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1. Engagement Activity:
Map of Tectonic Plates as shown by Earthquake, Volcano and Mountain Locations (20 MINUTES, discussion to follow) OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to infer where plate boundaries occur based on the patterns of locations of the effects from colliding plates. Students will be able to identify specific locations by using a world map. ACTIVITY: Have a large political world map hanging slightly lower then at students’ eye level. As students enter classroom, give each student a map of a region of the world, with dots where volcanoes, earthquakes or major mountain chains occur. When all students are settled, get students with volcanoes to go up and map their locations given to them with one color of pin. Then when they are finished, give students with major earthquake locations another color of pin, and get them to come up and map their locations, and etc. for the mountain chain locations. Get students to observe the map, and guess at what is being shown to them based on the locations of the major natural occurrences. Ask students what may be causing them, what can we infer. Because earthquakes, volcanoes and mountains all occur in similar locations, what is the pattern for the cause of each? THE SCIENCE BEHIND… Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Mountains occur often on the edges of tectonic plates. (HotSpots are exceptions that occur in a weakness in the earth’s crust) When the edges of the plates shift past each other, spread apart or collide, one of these land transformers occurs. The map will then demonstrate the size and general shape of each of the tectonic plates. SAFETY: -Don’t give students tacks/pins until they come up to the board, so as they are not tempted to poke other students with them, or themselves. -Place the map at a height where students can reach so they don’t need to stand on anything to reach and risk falling. MATERIALS NEEDED: large world map, three colors of map pins or dots, or erasable markers(if map is laminated), maps for each students with markings of the locations of volcanoes, earthquakes or mountain ranges.
2. Exploration Activity:
Do like the Plates Do (1 CLASS) OBJECTIVES: Students will learn by doing, how tectonic plates move, how the earth’s crust is affected by it, and what the effects from it are. Students will make diagrams to demonstrate their knowledge about how the earth’s crust is affected by movement. ACTIVITY: Students will be grouped in partners with desks pushed together, and given two balls of different colored plasticine,(or two layered sponges would also work) and a container with some jelly in it(~1 inch). Give instructions that students would be figuring out ways that tectonic plates move, and how the earth’s crust would be effectedby it. The plasticine can be smoothened out into a flat layer, and the other color likewise would be squished on top, this allows students to see the different layers(representing layers of rock). Cut the plasticine in half to show the two ‘plate edges’and place over top of jelly. Get students to then go on their own and play with the actions that the plates might react in(colliding, spreading apart, sliding over top of the other, or rubbing past each other). Get students to draw and label what they see with each action, the direction of the action(using arrows)and how the jelly underneath reacts. When students have finished, as a class, discuss the findings, and all the ways that the ‘plates’ reacted. Some guiding questions may be: Which ways could the plates move and react to each other? What did this look like? Which of the 3 natural reactions to tectonic plates and their movements(Volcanoes, Earthquakes or Mountains) may have been the consequence? How do you know this? Ask students in general, but remember students who were making correct assumptions, and call on them if the right answers are not brought up. Some expected outcomes:
THE SCIENCE BEHIND… Earthquakes are formed when the plates shift past each other, and energy is released, volcanoes occur in a spot where the earths crust is shifting or spreading apart(divergent boundaries) and magma(in this case, the jelly) is allowed at anopening in the earths crust in which to flow out of, gradually building up a volcano. As well, volcanoes may also be formed at points where plates collide(convergent boundaries), often on the bottom of the ocean(also known as sea-floor spreading) and one plate slides under the other, forming locations where magma can slide through the cracks, and again, gradually form a volcanic mountain. Mountains occur when plates again may collide, and the earths crust may either buckle, fold, or rise up over each other. SAFETY: -Students should not eat either the jelly or plasticine. -Students should have paper towels at each desk to mop up any spilt jelly so that no one slips on it. MATERIALS: shallow containers, jelly(or stirred jello, etc), plasticine in at least 2 different colors(or multilayered sponges), paper towel, paper, pencil
Hotlist: allows students to explore on their own how tectonic plates react to each other, and further information regarding volcanoes, earthquakes and mountains. (1-2 CLASSES) http://www.kn.att.com/wired/fil/pages/listeffectssa1.html OBJECTIVES: Students will learn about the relationship between the collision or sliding of plates and the occurrence and details about earthquakes, volcanoes, or mountain building . Students will independently explore take in and re-write information at their own pace. ACTIVITY: Students will log on to the Hotlist(made by myself) and explore following the provided directions(By looking through at least 2 of the links below from EACH CATEGORY, discover how tectonic plates move, and the effects that they have on the earth and the people. As you go, write down important facts about mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes that you think you may need to know...(hint hint...they may be useful in a later assignment!!) at their own pace and learn more about tectonic plates, volcanoes, earthquakes and mountains using a variety of pre-chosen
websites, videos, games etc. This is a very individual paced activity that may incorporate a variety of types of learner(visual , verbal/linguistic, etc.) and because they know that they will need the information for a later assignment, they are responsible for writing down and understand the information that they deem important. In the following activity, basic information will be gone over for clarification so that all students understand the concepts. Questions asked may be addressed individually, and based on the content within the website, and should be answered in a way that the student can infer by what they already know. THE SCIENCE BEHIND… Much of the information has been stated above, but here are some other tidbits that would be worth knowing: Volcanoes: are pressure valves that release part of the earth’s energy. When two plates move apart causing a gap, hot molten rock - called lava - rises up between them. This type of volcano occurs on the ocean floor, so it is mostly invisible. Only if the amount of magma is big enough, it rises above the surface of the ocean and an island is created. A long time ago, Iceland was formed this way. If two plates collide and one plate is forced beneath the other plate, the friction causes the first to melt and magma rises up. Only a small part of the volcanoes on earth are formed like this, but their eruptions are the most violent and dangerous ones. Sometimes volcanoes also form in the middle of the plates, in so-called hotspots. These are places that are connected to the hot mantle of the earth by channels. The Hawaiian volcanoes belong to this group. Volcanoes are fairly simple structures. They are usually fed by a large reserve of magma that collects deep underground in a cavity called a magma chamber. The magma is relatively bouyant compared to the surrounding rock, so it naturally pushes upward. When pressures are high enough and there is enough gas buildup, the magma shoots through a long shaft called the central valveand out the crater/dome of the volcano, or out through secondary shafts or ’fissures’ that lead out the sides of the volcano. Eruptions can bury villages, streams and a huge area around them. They can kill people and its animal inhabitants. Cinder Cone: the smallest and most common type of volcano. Bits of lava, cinders and ash that are hurled out of the volcano build up around the crater. It then shapes a bumpy cone-shaped volcano Shield Cone: the largest volcanoes in the world!! These have long sloping sides made from the free flowing lava. The Hawaiian Islands are made out of just the tops of the shield cones!! Composite Cone: are some of the most famous and violent types of volcano. Are made from alternating layers of cinder rock and hardened lava. Earthquakes: occur when there is a release of energy at a point inside the earth’s crust ( the focus ) which triggers the tectonic plates to scrape past each other causing a quaking of the ground. Seismic waves are then sent out and 3 main types
occur. P waves: fast moving compression waves, (move in a pattern much like a caterpillar) are the first ones to reach the surface of the earth. S waves: shear waves are slower moving, (and vibrate side to side) and can not move through water. L waves: surface waves are the slowest types of waves, and travel along the surface of the earth. Scientists gather information about the earth by measuring vibrations from earthquakes. To measure these vibrations you use a Seismograph. Most earthquakes occur on the ocean floor, and are so small that most are never felt. Epicentre: this is the point on land directly above where the earthquakes focus is. Scars can be left behind on the land where the fault(crack in earth/edge of tectonic plates) is, the quake can change direction of flow of streams, roads can crack, buildings can collapse, and many people are left homeless, injured or dead. Mountains: When two slabs of the Earth's crust smash into each other the land can be pushed upwards, forming mountains. Many of the greatest mountain ranges of the world have formed because of enormous collisions between continents. Foldinghappens when two pieces of a plate come together and push against each other. The high points of the ripples are called anticlines. The low points of the ripples are synclines. A dip slipis when two pieces of land change their vertical (up and down) position compared to each other. After the movement, one side is higher than the other side. A strike slip happens when two pieces of land move horizontally (side to side) to each other. That movement would be left or right compared to the other piece. Heights of mountains are generally given as heights above sea level. Mountains occur more often in oceans than on land; some islands are the peaks of mountains coming out of the water. About 80 per cent of our planet's fresh water originates in the mountains.
SAFETY: Make sure all students are in one area as to keep an eye on them. Follow computer lab behavioral rules. MATERIALS: computer lab with internet access, paper, pen.
Cartoon Deconstruction(1 CLASS) OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to look at cartoons shown to them, and discuss the points that the artist is trying to get across relating to tectonic plates/their effects.
Students will review content previously learned and tie it together to come up with their own ideas based on what they already know. ACTIVITY: Students will be shown various cartoons (see appendix 1) either on overheads or the smartboard/LCD projector, and through discussion point out the humour in the cartoon based on the knowledge they already have. Teacher led questioning should provoke facts that they have learned through previous activity and tie it together for a whole picture. Information as noted in previous activity should be gone over for all students to add to notes if needed. Some sample questions may be: What is the humour seen in this? What truth is there in it? What other information do we know about this topic that we learned through previous activities like our hotlist search? If the Earth's crust separates at divergent boundaries and creates new crust, why doesn't the Earth "grow" in size? What happens when two land masses meet? Are all volcanoes dangerous? What are the effects on the environment and the people in the area? What can we do to prepare for these events occurring(earthquakes/volcanoes)? (answers are included in science info)
THE SCIENCE BEHIND…
See previous, information is reviewed, and new points are made(included in previous info) MATERIALS: overhead, previous information
5. Extension Activity:
Plan of Action(1 CLASS) OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to learn how to prepare for either an earthquake/volcano eruption. Students will make a plan of action in case of earthquake/volcano eruption. ACTIVITY: students will research/use their previous knowledge about either a volcano eruption or earthquake, and design a plan of action as if they lived in a location where evacuation/readiness was expected. Students will learn more about the human effects of these natural disasters, and how to know when they may happen, and what to do when they do happen, and put it into writing or drawing. Students will then get into two common groups(volcanoes/earthquakes) and discuss what they had come up with. Within the group, the students will then come up with a scenario and plan to act out to present to the other half of the class, and a discussion afterwards will follow with students explaining why they did what they did, and students will get an idea of what to pay attention to for each natural disaster. Some questions may be regarding location (the map with pins on it would help), climate(can be easily researched), and effects of the earthquake/volcanic eruption (videos were on hotlist) may be asked, but with a few reminders and extra research, it should be a fairly quick easy activity. THE SCIENCE BEHIND… Because the students are left to create these on their own, ina variety of locations, there will be a variety of answers for this scenario. A few good plans of action will include: a survival kit located somewhere(food, water, clothes, money, etc) easy to access in a hurry, a meeting place for family in case occurs when people are in different locations, a form of transportation, a timeline for reasonable safety, a location where you can take refuge, insurance coverage, etc. MATERIALS: computer access, a large space for acting to be practiced
6. Evaluation Activity:
Newspaper Article(1-2 classes)
OBJECTIVES: Students will produce an article that shows their knowledge from the whole unit, and that they know how to apply it in a realistic way. ACTIVITY: students will make up a newspaper article based on the previous action plans they developed. They are to pretend as if they are a major volcanologist, or a seismologist, and they writing to a newspaper with a warning of a volcanic eruption/earthquake about to happen, to tell people how they can survive if only they prepare. BUT…because there has never been one in that area in a long time, no one will believe them, unless the warning is sufficiently backed up with enough information about why it is happening, and what is happening. Topics such as tectonic plates, geographical location, and otherimportant information must be described in the article. Along with the article(1-2 pages in length), ‘photographs’(drawn by students) may be provided . For Rubric, see appendix 2. MATERIALS: paper, writing/art materials, computer, printer, etc.
Research Report : Newspaper Article
Teacher Name: Ms. Martinuk Student Name: ________________________________________
Information is very organized with wellconstructed paragraphs
Information is organized with wellconstructed paragraphs.
Information is organized, but paragraphs are not well-constructed.
The information appears to be disorganized. 8)
Quality of Information
Information clearly relates to the main topic. It includes several supporting details and/or examples. The information presented covered many areas talked about it class, and suited the assignment, as well as showed own research. Diagrams and illustrations are neat, accurate and add to the reader's understanding of the topic. Student displays a great deal of thought and effort put into the assignment.
Information clearly relates to the main topic. It provides 1-2 supporting details and/or examples.
Information clearly Information has little relates to the main or nothing to do with topic. No details the main topic. and/or examples are given.
The information suited the assignment, and connected to many topics talked about in class.
The information Little information mostly connected to connected to topics the topic, with not talked about in class. many connections to previous topics in class.
Diagrams & Illustrations
Diagrams and illustrations are accurate and add to the reader's understanding of the topic. Student displays quite a bit of effort put into the assignment.
Diagrams and illustrations are neat and accurate and sometimes add to the reader's understanding of the topic. Students assignment has some effort, but more could be added not due to time constraints.
Diagrams and illustrations are not accurate OR do not add to the reader's understanding of the topic. Students assignment looks rushed with minimal effort included.
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