CLASSIIC RE.

PRIINT SIERIIES

CHRISTIANITY ,AND THE SOCIAL CRISIS

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CHRISTIANITY f\ND T E SOCIAL CRISIS

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CHRISTIANITY ND TH SOCIAL CR SIS

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tto

THE \VO:\IEN \VHO HAVE LOVED ME xrv ~tOTHER

MY SISTERS FRIDA A~ EMMA

:\IV DEAR \V JFr; P.:\ ULtNE Ai..~D

LITTLE DAUGHTERS \Vl:\'IFRE At.'1D ELIZABETH THTS BOOR

IS lOVl~GLY IKSCR BED

THY }",,/NGDOJf CO~· t: I

THY WILL Bh,' DONE ON EARTH!

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CONTENTS

""CIl

xi

CHAPTER I

TH HISTORICA 1. ROOTS OF CH RISTIA~ITY: TI-TF. HRBRP.:W PROPIIETS

Historic: J importance or the prophets. Their religion ethical and herefore social. Their morality public and not private. The r sympathy with the oppressed. The effect of their social inte st on their religious development. Later religious individu lism a triumph of faith, but not pure gain. The prophetic hop of social perfection, The « pessimism :. of the prophets. Sum ary

CHAPTER II

TilE SOCLAL AIMS OF IF,SUS

The new social interpretation of the gospel. Jesus not a. social refo mer, but a religious initiator. Significance of his relations to J 1m the Baptist. The kingdom of God his aim ~ its previou meaning; his changes in the ideal; the persistence of its s cial essence, The ethics of the new society. Christ's indi crcncc to ritual and his insistence on social morality. His eachings on wealth, His social affinities. His revolution 1)' consciousness .

CHAPTER III

HE SOCIAL IMPETUS OF PRBIJTIVE CHRISTIANITY The pro ability of a gap between Jesus and his followers. The tions of our information, The hope of the coming of vii

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viii

CO:-l'IENTS

the Lord. The revolutionary character of t e millennial hope. Th e politi ea I co n sci 0 usncs s of Ch ris ti a IlS . The soci ct y~mak. ing force of prim itivo Christia ni ty. Tile so- llorl communism at Jerusalem. The primitive churches as (atemal communities. The leaven of Christian democracy. The outcome of

the discussion 93

CHAPTER IV

\VHY HAS CHRrSTIANITY NEVER UXDF.RT KRN THR "VORK OF SOCIAL RECO:-lSTRUCTI N?

The problem stated. Impossibility (If any soc al propaganda in the first centuries. Postponement to th Lord's coming. Hostility to the Empire and its civilization. The limitations of primitive Christianity and their perpet tion. The otherworldliness of Christianity. The ascetic t ndcucy. Monasticism. Sacramcntalism, The dog-mati i ntercst, The churchliness of Christianity. Subservien e to the State. The disappearance of church 'democracy. The lack of scientific comprehension of social rlevclopmen. Results of the

discussion. The passing' of these in modern. life.

Conclusion . 143

CHAPTER V

TH£ PRE.SF .... "T CRISIS

A prelude. The industrial revolution. The l.a d and the people. \Vork and wages. The morale of the wor ers. The physical decline of the people. The wedge of inequality. The crumbling of political democracy. The tai lillg of the moral atmosphere. The undermining of the fa lily. The full or

the rise of Christian civ ilization 2 II

CHAPTER VI

THE STAKE OF THE CHlIRr.H IN TilE S CIAL MOVI!MENl' The purpose of this chapter. The Church a d its real estate.

The Church. and its income. The volunt er workers of the

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CONTENTS

lx

I'AG&

Church. The su ply and spirit of the ministry, The Church and poverty. T e Church and its human material. The hostile ethics of om mcrcialism. Christian ci viti zation and foreign missions. The Church and lhe working class.

The forward call 0 the Church , z87

CHAPTER VII

WHAT TO Do

II No thoroughfare." Social repentance and faith, Social evangelizatlon. The ulpit and the social question. The Christian conception f life and property, The creation of customs and in titutions. Stewardsh ip and owners hip, Solidarity and co nmunism. The upward movement of the \ .... orking class. S mmary of the argument. The DEW aposto-

late 343

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INTRODUCT[ON

WESTERN civilization is passing through a social r ticn unparalleled in history for scope and power. It coming was inevitable. The religious, political, and intell ctual revolutions of the past five centuries, which to ether created the modern world, necessarily had to cui inate in an economic and social revolution such as is now upon us.

B), universal consent, this social crisis is the ove shadowing problem of our generation. The industria and commercial life of the advanced nations are ill the throes of it. I n politics all issues and methods arc under oin g upheaval and re-alignment as the social moveme t advances. In the world of thought all the young and s rious minds are absorbed in the solution of the social pro lerns. Even literature and art point like compass-needles t this magnetic pole of all our thought.

The social revolution has been slow in rcachin our country. \Ve have been exempt, not because w had solved the problems, but because we had not yet confr nted them. We have now arrived, and all the charact ristic conditions of American life will henceforth comhi lC to make the social struggle here more intense than any here else. The vastness and the free sweep of our concen rated wealth on the onc side, the independence, intelli ence, moral vigor, and political power of the common pea le on

xi

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xii

I;OI)VC ON

ing

fri d and f that religion can en tous art in this Irre pr

and

wn uturc, rga lzcd Chu ch, the rc hgloll S s In b1 power i the rna ki ng of h ir] that lea and it"! the 1l1<ls.J

emoves mou n tain

less the econorni Teen lorcc d by TO

em e n r rna y prove ur-

fnre it comes t Q bi -een Christ j ;anity [I ressic g q uestions pOWCT Qf re Hgio

s of the peo pre wh

f religion I in f act, been discussed treq sen t t i pla n to a D Y thoughtful observe

earn

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I

-. fot-aottmhoooh.Df1

II I

xiii

their rrue hopes that oints of vi

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

I I

xiv

regar book.

Th stitut

3Jj one of

I~TRODUC: 10

ain, a on~t ns SO v tal g of

orlant in tb e

s which on~ mperati -el y f moral and

s e Dice: bet wee nee an th bi ue rne98 0 affirm that I have wrllt th ch ty r r all. Even done 'rang! t1 n it easy to ! y tem p tlons w l~c:h m ad ~ tbe w in th poin ts of iew in w hie to sa e their 5c11 cspcet. 1 0 far as. erring b man ju gm nt permits - ee ·ft he i s es out 0 the

JeSl1 can it is y s n. sam e s piri it j I their sin, and ngr he.uts will be qui t I come alte us will live in the w bligh ed which our Jove of us d ou r thin king on the-se g xed n cur ban k accou u t lcls (the fuhn-e and wit of t e Eternal i!; seekins I

esse

1 eleve the

turn that Ow If th s bo

rs I was past Dr an, n Ide of New York it

en k Dr: W I and used r Sf: rvice. In reef:' oth er channel s ~ but I h .. ·c

help to the plain p l w

k in so me far-off wa. ps

them down anti inc e

shall meet the 1\01 s

.xv

and to pu them pitying s irit of iJl:d in t ba t c ff9rt, o respond in the r ~ all Qur est less h, but tho e who ich Qur sin have Let

a

'om O'U r l i.~ $. some .1.wny.

a debt. For leon

ly strength of my y war k ha been ve r ceased to fcc l WCIC my lends.

case the p cssure

forces th t bear y life with bette r

e zm FDlJ'Dllm OOU

I I II I I

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I

-.~ob.lII1

I II

CH

rrv AND CRISIS

CHAPrER I

ROOTS or ClllUS 1'llOll'KlnS

lY ~ TEl: HEBREW

E S CIAL

ng start to a.pp I he m t m od~rn

ng of men o.~ho H elnre L \J rgu~ an d

Sparta and A th 5... \Vh.a..L l' h t. can we of the grc:t t CD. ta 1 stic rep ] ic of the . ho tended shce p i J dea Of" cddled in of the Scm it ic hi

rant iquatcd I be e same, It i'S al r, 5tnlgglin:g to h to feed its ch iJd

urnan! t. is always hungry for becad, from a t nrc and The wel arc cf the

~ of c strong. lh e Pe nsy Ivan la e G race i and the is 11 the s me tragic ld be hard rmd any

nd dihrnific 1;)" sue h

in w bich th prophets

e R oman plc I.Jcj rnri.a.n agitation

- an peasMts I - i in all h~tory it w undly instruc ti vc j nd abi lity I as th part .

I

e zm n FDfZ(I!Im Boou

I T I

e life ts are ore to

lig t The' are an

Ch is t nity. From ap ria ted t cRib he hi ry of tory li

y real bout

f th e Old Testam en t illu stro tiens and sidef the t hought-) if e of the Ch ri!tiln Chu reh awn hook a. nd there by L he history n( Christenea t of the Ch ris tian naThe a veragc A merkan ut "t-: ing Arthur, and abeu t the ernigra-

he Chri stian centuries c Old T cstarncn t has i vc, bu t as au thori tait h a. \"(! been pnwerfuJ it y to i nflucnce social en ha ve a tum lJted to use o 1 1:t ~"s and in stitu tions

peop will t ug-ht ~ the: -buoy

rri~§ a her J.I h toe 0 • cho 1 by God, •

o rn rlern itlons, regatdl~ss of 1M. thes a ttc p ~ ha. ~f!! lelt a tral l 01 n so a r as the h <we caught the spi rit 3. & 0 ftc rophcts and bTU t hed ~ c I r:l W ~ the i~ flucn Cr! of o the grea t ~ rm nn 1.1\ t ~ dal j ust ice. However , r:very religious man he elect minds of the eonscleusn ess of the ies at leas t, th elr life ority fOT al 1 who wish he i J wri tings arc like we shall do well to

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

I I

soors

3

heed them tan.

\V f: sha n nrm the prophets bee. u Testament, ~rod rcal makl;ts f ih proceeded f from the O! LO t he moral a.n(l

as xioeli ate bj life

d only

-.~ob.DI1

I I

Ril..ift'!!illl if1hitilll WN-II11'i(' :s«bl_

4

rund to be q ile u f moraJ ~ il wh _

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

I I I I

-.~ob.lII1

I I

THE

s

cru .. in social

'W hic:b he 10

s of incense, W God whnm lh

rll tions, w-cre wan led W-'L'S

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

I I

6

at is good; lL o jU!;rl 'i 1 and to 10 ~ kin dn

ot

- o-a.. See abo Ps.U ,,0. 6. . IS i J el'1!rnilLh 7· , ~ ~.l-

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I I

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

I I

-.~ob.lII1

I I

8

I nt'" SIT Y AS I) TRE SOCI" t, C1t IS

stripped oR • lll~ pan Dr the tr e- Chu rch a.n.d it t u~ reli.giou in I rn~[_:t1JaJ chaanels. A~:a. 1;;0 ples at OILct leaped fOfWa rd ill t nd ~ l.u:atim'Lj and received such C'J , hat in spite of terrlble hM:di st rlJllSI; r nalign~ w'h.i(; h bib:! to m .U''"CCn rdig.ion and social moralit

nt the complf"le penetrat ion. of t us mDralhr. II munr uli(:! in 1l~ b WILich fl.'l&'C" have u.citl~· !eparnud a..i s anrl Il,e domain Qr Christian lire

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou II

-.~ob.lII1

I I

0,. CH RJS'I r n.N

9

affair6 of xpedicnt or of two visers of on. The of David prophet get short es, The

into the or a. long vals that

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

-.~ob.DI1

I I

politics. gionj 11 the . cOU d ha 1ft said w ha r

to

is the lnvi be a'S whi !;h,aU he ~ Isaiah, to l hrouJ; hou tbe kingd astatiorl ; God bv

,

conceive ~idu3.ls a di~t~ r

commun i t y 3S d ifferenec 3n ! he

indi· t of view handle

a.WRy.

n mi ~ prosperit '! ~ be willing and obed

o lBIB FDfZ(I!Im Boou -.~ob.DI1

I i I I I I

THE H

ort with the s'Pf~mJ.~· is m dl: to e:p::P'"='ss indi' id ual, btlt 11:13 writ . He o"'~ that .~ righted so Is. and rare 1

rerus,e and rebel, yt 9h roUr5t' the tn! is nob y tore 'VtJf'n il ':5 'Willi rtgness to pardo n n=pentn.nf

&II not Ihe thoUghl j n t n ; .. d or 1 be

new slut to hi!. natio wrongs. W, off cr f ~tjgfl social Wrong'l_ tht: prophcl9; dcmal'l ~;!.t and ku it of rtllgl

~ in mind W.1.$ not 1 he! u !i !Jut the sociitl mor.a' [I rl Ih~ Y backed rOOr r~ act ion and disc:uS&ion-

cond ct as the sol l'uO't' ~lr wt1 kh 1 he or d L\Ch.cd pigU~ This t h~1 ~i!dL~ rani ipation in pu

W ad'lj:'ancc ano l hilt be syft"p.&t h)" among them Professor

and omega I to wam ag • The edge unger ol tl~ and laX! field wm.s! tned intQ a. '!C lic r th1m.n(SS th for a pair of to- l;oHect a "ho toOk b

$.Icp in our '!Hldy ",be

r the prophets, even 01 t aristo-

a:!. ~tirelf on the sid tssch sa)'$: "Since hctk preach inl; to in n l the oppression 'Or tbe ht'i.r Ln'l'e("! lees wlS 1 u ded a,-i!loto("racy who W a nc

D 6~ldl!! till a eeu .. uy of rd

01' ~f~ill tshues ; t a~ll· th capit.a.lissold the righl«nJ!ii f9T !. lv s," thn1stins thl!! POo

ing debt j] IlgUIl'St the " il Y el the

and bad a double ~ It d ~ of_ b.1PI'

• JI: .. u.t~I'I.ILG * luioll S", ;8 ~ ~ AIDGto ~. III

e zm n FlllJ'Dllm Boow..:.

I I I

-.

mIh~

12 en Rl::jII/I. Nln

e rich and the POOf+t reacted on the ~r lh ol ogy I so en tal D.t hi but es of he! r Go<.

widow I tile father f the or an t the p

th e ~ ranger. The widoYi and the f thcr c were had 0 cone rete ['ower (0 Lac k the rlai andal imeresi," n II pull" , . Ih ih

aklcr en o! l hal lime-he list t

who ad no part in t he bl -kin

no are in the land an rl voice I the

the v llage, His modern lhcr is

of 0'0 cities, who also ha. no sh at prod erion and no poli~ i al pow~ \Vb the pro phets conce ved J eh cater of these voiceless c. ses, it t hat i~ the chid d U I Y jn religious

righ of the hcl p lC5S.

A an IS SY)fI pat hy is t han ~ is, j~gmcnt _ One m an togiven ac:~ ion of 3. rail wa r 0 r of a slinel ve syrn pathy is alwa wit h j I

inter sts. Ij A nother roan ay 13m l Iln

sulk or hen.dlong violenc , btu he -lll d ' II on ! ating c ireumsrances and old to t hm tal

U !bc cause cf labor. II bi~ clivi . !1 0

comi g to be the reel lin of dea The i s DO qu~t ion on which !';

!JfO P ets w as e~ listed. ir II

oppr ssiun j to th e neglect of allot

I r. F. MtCuN.y, .. T{i~f.Io1')"~ :ttl·

~ invested a ootisb

e zm n FDfZ(I!Im Boow..:.

I I 1 I I I

-.~ob.lII1

I I

TIA~·n' 13

ic ial and scicnlifl t: te per of

seem 0 ctdro wn an their hip. r n eremlah In in the class are a,de irlenti al with -ick cd ~, are al most

and

zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I

14 eH

that re~olulicn racy made by which John B Tyler's rebe lli

of t3.1

of

saym ish pea. nts in

The a reat Ale pression about who j s a. prai5e 'lie decay of tl JUJ:l.lJY, tyranny I ex which Samuel ise! - k[ng."

Tbf: ownersh i in ill ~mmuni hcrtdit ilry aris A pproxirnareJy basis. for pcli~i peoples, Israel t c land. It was u i the c.onq uest it ·as

I BIIJ'hl, II D~ ~ Phil!). Ir \",rho i!5 ilA Pbilo~ \~o!. 11. 11 t SaEDttel 8. I J 8.

anyone is Mose . and th

I

and a f

ill

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

II II

The

11 t bis absen c means of p the early ti

,t e ca.d ' times of Israe Wert much

ou ~ tty • A m rica too set rlstou. y an wilh a fair Slrming pul tlen. Both lc wac here Y equipped j" on al t a tc fo demorracv

~

dri ft-cd a wa + from th 1 S

m mit. A new e v Ii ati

bile \\"Calt h. I

d-c.:d estates tI L pl rhc naHJral pn:c i pice of inc! or :!:; iekn e -

d! es grew in sl h se:-=. and sum

e, w hich th ~ th great feasts.. th wealth w run

I wa!1;. ecial e to slav

Ri

er cy of war, y Icr debt. The b IJ ilt stone Pleat and a. .veal'" at robed l cir CThon s \'II Lt h

.5 ared in the ·.ealth. The

n cq ual d LS:-

I ding Ama~

o lBI B FDlJ'Dllm Boou -. fot-aottmhoooh.Df1

I I I

icnlOcra \ i.e i ., net of the oplc angr il}

rt tyrartn y - Ii is a pop u ) fa lL.'tC)' (hat

tinu o ress ion anrl ni ry cau se Iu lion ilry i

On , C C ntrary, it is w ile the hit s new jn the Istang's,

t t it rears lungc::ii. \ r en it well-fc I and in-

de peo ple, wi resh memo i of bel ie r

u rler the yo ~ bey are ~ Egypt P'O"'e ty and e xploi or night an t e coming 0 react ron ag in injustice s ~t l ina in 5

un mo sl Y I l hough u work tng ple arc ~I ill i

th would see rad ise to t e poor ot othe ariens.

n in ttl at dIlly religicu age the

e ame of G d by his'S 0 esmen,

mp ets. Amm:j t h [I rst .of th g~al social phe t ~I

h srnan of T "He utte the m~SR • of COOl

cxpre e feelings r the agmrj a class lo

whic he longed" L~ Lin in I he con ag.n inst

lald i~g pow and Father e.C lynn

test nga Ln-s t alien arlen f (he land, \ ved the

ocracy of he Declararie uf J ndcpcn I! I:~ ilnd t nug t 0 cc more t ha nll men a re eated fl't!~ a c;q unl, ~,d re e dowed with be in :t.Iienable r ht tc life! li n Y j and the rs t of h appln s, Si rni I arty I cbamp i ons of tbc

I;K)OT y 1 I,;: preph e 1s a 5 not due to in How of n

ideal·, b E to the SU "h l of noble conceptions l

t h e "Y lu in the Jsce of the cl tstort social conrl i j n s c re ~

ared by he ~ ew erclalism. Ii!! y were e voice

of 3 intcd popul !' onscience t ade bold b ligious;

16

ted

evitable Uahed tly and

Chis in rh

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm Boow..:. -.~ob.DI1

I I I I

17

y

man r~t t good and tcmHy arc uch

c

ity, Iai t in the. iutu red fo social jusuee, of this belief in Hefor ell rt h1y p~. cltcf in I he di vl ne de nd for economic

jusuc justi .

Th f Usc ing in discus .

turn t tilt:

hot he humane ugcrl only if

t ions prevnU· La w into our

aw nd t ~iT preach ing

o obe . n, A ~cDllli ng to o y sm II part of rbe b • 80 k of Deu teronom 'I a d a itation in the st.: vent \ cent ry bel re Ch ri ~. 11 011 cr rl i cn~ or I he

Law d net ull the Exile r ahe il., hen the life 01

J 1,.Id Elh ad and d-c(;pl l ura cd it h r he teac h·

ing of Th us on l h nc l ypol ll"$iS l he La w

rep iets y po hesi tIl e prophets

In ei ther case t lat] 'ery close and

rh rougb discu socia \ ideals

w it would be ide bet WCCn

found t on 0 W ic hits whole iii proph drt

MlSo 1J the m

t hnt case I he

LElW \

. For our and the p f hi f,forical L

1 t I suffir: ic:n t to rc a deposi I of l he ed each ct her as

zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

II I I I

rH.E I", N"UY 19
ustoms
rieetal eiv HU.licD as
. ven . Iu SO fa as H gi
lions. it drops be \'II the con ption!i
90i ich have now attained. .BUl its
)ih egard for th righls of 1 e poor)
C lor t eir flcer fee ings of ~f respect
ane th tone can t studj' rh social
Law Jtbout fl tb U of symp by and
if mora intuition. bv the ins inet of
~
dcr he imp of religi failht
c ived tl Me whteh ticipated out-
meed legWati of our d ~ \VE:

v points. only.
10 Jeh !iah, the n ionaI god Tna!
~ilrin 1hat it be onged to r e com~
ividu ] property. ill clan an family
s provisions to protect t t: right
L holding to prcv t any
was sold nder stre5$ f need,
nder favor ble :cnns. In an
befon! t c introdu ion of
be most i porLant
ighcst pro em'S of
people t\ ly and
is owned }' the men who tlll
it) strength, 1f it is 0 ed by
fl lill by landl agricultur 1 labor-
pea e. All th provision of Ihi:
Law f' unt er act t c separati 0{ the
c rom t t:la ht to pre t the gr hot c.tU~ 15TlA :TrY" ~N

L c:

great estates and n J growl h of a. landl

Every !;C\-"eD yea in rotan on) and th alike, 11 kc the her ri th, in cur I o r ests. ~ 0 f cOU such liberty t D picn c. oli lies were ha rvcst j t c the O'WnCT was for . dd n l he corners or to go O'-"e th A hungry man pass ng cat of grllin or fro i r, on ancient customs

T he laborer was ~h-e importance of pro modem In bot- legist t LO fer whIch the Eigh -he

~ l..c:=di£u!I :25. • Lc:v.h al '5 :II De1a!ernnl!jlft'L

.. Dc\J,tc:ranom. ~l . ... D~u1e1"Onan ::I4~

cyon he on Lt. the other

,. 19. IJ.

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boo

I II

TfI1",: n rSTORICAl

CH ItJ'STIA Nl

~~ploi ted, the slaves, the i of hu relen . It ",,"tLS quire for the fru:p 1 f armcr to hi msel r lo rest; hcm.:c I] It! earliest form of l he Su bba in i ts wordi ng:: Lf I hal l hi thy handmaid, u nd 1 he so] non-e iilJl\.illlsLic com muni t onJy to relieve need and taken of .1 nl:i ghbo r)s n prof table, Interest was breed more he pelcss de tendency lO j ueq ua lit y j t hreugh debt Or mislort un not a pari all! but was still famiJ Y J wi tb a righ l to sh t udc wa 5 not to beceme over t he W::LS to be load st art in 'S111 fting for him protect cd. Ise ad had no ~ no record of an}' $1 a "c ri ill irs. hlslcry+~

Thus the Law. l1k~ the fests. n Mrik ing s.ympat h y I..'\gging respect for til eir the POOT was moru sncrcd In thIs r u.ndamenl!il .iii. nit u f tom the ROl'nah La W1 W -

"21

a

as. a mel n,! feasts. IIi

1 :£":~h.l1 IJ. I'. K.ilun:5dll \ 1 De:u.ICfOOOlfl.,r 1.5 I nd t;3. 1$l'he MOIIU.~.rU.I.1I 1!j ~ 1s---6.

lave Law.11 buroing sla re q

( tbe prop rer clusscs it". Th~

~

..

e zm n FDfZ(I!Im Boou

1 1 1

_. foraDltom1.noh.lII1 1 i _. ,.-1----

lIT

- of ~"'N.IUt, iln '"ermL':~ fClT p RI.:ptiOO5- Th~ -\1 P arid a. n~w restore the sb Ii l to the saddle

b a lI.!umbl.e: in

3opher- hcle mi

scheme n:rnai ed it topi I). which Law m a.n.i to d rcga. • Ol the rot nlt."$!nC' of 1 C $t ng.

teall}' df~tj whit jj rml

Dul in .nny c . lb iJll thlt nobler the pruplietic 1.:l)n'l'i

pwphe\ic p~ (bin

quiet dc-vouln

air of nation ~ 5l~rOO il1. I e pu b.istory or thc=i n:a.1 r n, bu

made them, my lQok

lhe.m and ih tum d to t

ropbets was n c)I li ... -oo in the r thc:i r 11.111 ion s, Th~ mad the h Story of Lhei r n ! ion t • Itt e r,l'Cnt$. i! lout of God to int.e ret

e zm n FDfZ(I!Im Boou I I I r I

h g God who

ad who hnd he}' learned lcmporal-Y

d or God's

c result was !;tcp low.a n.l e . .1\ meriean

C pressu re a. great wa r

(,) C y$1 llize the 100 i ngrooi en t~ l t e s me nat ional crisis whit h na gu r led the hig e r career of ~d been prop h t S i~ Israel to all 'he

ecn mainly TS Or n. y one who

ice. T lei r I!C!=.! at ie pturcs and

b On any endamen tal

lh usia sm of the uprising to 1 Lil the p ophets elear ple ments of 500\ hsaying,

e zm n DIJ'DIIm Boou

I I

other a. ion s wi th \". Th at I IOU passio

in vade ·as uaUy

oppn 0 _ of the pe The W se . es 0 f TO be ts W ch began

'as u m mOl to acu :n by a va ter da»

e P il iSl ine .!l\!' en. I'he em pi of.,\ he . aste m Dr n 1 ike fL. C. yclone he c usteJ 0 iit le kin oms in S y ia and

force ssyria 'as the f t of r.h

re de till d lO gri d tip the t 'hal nnl on nd OUt of t 0 dct ritus 0 form e

24

glom.~ t

bcgant comple

and n sar

wa-s te an

the kin during t

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I

THE HIS

O~ C[ RlSTIA

N 0\\1' I to all the at ion tioo a1 ;¥lds.... E" I)· t [i be. Eac h peopl I"t 1 L tion. If the nat i ter I t he ('COP Ie w re ell int:ffi dt!'n I and tel 0 angry~ But w ell a.

llapse of the na on ... ] uld hear the sec of i ts Th: ~ catast rc ph of lIght ether na.t;o

the noll ions tr. il held he 1I j th rca ten d Isr ] too phC"t~ saved t h fai l n f h people. The ~ even laught I e pecplc to ri~ n lh· r in of Ihci nauu al pa: t to 11

her fait h. The ligi c proJlb _ d on

nl shri nes or sac i fices me ral he y serted

at J ehovah is fu a me god of igb leo snC% und a

J or 1'!!i rael only i su f.t l wa.'i nat 10 of rig 1 teous-

s. The popula rccli a. that ir he pc! pie st ad by

hovah, he was in d u t"! 0 d tu stand by 1. h n\ ~a n s1 all ners, T h-ey ex ect en h if god 10 C t on I he il)i"i m :

y count ry t lig rc p; II 0 Fhe proph t s de ied i r.

~~y repud iated I I a. 0 rit L5m r I he d - vine

Gad tnO\i'C nd i In art lal

li(:a.1 law. A".isy . Israr], Hu

uld live and be j sr c,=

r a. pel child \b t wo ]

~ the reve lal ion Co

penalties of thll! man hovah was not a n atur ora] I::ondit ions,

nl:fnt eve Y god god t [ll'f.,~t' re the ra ry deat d d i'S· bet:

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

I I

CHIU

THY.

his~o enl talast p phets

I \ ..... re nU': ~ sions under the in s j ra ion nf l new d ut it and n w rut bs. I 0 the syru hrsis of l TIU. hei r 1n the people a lasphe 0 ~, nts which ~ )" hold

p pbe tic book bcca on

1 pular rel igion slcwl y ew ife,

\\~r: a~ often old tha. m nistcrs who nee in polhical and dal qu io ~ are H ell' lore II if ~p~ Ill!

I wer LInd fait ~f S$() Gl! At itb, .

)'5 0

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

I I I I

-.~ob.lII1

I I

That "intil>" an c p1dty {or .s l d e '0 the Ij l:ta! hy .fUld air.. of tht n

religion. 1,:;.. ry,b'lU iu theology, when the natl

ro~.rI}' no med up an in p'ow. in( i"idua

only fit:ld I 10 1 h

ry and lh~ (C m nat iQ)1aJ u

n ilJn was 11 ki

railed ~ the p 'Ward or Ie God. ond I irh Jebo~h

lll~1 r \' it! ual Ilie m_ Hi, prophetic act.i ..:ir bel ve lhat his lA"(:I 5 w<! hfo ins.i!.!.C:nt in ~r.....ai pc.1'SOI".I al CQfI muni . Tbro\lgh hi s;

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou

I I

Th~ !.alltl' l1!I!p:Iw. ~ di~idll~U;:w.

der person al rel phet and his God, tuatien, The in en tJl others tlh\t pc f his. peculiar e rn arkable capaclt pe ; w itn ess the )"Sl ici5m oJ Sain f Be f III ~ nal. ion, an! 1 he as part. of l he na on.

Vi as c ~ an the trh teems and Iowl yin t leI s:ff er ...

illX and i nt ion tretch d the lonely d f a i h to

him and Ieu ,j him near 'ilb a personal to ch f .:w..l

co rt, T~:s the lealh ugs of the nat ion I li e t M

hi rtl ~ pangs {, the ~lig LOUS life.

T is \'i aJ!i wood rf ul l um ph of rclig Lon, l he ndcst n) 'bi lit y ,f the 1 igiolJ $. im pulse. rt a .c for the f uti] re of 'U bt Jeo., l spri n gs of the ind ividual

c

piety For

re .&inti u ffcrin een I he soul of

svi r ts were in t he arne mi:t I~ '" cit n gs r"'l rod u w hi wa.~ he ou oane n!1i 'Ol1S ex

in Ii, !1 rc

s." [ A llgU:ii ine an hov h bad een i he God

s achiavcmen t b so i

gious history t har t h~ haage in re H~ion ""'"a, 'S P

in the ind ivid ual so hl:)" Siily I an u the sea Q 0\1 Id be tom down an it

that Jeremiah n d th who

t the ex1cmaJ me ns f

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm oou -"~ob.DI1

I I II I

\'(:5

nit y of rcge rl ewish natica

lity wa s Moire to re ligious '!iiynth in the! nlrl. If rh

igioo Lowarrl sonal, But hat was ~l he i udi vidual

th L is not no rrnal li.f land its healthnied [Me mea

end; t e end was ~ e siRnj a net and val

OJ dillon a.rul guaf rel "on was chiefly Vc (on a.pp.reciAt

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm OOU

I I I

THE SOC! A CRlSIS

prop e s, it is i dcec + The d·

e descri when re t

ei at ... ! cnons i U persia ;

prov d for the j st disrri po,j t l comma 'calth all the mory of hope 0 them w the

ognite r s Joss a ns is Uk b)T the S Euk f lhc s.!

He t

"nc'l nat son pro~ n.ti )i$ gnin h ~ in\:'ol ved 'on develo

almorm al, 1"11 is vi" ~'" s conseq uen t e elep men f 0 n:: ligi OIl'S tough t , w Jl0 li I.' d urih,R th Exilel she ~ th e

t !nf: pol i~o\.l anrl re ·gioU'!Ii

es r he n III i al hope. t the

J eru salem as he itt. The ld so-

re to l the

sins man ag

Eu e dwelt 0

priest:!. as thei r nd. A~ a on-scad changed His of j ustlee rn ue h as a P re phets h I condell1~

st man, I ciaUy injust and 0l'P !;~on~

the $10 s f!'li an agai n t God, csp ci 3.11 Y

tice bl.l r (InCM. had come the mda-

I. and h 1 ·h ieAy cere ial

righteou rrned in to hol y

as a pro h by calling, ut he was a l'~ric$l gJ .and i rnpal:'ing: 11 !; Hte rary at} e, his d his spi ~t at power wi h lhat of t older

~i ble J -eid a sense 01 tt1igi~ deca-

ical a.g( W past. R ligion had.

eking hav wjog dim ) 10 rless.

I"S and th

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou •

THI!:. HISTO

hen it w.a.t r -crl Uat:'k fro

nterests into ecelesi as t i

i m pression d CPCIl~ 3.$ we f Puritans who returned 10 th

the dty mid poverty j) d fea r, 'Ve hereafter to poin lout ho\ ~ntim;uc1y t 11 nncct cd with 1 he S~C!j lar li ~ in whjch it

·u~t to expect th.at the rdigi u:s lire which - n tracte l eire i that gathcrc a bou t the reb

ah wou1d ha . th t,;: same b ori ginif lity

'pL lhrough a hopeful and a ronomous na i

LU"l wis..c lO h ld f ha t ly pe f religion It p

cvclopmen t rei igion,

- an earnest, solid commu pic ed

. men, wi I h a ,n:::. t Ilfeponrl 11 nee of pries Th re

rvellous (OUI e and u::n;,ui I, h(;rrojc 10)'1 l . to c nof personal l c l 'i r;:nd a d t of Detter l L es, B tit on a pall irl t:om p ,"\ ion, Il bee

onctoncus, a bing by it self I hut off from

d naturalne of the gene 1 1if~. The

hI!! prophetic · died out-

where the p phet had st pluce of th Ii ~'in~ Voice,

. ten e on he H ne~"'j. t an e ... cr, but t t"On,:ep! ion

1 -bly been wcred. The rephct s had

of rtllgi al plane, T

ca gredient wa never agai r.t 1 t from J ewis

I th . ceremonial in red len t bt"g.i!:n tc m r x with i ope ons. and to b come almost he chief CQ

~tt ng reHw n, n lar r tuent of

e zm n DIJ'DIIm Boou II

-. foraottmhoooh.lII1

I I I

"n1l::_P1"QJlI!.a!~~ h~ .-.f P1& I "" 0.1 ,pt!rEeCIIIm..

Icr i ~ ra. ion. was culti ~·a!~l ~ d ",h 1)1t! h po! r. ics, b ~ devot

ship and to chu aU" al .

our pe1SOT1 If strenc.tll ChristUke c Imospherc f

! fLlO\"eJnCnt rawing Q cO" 'p~lO"D of II I~· _ It tAk-e$

t hI!: _ ulI.Jt2.!ft Qf

T !l" propbet5 l.lll·r~

an approxl condition u t he earl lest k_ kdigjo viet rious over it peri r under jU'5ot bo "'a_.., d lIC' t

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boow..:.

I I I

THE H LS1'UJt CAL.ll 1 U j\" CilKIS 11 A~I Y 33

1 d!,; ",'do pme nt I,) I hc n t i 0 a nrl of its proph tic ukesurnish .. -d a high st: ndard by which 0 .. 'asure I: resent. As Ion h t a perfect hum" 1 ion wi II con~i st

he i ntcnscr the

.----._-

find a readv m

~

ator:r program cit

r..: It ~h.!I ii~ jun i ut ct. rtiully in rhe

• ha '"00 a li!'lt 01 i at ill eals do

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I

34

e crlsis ienal force.

e of a. gs of Thhi t, the

f rom present [ in~ it" the air. Jl was wit

were p.Ltn on the ac:l1J al poetic j m ery used by th a fa Ln bow round thei r id ~ I!l al th dealt wi ~h ste y had 3. C ea r-eyed outloo Th )r were rei' lous men and as to orne eJtcep chro'Ugh IS God

re nenlion G d would have lO

Th Y pi etu red is in t erference

l advent, od coming to

der and real ing his maj H d '! of J eho.. n 'would be I h ina guration of B. n!w epoch of . or' _ lL

un t hI.: fordgn op pressor I puni f for t he

Sifl ng of I srae j the resc ue of t lay the golden , in \\-hich aU bi'S will, and t 'Sufi' er ing of l h Th S dtL}! of J hevah was tot re\ U lion is t mod ~TTI radical

C e S of fcl;"\'l,: t religicus fail h i

mQ < just ice r ther than «on c c by divine help and nut by

~ hell t h~ life the nation wit fi:;.t 0 [ an alien 0 wer and the a Is was 10 tTl [rom 3lS control, underwen a. gf ru.J u al chan g ever ind i vi ualist it:" religion collect i ... c pe us 1 be leal Th n:sLor.a,t io of the rem pie .. r

3S Th~

q~'t nf foreign rganized lhought,

nrces the at cnuld be

L bell -M in its r ar alyptici of Y tal ion-c.

T t.e •• JIi!S" liTrlllRJ. J. I:Irl'hto plQpllH ....

ch as an impoverish a ished ~'rJi'OILl!. and l JI itOT'S antI r.nlrst' the

a . ~in the old pn~

. tical whdom if! a. ~gn pOlitlciU refuge:

T amed i nLr,;:~y of th· h Y' ha \"t'! lalii:l} plann Lint of changes slni:

orical and ilnifkht1 '!

~ g.4. 00 p'-"!i'ii.mj~ti{". ,j h H cbre wr prophets, 1.11 (JI[ c hc!."l"fu 1 and [,:go fI. avor 01 the Hebrew tI ious laith, ~·bi1r.: OU I had thi.: :,.trung~1

I: ould :!'tm:ly ~c hi!!i

·t his dwell in:;- plare • the saeri r:tt:C'!i whk h

r is si gni6c:ant t hill e bel and interruptrn ; h the faU 01 IhE'" ~

a j.ar:ri n n te, cryl and I ~"e' ile of j 'I

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

I I I I

37

was s11.1 n ing, L scou rngc this pi ete des rue-

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

I II I

U~ SOCI.-\L

and the ne we should pr our cuun tr y ~ - bleedi f inv~ion!;.j s en by in e 31 blows too po ·cr1 ul (or u 10 Pr<!.nc he r she ld II weak n I'll :!I.UC h a rncssa ? The ... d

mU::;l not ~"'Ii us the i ruption of th t lluy WI.'

.I1ccuJalc cern ,.ari~t)r.Ii:i urn n m)sct)'1

- '\ .. ~h h the mer

IX], ned in an $ 0 ght to see cig t cen t uries ont in eonstan not the p.r aimed to

rh tli sastro n arch y! ter rcn, an(l i - c con fid en

ro the idola-

hCls~j c logisNuf ~~--~------~~""'~~ve lhe

things a::l. to shukc t

on ic ~idt' of t s re II y bill" k,

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

III I

39

TnE HISTO leA ROOTS

pored rt rand

a u se hist ry eked

iblc and

posed C! J f!rnmi d a. new of the

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

II I I

40

CH.lUSTIAN

opposi 1 more i fl Their t

e were Lhe men of th i~. They pro~ n bly h.

Inti r 0 ..... 1\ generat i ught dangerous auac k - y ,n ill Wilrs stud yo wit

. t vesred in teres t~ ln

rncd up th ry hy sayi own roo I ry and In 1 . ch beilds

theism 0

JUdM of thl!!!

c triumph "ho did not

In v n irl nor \ lu~ m.o;l: 1 VI:

I was ach ieved [or the l j and who insens lbl ," The ethical moo

years l c ~~'\t pa rtie

which 'did their

benefic:

The ~ I r "tical men l'

f~l!!li ng t \ ihcy arc

lorms

ir Wll~' whctber it wi

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

I I

OD the w y to [usti eo

igious b isltu t

c-y were 1 nlf" tion ; I he erea

ical and l~l ' r..onaJiry aud -each D still kind I-c

ure

g J

:relig \LS en huslasm. u d' ·iu1;"!), iven and 1 t hel hy t'h Cilpl a;n. -we "almO!t in i

tempruous, a out , bu! tumed witn usness M. the t U~ d tmsl Jie: if tke Ih' \Vi;; have seen t 1 l ir rel Ziou!o onccm 'R' prL""'''l' tel~g' And mor(L itYI bu dtBlt pr

c :trxiOLJ. and pc ~tjC':il1 life 0 tnt,ir at ion" \~ range- to-day We )Iayc: seen that their

I. rmicl)" 'III"iLh th ('lOCI 1nd lid t~y plat; the c!1i<:f

give t hejr m r ra Lon t

We hi!. .... co seen nl ht.y

phets of oth r ;na ions

l iunal afitLi:r!:. d t at d 1'\ wen:: int irn

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm oou -"~ob.DI1

I I I I I

tM religio of t e He ndanger the ligio of C ha ~ 5f'C1.I 1 at tll

is mosl

have seen historka.l in ight lypt ic dream a TId

ba \'l!: seen t optimism and gill'!;'!! W r lived amon ~ would th~y N true prephe erisrns of lan

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou I

4.3

he must rove his case f! burden. of

A~' w to follow \I t.ht subjrct. I

~~·ble and n30re dtJ Ght iul • hlln the ible ' OJ)'~ The Boo Dr tIle T",,'c:I~

h j. es cillI)' the ~ uctory chap-

I'h.a.t the Old Te iii I t'.DC bas 1nevtJ' d fh fOU:GOing di m!i&ian l<i.)'!. no st ud.ent 'W:iJ1 ot ice iDa ccuracntIJS., the .illerence 1'5: not ! to JI15 general

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou I

QY ]l:SC$l

A

e 'fOOd.!I in sprin nd • hrobhi 'With th~ p.1S~. or liu I~ -"'ooin;;, I it paren t ptide! and , le dad]),

nut the never not.iced tha he was

.. " g io.r

in~ L hn:mgh ' !-I n.~ls !:Ir a cil y t:a! th iIlnd n;l luna 1 well-leing. n • h curM.! Cln~ iii. cl crying, lk m

younG. mot 'With her child

!child, Hut

of seciet f, a 0S1 in H ut: ... tiiil te r,c !,:m bod ifl1en t Q never had 4 ch

cstame ..... t, He f in~ Qr J Q hn t hi.: fI J{"~U:o!i .... '1'I-t[,: red

'F :£II~ .a.fC' uutc- ill h"lni:.c t I',I!I Ihe Itlbj~~t (I[ t ~ dllL~ ~ "]~

C-~ r'T"'IIC~1- c. Pr.I~iIo;l:, d llllf"" $~r ""jltl..:~ oQf \ ;ltllitlk 1111- ~ Itcatmc I

JC I !ot.i."" ,

o [)I [) FDlJ'Dllm I!oou -. fot-aottmhoooh.Df1

I I I I

l' HE s.OCI AL A

no rcvoiu Lionary no movcnu:n t h::..d no\. u re w bun he re ite

4S

in t he Book of Revel 1 reached him. Jesus ell: It He that hath ea

Lo

in\ hear. I. n t he Bibh~ WM1 W~ "e been taught to see p UI great SC I So of [ac~~ rem cu r field oJ vi~or... et lcr th ings into I he Bi ble . hie h arc not there. D Ii dl A~ e 'S men \ hought t 1" saw t bel r abstruse sc so hy and theology ami r he simplic it y 0 i the SOd jn lh e e P istles th priest 5 and blshe ps

ew with robe and lom. rei Ii\' ing a cell bate life and l e pope. \Vhf:n the Revival of Learning all books \''''It h li te y apprcciat ion and h j

n y th ing~ di !;app~n from I he lli ble lor ew I htng5 ap pcared. A new language was a ihle t.egan to speak hal language. I f the

[ivi ng power be f the Reformatfen, it

t he Bible was eb a ed 1.1 P aad for bidd en I jut beca uSC their mi s were: cha jnl!d by pr

Sj and when t hey ~ lhey f. iled to read.

lu-da y in Lh e m ~st I. revolu tionary epoch

3.$ lhal of the Ren sancc and Reform at 10 lat ion of nat u re and 0

hI.: 1 pet! to create the d 10 see a panorama. of

riots, we now ~f:e the sr

lb.ist°ry. secial reinterpretation. The

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou II

¢ CH

sraries of the p art: rea, 1 i~ the seetin tel:t!. and ill.lh.l:ii ~bra$or 'h rough ~'i'b ~ch

process, The n wb

ripe age aDd the r lines

~ p . mhj~~ !:.OC:i:-i1 Ii{ ,~ w T~!So\itTflmr .. I

CC'; now they

s 1 l.andKapc. B c.ommenta dl:!t st were r.~ed b foUow the • rOlin

q 1JI:"5Lions lnat IO.biiUl."S~ Ii K!' 0 1 D \ . roament 01 weal

mo~'ern~n t awo era rt i!ind deal predeeessors. I ninkc r~1 1 ive in !;;tj:tcnr .l.rt: slmI,. to see religion i!:. ~ st 0nWy $O:1~i3:s1.iC.lI jn_~ il 'Utlon in a. hu "'1. If will t e :!OOi:i .... comprehe Mn af rel

The Fi.n.t !'.(. Ii Uc I' e f K a.rl "H"as,e_ Ch istians

IIlfi.ivid u:all-s.l itin tbeological ts monopoly can

arI ~ splendid A:g in:.t It

unhum.:J.fL. "ly. :a:Cf :it

tail. hi~ f.igUl'C' eomi begun U:I • ;aIle 1Q UQj as beuer W(: k DOW J~iUS:, aim.. beeeme,

ri!J WIl-S writ wa~~iD n ver u t1iderti!.ken 'I, .. ironrne.n r a.nd QDl rhem to bt

one or his pictu round of p;old ~ .i. h :r:n M}' LID« r the past to his Galilean f ...

e zm n FlllJ'Dllm I!oou I II

. tn:, OClAL ""IlLS

:swinginG t ponenl or t

47

without II ny would be nd uri r..g joy I wa rd thing. . Universe universal

e zm n DIJ'DIIm I!oou

II I

-.~ob.lII1

I I I

SOCIA C

h· ques

men 1ic.~ t

~piri\ual est l.K!ing realized (

inward render to in concent flo\\'"Cd out

No com

here w ~ nu uld eq u 1 that. ut t hal edem pt i

f J E!SUS is even pp d that t he hear or

religion. ~ 0 mall i ~ follow of J CSl

who has n t Ihrough im cnt d into God- BUl On the eth r hand

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boo -.~ob.DI1

I I I I I I I

e:cte:nt

J tIC WB. I Wat h him ti In k~ rtli .

tist. All uccepted ma1e his Ht: I~id • :u'Id Q..$-.

., iolt-ml y i It mar in ehn tber I!t'S- lle

K 1 0 'Il.tiJK" ubstancc p,.ophcli pies rl:\!Ot

his mesden'i;Lnd ~ And k

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

II I

n i. Jt:llI.til:llll Il:ln~~"". pot.ll:l'}' ml!l\'rlll!lrQl[ ....

nant. asked for de! .. Is. \Vhal must \\-"e do? j j

him share with hi I )~{ hiln do li.kewi ~'! The

pre pil II: ). f essi nic era. and 10 esc iJ,. lh e wra

~r ~a as 0 instit u e a bret herl y hfc and to e ual L 5.. I J elm thus conceived of t h pr per e I "ani salvation, how did

~-I~ia i j self f Luk e records ~I is ad

C lasses me: t the l -gsthe re ts and I he

gat hc:r ~ . had sed th , r legal POW! rs f o.r

~ hci r r c t h thl; excess extorted from

sold ic.r::s l hci phy~ical (0 ree fOf l

50 taught teachi ritual

ul of

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

I I

SOCIAL AIUS

Sf

1 ime coming,

I I..uh .,. m-q,

sti uecd a cl "m kingdom on

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

I I I

52

i! was !U _j\ccord g an end b ca u arriag~ s I i was be use He ver Inc peo le a.nd lsi n under h i~ j n,pu

at ib Ic. J osephu

out J n 3 and is book

iln eihi qlJife<i . work nf Herod A to Joseph of John lutlonary are not i informati more wei ht

audience nd silence ttl rev

Now J !f1J' work, It WM lJroughl J sus John IS ba tis re pen tan

Jordan p

come nig drew hj~ Juhn. \:

l'i sen fro cc

between slJnuy t

M."lUbe'W 14· 3-5.

J otephu II A:nliq..,.tie" I [. • 2.

~ft!I,n~ "l..H I:: of J-=5 'M;n,U~-=w 1 r. ] 6-11} ,

o lBI B FDfZ(I!Im I!oou _. fot-aottmhoooh.Df1

I 1 I I I

5.1 se S lO uen}' his t hal h i~ own b~ginnin 0 hi s min i!iuy j

John, n the main he

op.;:. Hi ai 100: was the

s

Al~S

H e he champi d vine mi ssion, ndamental p rp wholly di crgc t f s ared J ohn "s al ie 1 a aliution of MOTCQ\~r~ i jo ning

ds with 1 he en I classerl J oh . [. kc them he isre

i e 'I uot al inn~. jll clcmcnLS

o rcligio!l and in~' t crl l sern b ~ ~id ~n

W rh t he poor nd ppr . A. A mas aL miah Iore-

\\!' the confl L cC t he if ple i l h t he ~y ians and I he

e nldean$. so csu I 0 ~ 'b i~ It lOWa rd tlle

n nic~ wi th orne an 1 i e the he fore ) d isaster 1 the

t. loft be t(..'11\ le a d of h holy it y, Th l rophe lic type o rei igion w hi h w hn lied ~t {ort h in the pre'J io us

r apterl and hid (0 ci led t e chief ll iO\If!;. berhage

o his nation, I d l id h d on J~~ s nnd he h. laid hold of it and h arl a P]I Ol'T L ted :0) ~Cl'I t i !;]J1 nt, 1'Jl 1 he poise anrl

lm nf his m L d an n . r j and in the lov · his. heart j he

w "in fin i u:l y a vc .:) , ~ R r the 1!!lC3....-s of an proJ'h~

e . was 1IliU on of I p ets, 0. d thlu laor • n!crc..lj,l in the

n tiol'\l\l ~nd cial , i h h ad been i nse a IJlc from the

r Jjgion of t be m 'pan J b is Ii r t o. The: pre:.

s m prion is t I at ared he [und a e tal feli'1ious.

p IrJ,KY.,.~ of r he pro et 50 f any one asset ~ al he aban-

d d lhe eolle live hop al d ga, his r.,W1 01 ly 10 religious

I Man. JJ. .J"~ ~_ 'T"h!:i *~pi:'ri!' .. "i l ;'J ... ..Ji.:5;I;..~ (; .. .,.. hi. h "'

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oow.:.

I I

ism ~ he will hi W.l 10 ru

us d L511. '0 I ne rei igi

'e h.a ve - ust sir!. ndln lh.e lHt:

C'U"'i an j riaror, indz lh ill d not

rnLo* e-day. An,! one Ii b.'"d h

~-

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

I I I

-.~ob.lII1

I I

SOCIA AlitS OF ]QU:!II

55

. m ply mean!'; being saved and ns the rniUcnn i u rn. For r othct.i ~ ~ the i n\'isible can the bid den life with God. he se so in w h lch J CiUS and his est omplet ely passed out of ChT :;.li an it y passed from the

spi ri l al home wil hin I he great hi'S\ Or ca t basis for l he idea. W:l5

was taken along, just as an r wil him; but the water [rom rated and ir was no \1/ used to Ep us or from rhe NHe and no such nation al rei i~ j 1) ained in Jew ish thought; sely i terested in ! he f U tIl rc life

be tic triumph ever f!eMl had been I he cent re of

n sion of his n,ea.ning rernna n ~ S oJ it per'Sisted a nk concept ion of the

day has mad e the r.nt1 Iunda men tal tho tlgN of

\l it, but the resu trs of this

m pIe! d. There a re a hundred. of a u re and consistent inter-

be S.;: table 0 a 11 jnve~lig':'IOP.;. The

J l he pur 1 e or hi ~ book will nor permit.

o he con I ~han h.a vc to set

e lin I) FDlJ'Dllm I!oou I

dnw '00" n

~

th~ r iffindti

\V 53w in p~op [(10k hnri

SOCIA', c It] IS

ou.:~ional r-cfcnm CI! tn

al Ibe hope )f l he J ewi~ course of it history .1 It outlook a~ the polilLcal

I became inti lvid Ui,t

heah 1.

un t even ts,

lr pofidcal a toncm), and unde rl"lood Y'! the d illerBeta U sc t is hope w3...~ \i nc~ ~ vtt:r man c.oulr1 which a ppe ed to him. ion of I he em an power

on crs, and i s ha led ~ym· If: obedien to t he Ln w states weI~ cast out and

r own. An some q uiet I flow 01 gra e from God

t e hymn or charins ~x·

el ~f M OU 1 nf th b and 01 our M r, in ho [in 55 and righ rBut even in this spirit unJ O~ al enemi wns a <.:on· \Vh.t, tever as ect an t man I and col Icc ivn idea. 11 to ourwnrd

.~n c rmpreh

selc and

S.I though

l!'i. dC-iii Olhl:

ditio or 11 11.0 life Je rh e mpl asleed, invol ed the

ian;t opt: in. ! .N

lQ ttlll: ~111'1: ...,.r "Ut. C l'I"r~ ." I jllj:l

"tL b 1·74 ,5.

il~r :lh.t:hI!ll'l."Sj, J l;:'Wi!5h t'.wpiA!'

zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boo

II I

indcpclldent.:tj securi yo d powc , such a~ it h

Da \:'ldic k inW'. II ·01 'Cti I h

and ha p pi ness (or and for wh [ch the c that religious pu riry

always fa llcn short. degree, sue h AS G bestow.

wha t lbC!}' mean t by be did not mean II but merely an inre hope of get ting to b whjch all the collec Ii· not oflJy a. mislead [ n the politi cal hopes 0 'Su$pi.cion of [he goy

Unless we ba ve de ~ hilLt in l he nlain l he \\

57

I ro!pcrity} ts ta.llcdt t in vol ved ation had an ideal

term. til; hope, with the

t .a... ... e it was t unlettered

1St :l$$umc irn and to 51 v modi-

~

i.~ in fact ind: the terms art! ned. with

he ronhopc and

it~, but they aJ? nf:W quaJiric So In th

!;C Loll~l!,' opposed so

SOUghl to rna xt" it 1 :t".

For one ~hing be ~ 0 lri have h hing 1

and violfoncc. '\1], fir c rol,\-·-tl~ I ha l

loodsht;'d ir u,'ay to

e zn n FDlJ'Dllm Boo

I I I

-. fot-aottmhoooh.lII1

I II

1M CIUSIS

the

to make him in~ and em by scndi h is int J and himscl f Qing up rla rkness d l!:p.: the ic fortc~n.:vQl \J km was ron teil at the 0 ts.et and lad IS lcingrlom r ugi"ng d , \Vit h ahe glorinu$ w away the S erd and wrong with h ml out-

only hu a violence ~ he c n put the co rn n hove t.:J: pet' rl from o 'S\l rumen rh t wel ve legions f a.ngel! eil her o su VL: his if r lO set up th k ingc.lom b}' ~ ying l he;

~~tck J 01 n II e II p t jlt had etcd the act.l vi y of t be

lff:~ h LO cp;i "h the ju . t. The in.it ess tree

would be hc\ n d w ; the chaff ld be ~' ineowed O'U t and

bu ; and 1 h e s barely t m tn C:ltaJJC! th L~ J CJi;u!li

Iel t n ca: 11 to t ha r of i.lessial sh . He reversed \ be pro--

e : the jurl t t he end and tH a l the

begin ing, e ear, and the the lull

corn i the e· r, a e harvest. 0 I)' 3t the

end t ld t c' c nly when tbe n t got '0

shore would rat ed from th useless

c e /iH.ai! or l he j dgmen t

tance j th 0 'j task call ing fo present seed.'

• M I!Iilth w H." ;: J .

t ;\IIU w 4. 5- Q:.

, )la-ttl. J, ,0- ~:J.

ioU be:\I." ~:I : al iCI 'M" ~ - ,6--:t9.

e lin I) FDlJ'Dllm I!oou II

S9
The i f'. The
f thquake.
r, '4l\'hh
there it
is !" I become
ca(a. .. nrQ polklcal
self-bel ed down
hf:!pl ., it had lo
believe elation to
J esus re-
vened . that the
tuture
they w
bring t i\.i own l.!.Ilr1b.

Ja\\' of Own da purable the lenv displ by a sa CQDCf"pl

f [ n!Sllll~

• t scien t 1 f)c lU to the

e of that ·hkh our/_ lv, Hi~

,

eed.and 'eking 10

ry ... bo u l \11 e (on~j 1 h d emanderl n

o lBI FDlJ'Dllm I!oou -.~ob.DI1

I I I I I

60 en 5T AlIr." ITY A~U

nm Got is now

B cause J sod ty, he P bUI an Hfe b bim If emb dOl ur Godof I c right 1 o a eng men gill and bro gh it to the potn len humnn tissu

ca ated a n thaf B;+ JiV! pre. fait si rni nt ion we sod I 0 tgat'l i ~ta. I ioshed it like inded

· -ery it whie he f the ingFa-the r and f a h nan

n5I::IO ina in heir they g ned

of

red in this xcmpl i rawork nd

id unl istic g soclal to be i

rlt" "y would ha ve to I ~:t4"llthl!'W [. J.

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oow....

I I I I

€'Ilost 3 th west to !!;j l OW wi son\ oi the ingdom, 1M J~w \'II

it, \\"'OIJ i be cast OU1+1 a L N a teth that the gn ~earh Ph ieian and leper+a ,Vh n one lepe poi t 001. that l

h \\IM.~ed lO h Id u

I hope- n r

lore univ that il J

ti m.: co 1" ng by yin J es u :,; ., C1 :1 Ger..t i1 ~ we f [1 awa anrl he ly

and spi il ual ca pac I ha '\'C ot found so med ia te y rna k~ TO n who sh II come r 10

alien, into J ·s new di idin these ho 0 c~d' .

But

the)T C npproa C risl I I!:SU:\ as religi

I).{ ~'I.If s. 10""1 '3'_

I Lu 4. ~J~ 30·

l Lu 1"/. 1 [-19.

• L\lk r~ :1'5-3;' ~ O"'~I:n lOS 3- 18..

e zm FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

I I I

-.~ob.lII1

I I

6'11 t.:a

prcroga t i vcs J dom of God manilY. Thi

Anolber SU

of the kingd ('_h.angc~. If l h forCA; nor on or~n ic prot Slroctinn, but

COY;r.!!C ~ was j t e alread r prese t.

This is r he the kiD~dom logic: all all in 1 cataSA: rophe ? f Dr both view her that t be: repeoricn they were r him.s~ If the f m~agll!! 01' stu mind 10 anot s.a.mt.: man. flows i" n to n, tion of any 51,3 h a.bh~ t hilt the Jesus insensi And j( lhal l\.'1'J1,!.1 ~ so 'll

was 01 depe phes, bu I [Qui wa not d pendent rl: .. on g f m m nn t w Ii e as it ·.ent ala

al dy Its

re

ing esc atoby a hen cnJy ere is rna. rial ere: to re e: rn-

down by oral fore r fQf

of veraci v j a es from one l nfren b t.he resupposi ion'S c dh·jne p t js wholly robof

be

ist bis

·lU

rn and I he final ConSIl the hot Lest part of the thing c runing in eon t

mod .. fica l iOJ'l sat his he direction 0 r Lhc c of the J t!wi sh h01)C ly did n o~ 'iUcc: the form most r , he f ervid imp tested by the w at urc among C h . stian . lh c Church spi ypl ielsm O\'C'r when we read is. !3yi be on the wa tc .a.grun ike t be old pr hets, creator crt he ki gdo e ... +ol U! ion. 1 t l~ one lie

of its sp iritua and

pi ri t ual fortes t moul act of conSUt mario m f 3Cb and J roees L to his mind, It w lh ~ Barf i~t 10 asse ttl' a

~t he re _ It w a v

<ly l hat it was lJal] y

eon w il h l he h,: cseo] ady here, righ I n r he

I~

3110 of t be kingdom. a.i h of lhe prh hi ... e Chu i th t wou Id run fi u id. Bu~ u tion would 1l be likely r he

fOp C' hope That w the

d rc hrist l uciu . .'d it; h ·c ninA hi ~ d i!:!i ip l~ f rom t cr er mi.n s ; it ehim 1 c e H est da 's; its pre\:'

1 f the J '",i!ih apot: . ptic

t is. hus e xc cd i.n giy pro or I ie ] urid 00101.5 of j t C"O cc:rH i Q '5 of its ~{

te-d y, we USl aUow 10

i wns no! to e set up by anhe a ioms. 0 religicus fit r ) to

lic.... ina. 1Vl ne ~on~u

n re h . beli ~t,: din I he SU

cede in im

TO\'V mor-e I\crc, (:. an(

art r relig] us fatt h for

In ~-dc~i \1: .. n goo

cr ad f fai,b lor the rs ere ~"\nni l tome he said I I

st f you. J Anyon

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oow..:.

I I

-.~ob.lII1

I I

64 C IllST1 A.~UT r
n!!V tbe d ireet ion of )~ramc a$ a
ent imo it I Anyone h l love lO G
ore l an the who! :$.l('riEi c. l
ingdo The he ling p<>''i r
f that a str ger one
was Sl13p 'ng him 0 ~ proptrtYj
kin n.lreDdy M.! upcm t ;II 'Thu:-; the
sen :lnKing to e presen ense undc r the
of ith i1 in:;.ight in spirhu l Te3Iiti~. r lh
pel nd ~p tle of Joh we ha. e a con firmat n
<llion f the f\.llU r~l".I~ in 0 the prusent cl;·
;,tntir JiM i~ alre here; l e . udgmc.nl l:oi icdy
01 the res
LVTd 11 thu Svno ists is re . ed ill John y
~
abou the imrned ate ceml g of the Com nc.
is our inte lrctation the situa t i
prophets 1:1.. 1ikt a I his spi ri l ua 1 'Jr' n
1~m.C,'n) li ved in the hope or rcu t t ransfo mat
tional, social, and ligiou$ li ¢ about him. He
bit.)n 01 th..at ho W1Lh h ~ pte. but
I and his. of tier fai h he eleva ted
mmon hope He re nU violent
erred the i" evuable
f mind a
~lpo the divine r tas
ur ihe emph lSIS
t: t
i)fi!lU~ I - ~8"
:I • i Jeb.o ~ t . J~hn _l. 1 9-'""l1g. e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou I I

-.~ob.lII1

II

E SOCI \ T. A IllS 0 J:r..strS

t nlns onna ion f si ngJc e f res of jnfi uence nude. c J!!: ish hu b came a human h \:'e r;':J, :li.cor. T cold int n I ga%C in 0 • he f ut u 10 fai h in rese 1 realitie a d begLn Ln~ I and here

Lu

or with lis j c llec ual, jsical, l,: trary 10 r ilh ln r llev L ha he ver stc

d Y has og LJgg~g,t.~d sa ~J it st ill rem j So still collect i v . It 1£ n

Bm} 0, clogy; h

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm I!oou -.~ob.DI1

I I I I

nev forgot g ~sariOU5 WillS to his at ion '\'hen d im in t e ea 1y Ga.Ji~

~ powe r f his spirit he to 0 he him nnd he least pl~ LHlity of guHt l at 1 ~ people rely g thr ugh the hYI k OWL aU the i:; real nn, X 0 one

unless he h s -"ked u the-

66

ual a part froln human narure of man. His they Hocked abou l hi lean days, it looked .as i b

wcu W s;wing the Dati 1

wa:,:= happy. There m t hi. t in his mind, for f atled to yield to him-

mot ions of §'um mon in whilt that such a thin will understand t he l if h im~lf t he tll.l~,:"iliuhl pea pic as a whole Jesus. ? The reject Lon of !.he C alilea n dt3cs. an of hi4i reign have in \;'01 • Ii tone of sadness in hj"i 1 t a pproach of his person d his purpose fort h3 s 0 1 dra.w his d is.d ples mar do nucleus of a new [) ali that remained for him He abo rose then to th .&CtompUsh in the Iutu

d uring hi!) earth ly life organiaatlon of the Ch ment of Ch rist ian ity .; realises it. But hare ph I.ht over deal h] an d 1 wealth of God even be

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

I I

triumn'on~

o L"LnnS4

AD lhe

TR:£

6-

,

d all hl5 \hinkfn8 or Goo. Hi'!> m.o

socia.l gcildnes.s.,

s momilly consists ly. A man i!i mor en he i:!;, .onl i- !:.QL':I 'hi.ch pu.t.s fred}' a I t rh I a man is and e at h i'l:;h uses LJ P the w munit'! to please but in. la CI Ttlj_gin erce in delac:hing and property I hOlD i

_an~ being, 'WhCD Tht

II,;: (.! hi(~ of J ~:SU!l. kiog quality, Hu a~ holds togcthc r t , The ph}~il:a.I c ~liil~ to set wge owshrp, III the y soelal organism U ph y!iW r that • he :110( i~1

origin .. ~~ i

bum .. n 0 niaation, E ml

of.all lowe. nd ftlCl1ds ip be 1~~1 h _ Love in which hold to~\ I:fJn:MRn~ ly

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

I I

68 c II Xl !!i,-l·IAJlr.. T

tion has not e~ok

power of human

Iraternlt

Hence when J esu red men for the

order of \ e kingdom of G I he rried to energ and h 3. hi s of Jove a d 1 sti In ulate the dorm

de vution 0 the com 0 flickedng and way...., steadfast energy of a

~l'hc fo c of that is ln dan cr of disru fad is no to break u f orgivc is U f org; ... -e, tom t iss es of fello offended

eod. Love wit h J of: e oticn, but the h ig ·11 beru on creating rei i· ... win is best seen wi

If a man has oil raiernitv, hut wf: m _

1 wa V'S stand read v

~ ~

If we remember

now &1 len ated fro the $acri fi~c we

thingj thou ple, and g hntes us r persecu l!\ n reviles USl ,'I,,'C m US

f raternitj be: ruined, tI!U" wOO him back

blessinge, H he s· 5 in the Iacc, we.

other ch k instead 0 bl ing the barrier by

blow ~ t and {3~1 la ws or

of condu t. If f hey r cd .. , ~uch.) l hey be

able and ridiculous, b y an: sirn ply t he

«pteSiilO So of Ihe d t a. n at ion that the Ira

which bi ds men 10 must not be rupt 1J

can be 'ed f to miD. cial sci f&wiU only b

parental 0 \'"C wi Il hit e apply t har medicln

young fcl Ow will be icr me mOOr of

knoe ked ock him down and

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oow..:.

I I

nd

-.~ob.lII1

II I I

1115 OF JEfi

~ide I im and

versatio Jaws of well o!

invitati 'S thcrcby ·n 1ubljea ..0 li,,'e Social nished

:'t sociaJ man o( b~rn. ws, I! docs not st~ w ere they s npJ B}' cut I ,... t across th ir beaten t r n y L rok t he ala. baste j t 0 f ui.nt the oro ary law of co duct: it l!; oney ighl bR~·t r rh pnor. J !!IoUS

e the i~d.)lCl:§""C t.in kin g: of f he

gel w en I hci r rna t e became k n,g j

11 ad see the stc rrn-c lowering

the m te cry fot sy hy in hi~ .

e best s e had in th n

ut iful d d tha t she done. "

en a t r guide uF co duct th f (ha.rit " I

:II hie. of!: was alway f lling in to n-

I 'I some t mcs :in C.r:J. 1 m d i regard or the

his ~ciplt:'s ret to hi m at the

were su pri~ed !o Ci t:11 k ing ·ith

hacl. as ed to OM raci ertain cJ J

ollcelOf, J C;U!i. ru f el h u an SOCicl y. and in 'ited himsell

n so impo il ~ a matt them after hi dClLb .

... M,pl'hc'l,l' II. J.9. ·L~ fq.

zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oow..:.

I

e in breakin t he bread been 4f.O e

l t hal l hey eecgnieed h resurrect in. l

the two g at ritual a s in 1 h grew e of

( soda I me wi I h bi~ fends. f we ha ve e rcr felt

rings men together to feet nder th I,;: , e

shall se that in L Christ's li c a.

m unal SO iaLil it)' ~'4.!:i and crea ing

human del}' ~ and sus r surrende sn

to the ordi ary la tjng.1:

ciety, Loll c'lu umm~y f ely

;mpLt mcm cr of 1 unity. \\ en

J ~u. fund t M: d sci I~f:~ d lsp 1 ing R ir ran k in thr.

ki.n~ , be: reb ~ thci r d iv j ve spi i o( p r de b}' seui g a ltl tic ch Id among the m a ~ t be r rr~od j ~ fo a n un~~ led child is he mosl s jal ereat ure swift 1 make l rienrls h. py

in pi y i I n Of hers lonely wit h u.1 h II love When J us

over ra d the disc plc::;. qua rrcl ing ab hicf place a. t

the 1 ~ meal, he I:lt'c them a strjkin lesson in the

at ion of ·1 f to the . T\II icc by

~nrl aJ ltd f ct"

w princi (:5 were so d of his \. ew of lire! t and hl u t lhe m in pll blic add

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

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~ o,;,aw that

~ion ;(I,~ I. c \" racte ri'IiJ: ir:

turne tbe r 11 power of ell or elhi al 00 uet. J esus

He \'iI1h.le-a 11 esented the Ullt ether-

• the minor Qf R~il1~r

I .H.atk I • Lrfl) John 04;. I~",

e zm n DIJ'DIIm I!oou

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jl

Let

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~D nl"l: SOCIA

t e life of the Je I rhese minor ri

in per etual They id viol tact. They w nt· even

omary pi!l ~ Sabbath t - fas in contr it i 'CQncent rat ueh and

con the the

e to scr ve nuln, I sst 0 I y w hen fMt ing tare of mind:l a

h ng'5 would m a u, for chat L50

his and i mpul his ind iffer~n he not only but cOn tradic~

Th SoC rdigi was j differen ho!til to the model of pie y serva ces and faith! 11:- gave a

ere supposed to hen the)' did n 'Y harmed men. re SoC punctillo u nt to wrong mor

e f everything to TC i m n in tlu:ir gardend (.7[Y and good eie )' re sts a .... d w hkh

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm I!oou

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7"~

T

en of the 1.1. w they qui e over leeke risee st fa ining the milk est ha ply

vned gnat and t ransgr s the Law 1 cat

a. I he :5aW the iii type whar these ~Iig

d" i g all the: lime ~ ltaintng ut gnals and swal in

T y wiped the utsidu of th~ plll[tCTI hut w th 'JI it

j4 1 wit h extort i and t: ess 1, i t hci loot acq j red

nju!;.tlc(.:' and c lu:<ury,~ hm 1 gi n, \\; ieh

1 te be the 5() rec or m ral~lYI drug cd : d hl rld the I judgment, that the ,,'cry tC!achc . of .:1 g' n 10 ked 1 • oor of the kin rlem of 011 in men's aces ~ ;n I ified the funda u~nta1 013 WltiQn of th -chiI h each ing t ha.t jf portee 1 l he ril1J f " nf supportin fa,$it(' On the c f oding it. h ts. re volu tienr y at t itu (0 in herite

l the earnest and pa ill t D k inl; rep n 1 1 i

pie t y, j s exp ained l1y ~h ri'5il 's con ept ic

of God- Th ,thoughl il ~\·a~ a Jew M a on care! 1.1] rel lous o b rva nces, II!! th an uffar[ an d . ou kl res on right h

ld tolerate not i np: l h at lowed w

had no p3 \ ie w.1 h re igious;. thou

I C 2.1 tainmen t oJ righ l s clal Hfl'.

L inherited f ron the p3.~t "a'S the su pr m-e t L g

belt er human le t c be ssabl ished i the U \I me Ihing.

• .MlIUht1ll' :5' t MIUlht"':I 'M3Il."hf!W 2

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm 80011..:. -.~ob.DI1

I I I I I

H;5l.c';;t ~, 01'1 1I'C".alfn.

14 Hlll5T14tf1TY AND

maMmon; " t-;u:

of ~hi!'. lif-e and I al ily of ckrtilf IJ In . I;,:C:W \\'hich appro)) , 1t ,\ When a mIU lay IJ :9 Io\"ilb hj'ij. treasure

e In n t the eevetous ~ rl e ownward way. SB.i ionary, said tl'1a.t i him ul ~fI ~ tha~ h ·.,edl blJ' "Done had iltt h e WI;\! CO-..-elo-uS_ e !i did not h:n.t tic:h

-.

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boo

I I I II

peison,

_"IllS OY'

75

~ ~~ '=' a~ a ~ri d i ~'!si~~ fo y a rt in ho Izontal siral

is paraly:ted It HII s il

ep den ce on rh elr le How of rcsponsib it rio them. or riches n 1 h ir CU rse.

This is t e ke to the

countere

w7dges-'~

fellow-Ie

wca Ith) it think il needed i advice c

he rich 10 have ny~y

tf:s.t or M ere ... ;n test f J he had 00 uld iot ha ve h en necess a c Ire for lh love of m

ease. On his young }y him for [rom this

I! think up hi's. SOllie teaU"..

twas

__. ~ ~

aU,L -:.aymg

lark. : t "H tc enter he kingdom I

ee, t;-.l L,

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm I!oou -.~ob.DI1

I I I I I I

rl ehes wI)', if only he will not 11 i'Si eus}' 0 satisfy that req uire ~t man scripts do ~ Ol eon, ain 1 The c.riti ~ ed irions of the G reek the margj. Son'l e earJy copyist p dull the arpness of the- !X'"LyioS as It ion lies in MOl her di saJ ... 'atien f t h c j ndl vid ual in the lif t hal !iO f e a }'O~ll'Lg fellow sheu Id becall~ h was rich, J es us wa~ ~icty 0 earth wh ich he was inl man J!$. fit 11 " for thnt _ S1.l ppose l property lid had t], U'S joi ned the t hal ha ve aIT cered , he ~i ri t or tb others ha \ fell jcalousl)" that he If J esm h shown bim 1<4 vor I 'tL'O mol i ves b ve !:H~fm S uspccter] ? I com:Lnon 1 U f!1;C J rom hi; pri 'I.' nte w them all more a pu lent liv Lng i selfish me ~nd wcu ld h.a """ pnral}" on the r. Then l 'he ~:rO ",'.l~ wo not rncrel for hcali ng. LnJ t fOJ the d~sen.ad. 00 - I udas would h.:! \"e such it rf! ~ forcernen t of f he a postol gone l hro gh the 'SA.me sorrow wh i &~~b;j whe property was forc:oo u !lipifit Wa.!$ cnupred. Il j s aU vel"}: ~ ure like i r:- _ Chtistt but -j.if f al;tcr~;,lik J esus l.J i msel f fran S11 a I i~;ilfrCrtni to the bet t 1~ 1! be· ~Cj,~ Ii ro_;-'8 1\' h.i I und-er 1 he prC!;$UI"C of a

e In n FDlJ'Dllm Boo

II II I

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