ('fire' + 'to raise up'). inim-sig-ga: ka. Sumerian Lexicon. cf. KA-dúb-ba: a field tool (?). a word of prayer ('word' + 'to pray' + nominative).ne-ne(-r): to fan the fire ('fire' + reduplicated nir..te: to set on fire ('fire' + 'to knock down. kalû. ér). fire approaches ('fire' + 'to approach'). 'to winnow'). ka-dù: ka-dù-a.sè(-g)[SUM]: to imagine... one who knows the (proper) words. Version 3.. ka-aš-bar: decision ('mouth' + 'one' + 'to divide'... é-sig4). izi... implore'). spine') . ka. to converse ('mouth' + 'to give'). ír: (cf.sìg[PA]: izi. coal ('fire-place' + 'liver. ka-dù-dù: ka-duþ-a: ñiš with open mouth ('mouth' + 'to crack open' + nominative).lá: shadow ('fire' + 'night' + 'steppe.

. a measuring jar with a capacity of 20 sìla . káb.... zú. KA.di/e ). sig 14. to put together.... pleasing') ...ÞAR: ka-íd-da: KA-kešda: path ('mouth' + 'feet. to have an agreement. precious (reduplicated 'to esteem. (cf.. 'to praise') . cf. to make the mouth pleasant ('mouth' + reduplicated 'good. moor to') . (cf.. to reach the quay (in a boat) ('quay' + locative + 'to reach.. kiri 4 KA šu. gù-nun. challenger..di/e). kal-kal.ñál). to praise ('praise' + sil. an insulting mouth ('mouth' + 'to strike.. knock down'. supervisor of the fat stores ('mouth' + 'large oil jar')..di/e: ka.. an empty mouth ('mouth' + 'to be empty' + nominative).. KA×LI. to be clogged ('mouth' + 'to clasp') . praise. path') . ka-al-lu 5).di/e: (cf. cart. value') ........ ka ki.dug4: (dug) ñiš to measure or count commodities for accounting or taxation ('string' ? + 'to do') ..ka-ñìri: KA.ñál: ka-ta... kar(-ra). KA×LI.kéš-(d): to organize.... chariot.zu-zu: ka-làl: to kiss the ground ('mouth' + 'ground' + reduplicated 'to know') .. gù-nun. (cf. disorganized (with -ta -).. cf. regiment ('mouth. ka-al-ka-al: kal-la-kal-la: (munus) barren. to become undone...gi4(-gi4): ka-lu5: KA-nun. Alster reads munus-kar-ke4) ('marketplace' + 'reed mat'). ká-bar-ra: outer door ('gate' + 'outside' + nominative). way... utterance ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to go out'). word' + 'to bind') ..sag9-sag9: ka-sìg[PA]: ka-sù-ga: ka-šakan: ka-ta-è: ka-tab: ka-tar: (cf. abul ).ús: Sumerian Lexicon. kar-kid: prostitute (B. ka-tar.kar: šu. igi-sìg-sìg).gi 4). highly esteemed or valued. a sweet person ('mouth' + 'honey') .. to destroy') .0 108 ... káb-dug4-ga: KAK+LIŠ-la(2): kak-ús: goad ('nail' + 'to drive'. canal intake ('mouth' + 'river' + genitive). Version KÁ..GAL: (cf. princely.. ká-mè: wings of a temple door ('gate' + 'battle'). bar-úsurudu).ur 5). a type of fungus or rot ('mouth' + 'to decide. to take away ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to take away'). (cf. empty ('to be rare').

kaš4. run away') . hide') ... pressed out beer ('beer' + 'to press. or adv. ki-áñ: beloved. kaš-dé-a: banquet. answer ('place' + 'exposed'). to show affection ('ground' + 'to measure' = the first recorded euphemism ?. Version 3. kàš.. ki-in-dar)..de6: ki. to clear a road ('road' + 'to place.-terminative infix). cf.. cf... fresh') . death offering ('place' + 'water' + 'to water'). fresh' + nominative). or the result of popular etymology from kam(2).. 'to desire'.. fine quality') .. excellent').. a fish measure ('to join.kar: ke-en-ge-ra: kéš-de6: ki-a-nañ: to run ('speed' + 'to effect') .. good dark beer ('beer' + 'black. running. zíd-sig15)... Sumerian Lexicon. libation. ki-bala: ki-búr: ki. tie' + 'to carry').sig10/sì(-g): even') . ki-á-áñ-(ñá): the place of issuing orders (cf. solution. reddish-brown beer ('beer' + 'red-brown'). to run fast ('speed' + 'to escape. party ('beer' + 'to pour' + nominative).áñ-(ñ): to love (someone: with dative infix. dark'). to brew' + nominative). nest or den for animals (plural.. rebel land ('place' + 'to revolt'). cf. valuable'... cf.dug4/du11/e: kaš4-di: kaš4.aka: to put on a banquet ('banquet' + 'to do') .aka). to continue') .0 109 . (cf. ki-en-gi 7(-r) ). ki. kaš-gíg-dùg-ga: strong (?) beer ('beer' + 'strong. to make flat. put in. ki-tuš ) ('place' + 'to dwell (plural)').. ki-ná. to engrave. libation place. adj... ki-di-ku5-da/ru: ki-dul: ki-dúr: place of judicial decisions ('place' + 'decisions' + 'to cut. ki-bad-rá: distant places ('places' + 'to be at a distance' + nominative).dar: rebellious country. kaš-dùg/du10: kaš-gíg: kaš-kal: kaš-si4: kaš-sig5: kaš-sig15: kaš-sur-ra: sweet drink ('beer' + 'sweet... to bury ('ground' + 'to bring. orders') . kaš-dé.kaskal. á-áñ-ñá.sur: to urinate ('urine' + 'to expel a liquid').. obscure point ('place' + 'to cover. something: with locative/loc. dark' + 'sweet. dark beer ('beer' + 'black. secret. 'instructions. good beer ('beer' + 'good. light beer ('beer' + 'pleasing. to break the ground ('ground' + 'to split'... decide' + nominative without/with vowel harmony).

Sumerian Lexicon. ki-kal-kal-la: ki-kalag: ki-kid: scour') the very precious place ('place' + reduplicated 'to value. crevice ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to split'. riverbank..þur: ki-in-du: ki-inim-ma: ki-ir-ga: to fall/throw upon the ground ('ground' [ + 'onto' ] + 'to set') .A]) ('ground' + 'moist').. grounds.. to bring success ('place' + šár.ñar: ki-še-er.. ki-lal/lá(-bi): (its) weight. di-ir-ga ). ki-in-gi4-a: (cf. kin: ki-kúkku: dark place ('place' + 'dark'). ki. ('place' [ + 'its' + 'to' ] + 'to return. leaves. abundance' + 'to establish') ... station. silo.. to paw the ground ('ground' + 'to scratch') . pešx[KI. ki-iz: to trim. ground' + 'to seek.0 110 .. ki-en-gi(-r): ki-(bi-šè) parts of the field where the ground is moist and productive. to seek (with -ši . kin-gi4-a).. mourning rites ('ground' + 'to destroy. grave. the barren place = the netherworld ('place' + 'barren. cf. cf. ki-gul-la: waif ('ground' + 'to fall upon' + nominative. to restore (usually with bi -. cf. ki-e-ne-di: ki-è: ki-gal: playing ground. ñiš-ñiš-lá). lú-ki-inim-ma ) ('place' + 'oath' + genitive).. assigned place to stand. 'great Heavens'). native') . a place of reed mats ('place' + 'reed mat'). place of testimony (cf.or bi -) ('ground' + 'to place') .. settled place. (place of) dancing (also read as ešemen ) ('place' + 'to play').. empty'). piš10. where weight refers to area or volume... cellar granary. place where something is built ('ground' + 'to place') . shape. peš10.. battlefield ('place' + 'tools' + 'to raise'. return [to its] place) constant renewal ('place' + reduplicated 'renewal' + nominative).. kankal). evil') . foundations ('place' + 'big'). to scratch the earth. or vegetation) (cf. or with dative prefix) (lit. generosity (cf. ki-in-dar: hole. socle ('place' + 'to stand' + nominative). ki-dar). 'to be many. excavation. exit ('place' + 'to go out') . path ('place' + 'feet. path') ... to clean (of hair. way. the earth ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to walk') . esteem' + nominative)... cf.. establish (a building or town) (often with -ni . ki-kal-la-kal-la: hard ground ('ground' + 'strong'. guz). arrangement ('area' + 'to weigh. ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r). (cf.ñar: ki-šè.kíñ. great Earth (as opposed to an-gal . gul-lum). lift'). ki. to found. Sumer ('place' + 'lords' + 'noble.denoting the object of the search) ('place.gi4: ki-gibil-gibil-lá: ki-gub(-ba): ki-ñar: big place.ñar: ki-ñìri: ki-þul: ki-ñiš-ñiš-lá: ki. restore'). Version 3.

Sumerian Lexicon.. socle ('place' + 'to compare with' + nominative). ki-ta: below. virgin ('place' + 'pure'). dinig and nemur). everywhere ('place' + 'totality').ñiš ki-lá: water meter..ri: ki-sá-a: ki-saþar: ki-sì-ga: iti resting place ('place' + ní. disbursed by X ('from the place of X'). cf. 'in the great courtyard'. to bury (a dead person) ('ground' + 'to prepare. place of honor.tùm: ki-še-er: to fix the boundary ('place' + ' to kiss the ground. high place.. horizon. set' + nominative). ki-su-ub.te-en. kislaþ).. quarantine hut ('ground' + 'to place.lá: ki-lugal-gub(-ba): ki-ma-an-zé-er: ki-maþ: ki-lul-la: place of murder or violence ('place' + 'malicious act' + genitive). to delimit').. ki-ná. KI. še-er-tab-ba). snake hole. ki-ná: sleeping quarters.aka: ki-sug8. ki. 'to be many'. to lay on the ground. limit ('place' + šá gather') .. place to eat bread ('place' + 'bread' + 'to eat'). ki-su7: to kiss the ground. threshing floor. cf...aka: to make love ('bed' + 'to do') . ki-sig-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 4 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. ki-nam-nitaþ: battlefield ('place' + 'manliness'). Version 3...NE: (cf. ki-sum-ma: onion-growing land ('land' + 'onions' + genitive). cavity in the ground ('place' + 'fierce'). pay attention to. ki-ninda-gu7: to scratch the ground ('ground' + 'to touch . select fallow land whose surface was conditioned to act as a threshing floor ('land' + 'threshing floor'. ki. to make obeisance ('to kiss the ground' + 'to do') . 'to calm down'). cf. ñìri. lower ('ground' + locative with remote deixis).. bed. royal place ('place' + 'king' + 'to stand') . to bring') . young woman.. ki-sá-al-ma-þe: place of silt deposits ('place' + 'silt')... a slippery place ('a place where it slips for me'. grave ('place' + 'exalted').zé-er). fence... to lay the foundation ('ground' + 'to adorn') ..tag: ki. to heed..sur: ki-šár: ki-šúr: ki-X-ta: ki. to prostrate oneself ('ground' + locative + 'to suck') ... bedding ('place' + 'bed'). funerary offering. enclosure. grave. syllabic writing for kisal-maþ-e ...0 111 . calendar month 5 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. ki-sikil: ki-a. ki-ní-te: ki.. calendar month 5 at Ur during Ur III..

túmu: to obtain homage. (cf. ki-zàþ: a sacred locality ('place' + 'to hide'). submit (reduplication class) ('ground' + 'to make a repetitive motion') .. "place of knowledge" (school). to establish (often with ni-) ('ground' + 'to moor.. living grounds ('place' + 'roofs'). sculptor ('to pinch off clay' + 'statue') .sù: ki-za. to refuse obeisance ('homage' + 'to obtain'). splendor. ki.ti: kin: na4 during the evening ('evening' + 'during') . ki-za. message ('messages' + 'to return' + 'the one who') . to touch the ground.aka: to put to work ('orders' + terminative + 'to do').. dwell (singular)').. to bow down. to manufacture ('orders' + 'to do').til: to finish one's work ('orders' + 'to keep alive').. Sumerian Lexicon. ki-zú-ur5-ra: KÍD-alam: kíñ/kinku6: kí-sa: (cf. kíñ-šè.. dry'). Version 3.. evening meal... kíñ-dInanna: calendar month 6 at Nippur during Ur III. gi-sa) remote'). wonderful ('nose' + 'to shine') . deliver'). kíñ.ki-tuš: seat. messenger.. kíñ ). large beer container ('place' + 'idea.. ki-umun2-(m): KI-UD(-k): desert land ('place' + 'sun.. to throw to the ground. ki-uri: the land of Akkade ('place' + 'protectors ?') . kíñ-sig(7/17)(-g). knowledge'). splendid. ki-dúr ) ('place' + 'to sit. ki-za. to make homage far from ('homage' + 'to be at a distance. to chew' + nominative)... kín-an-na: upper millstone ('millstone' + 'to be high' + nominative).. erect' + nominative). to work ('orders' + 'to make. time of the evening meal..bad... kíñ-saþar: earth-moving work ('tasks' + 'earth. hold') .0 112 .ñá: kíñ-gi4-a: iti construction work ('tasks' + 'to build.aka: to work. kíñ[-kíñ]. evening. kíñ-se11/12(-g): of the evening ('tasks' + 'late')... cf. kíñ-dù-a: kíñ-dúb-ba: kíñ. sharp edge ('place' + 'teeth' + 'mill stone. hammering work ('tasks' + 'to strike. kìri/kir4[KA]-dib/dab: groom (for leading donkeys and horses and as a title of a court official) ('nose' + 'to catch. silt').. kìri[KA]-zal: prosperity. ki-ùr: territory.ús: to set on the ground. a fish. dwelling place (singular. to assign work ('orders' + 'to keep alive'). join'). ki. cool kíñ-sig-gin7: kíñ. hammer' + nominative). envoy.

te-en: kiri4.ñál: to pay homage to. turn into'). brightly lit ('the city of Kish' + 'lamps' + 'to have') . gold ('noble metal' + 'yellow').0 113 . sea fish ('fish' + 'sea' + genitive). a standard size clay beer pot in range 0. water'). to lie down') . ku6-ab-baku6: Sumerian Lexicon.. to lay out a garden ('garden' + 'to set up. wisdom ('bright' + 'to know').. kù-dam-taka4: kù-dím: kù-du8: kù-ñál: kù. clever. prosperity ('dam in a stream' + 'to be full. kù-zu: expert..dug4: dug to profit ('solid base' + 'to heap...kiri4-šu-dù: supplication(s) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to fasten. erudite.. ku-li-an-na: ku-mul: friend of heaven. ransom money (for a slave) ('silver' + 'to untie'). KU-KU: ancestors (?) ('to found.. kù-zu-nì-nam-ma: the all wise ('expert' + níñ-na-me.. ku-dun. silversmith. apply') . do') . make').. kisal-maþ: main courtyard ('courtyard' + 'foremost'). kù-im-ba(-aš.2 liters ('solid base' + 'true measure').. kišib-ñál: seal-keeper ('seal' + 'to have'). kiri4 šu. ku6-a-dé: fresh fish ('fish' + 'water' + 'to pour. ku-kur-dù: a jar ('solid base' + 'mountain' + 'to mould.. to sneer at ('nose' + 'to smell'). inspector ('silver' + 'to have'). 'anything' + genitive). kiri4. ku-li: friend. goldsmith. to greet (dative) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to place on') .ku4): to settle an account ('silver' + 'to weigh').. pile up' + 'to speak. kù-luþ-þa: refined silver ('noble metal.. silver' + 'to clean' + nominative). gu7).1. cumin (Elamite ? loanword). one who has silver ('silver' + 'to have')... to plant') ..dù: kiš-nu-ñál: to sneeze ('nose' + 'cold') . metal worker ('noble metal' + 'to fashion') .5 . to be near.lá: kù-sig17: kù-tuku: divorce settlement ('silver' + 'spouse' + 'to leave with a person') .. kù-babbar: silver ('noble metal' + 'white'). to sniff at. kišib. to lose money ('silver' + 'loss' ( + plural marker + 'to enter. Version 3. abundant') . joy. to subpoena ('seal' + 'to roll. kú: (cf. ku-nu: to approach.ur5: kiri4-zal: kiri6. dragonfly ('friend' + 'sky' + genitive).ra(-ra): to seal. impress').

= 1 meter. Version 3. to be long') . strap') . long-haired hero(s) ?.0 114 . la-gal: (cf.aka: kur7-aka: kuš. geese ('mountains' + 'to return'). Sumerian Lexicon.sud/sù/su: la-ag: (cf. kùš-numun: in the Akkad period. dried fish ('fish' + 'to slice' + nominative)... to wag a tail. great mountain . kun-zi(-da): kur-ñišerin-na: kur-gal: ('mountain' + 'big'). deep mountain ('mountain' + 'low')...ku6-banšur-ra: ku6-dar-ra: ku6-íl: kug: fish for the (offering) table ('fish' + 'table' + genitive). leather cord ('leather' + 'to hang. kun-su3/13(-su3/13): long-tailed ('tail' + 'to stretch.... fish delivery ('fish' + 'to carry'). kušu/kušumx(-ki).. la-ga: (cf. to run ('herd' ( + ground) + 'to touch') .za: kun-sañ: to bubble (see the definition for za).. lú-la-ga). appeal. ku6-engur(-ra-k): kud-kud-rá: (cf. kuš-dù-dù: leather-dresser. staircase' + 'head. to level. mythological sea monster ?.dù: kuš-dù: kuš-lá: kuš-nañ: supreme over the lands ('lands' + locative + 'to be supreme' + nominative).. to crawl. lookout' + 'to do') . mountain of cedar trees ('mountain' + 'cedar' + genitive). staircase of the sanctuary ('tail.tag: la-þa-ma: la-la: joy.a metaphor for temples and for Sumer as a place where earth and sky meet kur-gi4mušen: goose. to treat or dress skin ('leather' + 'to raise up.di: kur7. treated or flayed skin. to devastate ('devastation' + 'to immerse') .. kuš7. inspection record. vigor (reduplicated 'happiness') .. to inspect ('to watch.. kun-zi(-da): ku6 weir ('canal reservoir' + 'to strengthen') . a lame person (reduplicated 'to cut off' + nominative). a length measure equal to 2 cubits. charms.. fish of the marshes ('fish' + 'fresh waters' + genitive). kù ). kun-kà-an. to speak hostile words ('hostile' + 'to speak') .. leather water pail or hose ('leather' + 'to drink'). abundance. to sneak away.. chief'). make'). lagar ). 2 ÑIŠ-BAD. lag). fish-pond fish. kur-ra diri-ga: kur-sig: kúr.

lustration priest ('man' + 'water' + 'to wash. cf. lú-ñišbala: man of the spindle ('man' + 'spindle').. lagab na4 za-gìn-na: a block of lapis lazuli ('block' + 'lapis lazuli' + genitive).. don't find Semitic parallels to Akk. despot ('man' + 'large').aka: ('leather bag' + 'testicles' + locative case ending + 'to do') . cf. 'captive'). lum. Sumerian Lexicon. not straight ('numerous' + 'edge'. 'to graze. exercise tablet (loan from Akkadian liginnu). manager of the treasure-house ('man' + 'house' + 'treasure' + double genitive [a]k- lú-é-níñ-ka: lú-érim: lú-éše: enemy ('man' + 'evil. le-um: plate. 'clay. lú-a-tu5(-a): a priest who bathes the statues of the deities and rulers . é-éše. pond ('honey. may be a connection to ia4.lá-ìa[NI]: remainder of debt left over. bathe' + nominative). luhummû.. lunch bag ('abundant' + 'container') . arrears ('to weigh. lú-á-tuku: strong man. lú-dam-tuku: lú-di-da: lú-du-du: a[k]). cf. lu-þu-um: lu-lim: lu-úbsar: kuš kuš mud (luþ. to prepare (gold or silver) for the precious sack (by sifting) lu-úb: lu-úb-šir(-ra). opposing party (in a legal case) ('man' + 'law suit' + 'with'). beet ('abundant' + 'container') .'to wash' + imi. influential person ('man' + 'strength' + 'to have'). vagabond ('man' + reduplicated 'to walk'). Li9-si4: calendar month 9 at Umma during Ur III. mud'.. prisoner ('man' + 'rope'. leather bag for holding food. ningi . turnip. stag (Akkadian loanword ?. lu-ga: (cf. but Hebrew/Arabic LH/LHH means 'moist'. lú-gi-di(-da): lú-gu-la: piper ('man' + 'reed' + di-dé. minus' + 'oil'. lú-ga-šum: assassin ('man' + 'I will' + 'to slaughter'). a married person ('person' + 'spouse' + 'to have') . lunga ) ('man' + 'beer bread'). manure'). cf. brewer (cf. difference. ru-gú). lug). 'to speak' + nominative). pasture' + 'thousand') . 'jail' and šaña. mythological lake. lalla). hostile'). be crooked.0 115 . làl-þar: li-gi4-in: iti d li-um.. 'counter'. lu-gú: to twist.. lú-bappir(2/3): lú-bar-ra: foreigner ('person' + 'outside' + genitive). date syrup' + 'ring') . lú-gi-gíd-da: flutist ('man' + 'reed' + 'long' + nominative).. 'fertilizer.. Version 3. lú-búr-ru: interpreter (of omens/dreams) ('person' + 'to reveal. interpret (a dream)' + nominative with vowel harmony).

friend. numerous individuals. foreign country' + genitive).. 'cat'). ma-la-(g)).. cf. lú-šuku-ra-ke4-ne: persons with allotted portions ('allotted portions' + genitive + plural).ŠE: (cf. intractable individual(s) ('man' + ru-gú. to decide an insoluble legal case. perfect man ('man' + 'good. mu7. oppose') .na-me.. lú-þun-ñá: hired worker ('man' + 'to hire' + nominative). not'. lú še bad-rá: to thresh ('man' + 'grain' + 'to open. cf. lú-ñiš-e3/11: lú-im/tum9: lú-inim-ma: lú-kal-(l): lú-kaš4: doorkeeper. split' + nominative). acquaintance ('man' + 'wind man': unreliable person ('man' + 'wind'). 'to withstand. recalcitrant. which involved swimming a certain distance and returning to shore without being pulled under by the current ('man' + 'to send' + 'river bank' + 'to be near'. enemy ('man' + 'mountains. boat captain ('man' + 'large boat'). me.. witness ('person' + 'word' + genitive). lú-tu-ra: a sick person ('person' + 'to be weak. unfaithful. lú-KA×LI-KA×LI: dear one ('person' + 'precious') . lú-ki-inim-ma: lú-kúr-ra: stranger. lú-silim: lú-su-a: lú-šár: LÚ. ru-gú). courier ('man' + 'fast runner').0 116 .. lú-kurun(-/ak/): brewer. u4-na- lú-lul(-la): lú. lú-nam-tag-ga: sinner ('man' + 'guilt' + genitive). peel. and sig14). expose.lú-gub-ba: ecstatic ('man' + 'to stand' + nominative). rich man. lú-kar-ra: refugee ('person' + 'to escape' + nominative).. lú-ní-zu(-/ak/): thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'your' + genitive).. sick' + nominative). rob'). doorman ('man' + 'key'). lú-níñ-nu-tuku: lú-níñ-tuku: lú-ru-gú: lú-ru-gú-da: poor man.. incantation priest (cf. lú-ní-zuþ: thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'to steal. uš7. wealthy person ('man' + 'thing' + 'to have')... release. myriads ('men. no man does X ('man' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'no. Version 3. treacherous man ('man' + 'lies' + genitive). níga). debtor ('man' + 'thing' + 'not' + 'to have') . healthy') . innkeeper ('man' + 'alcoholic drink' (+ genitive)).. people' + 'to be many') . zug4. lú-la-ga: lú-má-gur8: robber (cf. river ordeal. Sumerian Lexicon. witness ('person' + 'place' + 'oath' + genitive).

ñiš má. 2 ma-na = 1 sìla of water) (Akk. ride' + nominative). lú-zuþ: thief ('man' + 'to steal.. ma-mu(2)-(d): dream ('it is growing for me'). lú-zi(-d): righteous. (variant of ma-az ).. maatu(m) I. a female dancer.dug4: lum-ma: (gi) to tell a lie ('lie' + 'to speak'). 'an obscene name for the female genitalia' per Landsberger) . (ñiš) má-gan-an-naki: (ñiš) má-gi(4)-lum: Sumerian Lexicon. lú-u18[ÑIŠGAL]-(lu): mankind. ma-an-sim: sieve ('it sifts for me'). good man ('man' + 'faithful. ma-ra-az: (gi) (ñiš) (gi) ñiš lú ma-sá(-ab): a basket ('to bind' + 'to equal in value' (+ 'container') ?. firewood bundle ('to bind' + nu11. 'fire'). ma-da: district.. bridge'). lugal-šà-lá-sù: lul. the boat sailing downstream ('boat' + 'to float (with the current)' + nominative). má-addir: ferryboat ('boat' + ' to keep silent ('lie' + 'to stay silent'). human being ('humans' + 'huge' [ + 'numerous']).du8: to caulk a boat ('boat' + 'to spread with pitch') . ma-na: a unit of weight measure.lú-u5-a: lú-u18-um: lú-zàþ: rider ('man' + 'to mount. Semitic root means 'circle').. Version 3. a fecund female ('to be fertile. manûm. barge captain ('boat' + ?. realm (Akkadian. lú-zu(-a): acquaintance ('person' + 'to know' + nominative). fugitive ('man' + 'to flee'). 'land'). as a volume measure. 'reed bundle') .. Magan (a country on the sea route to India) ('boats' + 'support' + 'to be high' + a type of small sailing boat ('boat' + gilim. the stern of a boat ('boat' + 'back' + nominative). productive' + nominative). = 60 še . cf. joyful. ma-az: exuberant. name of a breed of small cattle (possible Semitic loanword). a thick bundle of reeds used to build rafts ('boat' + 'to hold near' + 'to strap. runaway.0 117 . 'to count') . cornel (?). rob'). true'). má-laþ4/5)... ma-na-tur: a surface area measure. merciful king ('king' + 'merciful'). bind') . ñiš ma-nu: dwarf ash (?). mina = ca. ma-la-(g): friend (among females) ('to bind' + LA.GA.. ma-al: Emesal dialect for ñál. little mina = 1/3 shekel = 60 surface še = 720 square fingers. 500 grams = 60 gín (since Akkad period. lul. má-da-lá: má-diri-ga: má-DU-DU(-d): má-egir-ra: nominative).

maš-dà: iti maš-dù-gu7: calendar month 1 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. the boat sailing upstream ('boat' + 'to move in a direction opposite to [the current]') . mar-da ri-a: mar-gíd-da: mar-ru10[TU/GUR8]: mar-sa: lú boat transport center ('to lock up' + 'to compensate') . floodstorm (cf. (tu15) mar-uru5[TU/GUR8]: gazelle (cf. to embark ('boat' + 'to mount'). head' + nominative). produce. boat with first-fruit offerings ('boat' + 'first-fruits' + nominative).. concatenates 2 sign variants] .. pull'). yield ('profit. bandage') . pull. má-gur8: a large boat. cf. má-su(-a): sunken boat ('boat' + 'submersed' + nominative).. prow ('boat' + 'point. ñiš ñiš ñiš ñiš (cf. maš-gána: maš-ñi6: maš-ki: Sumerian Lexicon.. calendar month 2 at Ur during Ur III.. pot stand ('boat' + 'high. má(-a). MAR-TU[-KI]. asphalt specialist ('boat' + 'to bind. má-laþ4/5: má-nisañ-ñá: ñiš ñiš má-ru-ru-gú: má-sañ-ñá: the bow of a boat.. mašda ). yield' + 'earth'). a deep-draught boat ('boat' + 'empty' + nominative). settlement (Akk.. šakaanum 'to place') (ZATU356 archaic frequency: 4). Amorite .. wagon ('wagon' + 'to draw. calendar month 2 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.. riding with the wagon ('wagon' + comitative + 'to be located' + nominative). flood (cf.du8).... powerfully ('great' + adverbial force suffix) . loanword from maškanum.ñar: to load a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to place')..Semitic nomad of the western desert ('wagon' + 'to be born') . sailor. Version 3.. má-ñéš-gur: (ñiš) lú a boat of sixty-gur capacity ('boat' + 'sixty' + kor basket measure). ñar7-dú: nomad. má-tùn[GÍN]: má(-a). gorge ('to go' ? + 'mountain pass') .. maþ-bi: ñiš ñiš adv. cargo boat. 'location. agricultural income. (cf. site'.0 118 . tow' + nominative). deep') [MAGUR archaic frequency: 5. to tow a barge ('boat' + 'to draw. má. máš-ñi 6). má-še(-/ak/): grain boat ('boat' + 'grain' + genitive)..(ñiš) (ñiš) má. deep').u5: to go on board. load') . é-mar-uru 5) ('to immerse' + 'high. má.gíd: to sail (with -da-). mar-uru5).. má-lá: cargo boat ('boat' + 'to extend. barge captain ('boat' + 'to drive along') . mà-ùr: má-sù-a: ñiš má(-a)-si-ga: describes products used to fill a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to fill' + nominative).

) ('divine power' + 'awe-inspiring quality. to prepare') ... livestock ('goats' + 'equids') . (cf. to prepare something for the sake of one of the civilized functions ('me ' + locative + 'to be suitable. especially in late Sumerian and Akkadian context texts. máš-niga: grain-fed kid (smaller goat-like animal + 'fattened').. 'function' ('to be' + '1st & 2nd person ending') . light (myth.. animals.. great office ('function' + 'great'). provide') . máš. hart').. all the 'me's. furnish. me-en: I am.ñar: me-þuš: to make silent ('divine decree' + 'to set') . where ?. loan interest. us ('to be' + '1st person plural ending') . Version 3.. maš-šu-gíd-gíd: maš-tab-ba: máš-anše: young twins ('twin' + 'to be double' + nominative).. how ? ('to be' + locative). the high 'me's. terrible 'me's. máš-ùz-da(-k): me-a. the high functions ('function' + 'high. to be fitting ('fitting thing' + 'to be'). máš-lulim: hind (female of the red deer) (smaller goat-like animal + 'stag.sù-sù: me-luþ-þaki: me-maþ: terrifying glance. me-àm: where is ? ('to be' + locative + enclitic copula).maš-maš(-gal): profit'). to deck with splendor ('splendor' + 'to strew. me-li-e-a: 'woe is me'. the good 'me's.. radiance. one-half. I.šub: describes an animal dropping or birthing its young ('goat' + 'to drop'). me-en-dè(-en): me-en-zè(-en): -me-eš: me-gal: we. to shine') . ñiš me-dím: ship's railing (?) ('function' + 'to build') . negative attributes ('functions' + 'terrible. how numerous are.? ('how ?' + 'numerous') .probably the Indus valley civilization in Pakistan. aura. you (plural) ('to be' + '2nd person plural ending') .túm: me-a. mí-a: me-a.. Sumerian Lexicon. šu-maš-gíd-gíd ).ñál: me. splendor. me-lim5[LAM]: me-lám. dream. me-te. maš-ñi6: night-time vision. maš-da-rá-a: máš-ñi6. angry') . the beneficial functions. also a writing for me. halo... offering ('goat kid' + 'driven [animal]'). a type of priest . exalted'). máš-da-ri-a. good' + nominative).0 119 .(great) exorcist (reduplicated 'goat breeding he-goat ('he-goat' + 'she-goat' + genitive).. all the functions of civilized life.. me-kìlib-ba: me-lám/li9(-m). a country . ('civilization's functions' + reduplicated me-du10-du10-ga: 'sweet. omen ('goat/extispicy' + 'black/night'). used as plural suffix..

how will X attain or succeed ('function' + comitative + 'to obtain') . men-dalla: beaming crown ('crown' + 'beam.. costumes or other symbols of the Sumerians ('ornament' + 'to be' + 'the black-headed' + genitive). ñiš mi-rí-tum: a musical instrument (loanword). Version 3. proper dress ('function' + 'to meet')... such as national totems. to take great care with (often with -ni -) mí. cf. to where ? ('to be' + terminative). moray eel (?) ('dark'(?) + 'ray-like. until' + enclitic copula). to praise. me-te-bi-im: to suit. befit ('to be its fitting thing') . 'scorpion'. mí-ús-sá-tur: son-in-law ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value' + 'young. sediment' (ñiš) mi-tum: a mace (Akkadian. to handle gently.. me-šár-ra. mè-šen(-šen-na): battle. perfected 'me's ('functions' + 'thing' + 'artistic. she-ass of the steppe ('female' + 'steppe' + genitive). me-ša-ra: all the 'me's ('functions' + 'totality.dug4/du11/e: MÍ-eden-na: MÍ-gir: MÍ-u5-a: MÍ-u8: mí-ús-sá: ('female' + 'to speak. mí-a: (cf. selected for breeding ('female' + 'to mount' + nominative). crown of heaven and earth ('crown' + 'heaven' + 'earth' + genitive). me-te: fitting thing. me-te-ñál-sañ-ñi6-ga: me(-da).. young cow ('female' + 'young heifer'). men-ri-ba.tùm: men-an-uraš-a: adornment of the black-headed people. ornament. until' + terminative).. men-rib-ba: supreme crown ('crown' + 'supreme').àm: me-na-šè: me-ni-da: when? ('to be' + èn. heifer. how long? ('to be' + èn. son-in-law ? ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value') . 'dead man') . Sumerian Lexicon. to fill' + 'sand. bride ?. rub. mi-rí: (cf. mi-ir: Emesal dialect for ñíri. (ñiš) sieve. tatoos. me-šè: where to?.. war ('battle' + 'copper implement'). ewe lamb ('female' + 'ewe'). 'time. me-nam-nun-na: me-nì-galam: along with himself ('to be' + 'self' + 'with'). miitum. unique. to be numerous' + nominative). MI(-si)-saþar(-ra)(ku6): + genitive/locative). the (god-given) 'me' of royalty ('function' + 'rulership' + genitive). 'time. suitability. do'). me-a ). to be bright'). complicated') . sañ-men). mer). little'). caress. men-sañ: head-crown ('crown' + 'head'. me-re: Emesal dialect for ñìri.0 120 .

appear') .. the following year ('year' + 'to follow' + nominative). Sumerian Lexicon. mu-sar-ra: (royal) inscription ('name.pàd/pà: mu(-šè). mu-dili-dili: individual entries (in a lexical series) ('entry. for somebody's sake ('name' + genitive + mu-.dun: to sort out the tow (from the usable. to swear by the king's name ('name' + king + 'to call. sentence' + 'to set down') . mug. to name. to give as name ('name' (+ terminative) + 'to name'). mu6[PA]-sùb: shepherd (PA as mu6 only occurs in this compound + 'shepherd') .. feverish' + nominative). mud-ñál: mun-du: begetter ('to give birth' + 'to be') . longer fibers) ('tow' + 'to heap up'). mu þé-ñál-la: a year of abundance ('year' + 'overflow. an industrial process of reducing the volume of goods by pulverizing until 'like salt' ('salt' + 'cassia spice') .. Version 3. 'to give birth' + 'human being') . mun-gazi: spices.0 121 . this year ('year' + ? + nominative).-a(k)-šè: terminative). múru). to sprout. line on a tablet' + reduplicated 'single'). delivery (personal prefix + 'to bring'). mu. mu-šu-du7: mu-tuku: mu-túm: mu-ú-a: to be famous ('name' + 'to have').. mu-dù-ù-bi: mu-gub: all year long ('year' + 'to work' + 'after' + 'it'). dirty (rags).iti min-èš: calendar month 7 at Umma during Ur III.. morning meal (time). murub4. spouse (mud.šè: iti because ('name' + terminative).. because (in a nominalized sentence). mu-dur7[BU](-ra): assigned lines ('word.. mu-X: year X (indicates a date according to a notable event that occurred during the year). swear'). mu-ša-lum: mirror (Akkadian loanword).. emmer groats. mu-lá: (cf. abundance' + genitive). to invoke.. mu-im-ma: mu-mu-a: last year ('year' + 'last.sa4: túg mu-ru(-b): (cf. an acceptable food offering for the dead (Akk.. dirt.pàd/pà: mu-lugal... mu-sír-ra: mourning garment ('garment' + personal prefix + 'weak. among all names = among known persons (reduplicated 'name' + locative). swear'). gal5-la). word' + 'to write' + nominative). mundu). mu-ud-na: mu-ús-sa: mú-mú: always being reborn (such as the moon) (reduplicated 'to ignite. calendar month 9 at Lagaš during Ur III. to choose ('name' + 'to call. mu.. previous') ..

'shepherd') . na-DU). na-gada: na-ñá-aþ: na-izi: na-nam: na-kab-tum: indeed.de6 or na.. nañ-TAR: Sumerian Lexicon.ri(-g): (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to pick'). thus does he/she speak (affirmative + î. (cf.0 122 ..mur-gig: mur-gu4: iti paralysis (?). turtle carapace. indicating a place for cattle to be inseminated). (munus) munu4-gu7: munus-kar-ke4: murgu-ba: iti kar-kid).. sides' + 'plump. features ('face. shell .. dedicatory stone ('stone' + 'to erect. plant' + nominative). instructions'. divine bed ('bed' + 'fruit. drinking water reservoir ('drink' + 'to separate') .de6/túm: mùš-me: mušen-dù: na-ab-bé-a: to stop working. 'to speak' in marû singular + e.used as a mixing bowl or trough ('back' + 'turtle'). feed ('fodder' + 'domestic ox'). anvil ('weight' + ' 5) herdsman (from Akkadian naaqidum. lizard ('reptile'+ 'arms.. na. na(-šè). strength' + 'partner. to cease ('appearance' + 'to prepare') . equal') . painful') . fool ('human being' + 'to deliver' + 'spittle' ?). loanword.. lung cancer (?) ('lungs' + 'illness.. fodder. forage. incense ('incense' + 'fire')..... na-áñ-gi4-in: na... city ruler beverage ('drink' + 'city ruler' + genitive). face. 3rd person marû singular subject marker + nominal) . appearance' + 'to say..de5[RI]: to give advice.. conjugation prefix + b. mùš. fowler ('bird' + 'to mould'). weight' + 'inside' + 'cloth garment') .. reservoir created by erecting embankments off to the side of a canal to which to divert some of the flood water within the canal ('drink' + 'to cut'). calendar month 5 at Lagaš during Ur III. to inspect. to be sick.. to cleanse.. to counsel in a friendly way (cf. na(4)-rú-a: ñiš stele. measure' + 'slave') . instructions. na-DU: read na. flowers' + genitive).-ta: murub4: calendar month 4 at Umma during Ur III.ri(-g) ) (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to advise') . na-RI: instructions (cf. múš.. after ('back' + ablative). 'advice. ná-gi4-rin-na: na4-šag4-túg: na4-šu-mìn: nañ-énsi-ka: nañ-ku5: stone weight for cloak ('pebble.dub: comb or set hair ('appearance' + 'to heap up') .. muš-da-gur4: gecko.. Version 3. big'). na. múrgu[LUM]-.ri6. a cattle pen (Akk. inanimate pronominal prefix + e. slavery ('human being' + 'to check. to fell trees (cf. tell') ..

trade (abstract prefix + 'merchant'). nam-guruš: youthful vigor (abstract prefix + 'young man. true' + nominative).. elder'). nam-dam-gàr: nam-dùg/du10: nam-dumu: nam-en: nam-diñir: divinities (abstract prefix + 'deity'). nam.. nam-ki-áña: love (abstract prefix + 'to love') . discomfort (abstract prefix + 'to harm'). nam-érim. bruise') . marital status (abstract prefix + 'spouse') . come back' + 'office. collegiality. strength' + 'to be available').. strike') . importance (abstract prefix + 'heavy'). ruler') . cleverness (abstract prefix + 'expert'). nam-kù-zu: wisdom. destruction'). lordship. nam.dúb: naña-gaz: naña-kum: to wash with soap ('soap' + 'to flop about. purification. alkali' + 'to crush. to decide ('destiny' + 'to cut') . elders (abstract prefix + 'father.. high priest (abstract prefix + 'lord')..... nam-dugud: heaviness. pride. expertise. powder') . fellowship (abstract prefix + 'to return. nam-ama: nam-bára: nam-dam: motherhood (abstract prefix + 'mother'). curse (abstract prefix + 'enemy. abundance (abstract prefix + 'abundant') . naña. to rub with soap ('soap' + 'to suck [away with]'). crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda. pain. alkali' + 'to crush. function' + locative + plural suffix) (cf. nam-kalag: strength (abstract prefix + 'strong'). nam-a-zu: medical arts (abstract prefix + 'physician') . nam-en-zi-da: true 'en'-ship ('lordship' + 'legitimate. worker'). something favorable (abstract prefix + 'sweet') .. nam-ab-ba: the older generation.kar: to take away one's destiny ('destiny' + 'to take away'). nam-galam(-ma): nam-gi4-me-a-aš: nam-gur4: nam-þé: nam-þul: nam-išib: majesty.0 123 . youth (abstract prefix + 'child'). nam-kiri4-šu-dù-a: supplication(s) (abstract prefix + 'supplication(s)'). gi4-me-a-aš). Version 3. nam-érin: solemn oath.naña. perfection (abstract prefix + 'artistic. crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda. feeling of importance (abstract prefix + 'to feel big'). Sumerian Lexicon. naña-si-è: sprouted alkaline plant ('soapwort' + 'antennae' + 'to go forth') .kud/ku5: to curse (often with -ta -). office of lord. nam-á-ñál: strength (abstract prefix + 'arm. monarchy (abstract prefix + 'throne dais. complicated' + nominative).

captivity (abstract prefix + 'to impress with a seal'). 3rd. 'to be' } + (-a)-m. to exalt ('greatness' + 'to effect') . 'it'. nam-nir-ñál: nam-nu-tar: nam-nun: deep. deep') .. nam-maþ. Sumerian Lexicon. fine.. profound (abstract prefix + 'great. nam-šeš(-a): nam-šilig: violence (abstract prefix + 'powerful. humanity (abstract prefix + 'human being' nam-lú-inim-ma: + 'huge') .dug4/du11/e: nam(-ga)-me-a/àm: nam-mu: nam-mul: nam-nin: nam-nar: may he/she/it not be (na. rulership. nam-érim(-bi). greatness (abstract prefix + 'high. ill-fated ('destiny' + 'not' + 'cut') . conjugation prefix + 'to be') . prohibitive + î. used for work. should there not be (na. treachery (abstract prefix + 'to lie. prohibitive prefix + nasal î. deceive'). bickering (abstract prefix + 'quarrel')..0 124 . satisfy') . nam-sa6-ga: pleasure (abstract prefix + 'to please. axe'). reputation. + -ib-. harmony (abstract prefix + 'musician'). nam-lugal: kingship (abstract prefix + 'king'). sing. great'). conjugation prefix 'and then' + me. 'why' + 'my. people. superiority (abstract prefix + 'noble.. bitterness (abstract prefix + 'to taste bitter') .. quarreling. to swear.nam-ku-li: friendship (abstract prefix + 'friend'). nam-šilig. sparkling (abstract prefix + 'stars') ... purification (abstract prefix + 'to clean') .kud: 'to cut') . + 'to change' in marû form).. mankind. conjugation prefix + ga. enclitic copula). exalted. Version 3. mine'). the act of witnessing (abstract prefix + 'witness') . distinction. to practice shepherdship (abstract prefix + 'shepherd' + 'to do') ..aka: to use violence ('violence' + 'to do'). why does it concern me? (a-na-àm.aka: nam-sipa. nam-lú-u18/lu7. position of supreme power (abstract prefix + 'queen') ..aka: nam-luþ: nam-lul: nam-maþ: nam-me: to treat with human dignity ('humanity' + 'to do') . nam-sañ-ñá. confirm by oath ('destiny' + 'hostile' ( + adverbial force suffix) + PN nam-kúr-re: 'may PN not change it' (na. to treat with respect (abstract prefix + 'first-class' + nominative + 'to do') . nam-lú-ùlu: nam-lú-ùlu. nam-RI-ÞU: bird breeder (?) (abstract prefix + 'to tend' + 'bird').aka: nam-sun5: nam-sun7: humility (abstract prefix + 'modesty') . nam-ra-ag: prisoner of war. authority') .. 'impersonal conjugation prefix'. prohibitive + { î. concert..

thing of sixty = ba-rí-ga (níñ-ñešta). fire. a class of persons or animals.. 'peace.. Version 3. death (abstract prefix + 'to die'). nam-tar-eñir-ra(-/ak/): nam-ugula[PA]: nam-ur5-ra: nam-umun-na: nam-úš: NÁM-di: the future order ('fate' + 'future' + genitive).. to position oneself ('precise' + 'to stand'. 'to suck') . to make a firm promise ('destiny' + 'to determine') . sg. as a result ('destiny' + 'it' + genitive). a resin ('this one' + 'to restore' + 'loins') . poverty (abstract prefix + 'to be poor') . glowing coals.. bathed') .gum/gú-ñá-àm: place' + 'it is'). after that. choice. NE-izi-ñar: NE-ra: (cf. swindle (?) ('planning ability' + 'legal case'). ne. NI-KUŠ-NÍÑIN: a vessel. destiny (abstract prefix + 'to determine. repose (from Akkadian neehtum. nam-ti.. security'). ní-bi(-a): (by) itself ('self' + adverbial force suffix) .gub: ne-mur: iti ne-þa: rest. nominative ?). or -ri-... nam. responsibility. 'its' + a... 2. unit of sixty.gub). ne. foremanship (abstract prefix + 'foreman').0 125 .su-ub: NI-dub: ne-šè: on whose behalf ?. ní. ì-dub )..indicates that several parties are deciding the fate). with -da. Sumerian Lexicon. it is disastrous (?) ('violence' + 'mortar/back of neck' + 'to nam-šita: nam-šub: nam-tag: nam-tar: prayer. nam-til-la: life (abstract prefix + 'to live'). concerning someone ('this one' + terminative suffix) . supplication (abstract prefix + 'clean.. (cf. to kiss ('an instance' + sub. ni-gi-da: ni-gi4-íb: ni-is-ku: ní-a: ni-ik-tum: a resin (loanword ?). nam-ùkur/úku(-r): sovereignty (abstract prefix + 'title of respect' + nominative). fine steed (from Akkadian nisqum). nisañ ). ní-ba: by itself ('self' + bi.tar: to decree the fate (most often with -ni-.. decide') . bí-ra). guilt (abstract prefix + 'to handle') . calendar month 5 at Nippur during Ur III... cf.. spell (abstract prefix + 'to cast') .nam-šilig. fate. incantation. by itself ('self' + adverbial suffix) . ne-sañ: (cf.

present ('thing' + 'to give'). transfer..lá: to diminish or humiliate (your)self ('self' + 'your' + 'to diminish').. self' + 'to raise'). to be fearful ('fear' + 'to slice.. to raise oneself ('fear.gub: ní-gùr-(r). ní-zu: yourself ('self' + 'your'). ní reading from Alster.. lú-ní-zuþ). níñ-ba: gift. body' + ten. níñ-bal-bal: níñ-bàn-da: Sumerian Lexicon. awe' + 'great'). níñ-áña: a temple servant ('things' + 'to measure. deliver') . to submit oneself to someone's protection ('self' + 'hand.. lú-ní-zu. trading of merchandise ('things' + 'to revolve. ní. strength' + 'to set'). prostrate oneself') .. imposing. myself ('self' + 'my').. personally ('fear' + 'to be frightened'). cf. cool down').. ní[IM].te(-en): to rest.gi4: ní. to inspire fear (with -da -) ('fear' + 'to strike').ní-buluñ5[DÚB]. ní(-zu).. túg níñ-XXX: (cf.. coward ('fear' + 'to suck. a measuring vessel ('thing' + 'junior'). Sumerian Proverbs). ní šu-a.0 126 ... Version 3.. allay. to stretch out ('self' + 'to reach out.. to fear. respect (with -da -) ('fear' + 'to attack'). to pray. ní-diñir(-/ak/): the fear of god ('fear' + 'god' + genitive). awesome ('fear' + 'to get.. shatter'). ní-balañ: ní.dúb: ní-gal: ní-ñál: to sail ('self' + 'to float over'. activity ('thing' + reduplicated 'to do'). to inspire awe. a consecrated gift ('thing' + 'to give as a votive gift') . awesome ('fear.. níñ-a-ru: níñ-á-ñar: violence ('thing' + 'arm.. nì: (cf.gub). níñ-ak-ak: deed. níñ-á-sì-ga: lú well-established (?) ('thing' + 'strength' + 'to set in place' + nominative)..dirig: ní. awe ('fear.te/ti(-ñe26): ní. ní-guru6: ní-ñu10. ní-mu: ní. have').. 'to extinguish.dar: pompous ('self' + 'to grow big'). check') . to cool ('fear. ní-zu/zuþ: (cf. lengthen') .. terrifying ('fear' + 'to place'). ne. níñ).. strength' + locative + 'to to be scared. to be afraid of something.. great fear...tuku: to experience awe or fear. to calm down.. ní. to position oneself ('self' + 'to stand'.gíd: ní. ní-te(-n): alone.ri: ní-su-ub: return to') . túg-níñ-XXX )......íla: ní. awe. to relax ('self' + 'to knock down') . awe' + 'bearing').

níñ-þu-þu-nu: helplessness ('object' + 'helpless'). evil. níñ-gur11[GA]: property. níñ-ñiš-tag-ga: offering ('object' + 'to make a religious offering'). create' + nominative). food ('thing' + 'to eat'). dnin-kilim). food consumed ('thing' + 'to eat' + nominative suffix) . injustice ('thing' + 'hostile'). to be swollen') . mongoose ('thing' + 'to twist'. warehouse keepers ('thing' + 'to hold. receive') . taboo. níñ-gi-na: justice.. níñ gal-gal: níñ-gig: níñ-gu7: níñ-gu7-a: níñ-gu7-da: níñ-gu7-dè: níñ-gul: things of all sort ('thing' + reduplicated 'big') . wages ('thing' + 'to hold. something designated for consuming ('thing' + 'to eat' + marû participial suffix) . abomination ('thing' + 'illness'). something held or for which responsibility is assumed. hire.. prescribed.. níñ-esir-ra: washbowl (made of bitumen-coated reeds) ('thing' + 'bitumen' + genitive). (cf. possession.. supplement ('thing' + 'addition'). níñ-en-na: 'gentlemen's possession' ('thing' + 'lord' + genitive). níñ-á-zi. wide ('things' + 'copious') . receive'). evil. níñ-GA: níñ ga-ti: I promise it ('thing' + 1st person cohortative modal prefix + 'to keep alive'). truth ('thing' + 'true. a length measure. reliable' + nominative).nu-du8-a: nominative). cf.. used to break the clods left after harrowing ('thing' + 'to destroy') .níñ-bún-na(ku6): níñ-dab5: lú turtle ('thing' + 'blister. níñ-igi. spoiling. níñ-gur 11). Version 3.. dishonesty. maul. ruining. níñ-dím-dím-ma: níñ-diri: NÍÑ-DU: níñ-du7: níñ-dù-a: níñ. níñ-gilim: sieve. to say something ('thing' + 'to speak') . nourishment ('thing' + 'to eat' + contraction of marû participial and nominative suffixes). or as it should be ('thing' + 'suitable'). to speak unjustly ('thing' + 'violence' + 'to speak') . something never seen (by an eye) ('thing' + 'eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open' + níñ-íl(-l): support ('thing' + 'to raise up') . property owner ('thing' + 'piled up'). níñ-dab5[-ba]-ke4-ne: níñ-dañal: teeming.dug4: submission ('thing' + 'subordinate)..dug4: níñ-DUN: níñ-érim: gi created creatures ('things' + 'to fashion.. a measure for fruit ('thing' + 'to erect on the ground' + nominative).0 127 . what is suitable. consumption. níñ-ñál(-la): sickle ('object' + 'to fill a storage basket' + nominative). wickedness. fattened. Sumerian Lexicon. trustworthiness.

beasts ('things' + 'ground') .. níñ-mí-ús-sá: wedding gift ('thing' + 'woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value'). níñ-kal-la: precious ('thing' + 'to value. níñ-ku5(-da): níñ-kúr: níñ-maþ: belligerence. níñ-nu-sa6-ga: níñ. happiness ('thing' + 'sweet. níñ-nam-kù: property made of precious metal ('possessions' + abstract prefix + 'precious metal') . springtime fruit ('thing' + Akk. nikkassu .. deceive' + nominative).. to throw something. balanced account ('account' + 'made') . account. nothing is precious ('anything' + 'not' + 'valued') . nature ('thing' + 'fate'). good') .níñ-im-ba: loss ('thing' + 'the paid out'). níñ-nu-mu-da-sá: nothing is comparable with it ('things' + 'not' + conjugation prefix + 'with' + 'to equal in value') . níñ-ka-bi ba-ak: account settled ('account' + 'its' + conjugation prefix + 'to make'). níñ-nam: anything ('thing' + emphatic prefix + 'to be').0 128 . níñ-gaz: half-reed = 3 cubits (Akk.. breaking an agreement ('thing' + 'hostile'/'to change') . good') . silence..ra: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet. (for) purchase ('thing' + 'to buy. ki-sì-ga) ('things' + 'ground' + 'to apply') . price ('thing' + 'to buy. vermin. sell') . accounting. . good') . níñ-na-me. everything valuable ('things' + reduplicated 'to value. níñ-sá[DI]: níñ-sa6-ga: níñ-sám: goal ('thing' + 'to compare with. esteem' + nominative). also Akk. níñ-ki-sè: funerary offerings (cf. níñ-gu 7). pleasure. 'to cut off') .sahharu . níñ-sám/sa10-ma(-šè): Sumerian Lexicon. the 'perfect tribute' ('thing' + 'to make silent'). cf. níñ-nam-nu-kal: níñ-nam-tar-ra: níñ-nu-dùg: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet. from nakaasu . níñ-lul-la: níñ-me-ñar: a lot. wedge to tighten a bound join ? on a plow ('thing' + 'to separate' + nominative). muthummu ). níñ-kas7. níñ-sa-þa(2): fruit remaining after the harvest. to compete') . garden fruit. esteem' + nominative). (cf. n i k k a s). result (of a mathematical operation or calculation) (from níñ-kal-kal(-la): níñ-kas7/ka9[ŠID]: níñ-ka9-ak: níñ-ki: níñ-kú: ñiš Akk. Version 3. (urudu) níñ-sa-sa: roasting oven ('thing' + 'roasting') . 'something small'. treachery ('thing' + 'to lie. to beat (up) ('thing' + 'to strike'). sell' + nominative [ + terminative suffix]). 'deduction'. too much ('thing' + 'to be large') . acclaim.

níñ-zú-gub: níñ-zuþ: lú food ('thing' + 'teeth' + 'to set') . blanket (for an animal).níñ-si-sá: equity. níñ-kas 7/ka 9). níñ-sila11[ŠID]-ñá: níñ-šà-ñar-ra: níñ-ŠID: níñ-šà-bi: what is in it. justice.. níñ-šu-ñá: everything in my hands ('thing' + 'hands' + 'in my'). nin-diñir: high priestess ('lady' + 'gods'). everlasting. something stolen ('thing' + 'to steal. níñ-úr-limmu: four-legged creature.ñír: to lighten.. níñ-u4-da-rí(-/ak/): níñ-u4-ì[ZAL]-li: with vowel harmony). níñ-šu-taka4-a: objects that will be given away ('object' + 'to send. wealthy ('thing' + 'to have') . níñ-ú-zug4[KA×LI]: foul food ('thing' + 'plant. lustration priestess ('lady' + 'to purify').šub: to neglect something ('thing' + 'to let drop'). a man who had to take care of the bride before the young couple was married ('a bride's male attendant' + 'upright. rob') . níñ.sa6. níñ-šà-te-na: soothing to one's heart or mood ('thing' + 'heart. (sexual) happiness ('thing' + ur5.... níñ-ur5-sa6-sa6: sweetness. nin-išib: Sumerian Lexicon. níñ-sig-ga: weakness ('thing' + 'small. Version 3. private'). nin-uru 16). famine ('thing' + 'hunger' + nominative). a temple servant. pack-saddle ('thing' + 'cloth'). nim. contents ('things' + 'interior' + 'its'). níñ-šu-ti-a: níñ-túg: níñ-tuku: níñ-tur: what(ever) one receives ('object' + 'to receive' + nominative). níñ-zi(-šà)-ñál: living creature ('thing' + 'alive'). something coincidental ('thing' + 'if' + 'from' + genitive). abandon' + nominative). livestock ('thing' + 'legs' + 'four'). weak'). to flash ('upper country' + 'lightning flash') . persistent ('thing' + 'days' + 'long lasting' + genitive). fairness ('thing' + 'straight'). dough. níñ-ú-rum: possession. food' + 'to spit out ?'). nin-EN: (cf. mood' + 'to soothe' + nominative).0 129 . something for the future ('thing' + 'days' + 'to pass' + participial marû e(d) níñ-ul: what is fit for the cult ('thing' + 'primordial'). rich. níñ-ZUM-DIM4: niñir-si: paranymph. normal') . acquisition ('thing' + 'personal.. 'to feel comfortable'). (cf... níñ-tukum-ta(-/ak/): a small amount ('thing' + 'small').

expert. Sumerian Lexicon. Version 3. be without ('not' + nominative). morsel'). bread to eat while sitting (?) ('bread' + 'to sit.. authority. trust in (with -da-) ('authority' + 'to be with').. a type of bread ('bread' + 'net' ?). temple prostitute. a type of bread ('bread' + 'expedition.. to be reliable. šer 7-da ). ninda-sañ-gu7: ninda-síki[UD]: ninda-SÌLA: NIR-da: nir-ñál: the best bread for eating ('bread' + 'prime' + 'to eat'). noble (one). painful'). ninda-àr-ra: bread offering ('bread' + 'to give. likeness' + 'shrine'). food' + 'to eat') . sweetheart ('lady' + 'to be/make comfortable. opposed to ninda-gub-ba. nu-a: to lack. to divide. NITAÞ-dun-gi: a type of jackass ('male' + 'yoke' ?). apportion') . ninda-pad-rá: morsels of bread ('bread' + 'bite. níñ-gilim). nir-gam-(m): nir-padku6: vault ('raised high' + 'to curve') .a cultic functionary ('image. ninda-kum4[UD]-ma: a type of bread ('bread' + 'mortar-ground flour' + nominative).ñál: to have authority. unfit ('not' + 'just. unjust.DÚR]-na: ninda-gu: ninda-gu7: ninda-ñíri: ninda-KA-gu7: long-lasting bread (?). hierodule ('not' + 'sick. unpleasant ('not' + 'sweet. pulpy dish (prepared) of green-malt ('bread' + 'to chew' + nominative).0 130 . nin-nínnamušen: owl ('divine proprietress' + 'owl'). authorities. (cf. cf. not talking ('not' + 'to speak' + nominative). supervisor of works. nir. a fish ? ('frog' + 'bite. nir-ñál-mè-a: respected in battle ('authority' + 'battle' + locative). nu-banda3. nin ur5 ì-sa6: lady. reliance ('raised high' + 'to be') . overseer ('not' + 'young') . nìta[MUNUS-UŠ]-dam: husband ('male' + 'spouse').5: nu-dùg(-ga): nu-dug4-ga: nu-gi-na: nu-gig: nu-èš: knife bearer . happy'). to rely. small repast').d d nin-kilim: mongoose ('divine proprietress' + 'herd of wild animals'. dwell. to dry out' + nominative. good' + nominative).. a type of bread ('bread' + 'liter'). a type of bread. ninda-durunx[DÚR. firm' + nominative). 'snack-bread') . nin-uru16: ninda-ba: mighty queen ('lady' + 'mighty'). ninda-bar-si: a type of bread made with bar-si emmer wheat flour. food ('bread. a type of bread ('bread' + 'mouth' + 'to eat') . trip').

ñar: ñiš to issue seed. nu-zu: ignorant ('not' + 'to know'). a-pa4). good') . temporal clause nu-me-en-na-ta: nu-mu-da-sá: (cf.. precious metal'). restlessness ('not' + 'to be tired') . num-saþar-ra: fly (insect) ('flying insect' + 'dust. nu-kúš: door pivot ('not' + 'to be tired') . to not recognize.. to not notice ('not' ( + 'him...e. numun-ñar-GUL: NUMUN-ñisal: numun-sum-gaz: numun. a plant (asa foetida) the fetid gum resin of whose root was used as a medicine ('not' + nu-kúš-ù: nu-luþ-þa(sar): nu-ma-su: nu-me-a: suffix) . bring forth offspring ('seed' + 'to send forth') . Version 3. níñ-nu-mu-da-sá ).. cf..0 131 . to make resplendent (often with -nior bi -) ('bud.è/i-i: numun. PA+DUG-um: an allowance.'fruit'). nu-kù: no money... put an end to') . deposit') . fresh' + nominative). orphan ('not' + 'wool [garment/blanket?]') . pa-è. nu-ma-su: widow ('she has not replaced [her husband]') .aka: to show.PÙ): a tool ('seed' + 'rudder') . to sow ('seed' + 'to place. crushed onion seed ('seed' + 'onion' + 'crushed') . nu-ñiškiri6(-k): ñiš gardener (pronominal prefix or dialectal lú --> nu ?)... a part of the seeder plow ('seed' + 'to place' + 'to obstruct') .. disorderly ('not' + 'to store' + nominative). abgal (2)).è.ME(.. you don't exist ('not' + me-en. luriinu. her'/'it') + 'to know'). (cf. 'to be clean. pa. rubbish' + genitive). lurmûm. to let shine. a worthless penny ('not' + 'silver. sing.til: NUN.. nu-siki/síg: nu(-un/ub)-zu: nu-zu-a: nu-úr-ma: pomegranate (tree) (Akk. numun. to not know. pa(4)-þar: wages ('small canal' + 'coil of silver'. which is not. to run out of seeds ('seeds' + 'to finish. Orel & Stolbova #2122 *riman. check'). payment. nu-mu-un-su. pa-áñ: nostrils ('wings' + 'to measure.. 2nd pers. nurmû.. Sumerian Lexicon. unknown ('not' + 'to know' + nominative). nu-mu-un-su ).. 'to be'. ('not' + 'to be' + nominative).. nu-sa6: (ñiš) not good ('not' + 'sweet. + a-ta. (cf. sprout' + 'to send forth' + 'to make') .nu-ñar-ra: thriftless. to make appear. i. nu-ra: not stamped with a seal ('not' + 'to stamp').

canebrake mouse or mole rat ('mouse' + 'reeds') . walking about. parim ).tag: pu-úþ-ru-um: púñiškiri6: (cf.þ: pa-rim4: pa-TAR: PA+USAN: cella. share (Akk. þal. cf..0 132 . pil(2))."close. river bank' + 'to touch.TUR: (cf. pil (2)).. pa4-úgur[SIG7]: pa5-sig: paþ-zil: small branch canal ('irrigation ditch... to go aground (said of a boat) ('shore. leather worker (??) ('bellows' + 'to cut'.zil). stretch. pi-lá: (cf. a functionary. inner sanctum of a temple (cf. leprosy' + 'to divide.. Version 3. a bundle of brushwood ('branch' + 'bundle' + 'to lift.. hearth tender (?).. lú ša13-dub-ba) ('vessel' + 'clay tablet') . pèš-duru5: pèš-þád: PI-apin: pi-il: (cf.. *pah. physically handicapped (reduplicated 'womb.. spacious. billuda ). ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'field. assembly (Akk. garden' ?)... leg. nemurx). adj. pisan-dub: container for clay tablets piš10. cistern' + 'orchard'). PIRIÑ. very wide. dried figs ('figs' + 'dried'). to walk. to peel') . cf. þa-la). carry. to expand. to declare' + nominative). pa4. strike') .ba-al: to dig ditches ('irrigation ditch' + 'to dig'). Orel & Stolbova #1926.. an intestinal disease (?) ('legs. canal' + 'small'). to hang. fresh figs ('figs' + 'fresh')... cf. irrigated orchard ('well. '36 liters in Old Sumerian period'. ñadub. movable. pap-hal(-la): n. to bind' + nominative). iti pa4-ú-e: calendar month 11 at Umma during Ur III. pi-lu5-da: (cf. pa-sa-lal-a: cut-off branches/twigs ('branch' + 'to cut off') . pil(2)). loan. (cf. metaphor in pe-el(-lá): pe-en-zé-er: dùg. Sumerian Lexicon. + 'plow'). unkin). poverty. reach') . puhru 'assembly'. thigh.. pa4[PAB]-a-da-ga: flowing irrigation ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'flowing with water'). confinement. a part of the seeder plow (barig.. lock"). pú-lá: deep well ('well. (cf.. a shepherd. pà-da: an occupation ('to find... cistern' + 'to be high. to be wide') . peš-mur7: peš-peš: péš-(ñiš)gi: ñiš ñiš ñiš a palm tree product ('palm frond' + 'ridge').

sa-ZI-ZI-a. ñiš ri-gi4-bil-lú: a tool.0 133 . sa-dúr) ('sinew.g.DU: ñiš sa-du8(-a): sa-dúr(-ra). ri-ba: enormous.DI: to evaluate ('value' + 'to judge') ..aka: to rob (someone: dative infix). cistern' + 'thing' + 'path' + genitive). to sweep. to face (cf.gi4: sa-þab: sa-þir: to prepare ('mat' + 'to restore' ?). RI-ÞU: bird breeder (?) ('to tend' + 'birds'). lú-ru-gú-da).. samaanu 'skin disease') . sa-gaz.. a tool ('net.pú-níñ-ñìr(-/ak/): ra(2)-gaba: pitfall ('well. to shake ('to strike' + þ. regular "tithe" or "offering" important to the temple economy ('to equal in value' + 'to effect') . courier (Akkadian rakbu). low-lying end of a farmer's field ('?' + 'buttocks') . sabiitu 'gazelle').lal/lá: to stretch the net. sa-KU: arms (rare meaning. supreme (Akkadian rabbu). 'to cover' + 'big'). = 24 sìla in Presargonic Girsu and 40 sìla starting with Akkad period. rider. to oppose. sa-par4.. sa.. sa-ma(-a)-ná: skin disease. of straw) ('net' + 'produce.. to move in a direction opposite to. numerous') . cf. sa-tu: mountain. tendon' + 'to build ?'). to make wide (reduplicated 'to stamp') . grain diseases such as leaf rust (Akk. to roast ('to roast (barley)' + 'for the sake of' + 'to go') . šadû(m) I.. ru-gú: to withstand. ra-aþ: to strike repetitively [with a hoe]. Version 3. burning. a trawling (?) net ('net' + 'to take out.. supreme (Akkadian rabbu). Sumerian Lexicon. net. upper parts (Akk. ri-þa-mun: (cf. bundle (e. ra-ra: to flatten. to tie with cords ('net' + 'to stretch') . ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: sa-gaz. extract' + locative or sá[DI]. to commit murder ('robber' + 'to do')... 'mountain(s)'). net' + šúš/šú. sa-bí-tum: a musical instrument (Akk.. si-par4: a type of net ('net'/'to fill' + 'to stretch out'). yield') . sa. sa-ZI-ZI-ŠÈ: terminative suffix) .. sa-li: a type of lyre ('string' + 'true measure'). (metathesis of zipaþ ). rib-ba: ñiš enormous. sañ-gaz: highway robber ('head' + 'to smash'). sa-šè. 'many.. sa-sa: roasting. bundle. reddish (reduplicated 'to roast (barley)'). sa-šú-uš-gal: huge net ('cord.. sá-dug4/du11: a capacity measure. roasting' + 'residue' + nominative). im-ri-þa-mun).

Version 3. to turn round') . ñizzal.. to shake the head ('head' + 'to turn') . sañ-gú-ne(-/ak/): cupbearer (loan from Akk.aka: to enslave ('slave' + 'to take captive'). to provide regular offerings (reduplication class) ('to equal in value' + 'to effect') . (cf.gíd: (cf. both good and bad ('good' + 'bad') ... sa12-ti-umki: sag9-þul: sañ-a-ki-ta: the eastern mountains. to turn round') ... sá. to admonish ('head' + 'to fasten' + 'to do'.. to oppose (someone/something: -da-) ('the head' + 'to set') . head ('head' + 'to walk'). sañ-du nu-tuku: triangle ('head' + 'shape') .. sañ. sañ-èn-tar: overseer.aka). cf. sa 12-du 5. guardian ('head' + 'to investigate..aka: to care ('head' + 'to do').. a term of derision ('head' + 'not' + 'to have') .tar: to notice ('head' + 'to investigate') .ñar/ñá-ñá: to proceed.. šaaqû)..aka: cf. handle') ..sá.. sañ. sañ šu. from the Akkadian form šassukkum). idiot.dúb: to smash the head (often with -da-) ('head' + 'to knock down') . to close ('head' + 'to send back') . Sumerian Lexicon.dug4/du11/e: sá-ñar: to reach. wing')..bala: sañ-du: sañ-dù: sañ-dub: SAÑ-DÙN: plow guide ('head' + 'plow' + genitive). part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'to halt. sañ... regular worker ('head' + 'tablet-recorded') ..... registrar of deeds. sa12-su5[SAÑ-KU]. sañ-apin(-na): sañ. šassuk). sañ. sá-sug5: land register manager. sá-niñin(2): sá-pa: part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'branch.. sañ-kešda/kéš.. counselor ('guidance' + 'to halt. sañ-gaz...sè(-g/k): to plot. sañ-an-na: upper end of a field ('head' + 'to be high' + nominative)... sañ-ki.. overwhelm (often with -ni -)..bala). lower end of a field ('head' + 'water' + 'to be lower' + nominative). to take care of.. sa12-du5: read sa12-sug5 ?...bul: to toss or shake the head ('head' + 'to blow'. also read sa12-du5).. librarian ('head' + 'to lay the warp of the land' ?.0 134 . sañ. sañ-èn.. sañ. cf. adviser. to plan ('advice' + 'to apply...aka: sañ. to compare') . to pay attention (with -ši -).gi4: to slay ('head' + 'smash' + 'to do'. arrive.. sa-gaz). sa12-sug5..gíd). to topple.

. sañ-ki..sañ-sig. sañ-ki-gud: SAÑ-KU: ñiš trapezoid ('head. to lift the head (towards heaven). slave' + 'male'). to watch. sañ/sa12. a foreign slave ('slave' + 'foreign land' + genitive). prominent ('head' + 'to value')..ra: to kill. retain') .þa-za: up') . sañ-kul: sañ-kur-ra: ku6 sañ-kúr[PAB]: a fish ('head' + 'strange'). to raise up ('head' ( + 'unto heaven') + 'to lift sañ (an-šè).sal-la: to be silly (?) ('head' + 'to belittle')... (grown) man ('head. ki-en-gi(-r)). prefer.. leader ('head' + 'excellent'). grasp... men-sañ ). capital on hand ('in front. Sumerian Lexicon.. grant'. dowry..kal: to choose. sañ. to make foremost. point' + 'location' + 'bulky like an ox').. sañ.. head-crown (cf.sá: to vie with (with -da -) ('head' + 'to compare') .. dumu-gir15/gi7 sañ-ñi6(-ga): and ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r). cf. (cf.gíd: to get angry (with someone: -da-) ('forehead' + 'to lengthen').. guard ('head' + 'to bind'). sañ. bow of a boat ('head' + 'boat') . sañ-sig-ga: head-covering ('head' + 'small' + nominative).rig7: to donate.. slave' + 'female').. to surround') ..ñar: weak' + 'to place') . to take care of.sè/sì-(g): to entrust. to attach securely ('head' + 'to hold. sañ. lock ('head' + 'thick'). sañ-kal-(l) ). to pay attention ('head' + 'to apply. sañ. sañ-níñ-gur11[GA]-ra(-ak): sañ-rib: sañ-rig7: (cf. where these meanings derive by back-formation from this compound which derives from Akkadian šaraakum). bestow. Sumerians ('head' + 'black' + nominative.. point' + 'place') . sa 12-su 5). black-headed people. gift.íl: sañ-kal-(l): foremost. sañ and 'capital' refer to the 'head' of an accounting column in different languages). sañ-ki: forehead ('head. to bend or lower one's head (before someone/something: -ši -) ('head' + 'small. at first' + 'what' + 'piled up' [ + genitive].sar: to shave the head ('head' + 'to crop ?').. grant. give as a present (with -ni. sañ-ñišmá: sañ-men: sañ-mí: sañ-nitaþ: male slave.... sañ.. sañ-ñiš... murder ('head' + 'wood tool' + 'to strike').and -ri-) ('present. kuš sañ-kéš: a thong connecting the yoke to the plow ('head' + 'to bind') .. gift' + 'to deed..0 135 . sañ. Version 3. female slave ('head.kéš: to attend to..

earth for a levee or temple foundation).. si-ga kala-ga: si-gal: ñiš weak and strong points.. šassuk). deliver' + nominative).. to care for something's maintenance ('point' + 'to be moored to') .or -ta -) ('scattered' + 'to effect') .. earth moving ('earth. šittu. to pile up earth. silt' + 'to tear out. to calm or put out a fire. bolt ('horn. sila). sig5 and sig).A: to raise a cloud of dust ('dust' + 'to shake. adj. weak (cf. Version 3.g. straight' + 'form. silence (cf. sañ ú-a.. sañ-sum-sikil: sañ-šu4: bulb of garlic ('head' + 'garlic'). earth piling ('earth. to remove earth or silt.sum: to hurry towards ('head' + 'to give'). saþar šu-bal-a: sar-KA×SAR-KA×SAR: (cf. cap ('head' + 'to cover') . to scatter (with -da . si(-g): silence. si-ig. to place into the ground. to be available...dub: saþar(-da).sañ. sañ. to collect earth ('earth' + 'to receive' + nominative).. constant.gi4: saþar si-ga: saþar.túm: to defame ('first position' + 'to carry away'). to move the head from side to side (with -da-) ('head' + 'to shake'). royal attendant ('head or slave' + 'warrior'). deduct' + nominative). sig5 and sig). to go away... silt' + 'hand' + 'to transfer.... deficit') (cf. saþar-ñar-ra: volume ('earth' + 'to accumulate' + nominative) (cf. si-il: to split.. sáñ. si-BÀD-na: top of the sky ('straight up' + 'to ascend' + nominative)... croissant ('horn-shaped' + 'large') . agitate') . level. to turn into dust. to transport earth ('earth. to tear apart.sìg: to tremble.. euphemism for 'to die' ('dust' + 'to turn. SAÑ-SUG5: (cf. si-ga: adj. 'to leave v. balance owing carried forward from an earlier account (from Akkadian šiaatum. si-ga/ge: v. 'remainder. Sumerian Lexicon.. silt' + 'to saþar šu-ti-a: saþar zi-ga: SI. to pile or fill up (e. immerse'). dirig or (gi) ušub). quiet. lá-ìa[NI]). sa 12-sug 5.dug4/du11/e: saþar... to strike down. appearance') . absent oneself (cf.0 136 .... eunuch.. weak (cf.. return') . to cover with dust or silt (redup. silent. increase' + nominative). ki-lá).. silt' + 'to fill.. sig5). a vegetable.. class) ('dust. sañ.šub: sañ-ur-sañ: sañ-ús: to hide ('head' + 'in the grass' + 'to drop') . si-ga: n... to si-ñar: si-ì-tum: behind'.

sig4-al-ur5-ra: sig4-anše. (cf. ízi-ur5.. wool' + 'to spray out. flatten') . blow' + 'to apply') . síg-sur(-ra): spun wool ('hair. expel' + nominative). sìg.dug4/du11/e: whirlwind (reduplicated sìg. appear') . sig. to put in order. kiln-burnt brick(s) (cf. to yoke (often with -ni . wool' + 'share. goat's hair ('hair' + 'she-goat'). ration ('hair. síg-babbar: síg..... to be destroyed ('stroke. to make straight. šilig. cf. rations') . wool allotment... expose') . flatten') . 'to demolish. to march in line. calendar month 2 at Umma during Ur III. to card wool ('hair. si. half-brick ('brick' + 'cow' = 'cow pat'). class) ('straightness' + 'to equal') . light rays ('horns. 'an aromaticá: si-si-ig: si4-lum: sig-sig: síg-ba: síg-bar: si-šuš-nu: a sea creature ('antennae' + 'to go down' + 'do not') . si-mùš: si-par4: si. to assemble in order.peš5: síg-ud5: sìg-sìg: sig4-áb: síg ga-zum-aka(-a): carded wool. wool' + 'to comb and clean') .aka: si-li-ig: (cf. sig4-ñišì-šub-ba-ñar: Sumerian Lexicon. whirlwind (reduplicated sìg.or bi -) (redupl. wall' + 'turtle')... legal ('straightness' + 'to equal') .. loosely hanging hair ('hair' + 'to uncover.gub: sig4-ba: iti iti turtle shell (?) ('brick.. to do something in the right way.. silig).0 137 .sá: shining horns.. narrow (reduplicated 'small'). šim-im. shine') .. get ready... to tune (an instrument).. kettledrum(s) ? ('to fill' + 'wind').ñar: to prostrate onself ('low' + 'to set'). si-mú: to have horns. to sniff (reduplicated 'to fill' + 'wind' + 'to do'. si-sá: right. to stack a brick pile ('brick' + 'donkey' + 'to set'). rays' + 'to glisten. sig4-báþar(-ra): sig4-ga: calendar month 3 at Nippur during Ur III. wool' + 'white'). 'to demolish. 'coal'). horned [can indicate a 'male' animal if only the male sex grows horns] ('horns' + 'to sprout. baked brick (?) or potter's brick(?) ('brick' + 'potter' + genitive). white wool ('hair. a garden plant ('reddish' + 'to grow luxuriantly').. sa-par 4). to prepare.(urudu) si-im: substance') . Version 3.

to be afraid of (with -da -) ('flesh' + zìg.. say "Hello" ('greeting' + 'to give') . sug 8). mature young of animals ('lambs' + 'to stand') . to scare ('gooseflesh' + 'to put into') .gi4: answer') .]GAN: shepherd of mother animals ('shepherd' + 'mother' + 'to bring forth').mar: sulummar). to have/give gooseflesh.ri: su.gi4: sìla-bàn-da: sila4-gub: sila4-nim: sila-kúr. še25.. še26..dug4/du11/di/e: to greet. slag. su(3)-þé[GAN]: salted or cured meat ('flesh' + 'to hang' + nominative). early spring lamb ('lamb' + 'early'). pleasing') . su(11)-lum. sig 4.. sig14.dab5/díb: sila4-ga-sub-ba: small sìla -vessel ('liter' + 'junior'). to greet.. sig14[KA×LI]. su-zi: terror... silim.. to take a different way ('street' + 'different' + 'to take'/'to traverse') . sipad-udu-siki-ka: siskur. sig7-sig7: to be beautiful (reduplicated 'to be beautiful.. a type of copper. milk suckling lamb ('lamb' + 'milk' + 'to suck' + nominative). silim-šè gù.. s/šu(t)tinnu). mock ('body' + 'manure' + 'to coat..sig4. consume') ... skin disease ('flesh. (cf.. awesome radiance. sipad-ama-[ŠA. sipad-amar-ru-ga: genitive).e: su-a: su-búru: su-din: cat (cf.. part of a wagon or plough (cf. offspring (children or of flocks). sila4-nitaþ: lamb buck ('lamb' + 'male'). quagmire ('to immerse' + 'to dissolve. say "Hello" ('health' + 'to speak'). sub). 'to stand up. borax (?) powder ('to stretch' + 'to support') .. loosen') . quoted speech in the texts] ('prayer' + 'to speak') .. 'to restore' + shepherd of wool sheep ('shepherd' + 'sheep' + 'wool' + double genitive).zìg/zi: rise'). šalummatu. shepherd of brought back (?) ('shepherd' + 'young ones' + rúg. say')..dé: silim.0 138 .gi 4). zi. to resound. skin' + 'to eat. say "Hello" ('health' + 'regarding' + 'to call.. su-zìg/zi. to say a prayer [often introduces direct. šudun). šalummu ). Version 3. Sumerian Lexicon. cf. to disgrace. splendor (Akk.. ñiš su-din(-dal)mušen: su-gu7/kú: su-lá-a: su-lim: butterfly... apply'.. Akk.. to shout.. treat with contempt. to howl (reduplication class) ('walls' + 'to sig4-gi4-a: roaring ('to resound' + nominative). bat ('body' + 'to cure'..sum: to greet. quicksand. su-ub: (cf.

beard of life ('beard' + 'life' + genitive). a type of onion ('onion' + 'good. sug4). Sumerian Lexicon. vizier.. šár-ra-ab-du ).. electrum ?.li9-li9).. to rejoice' + 'to measure. lapis lazuli (-colored) beard. Version 3. sù-ga: deceitful(ly) (cf. ziqnu. ša-ra: syllabic spelling for šár-ra. sum-tab-ba: binding double sheaf ('to give' + 'double' + nominative). immerse' + 'freshness') .. prime minister. check') . offspring ('womb' + reduplicated 'to revolve..dab5: to be angry ('heart. brass ? ('to be lasting. stomach' + 'to grasp. descendant. sù(-ud)-áña: su6-nam-ti-la: su6-za-gìn(-na): gi diamond ?.bala: to breed ('womb' + 'to revolve. bastard ('womb' + locative or 'seed' + 'to be foreign' + nominative). deducted from the state-bestowed capital debt (usually precedes account of credit transactions followed by zi-ga[-àm] ) ('contents' + 'its' + 'from'). a type of onion ('onion' + 'robust like a bull'). su11. sù-rá: far-reaching ('far away' + 'to go'/indicator of ð phoneme in sud). sum-za-þa-ti/din: ša-ga-ru: sún-si-mú: horned (or male) aurochs cow ('aurochs cow' + 'horned') . sum-sikil: garlic ('onion' + 'pure. remove') .. sug-zag-gi4. a kind of copper. wither ('to dry up' + 'inundation') .su(3)-ud: (cf. to destroy ('swamp' + 'territory' + 'to surround' + 'to finish off') .. sud ).. concentrated') . (cf. pleasing') . ša-ra-ab-du: šà-a-bar-ra: šà-bal-bal: ku6 (cf. clean' + genitive. su11-lum: SUD-la: (cf. 'minister of the interior' ('minister' + 'grand'). ša-ra(-g): to dry up.0 139 .. za-þa-ti/din ).. clean beard ('beard' + 'lapis lazuli. zú. 'beard').ÁB: creation ('womb' + 'cow').. deliver'). šà. zú-lum(-ma) )..li9-li9: (cf. šà-bar: cleaned fish ('intestines' + 'to cut open. a quality of the ground ('to sprinkle. clench') . šà-da: voluntarily ('heart' + 'with'). deliver') . ŠÀ. might be some wordplay with Akk.. šà-bi-ta: therefrom.. 'numerous'.. šà.gu7: sukkal-maþ: sum-GUD: sum-sag9: suþ-kešda: ornament ('carefully chosen' + 'to fasten') . su7-su7: a basket (reduplicated 'threshing floor') ..

. to be hungry ('hunger' + 'to have') . šà-ga-dù: šà-gal: šà-gada-lal: šà-gi-na: food...lá: šà-lá-lá: šà-ne-ša4: to (en)gorge. šà-ka-tab: hunger ('stomach' + 'mouth' + 'to tremble. šà-diñir-re-e-ne: šà.... šà-þúl-la: delight ('heart' + 'to rejoice' + nominative). shape') . all that one wants ('heart.šà. šà-gada-lal). stomach' ( + 'in the') + 'to find. belt ('stomach' + nominative + 'to mould. a voluntary offering ('heart' + 'eyes' + 'to shine. to bear in mind ('heart' + 'concerning' + 'to measure') .pàd: Sumerian Lexicon. šà-íb-ba(-/ak/): anger ('midst' + 'loins' + genitive). will. declare') . to take counsel with (with -da-) ('heart' + 'to be tired. be bright. to change one's mind ('heart. hatred ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to be sick.tuku: šà.dím: to grieve ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to make')....þuñ: šà-þul-gig: to pacify.dar). ní. load') . cf.. sustenance ('stomach' + 'enlarge') . to choose ('heart. cf. fodder. true' + nominative). šà(-ge)... šà-ki-áña: a loving heart ('heart' + 'to love' + nominative). individual'). will' + 'gods'). Version 3.e.kúr/kár: change') . shepherdess ('heart' + 'to extend' + 'far').. šà-lá-sù(-d): merciful.0 140 . šañar).guru7: what is in one's heart. šà(-ge). šà-lá-lá). šà-þúl-la. cf. mood' + ergative agent marker + 'to šà. the heart's desire ('heart' + 'to dwell'). stuff ('stomach' + 'to extend..... painful' + nominative). stomach' ( + 'to the') + 'a large silo') . supplications ('heart' + 'this' + 'to grieve').. šà-ñar... worry') .. i.. true heart. to make love to.dar: to be afraid ('stomach' + 'to slice'.. painful'). the (secret) will of the gods ('interior... clothed (cf. to care. šà-dùg: a term for young animals ('heart' + 'sweet'). hunger ('stomach' + 'to deposit'. šà-dub-didli: recorded on an individual tablet ('contents' + 'tablet' + 'separate.. to make haste').kúš(-ù): to rest the heart..... šà-gi8[IGI]-guru6/7: šà-šè. one's nature ('heart' + 'to be firm.gíd: šà-ñál: šà-ñar: šà-gig-ga: an aching heart ('heart' + 'to be sick. to calm down the heart ('heart' + 'to rest'). šà. šà-þul.dirig: to be overflowing with joy ('delight' + 'to exceed'). linen-clad ('midst' + 'linen' + 'to drape'.diri: to overeat ('stomach' + 'to exceed').. šà(-ge). grain heap') .

hungry. porcupine ('pig' + 'to cut' + 'to protect' + 'outside. administrative director. grain tax ('barley' + 'to demolish').. small.. Sumerian Lexicon. to obtain') . fleece' + 'to šáþ(2)-zé-da-bar-sur-ra: spray out') . še-búr-ra: grain released for transport.. grass') . weak' + nominative). še-ba: barley rations distributed by the administration of the temple. disappear') . Version 3. womb ('insides' + 'child'). šár-ra-ab-du: a temple official (from Akkadian šarru . pisan-dub). še-ba: to be careless. še-bal: iti šab. ša13[ÑÁ]-dub-ba: archivist (cf. rations') . pasture grazing pig ('pig' + 'plants. 'king'.. town center ('interior. porcupine ('pig' + 'outside. commissioner ('heart' + 'to be polished') . barley lost in processing. ('barley' + 'portion.sìg: šà-su-ga: šà-sù-ga: (gi) to be oppressed ('heart' + 'to strike. + 'to bind. trader ('a large jar for oil' + 'to carry'). fleece' + reduplicated 'dot.. ñadub.. crush') . porcupine ('bush pig' + 'it eats') . release'). šà-sur: šà. field. empty' + nominative). šàr-ra-ús-sa: body guard (from Akkadian šarru . šà-zu: midwife ('womb' + 'to know'). + 'to follow' + nominative.0 141 . acre ('womb' + 'to be suitable. še-bar-ra-ñál-la: še-bi: value-equivalence in barley (used as a standard) ('barley' + 'its'). starved. 'to fall. (reed-mat) sieve ('gut-like container' + 'to press out a liquid') . to prepare.šed7: šà-tam: šà-túm: šà-tur: credible. dry river bed ('river bed' + sug4.. speckle') . šà. áña-ús. fattened pig ('pig' + 'fattened'). wrap'). and further distribution ('barley' + 'to open. calendar month 3 at Umma during Ur III. to have diarrhea. storage.šà-sig-ga: a depressed heart ('heart' + 'low. 'king'. cool down') . trustworthy. without recompense ('stomach' + 'empty' + nominative). + abdu. 'slave'). negligent (cf. šà-uru(-/ak/): šà-zi-ga: lú excitement ('heart' + 'to rise up' + nominative). to spawn eggs (said of a fish) ('intestines' + 'to expel a liquid'). midst' + 'town' + genitive). šagan-lá: peddler.. palace.sur: šà. etc. šakan-kéš: basket weaver (?) ('large jar for oil'. 'policeman'). 'to lay bare. cf. šub. to cool/soothe the heart ('heart' + 'to calm.. šáþ(2)-bar-gùn(-gùn)-nu: šáþ(2)-ñiš-gi(4): šáþ(2)-niga: šaþ(2)-ú: šáþ(2)-ñiš-gi(4)(-ì)-gu7-e: "bush pig" ('pig' + 'trees' + 'reeds').

'to be many' or zár. sesame oil ('grain' + 'tree' + 'oil').dug4/du11/e: decorate with colors' + 'to effect') . sínmušen)...è: ñiš-è-a). Sumerian Lexicon. 'to lace. glimmer (syllabic spelling of šér. še ñiš. še-er-tab-ba: haystack. set' + nominative). itiše-sañ11-ku5). deposit') . 'sweet corn tree' = licorice tree (?) ('corn' + 'sweet'). to winnow grain ('grain' + 'to lift').. barley sprouts ('grain corn' + 'juniper').. to be obedient. 'to še-er-ka-an. še-gub-ba: barley deposit ('barley' + 'to stand. sè(g). einkorn wheat ('grain' + 'robust like a bull').. še-sañ11-ku5).. cornstack... shine. coriander ('grain corn' + 'man or many') [ŠELU archaic frequency: 28]. to buy with barley ('barley' + 'to deliver. good crops. še-ì-ñiš: sesame seeds. barley' + gunu. interweave') . sim. še-er-zi: shine brightly') . grain' + 'to pour'). sig10). še.dé: ñiš to clean barley after winnowing ('barley. a type of reed fence (šár. še-li: pine or juniper seeds ('grain corn' + 'juniper'). še-er-še-er. ox' ( + dative) + 'to feed'). to agree (with -ši -) (cf. še-lum-lum: bitter grain ('grain' + 'bitter').ñál: to have authority (Emesal dialect for nir.lá: še-LÚsar: še-muš(5): še-namušen: to carry grain. deposit') . to adorn (with -ni -) (šár. crushed barley ('barley' + 'to crush') .. new grain ('grains' + 'new. join' + nominative).ra(-an/aþ): iti to thresh grain by beating with a flail ('grain + 'stick' + 'to strike'). late barley ('grains.0 142 ..še. to obey. še-gur10-ku5: (cf. to cover with. še še-dùg: še. fresh').ñál).. še gud(-rá) gu7: iti še-gur10-ku5: (cf. Version 3. še-er.. še-ga/ge: še-GAZ: še-gibil: še-gu-nu: še-GUD: favorite.. fine grains.. (cf.. (cf. še-ñiš-ì.. barley delivery ('barley' + 'to deliver. 'to še-er. harvested grain that has just been threshed and only roughly measured with a stick še-ñar: še.... 'sheaf' + 'to bind.ñar: še ñiš-è-a: ('grain + 'stick' + 'to exit from' + nominative). light. grain spent as oxen feed ('barley' + 'bull... še-íl-la: calendar month 12 at Lagaš during Ur III. 'load' ?). še-er-gu/kum: a long string of dried fruit (probable syllabic spelling of Semitic root. 'to be many' + gùn. to sow barley.

gleaned grain ('grain' + 'to bring').. calendar month 1 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.0 143 .šub: še.. še10.. šim-gig: šim-im: lú frankincense . cf. whale ?') . šim-nañ: šim-PI-PI: an aromatic substance.ša4: še.. tiny' + 'to mourn'). calendar month 1 at Ur during Ur III. an aromatic substance ('aromatic substance' + 'wind'.ús: ŠÈ-ba-an: to harvest barley ('barley' + 'to suck'). junior') . calendar month 3 at Ur during Ur III.. to throw away') ... si-im-si-im. calendar month 3 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. šim-su-SÁ: cologne. punishment. Version 3.. to moan ('grain.zil-zil(-la): a measure for fish ('portion' + 'a measure'.. strife (reduplicated 'mirror' or 'shield' ?).....turpentine (?) ('aromatic resin' + reduplicated 'to bend.še-numun: še-ri-ga: seed ('grain' + 'seed'). Sumerian Lexicon. younger brother ('brother' + 'young... crime.gi4: ( še. incantation ('song' + 'sacred. to thresh grain by beating ('barley' + 'to throw'). sig4. šeš-gal: šika-ri: older brother ('brother' + 'large'). šim-gam-gam(-ma): to shrivel') . spice drinkers (?) ('spice' + 'to drink'). calendar month 1 at Umma during Ur III. še.gi4). shattered potsherds ('potsherd' + 'to break open.. sacred song. holy') .. ŠIM×KÚŠU: šìr-kug: ambergris ('aromatic substance' + 'turtle. calendar month 11 at Lagaš during Ur III. blame.. calendar month 12 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3. še25/še26. an aromatic substance .áña: to sing.. to follow'). perfume (?) ('aromatic substance' + 'body' + 'to equal. to dehusk barley ('barley' + reduplicated 'to peel') . še-sañ(11)-ku5: iti harvest ('grain' + 'to harvest ?' + 'to cut') .dúr: to fart ('excrement' + 'to break wind'). 'to sniff'). šìr.. še-sañ11-ku5: calendar month 12 at Nippur during Ur III. compete with') . 'treading' by animals as a way of threshing grain ('barley' + 'to drive. še.. ba-an). šeš-bàn-da: šeš-da-gu7: calendar month 2 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. capital offense. cf. sa-dúr(-ra)). še-sa: roasted barley ('barley' + 'to roast').. šen-šen: šer7-da: iti combat. ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: (cf...used in making medicinal plasters ('aromatic resin' + 'to be sick').ak. to cry (out) ('song' + 'to mete out') .

šìr-ra-nam-en-na; šìr-re-nam-nir-ra:

song of lordship ('song' + 'lordship' +


chain (probable Akkadian loan word). regular, daily offering ('hand; portion' + locative + 'steady' + nominative).

šu-a-gi-na: šu...aka:

to take captive ('hand' + 'to do') .

šu-bal...aka: to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change' + 'to do') . šu-gibil-gibil...aka: š šu...bad: šu...bal: š
to renew ('hand' + 'to renovate' + 'to renovate' + 'to do') .

šu/šú-luþ...aka: to clean (a canal) ('hand' + 'to clean' + 'to do').
(cf., šu...bad , š ). to release ('hand' + 'to open') . to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change') . to release, let loose ('hand' + 'to open, release') .

šu...búru: to open the hand ('hand' + 'to open') . šu-da: hand and forearm, as a unit of measurement, ell/cubit (cf., kùš) ('hand' + 'arm'). šu-dab(5)(-ba): šu...dab(2,4,5): šu...dag: šu...dar: šu...de6: šu-dù-a: šu...dù: šu...du7: šu...du8: šu-du8-a: šu-dim4-ma:
sale ('hand' + 'to clasp, take away' + nominative). to take or accept ('hand' + 'to hold, take, receive') .

šu-kíñ...dab(5): to perform a service; to kneel down ('hand' + 'order, task' + 'to hold/seize').
to roam about; to run away ('hand' + 'to roam'). to slaughter (redupl. class) ('hand' + 'to slice, split, shatter') . to set to work ('hand' + 'to bring') . loyal ('hand' + 'subservient' + nominative).

length measure of 10 fingers = 16.666 cm. ('hands' + 'to stack') . to bind the hands; to apply one's hands to ('hands' + 'to fasten') . to destroy ('hands' + 'evil' + 'to fasten') .


to embellish; to put on the finishing touches; to complete; to make perfect (with -ta -) (reduplication class) ('hand' + 'to complete') . to hold in the hand (with -ni - or bi -) ('hand' + 'to open') . guarantee ('to hold' + nominative).

šu-du8-a...DU(de6/túm): to act as guarantor for ('guarantee' + 'to bring, carry'). šu...dug4/du11/e:
to touch; to place, put ('hand' + 'to effect') . to supply, to provide (generously) with (with -ni -) ('hand' ( + to be haunted ('hand' + 'spirit of a place' + 'to effect') .

'wide, copious') + 'to effect') .

šu líl-lá...dug4/du11/e:

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


šu pe-el lá...dug4/du11/e:
'to penetrate, pierce' + 'to effect') .

to defile; to be defiled ('hand' + pil, 'to be/make dirty, defiled' +

šu sá...dug4/du11/e:

to attain ('hand' + 'to reach, arrive') .

šu sùþ-a...dug4/du11/e: to confuse, disconcert; to be confused ('hand' + 'in confusion' + 'to šu-tag...dug4/du11/e: šu ùþ-a...dug4/du11/e: šu-dul5:

to adorn; to decorate (with -ni -); to sprinkle; to paint ('hand' + 'to (cf., šu

weave, decorate, strike' + 'to effect') .


(cf., šudun ). calendar month 8 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 9 at Ur during Ur III.


šu-gána: šu-gi(4):
return') .

agricultural tool ('hand' + 'field'). old ('hand' + 'to return' ?, 'to lock up' ?, 'reed-like' ?). to bring back; to lead back; to repay; to repeat; to answer ('hand' ( + locative) + 'to

šu(-a)...gi4: šu-gíd:
out') .

dues; general obligation ('hand' + 'to reach out; to measure out') . to accept; to observe/inspect the offering animal (cf., šu-maš-gíd-gíd; 'hand' + 'to reach to jumpily move around ('hand' + 'to leap, dance') .


šu...gu4-gu4-ud: šu...gur: šu...ñál: šu-ñar: šu...ñar:

to roll; to wrap; to wipe ('hand' + 'circular motion'). to hold by the hand ('hand' + 'to place in') .

effect ('hand' + 'to deliver'). to perform a task; to carry out; to be favorable; to cease doing something (with -ta -)

('hand' + 'to deliver') .

šu(-a/šè)...ñar: to be/place in the hand; to subdue ('hand' + locative/terminative + 'to deliver'). šu-šu...ñar: šu...þa-za: šu...þu-uz:

to grant a pardon ('hand' + 'hand' + 'to deliver') .

šu-þa: robber (cf., šu-ku6(-d)).
to hold in the hand ('hand' + 'to hold, grasp') .

šu-þal-la: open hand ('hand' + 'to divide, distribute' + nominative).
to roast; to burn ('hand' + 'to rage at') (cf., š ).


barber ('hand' + 'to sprout' ?). prayer (hand-raising) ('hand' + 'to raise' + nominative).

šu-íl-la(2): šu...íl:

to build; to grow rich ('hand' + 'to raise') . to take away; to withdraw ('hand' + 'to take away') .

šu...kar(2): šu-kár:

tools, parts, components ('hand' + 'to encircle, besiege') .

šu ki-in-dar: full of cracks ('handful' + 'crevices'). Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0 145

ñiš gi


sickle ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., saña11/siñ18, 'to cut, break, harvest') . faggot of reeds ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., saña11/siñ18, 'to cut, break, harvest') . fisherman ('hand' + 'fish' + ?; should read ešsadx ?).


šu-ku6(-d): šu-lá-a:

šu(-a)-lá: paralyzed, folded, idle (said of hands) ('hands' + locative + 'to bind, diminish').
entrusted ('hands' + 'to hold' + nominative). to defile; to reach; to bind (the hands); to wring the hands ('hand' + 'to pierce, to hold in the hand, suspend from the hands ('hand' + 'to bind, hold, hang') .

šu...lal/lá-lá: šu-šè...lal/lá: šu(4)-luþ:

penetrate; to stretch; to bind; to hold') .

ritual cleansing, purification ritual, lustration ('hand' + 'to clean') . purification ritual man, lustration priest ('ritual cleansing' + nominative). diviner; omen (cf., šu...gíd; 'hand' + 'goat kid' + reduplicated 'to reach out') .


šu-maš-gíd-gíd: ŠU-ME-EREN: šu...mú:

cypress resin (cf., (ñiš)šu-úr-me).

to enlarge; to expand (with -ni -); to pray (with dative) ('hand' + 'to grow') . pestle ('hand' + 'stone') . grand total ('hand' + 'circle, whole') [? ŠUNIGIN archaic frequency: 1]. subtotal ('hand' + 'circle, whole'). to proceed; to hurry ('hand' + 'to make the rounds') .


ŠU+NIÑIN: ŠU+NÍÑIN: šu...niñin:
(ñiš) iti

šu-nim-ma: early to work ('hand' + 'early' + nominative). šu-nir:
standard; emblem with woolen streamers; totemic device ('hand' + 'to raise high') . calendar month 4 at Lagaš during Ur III; calendar month 4 at Nippur during Ur III. to expand; to spread out ('hand' + 'womb; to expand') . to knead clay and form it into a tablet; to erase ('hand' + 'to beat, stir') . to wring the hands over (with -ši -) ('hands' + 'to place against') .


šu...peš: šu...ra: šu...ri:

šu-ri(2)(-a): one-half ('hand' + 'to take, remove' + nominative). š
to burn; to roast; to glow (cf., šu...þu-uz ). to rub ('hand' + 'to make a harvesting motion') .

šu...sañ11/siñ18: šu(-a) šu-šè šu si...sá: š š

šu-si: finger ('hand' + 'horn, ray, antenna') .
to fill the hands (with) ('hand' + locative + 'to fill'). to hand over; to deliver ('hand' + 'towards' + 'to fill'). to do things to perfection; to see that all is right ('hand' + 'right; legal'). to hit with the hand ('hand' + 'to strike down, silence') . to wave the hand ('hand' + 'to beat rhythmically') .


to gather up; to collect; to scrape together ('hands' + 'to suck') .

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


šu. perhaps from the boxwood ('shiny. to wipe (with -ni . to send. bound' ? + 'grain.. person assigned to pick up allotted rations ('rations' + 'to hold' + nominative).. šúr-dùmušen: tab-ba: TAG.ús: out') . partner ('to join. taka4.. (cf.. to erase. šum ). to borrow.taka4: šu. to pray ('to pray' + 'plural. enclitic copula)..sud/sù: šu..sum: šu-šúr: šu. seed' + 'productive') . (cf..lal: to open ('to open' + 'to reach') . staples. to come. furious'). to cover.. tám-še-lum: te-àm: te-en: a resin. adopt. to be double' + nominative). go') ..... ta-àm ). to nibble or lick one's fingers ('hand' + 'to gnaw. to receive. decorate') . 'together'. to be taken. šuku-dab5-ba: šul-a-lum: punishment (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu.ti).and bi -. etc.. to delegate' + 'king').. nibble') . dispatch (with dative) ('hand' + 'to push') . to push or knock on (a door). (cf.túkur: (ñiš) to stretch the hand out after something ('hand' + 'to make remote').taka4: šu-a. also with -ta -) ('hand' + 'to drag over') ..zi-zi(-g): šùd. + 'to speak/do') . to entrust ('hand' + 'to give') . accept.. šu-úr-me: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('to pour' + 'tree trunk' + 'to be')...ùr: šu-ùr-ra: šu. scraping or grinding by hand ('hand' + 'to shear' + nominative). te-eš.ME: ta-àm: what is it? ('from' + 3rd. to take up.rá: lú šub-lugal: subordinate of the king ('to drop.. dispatch.. to take (variation of šu. (trained) falcon ('fierce' + 'to work'). received ('to receive' + nominative). 'to plunder. Version 3.dug4/du11/e: to put together (?) (téš. to hold out in the hand ('hand' + 'to reach to raise one's hand (in violence) ('hand' + reduplicated 'to rise up') .. goods... to gain. to adorn. escape ('hand' + reduplicated 'to interfere') .ti: šu-ti-a: šu-tu-tu: šu.te: šu. ten ).... šul-zi: worthy young man ('young man' + 'good. to deprive') . to leave (something) to (someone) ('hand' + locative + 'to push') . decorate (often with -ni -) ('hand' + 'to weave.šu.0 147 . šu.... seizing ('hand' + 'fierce...tag: šu. Sumerian Lexicon.. to give. accepted (with terminative and -ši -) ('hand' + 'to approach') . to grab. true') . to send.. sing.

tigi-nì-du10-ga/e: til-lu-ug: elephant ('lion-killer' ?). ñiš tu-lu-bu-um: plane tree or wood (Akkadian dulbum. téš(-bi). te-te(-ma): téš-bi: (cf. assault. ti... marû stem.. healthy' + subordination suffix /-a/). te-me: (cf. tu-ud: (cf.. téš(-a)..ra: ñiš to shoot an arrow ('arrow' + 'to stab'). TU-gur4mušen: (cf. ti. ti-na: adv. deep'). to answer') . rib ('rib')..i-i: to pray ('together' + 'to rise')..sì-ke: to make agree ('together' ( + locative) + 'to put.0 148 . tur5)...te-ñe26(-d): to approach. túg-dim-gal(-la-k): sail on a mast ('cloth' + 'mast' + genitive).. ní.. temen). brace.ñál: to create life ('life' + 'to give birth' + 'to be'). ti-lim-da: a vessel ('lives' + 'thousand' + 'with').. 'to hang up') . 'flood'. to be frightened. cause') . ti-mar-uru5: arrow quiver (?) (play on tu15-mar-uru5 (?).... te) .. 'Oriental plane tree')..bal: ti-gi4: dug kettledrum ('to approach. flint'). to consume ('together' + 'to eat'). 'arrow' + 'to enclose' + 'high. cf... te-ñe 26).. tu15. tu-lu: to be/make loose or limp (Akkadian tulluu. modesty' + ('not' + ) 'to have'). to assault' + 'to return. to signal (?) ('arrow' + 'to revolve'). (cf. a small bird ('arrow' + 'city' + 'to dwell'). te-me-en. to attack. tum12-gur4mušen). túg-bir7-ra: torn clothes ('cloth' + 'to rip to pieces' + nominative).dirig: onion or garlic bulb for planting ('to beget' + 'onion') . téš.... tud). téš.. place. TÚG-DU8: textile fuller ('cloth' + 'residue. together ('together' + adverbial force suffix) . ti-mud. ñiš ti: strut. ti-rí-ñálal: ti-zú: barbed arrow ('arrow' + 'teeth. meet (someone: dative). tu-ra: (cf. tir-an-na: rainbow ('forest' + 'sky' + genitive).. Version 3. shameless ('shame.(nu-)tuku: to have (no) shame.dirig ). harp of beautiful sound ('harp' + 'thing' + 'sweet' + genitive).gu7: to devour everything.. Sumerian Lexicon. tu6-tu6: tud-sum: incantations (reduplicated 'exorcistic formula'). to bake') . worried (alternating class. strongly ('to live.

túg-ku-ru-um: mourning (?) clothes (Akkadian kuuru . morsel of food ('stomach. northwind ('wind' + 'anger'). magnificent (?) robe ('cloth' + 'to spend' + nominative). belt... túg-ZI-ZI-a: tukul. weapon' + 'to strike. TÙN. mu-dur 7(-ra) ). a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bring low' + 'to mould'). túg-níñ-dára-gála-sír-ra: túg-níñ-dùn-dù: túg-níñ-lal: túg-níñ-lám: pubic band or napkin for a woman ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind. big').. hips' + 'to mould'). sash'). sash' + 'vulva' + 'dense. to slaughter ('mace. túg-me-zé-er-ra: rags ('cloth' + 'function' + 'to tear up. a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to drape') .túg-gú-lal: túg-gur8/gur: blanket (for an animal) ('cloth' + 'back of neck' + 'to drape') . lip' + 'bite of food') . little ones (cf. short-cut robe (?) ('cloth' + 'to cut'). sanctuary with the loud voice ('birth-hut as metaphor for sanctuary' + 'voice' + 'great.ñá-ñá: Sumerian Lexicon. stupor') . to eat modestly ('little' + 'to eat').PAD: tur. to dwell ('home' + 'to establish') .. Version 3.. di 4-di 4-la ) (reduplicated 'little').bar: to hew or split with an axe. túg-níñ-dára: loincloth ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind.sìg: tukumbi. harvest') .. tùr-gù-nun: tuš.-nu: tumu-mer: TÙN.. bed spread ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'stretched out') . to strike') . a festive garment. break. hurt') . depression... TÚG-TAG: túg-TAR: túg. pigeon' + 'plump. túg-šà-ga-dù: cloth belt or woolen belted garment (?) ('cloth' + 'stomach' + nominative + 'to mould. 'daze. túg-níñ-sal-la: túg-siñ18: shape') .ùr: ñiš to fill or pile cloth (?) ('cloth' + 'to weave. north. túg-mu-dur7[BU]-ra: túg-níñ-bàra-(g): (cf.. tum12[TU]-gur4mušen: turtle (?) dove ('dove.gu7: tur-tur: noble') . except ('if' + 'not'). feverish' + nominative).. túg-níñ-ur5-ra-ak-a: the first plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'to cut. the last plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'deep'). belt. túg-íb-dù: a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'waist. dress ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'an awe-inspiring quality') . didi .0 149 . a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'vulva' + genitive)... to make a sacrifice ('clothing' + 'to drag') .. fine quality clothes ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to gasp' + nominative). break' + nominative). slice.

. unclean.. to tear out plants ('plant' + reduplicated 'to tear out') .0 150 . 'to watch. ugun).. ú-kíñ-ñá )...nú: ú-si4-an ú-sug4: ú.bu-bu(-r): ú-du(-l): ú-dug4: (cf..PIRIÑ. personal (property). ú-sañ11.U.. to be lost (ugu. nettles (?) ('plant' + 'anger/heart' + 'illness'). provider ('food' + 'water' or nominative).. ú-gu(3). plants' + 'to persist') ..DÚR]-na: ú-gíd-da: long grasses ('grasses' + 'long' + nominative). ú-tul: (cf..... grass. fascine to sustain a canal bank or levee ('plants' + 'to cut. evening ('food' + 'red' + 'sky'). to collect firewood ('plants' + 'to glean. to cut fascine plants ('fascine' + 'to cut') . to lie down in security ('food' + 'to persist' + 'to lie down') . food' + 'to seek. to deafen. ulušin ).. the eating of which is a metaphor for sexual intercourse ('plant' + 'honey'). to sprinkle') . Version 3.. harvest') . úzug). to eat ('food' + 'to sip. break.dé: to lose.. to stem (the flow of water). possession (cf. ú-làl: a sweet water-plant. work' + nominative). to be deaf. menstruating woman (cf... kušu/kušum x(-ki).lá: ú-li: to go to fetch food ('food' + terminative + 'to go/to stand') .. herb(s) ('plant' + 'fine smelling').tag: ú-a: ú.. udul ).þúb: ú-kíñ-ñá: ú.. udul). to dine.. ú-šè.. hay or dry brushwood ('grasses' + 'to dwell. untested grazing grounds (cf. ).. to dry out' + nominative).'top of the head' + 'to sink') . Sumerian Lexicon. (cf.. to diminish.. ùru[-m]. lu-úb (cf. caretaker.GÙN: (cf.ñin/gub: ú.. ú-rum: private.sud/sù: ú-sal: a low-lying fertile area along a watercourse ('grass.tag ). to disappear. protect') . U. Ú-TIR: a spice or seed measured by weight. to bring') . guard.. ú-durunx[DÚR.. pasturage ('plants.. sar ú-lipiš-gig: ú-lu-úbsar: ú-lu5-ši: leeks (cf.zé: ú-sal-la.ri(-g): ú-sañ11: a resin measured by volume.. udug ). ú-šim: grass and herbs = pasture (a Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys). (cf. Ú-NINNI5 [TIR/TIR]: ú-nu-kíñ-ñá: ú...

. encircling wall') . Version 3. 'when in battle') . ù-ma/ù-na. unclean woman') . 'kiln for bricks'. ('time' + 'after').sá. ù-na: anything.. 'confusion. to sprout.ku(4): ù-luþ-gi4-rin: ù-luþ. a platform for molding or drying bricks (same form as udun. 'to chip out. Sumerian Lexicon.-a-gin7: u4. nothing (pronominal prefix + 'numerous').... foul food ('food' + úzug. rest. depression (cf. sún . at the right moment ('time' + 'moment' + adverbial ù-tu-(d): ù-ur5-re: u4. to send out offshoots (pronominal prefix + 'clean' + 'to stretch.. drop. to enter') . to rest ('sleep' + 'to lie down.. cf. scepter of pure. rejoice'). all this (pronominal prefix + 'these'). u 4-bar ). to be or do on time.ku(4): ù-la: to sleep (reduplication class).. to ignite. plop'. n. to sleep badly ('sleep' + 'treacherous' + 'to lie down. bu(5). (at the time) when. triumph (prospective modal prefix + me-a..0 151 . when')... šab.. to pray to.... ù-sun[BAD]: ñiš ù-šub: brick mold. adj... daze.gub: to attain victory. [this brackets an entire phrase] ('time' + nominative or genitive). u4. ù-an-bar: ù-bu-bu-ul: ù-di: Akkadian bubu’tu(m) ). pustule... 'menstruating. triumph ('when in battle' + 'to emerge standing') .-a-ta: force suffix) .. to entreat (with dative) (prospective modal prefix + 'evil' + 'to ù-gul. 'midnight'). to uproot. cf.sù: ù-ma. victory.. (cf. to give birth. ñi6....á-bi/ba(-/ak/): u4-an-na: light of the heavens ('light' + 'heaven' + genitive). pugnacious. fraud (pronominal prefix + 'not' + 'established' + nominative)... sleep ('to sleep' + nominative).ñar/ñá-ñá: take oaths') .. ù-nu-ñar-ra: sleep ('sleep' + 'to equal in value'... after (the time) when.. 'sleep' + 'to seize')..di). ù. cf. ù-suþ5: fir or spruce tree or wood (phonetic spelling shows original full pronunciation of suþ 5... ù-mu-un: ù-sá: ñiš Emesal dialect. cf.. domineering.. ù-lul-la. sleep.. en . pus. ('time' + 'as.ú-za-gìn: ú-zug4: ù-a: fresh hay ('grass' + 'clean'). ù-sá. u 6-di ) ('sleep' + 'to go'. ñi6.. flame (pronominal prefix + reduplicated bul(4). apportion out') . wild cow. tud).dab5: to be overcome by sleep (ù-sá.. to enter') . while. pronominal prefix + 'to throw. cf. to create ('to lie down' + 'to create'. cf. bright light (?) (ù for u4 ?). impetuous..(-a): u4...

u4-ba: u4-bar:

at that time; in those days; then ('time' + bi-a, 'that; its') . midday (cf., an-bar). the past ('days' + 'those' + 'from'). at the time of the harvest ('days, time' + 'harvest') .

u4-bi-ta: u4-buru14: u4-da:

today ('day' + 'with, near, present') . if ('today' + irrealis suffix) .

u4-da ñiš-en: u4-da-tuš: u4-gíd-da: u4-þuš: u4-imin:

a clown who performed with bears and pigs ('today' + 'to set up camp') .

u4(-bar)-dañal: extensive daylight, long day ('day' ( + 'middle') + 'wide').
all day long ('day' + 'to be long' + nominative suffix) .

raging storm ('storm' + 'furious, terrible, awesome'). seven days ('day' + 'seven') . there was never ('time' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'to not have'; cf.,

u4-nu-dùg-ga: u4-ri-a: u4-sa9-a:

unhappy days ('day' + 'not' + 'sweet, good' + nominative suffix) .

in those (far remote) days ('days' + remote demonstrative affix + locative). half a day ('day' + 'half' + nominative suffix) .


crescent moon; new moon; segment of a circle; a plant, possibly rushes or nettles ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., é-u4-sakar).

u4-sakar-gibil: reviving new moon, thin crescent moon ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., éu4-sud-ra:
for eternity ('time' + 'remote' + dative 'for').

u4...(al-)šú-šú-ru: u4-šú-uš(-e):

to become cloudy or dark ('daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + šur, 'to rain' ? + marû 3rd. sing. ending with vowel harmony). daily; day by day ('day, daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + locative-terminative evening ('daylight' + 'to extinguish, cool down') . morning ('daylight' + 'to approach') . birthday ('day' + 'birth' + genitive).

u4-te(-en): u4-te(-na):


u4-tur(-ra): early in the day; short in duration ('time' + 'small'). u4-u: ten days ('day' + 'ten'). u4-ul-la; u4-ì-li: u4-ul-lí-a-ta: u4...zal:
tomorrow ('day' + Akkadian elûm, 'to come up' and eli, 'above, beyond') .

from long ago ('days' + 'ancient' + nominative + 'from'). to waste a day; to disappear ('time' + 'to flee, hide, be lost' + 'to cause') .


the day dawns; to spend the day; to elapse; to waste time; to be late ('time' + 'to flow, pass').

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0



day, morning, dawn ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative).

u4-X zal-la: on the Xth day ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative). u5-a: lullaby ('raised high' + nominative). u5-bímušen; ú-bímušen; ub-bìmušen:

whooping swan (onomatopoeic).


calendar month 3 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Ur during Ur III. admiration, amazement ('to be impressed' + 'to judge') .


u6(-di)...di/dug4/e: to admire; to gain admiration ('admiration' + 'to speak, do'). u6...è/i(-i): u6-e...gub: u8-udu-þá
to look; to appear ('to look at; to stare at' + 'to be or become visible') . to be wonderful ('amazement' + ergative agent marker + 'to stand') .

sheep; (flock of) sheep and goats. southwind [with classifier


]; storm; sandstorm ('huge' + 'numerous, abundant') .

u18-lu(-da)...dul: u18[GIŠGAL]-ru(-n): ub-ba...gub:

to cover with a storm ('storm' + 'with' + 'to cover'). exalted; high; overwhelming; mighty ('huge' + 'to send'; cf., uru16(-n)).

to deposit in the corner ('corner' + locative + 'to set') .

ub-líl-lá: outdoor shrine ('niche' + 'wind, spirit (of a place), fresh air' + nominative or genitive). ub-šu-ukkin-na:

assembly ('corner' + 'power' + 'meeting' + 'human being').

ub5-kug-ga: keeper of the sacred drum ('drum' + 'pure, holy' + nominative).

ud: (cf., u4). UD.KA.BAR: (cf., zabar). UD.UD: (cf., babbar, dadag). udu-dub:
tablet-recorded sheep ('sheep' + 'tablet') . fattened sheep ('sheep' + 'fattened') .

udu-níñ-gu7-a: udu-sar: udu-siki:

udu-nitaþ: male sheep, ram ('sheep' + 'male').
a vegetable (?) ('sheep' + 'vegetable') . wool sheep ('sheep' + 'wool') .

udu-šag5-ga: slaughtered sheep ('sheep' + 'to slaughter' + nominative). udu-šár-a: perfect sheep ('sheep' + 'totality; to slaughter' + nominative). udu-še-gu7-a: udu šu-nir: udun-maþ:
(wool from) barley-fed sheep ('sheep' + 'barley' + 'to eat' + nominative). sheep whose wool was used to make streamers for the group standards. huge baking oven ('oven' + 'huge') .

udun-še-sa-a: barley roasting oven ('oven' + 'barley' + 'to roast' + nominative).

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0



to place in a person's debit account ('account' + impersonal conjugation prefix +

locative infix + 'to deposit') (cf., gú-a...ñar).

ugu4-bi; a-gáb: ape, monkey ('to give birth' + inanimate demonstrative ["Inanimate are things and
animals." Thomsen, p. 49]) .

ugula-àga-ús: overseer of vassals ('overseer' + 'crown' + 'to follow'). ugula-íla: foreman of the porters ('overseer' + 'to carry'). ugula-ñéš-da: officer in charge of sixty men ('overseer' + ñeç, 'sixty' + genitival suffix /a(k)/). ugula-uru(-na-/ak/): ùña-lu-a: uþ...uš7: uku-ús: ÙKU.ÍL:
(cf., aþ...uš 7). (cf., aga (3)-ús ). (cf., un-gùr ). captain of the/his city ('overseer' + 'city' + 'his' + genitive).

multitudes ('people' + 'to be numerous' + nominative).

ul.KU: receiver (?). ul-šár-ra: jubilation ('joy' + 'to multiply' + nominative). ul...šár: ul4-la-bi: um-me-da: um-mi(3)-a:

to gladden; to exult ('joy' + 'to multiply').

ul-ti(-a): happy mood ('joy' + 'life' + genitive).
very soon, quickly ('quick' + adverbial ending).

um-ma: elderly lady; witch ('old woman' + 'to bind').
(cf., ummeda ). schoolmaster; scholar; artisan ('wise or skillful teacher' + 'offices, functions' + nominative or

umbin-gud: oxen hooves; oxen tracks ('fingernail' + 'ox'). umbin...kud: umuš...kúr: un-íl-me: un sañ-ñi6: unu(2,6)-gal:

to shave; to shear; to manicure ('fingernail' + 'to cut off'). to change one's mind ('discernment; decision' + 'to change') . a menial worker ('people' + Umma reading for íla sign, 'to bear, carry' + 'to be') .


menials ('people' + 'to carry' + 'to be') . black-headed people = Sumerians ('people' + 'heads' + 'black') .

unkin-ñar-ra: communal assembly ('people' + 'to fetch' + 'to establish' + nominative).
great dining hall ('elevated shrine, fortress' + 'great') .

UR: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III; calendar month 10 at Umma before Šulgi 30.
together (cf., téš-bi ). dog ('dog' + 'domestic') .

ur-bar-ra: wolf ('dog' + 'outside' + nominative). ur-bi; ur5-bi: ur-gir15/gi7[KU]:

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0


.ur-maþ: lion ('carnivorous beast' + 'mighty') . debt with interest ('loan' + 'portion'). famous (one) (?) (cf. ur5-re.gúr: ur5-ra-šè: ur5.. ùsan-mar: usu-tuku: uš-bar: ñiš (cf. soul' + 'to mourn') (contrast še. to roar. to assemble a list. cf. to join' + 'bow of a ship'.. ur-ur-a.0 155 . outside the city.... a pet dog or puppy ('dog' + 'small').. strength' + 'to have') . soul' + 'to bow down. ur-mú-da: ur-sa6-ga: ur-sañ: ur-tur: hero. a type of copper. Version 3. ušbar ). careful. níñ-ur5-sa6-sa6). 'to sing' + nominative).aka: ur5-di-da: ur5. urudu-A-EN-da: us-ga: a type of priest.. uru-bar-ra: uru-kúr(-ra): (in) a foreign city ('city' + 'strange' + locative). scepter ('penis' + 'to see. watchdog (?) ('dog' + mud6. ki-tuš ). soul' + 'to do'). a pampered dog ('dog' + 'to be friendly' + nominative).. uru-šà-ga: the interior city (contrasts to uru-bar-ra)('city' + 'inside' + nominative). wagon whip (?) ('whip' + 'wagon').. soul' + 'to satisfy'.. schedule.. to be/make comfortable. show') . creditor ('debt. submit') .. to hear ('heart. thus ('it. strong copper ('copper' + 'thing' + 'to be strong' + nominative). loan' + 'to have') . ñišmá-sañ-ñá).. cf. to bow down (in grief) ('liver. lay bare (reduplicated 'to harvest') .. thus' + locative terminative e). ruler's staff. happy ('liver. uš-bar: Sumerian Lexicon.sa6: ur5. the countryside ('city' + 'outside' + nominative). to devastate. bellow ('liver. warrior ('young man' + 'first. thus shall it be indeed ('thus' + 'it is indeed') . lú-di-da )..ša4). uru-tuš: (cf.. ús-sañ: urudu-nì-kala-ga: rigging (of a ship) ('side. a strong person ('skill.ñar: ur4-ur4: ur5-da: úr. in front') . domestic servant ('debt' + 'to be born') . soul' + 'with')..ša4: ur5-šè: ur5-tud: ur5-tuku: to be mindful. ur5. outskirts of the city. ur5-e: in such manner. debtor. or plan ('servants' + locative + 'to set') .. to gasp ('liver.zé(-zé): to roam ('legs' + 'to cut continuously') . ur5 þé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: to be like that ('in such manner' + nominative + 'towards') .

piling up an earthen block or dam (cf. oil) (cf. uzu-libx[Í.. yourself. zaþ2. 'breathing' transformed by vowel harmony + 'puffing sound' + 'to mete out'. 'of' + àm.. ñišzar). za-a-kam. handle') . šìr. uzu-ì: fatty meat ('meat' + 'fat'). precious stone (in general) ('stone' + 'colorful'). 'rhythmic sound' or zi. za-ra. uz-ga: (cf.sig10/sì: d to throw/inject venom on/in. ñiš ñiš za-na: puppet.tag: za-pa-áñ: za-pa-aþ: sound. Version 3. a type of onion. harrows... é-uz-ga). ki..áña).za). UZ. uš11.. za-za-ga: marjoram or oregano (?).. Sumerian Lexicon. za-ra: pole. zipaþ ).. to handle a puppet ('puppet' + 'to touch. ('venom' + 'to apply. (cf. breath (za. lapis lazuli...dug4/du11: za-ba-lum: za-dím: za-e: na4 a variety of juniper (resin) ('kernel' + 'to give' + 'abundance') . dates..UDU]: (ñiš) mutton fat ('meat' + 'mutton fat').. clean ('precious stone') .uš-gíd-da: storehouse. bibad mušen ).dug4: to spit ('spittle' + 'to speak. granary. to become visible') . you.. possibly Allium desertorium ('kernel' + 'many' + 'to za-na: caterpillar ('monotonous repetition' + 'distinct things or selves') . make'). shiny lapis lazuli ('lapis lazuli' + 'moist'). put in') . a úš-a) ('to block' + nominative). za-gìn: za-gìn: (na4) za-gìn-duru5: za-þa: (cf.. uš-sì-ga: úš-a: unsafe foundation ('foundation' + 'to damage' + nominative).0 156 .. silo (for barley. say: it is thine ('you' + /ak/.. do. uš7. uš-ñar-ra: firm foundation ('foundation' + 'to establish' + nominative). shaft of chariots.. to lecture ('to you' + 'to speak') .. araþ4) ('foundation' + 'to be long' + nominative). 'it is' + 'to speak'). za-na.. za-þa-din. wagons... za-þa-ti: cure') . stone cutter ('[precious] stone' + 'to fashion') . cf..dug4/du11: za-za: (cf.. ùz-ga-nañ: milking goat ('goat' + 'milk' + 'drinking').TURmušen: (cf. utu-è: sunrise ('sun' + 'to rise.. lustrous.3). and doors (cf..

'black cumin')... strength. limit' + 'city'). appeal'.. zé-eb: Emesal dialect. zà[ZAG]-þi-li(-a)sar: a condiment made from a prickly plant such as wild safflower ('border.sal: wide').ús: záþ-bi: outskirts of the city ('edge.šuš: to brand. to reject. rival ('limit' + 'to equal'). sexually mature female goat kid ('female goat kid' + 'breasts') . adv. zag-munus: (cf.. Sumerian Lexicon.. zar(-re-eš). cf... zi-bí: a form of caraway seed (Akkadian loanword. to break (often with -ta-). palm frond ('to be cut.du8: to pile up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to open. to overthrow. to the bitter end. zag-gu-la. threshold ('boundary' + 'to adorn') .a lyre. seat of honor ('side. zag-è: buttress (?) ('barrier' + 'to rise'). to set aside ('edge. zà-mí: (hymn of) praise ('territory' + 'woman'). zag. beginning' + 'charm. with vowel harmony + 'to be .kéš: to endow with ('side' + 'to bind to'). bed ('limit' + 'to the'). zag-ša4: equal. to tear out. limit' + 'to touch. dùg. zag-uru: zag 5-ús: zag. a fifth (as a division) ('percentage' + 5 or other number + 'length') ...0 157 . zà-mí). launch ('edge.. zag-bar: zag-du8: zag.. zi-re: to tear up.. until disappearance ('to perish' + adverbial force suffix) . to remove. zag. cf..tag: to push away. zag-gal-la: a type of chair. Version 3. sheared' + 'an individual case of') . zag-sá[DI]. to heap up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to be zàr-tab-ba: šáþ the work of binding sheaves ('sheaf' + 'to bind' + nominative). to border on. to push off. to slip. to spread. sahlû). zé-me ñiš that is yourself (za. to stand by. from zibû. zag. (ñiš) zà-mí: musical instrument .. zag). to mark ('side' + 'to throw down'). limit' + 'to lean against'). sum.dib: to elevate over ('barrier' + 'to cross'). to spread') . shoulder' + 'great').zà: (cf. zé-eþ-tur: small pig (phonetic spelling of šáþ + 'small').. zé-er.. zag-ša4[DI]: zag-še(3). (metal) quantity left over by cutting ('percentage' + 'to pare away') . push').. zé-èm: Emesal dialect. zar(-re-eš).. 'you'. zé-na: zeþ-gaba: zi-ba-tum: an aromatic seed (?).. Akk.

move in a circle. to breathe ('breath' + bun. zi-du: a good person ('good' + 'to walk'). old men (Akk.. zi-šà-ñál: n. subtraction.. deduct' + nominative + 'to establish') . 'male'). zíd). zi-gan: rudder. to conjure ('faith' + 'to swear'). to revolt.. zíd-gú-gal: zíd-kum4[UD]-ma: zíd-milla[IŠ]: Sumerian Lexicon. faithfully ('truth' + adverbial force suffix) . zi.3/de6: to take refuge ('life' + ('into') + 'to bring'). zi. loyally. to be on good terms ('faith' + 'to restore'). chick pea flour ('flour' + 'chick pea'). zi-ik-rum: zikru II. zi-šà.. zi-dè-eš(-šè).. deducted. shake. 'to blow').(ši) zi lugal: zi-maþ: to be troubled. oar ('to rise up' + 'pestle') . expended.. zi...0 158 . sprinkle off. soul' + 'king') . sustenance ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to be available').gi4: zi.pà-da: to faithfully choose ('faithfully' + 'to choose'). fine barley flour ('flour' + 'net'). to have life ('breath' + 'to be available. revolting (reduplicated 'to tear out') . flour for the best ritual actions ('flour' + reduplicated 'to pour.. strew') .ñál: zi-ñál(-la): to grant life. a type of barley flour ('flour' + 'mortar-ground' + nominative). to rise up' + nominative). involving a water bucket hanging ñiš from a swinging beam (cf. 'utterance' and zikaru(m) and zi-ik-ru-um. zíd-bar-si: zíd-dub-dub: zíd-gu: a type of emmer wheat flour ('flour' + 'to release' + 'like a sprout').. Version 3.. zì: (cf.zi-dè-eš(2)(-šè): adv. sad... extracted. cheap type of flour ('flour' + 'mountain' or 'scorching' ?)...... to impose a levy ('to tear out. Sumerian á-lá ).. risen up ('to tear out. wise.. zi.pà(-d): (ñiš) to take an oath. to be broken ('faith' + 'to lead away [plural]'). put') . zi-ri/rí-gúm/qum: a device for moving irrigation water. worried.. living being ('breath' + 'to be available' + nominative). alive.ñar: ñiš to tell the truth ('truth' + 'to speak') . legitimate (and) lofty ('legitimate' + 'lofty'). inspiration.. divine encouragement.. rebel..dug4: zi-ga(-àm): zi-ga. oath ('breath. torn out. zikru(m) I. to place.. a coarse. adj. zi. subtracting.ñál: zi-zi-i: to provide (someone: -ši -) with life ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to place') . a reed or clay pipe or pipette (Akkadian loanword ziriiqu from zaraaqu).

zaatum flour.. zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ: a form of emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'chick pea' + 'eggs').. to thread') . (cf.. bite ('teeth' + 'to chew') . Last revised August 11..li9-li9: zú-lum(-ma): zú-lum. zú.kešda: lunch ('teeth' + 'to stand') .ur5[ÞAR]: zú.sumerian. iti zíz-a: calendar month 11 at Nippur during Ur III. zar-re-eš. (cf.. cf.. gnash') .du8: to chew. (cf. zu-þu-ul: zú.... to rock. zú. kaš- ZÍD-ŠE: (cf. to rock') . zú.. pierced (Akkadian sahlu.du 8). dabin ). to bite ('teeth' + 'to cut') . to crush with the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush') .. su(11)-lum.ra-aþ: to devour ('teeth' + 'to strike repetitively.zíd-sig15[KAL]: sig15). valuable'.zalag: zur-zur: zur-re-eš.... imñaña )..súd-súd[ŠÌTA]: to gnash the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush. 'to pass through a hole...0 159 . to oblige ('teeth' + 'to bind. acquaintance ('to know' + nominative). zíz-AN: zíz-bal: zíz-babbar: zíz. date fruit ('teeth' + 'to be satiated') ...kud/ku5: zú.mar: (cf... cleaning emmer after winnowing ('emmer wheat' + 'to pour' + nominative)... cracked barley mixed with wheat flour (?) ('flour' + 'pleasing. stab') . All Rights Reserved.. zíd-za(-tum): a type of flour.. to laugh ('teeth' + 'to glisten') . zíd-še-sa: flour from roasted barley ('flour' + 'roasted barley') Sumerian Lexicon..ra(-ra): to bite ('teeth' + usually reduplicated 'to strike. shake') . zú.gaz: zú-gub: zú. zú. Version 3. Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran.mar). (animal) nurse. zú.... shake (reduplicated 'to tend... harness') .ÞAR: zú...ur 5). 1999 Home page for the Sumerian lexicon: http://www... white emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'white')... gleam') . to show one's teeth ('teeth' + 'to shine.dé-a: zu-a: emmer wheat lost in processing ('emmer wheat' + 'to demolish').

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