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Carrier Handbook of Air Conditioning System Design

Carrier Handbook of Air Conditioning System Design

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HANDBOOK D,F

:

AIR CONDITIO:NING SY,STI,EM DES,IGN

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T A.,IIWA~ I:I)ITIVN

Tlhils MEII VA fAJWAN IEICH1 IIONI i$ '!:! ,cemp'il'o'I'e Iphoto,..QHset reproduction of iI'I'fIe originCl~ edir'j,on.spe'clcilly alu~h,oril:a,d b,t the ori,g,jrlal publ~$he'r "Oil' rtil::H'oduc:tiofTI. (lInd ia~Q in laiwan on~ly.Tlhe fifle hCI.$ be'en n~,giuel'led with 'Ihe' M.i!!'l'is~ry of 'Ihe Inu!riolr~ the R'epublic of Chi ria, cnd ell o~h,ef raprjn ts wi II be considl,ered un infriingerrt8n'I o+ our regi 5t ration.

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HANDBOOK OF

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AIR CONDITIONING SY:STEM, DE,SIGN

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CONT.ENTS

Prtf(J'~ ...••..•••••.•. , , "0 ••••• ,. ,., •••••• ,. - •••• , - •

plft· L LOAD ESTIMATING _,,,._ _, __ . .. ,, ... ~-I

- ti'-.I' - - - . - - - . _.. _ .

h.--lIuilding SlIney aJ:Id Load Escimaile .. , o •••• , ,., • - •• , ••••• , , ••• - • • • 1·1

2. De.ignConditiom ... _ .. ,' __ , .... _ ..• ,.,_,-- .. -.---., , . 1"9

3. Heal SKIi'iillC,. m ... rt!;it~ .. nn. Str.llif\al lion __ .. , , __ . _ , ... _ , 0 ' •• _ , ! .:!:i

4,. Solar Htat GIi.rn thru Ghm , . _ . __ , . , , __ , . , , _ , , , , . , l·il

!i., HUI and W"'.~f V:ap!l}r flow thr~ Structures __ .. _ , , , , _ ... , , , , j·~9

6,lnlih ~i"!l and Vml'I .. ricn .. .. __ .. , , _ . _ . , , 1·89

,.,. Internal and. Sl"9k:m Heat Gain' _ .. 0 , 0 •• , , •• __ • , ••• , _ • , ••• , , ].;00

lj, AppJ.i~d Psychmilletriu """"'."'0 __ ••.. 0 " ••• , , " I·IlS

Pan 2, AIR DISTRIBUTION _.,. , " __ .. , , , .. , , , , .... , , , , , "' ... , - - 2·1

L Air .Halldling A.ppar.iuu~ ..... __ . _ ... . , _ . , , , , .,' ... , ,., .... , " . 2·1

2 .. Ai... Duel ·Da!gD __ '0' •• _ , ., •••• , ••• _ ••• , .•••• , • , ,., ., •• , , , , • • 2·l7

3_ Ro;>om A.il Dittribudoo. _, __ __ .. __ .. __ _. _ _ , .. , , ,. , , . . 2·65

Part 3, PI PING DESIGN

!. Pip.~ng ~sj!ln-Geij,cr~1 "', ... 0 , , 0 0 0 __ , • , 0 __ ••••• • __ , , , , •• , • 3~!

2. W.a.u:.rPipi!l!! __ .. ". 0 _ • __ • 0 0 0 •••••• •• _ ••• " •••• , , ., ••• , , ' - - • • 3-·19

.3. Rdri!!c:nmtPiping .. , , , ..... _ , , , , .. , , , , , .,' . , , . __ .. _ 3·43

4. St~a:m Piping ."", .... ",' 0. 0 , '" •• , , , , •• , , , , ., ••• 0 0 •• _ _ 3·8]

Part 4. REFRIGERANTS,BRINES, OILS

L Rd~rig'(;rant! __ , , .. , __ ._ , .... _ . , , , , , , .. , , , , __ ..... , , . . "·1

:2. Ih,,,,," __ .. ..... , __ , , , , " .. , , , , .... , , .. , , . - "·23

3. Rtfri!!~nlion D.ils , , , , •• , , 0 '" , __ •• , , •• •• _ • __ , " , ••• , , , ,. - f~~

Part 5_ WATER CONDITIONING ..... 0' , , ... ,' "" - - .... _.000... 5-]

1. Wa.tt'r CDndllicning---General "., . _. 0 _ , • , _ •••• _ • ,. , ,., ., •• , ,. - - 's·1

2. Scalt .~nd fuposH COntrol ,.,' 0 0 _ • __ • _ • '.0 , , , , , •••• , " • , ' • , • - • 5-11

3. Corro3i.on Coillrol .. ,,""', .. ,. 0 , , , • _ •• • , , , __ • , ,. , , •• 0 _ , • _ • ~·.19'

4_. Slimeand Alga.~ Comrel .. __ .. , ..... "": ' , ... 0' .. _ _, ,_,... 5.'21

5_. W ~ter Condilioni!1.J; SY!i~ffi:!I •• ,", •••• ,"',. _ ... , '" •• , , ., • - ~:.u

Ii Delklitioos 0 0 •• _ ••••• , , , , .... ,. , , •• , • _ .. __ • 0" •••• , , • , •• , , _ • ~4j

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4. AiliCWiil1 f.qltipmCiI'Il • "';';' - • - - - - Ii' ••••••• " • , , ••••• -

, n '1. REFRIGERATION 'EQUIPMINr .. , "

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HANDBOOK OF

AIR eOND]TIONING SYSTEM nESIGN

1-1

Part 1

LOAD ESTIMATING

CHAPTER l. BUILDING SURVEY~' LOAD ESTIMATE

The prilmlI')' function or air roD~liJti~liling is ItO maimarn conditions thatl are (1) conducive-to human comfort, 011' (2.) required by a. prooulCIt, or process within a space. To perform this function. equipment of the propel tapacity mOSl· be installed. aad centrolled througbout the year. The eqldpment Clpacity is dClennined by the actWJI instantaneous peak, load. rrq_ui1:'m1ent5· type 01 control is deter-

. mined by the conditions to be maintained during .PCU and partial load. (;eneraHy. it " 'impossible. to measUM ~itber the actual peak or the partia], load in :my given space; Ithese loads must be estimated. It js faT this pnr~ mal the: data contained in Part . 1 has'beeJl compiled.

. B~I07e fM ,food CIlJli ,6ft estimated, it is impnafive that Q ,.omprdenJi~ survey ~e m~t¥ fO as.fur~ accurate rvajwtion 0/ the ~ood ,;ompon"ftu. IE the building facilities and ILbe acural insuntaneous load '!\I'ithln a given mass of the building an: c.are£uUy studied, an eronomicil equipment sclettion and sY5- t.~m dnign can result, 3li1d smooth, trouble bee per. fmnIance' then posslibl .

The heal gain, or J -. is the arsoum ol heal insLanaaileoully comililg into or goillilg Ol!.lt of the space. Tht: a:dual loa.d is defin~t1 tl6I,. ,hUe' amount '0/ hea' U/,hich is inst.antaneoruly Gdd~d. OT rem.oved by tile t:quipmmt. The instanumeous beat gain and the actu3J load om the. equipmeru wm rarely be equal. kotwc of t.be: thermal inertia Or tonge effect ( the building structum surrounding a conditioned spate.

ChapleT& 2, 4, " 6~ an.d 1 contain the"data born which the ilnstantaneoLla . .heat gain or loss is estimaied; Chaptff J ·provid.e tbl! data. and pr,ocedurc for applyIng storage factorsto the a :pptopriatt h . 1 pilll (01 result in the actualload. C.hapteT lJ provides ~ bridge betwee;1l the load estimate and tl1e lequipment selectton, hfurnjsbes, the procedure for estabmhing the criteria [0 fulfill the conditions required by iii given project.

Tbe basis of Lhe data lind :ilUl USie. with examples. aJieinduded in e_ach chapter " ... ith the tables -ami charts;, also an II'!xplanartion. of how each of the heat pillS and the loads manifest themselves.

BUILDING SURVEY

SPACE CHARACTERI.snCS AND HEAl lOA.D SOURCES

An accurate survey of the load ornponents o( the space 10 be ail' conditioned i a basic J1eq_uiremem :£01' a r alistic estimate o[ cooling and heatLng loads. The ~Qmpiet~nes:s ,flrld auu"'!lCy of this SUTVe')" is tb« I).ery ,oun.dlJll:O~ oflile estimate, (Ina its impQrtanr;;~ can nQ~ itt! olJeTemplla,siud. Mechanical and architectural drawings. complete field sketches and" in some cases, photographs of important aspects are part of a good mrvey. The (ollowing physicalaspetI:t$ must b - cons'idered:

1. Orientation of bu.ilding - Location or the space to he air eendirion d with respect to: .,) Compass points - sun and wind effects.

b) Nearby perm,ulefll struetures - shadi.ng effects,

) ReJlecuve urfaces - water, and. parking lots •. etc.

2 . Us« Q/ SPIlU(S.J - Office, hospital, departmenl tore, specidty shop, machine shop, [aCI(>ry, assembly plant, etc.

3. Physical. drittltruions oj spau(J) - Length 'Wid~h, and .height. ,

4. Ceiling ,height - Floor ro flOOT height, floor to ceiling. clearance b -'lW,i!tm suspended Iceiling a nd beams,

5. Colurnm and beams - Size. depth. alsoknee

braces, \.

6. ConslruC1iotl ma.Ie"TiaI5 ...:. Materials and thick. ness of waHs. roof. ceiling. flaof'S and parti li,ons. and. their rel uve position in the struc lure.

7. SWTounding ~flndition;s - Exterior color. of walls and roof. shaded by adjacent buHrung or sunlit, Attic spaces - unvented or vented. gravity or forced ventilation. Surrounding spaces conditioned or unconditioned - ternpe{3tllJre of non-ronditio'n d adjacent spaces" such as furnace 'or boiler reom, and kiu:hellls.

.\

F~.oor on ground. crawl space, basement,

,8. Win,dow5' - Si~e and location. wood or metal

1-2

PART I. LOADESTI.MiA TI NO

sash, single 01:' doubk hung, Type or gla:s.s - single ormultipane. Type Ql shadling device. Dimensions of reveals and overhangs.

9. Doors - Location, lype. s-ize. and freqlllency ,0,( ust:.

W. St,airw,ays:. dtroa.j'oTS. ¥a 1t5ca.la.JofJ' - Lo(:a,li,on, temperature of 5p!i.~ if open to; U nconditioned area Horsepower or machinery" yentilaredor not.

11. People -- Number. dm:atiO:fi of .occupancy, nature of a.ctivity, any soecialecnceetration,

l' r-

At times, it is requited to estimate the number

of people on me basis of square feet per person,or on average tralffic..

12. Liglding - Wauage at peal.. ype - tinean· d~SCell'll, R.1ll0re5(3!'JH, recessed, ex.posed. If the .tigh.ts are recessed the type of air Row ove~ the ligh15, exhaust" return or supply, should be aneicipated, At limes, it ill required. to esu· male: the wattage on a basiso{ wallS per sq h. due to lack, or exact inlormatlcn,

13. Molot'S - Location, nameplate and brake horsepower, and usage. The Iauer is o( great significance and :should be CCiireluHy evaluated.

The power input to electric motors is not necessarily equal to rhe rated horsepower divid.ed by the motor d6cicncy. Freque.ntly thc~ mot'Ots may be openHi'l'lg under a ceruiaucus overload, or may be I'lIperaling at less than ratedmpacity. II ill alw3)'!l' adviaable to measure the power in-pl.·t 'Wherever pcmible. This i5 especiallyimpormnt in estimates £(lr indus,. tria] installations where the motor waroil1e load is normally '21. major portion oE the cooling load.

14. IJp,p,liaYlcu. bU$-ine-~ m.a,bi'H!.~. eledl'Qn.:c eq·lI.ipmclIl - Locali.ol1, rated wattage. steam OT gas, consumption. hooded or unhooded-exha ust air quan tit)' i nsralled or req ulred, and usage.

Greater accuncy may be obtained. by mC3!IlU ing £he power or g,as input during times at pe.al loading. The regular ·ser:vice meters'may of len be used for this purpose, provided power or gIDl consumption 001- comribuliDg to the room hear gain can be segregau~d.

Avoid pyramiding: the hear gains lTOJiil. various a ppllances and businc~ machines, For esampie .. a toaster of a waffle iron m:\'( not be used during: 'lne evening, or the [ry kettle may not be moo during nloming. or not .. II business

machines in a gi'Ven space may be u.~ at the same' time.

Electronic equipment otten requires indiv,id· ual air c.onditioninig. The manufacturer's recommendadon for temperature and bumidity vari31tiofl. mo,n be [ollowed, and these requirements are often ,quite !llringe·nl.

[~" Ven,lilalion. ~ elm peli person. dm per sq Ie, Scheduled veruil:JIuon (agreem~Qt w.itb pur. cha$er) •. sec Chap;" 6. EX~ve!mokinG: or ooon"oode requiremmt!. ExhaU;;!ilfam - type. size, .speed, cfm delivery.

Iii Th.,~rrnal.rtorogt' - Includes "1';stem operating schedule (12" 16 or 24 hours per day) speriili. ea.U)' during peakouldoor conditions) :p:rmissible tem_per.u.lJl'C swing in space during a design day, rugs, on floor, nature of surface materials enclo in,s me space (see Chapter J).

17. Con:t.inuous Qr infermiut',U ope"lJ~'ion:'\ Vhether system be rcequired to operate every business day during cooling: season_. or only occasionally, SUcil as churches and bal]'rool11&. H inlemUnf'm operntion, determine durauon of lime ;av:a.ilab!e for pFeOOOlin or puUdown.

LOCATION OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICes

The building sQrve'Y should also indud~ wormaaion 'which enables ILhe engin~ to Klett eq,ui:pmeot location, Qn.d ptanlhc air andlwiU.el' d.i$iributio,1I'I system!!. The following is a guide W IJlbtaining ,Lhis information:

1'. A:lJailablc: JP(j'~i - Locatiol!lol all. stairwells. eIevlltor sbdts •. abandoned smokes.tads. pipe sha[u. ditmbwaitn m,alts, etc, and .spia:5 f·or air handli;ng appanitus. refrigeration mao chi~es. coolin,g towers, pum:ps. and. services (:also eee 14em 5),.

2. Possibl~ obsfrudioru - LocatiON o[ aIIl elecl1'iOlll conduits. piping lima. and other obsrructlonsor interferences thai may be: in the \Way ofthe duct Iystem.

5. Ol"lltio'n oJ flIll firt 'W41ls OInd $JtJ;TtWOMRequiring fire dalJlpcn (also see Item, .1"6).

4. Locarion Of or.udQDf ,(liT in!akes -In re(efienlOe to street. other buitding:.. wind direction, dirt, and short-circuiting o[ unwamed CQflt3.mi. ruUIIS.

5. p()'W~ seraic« - Location, capaCity; CUl!1'cnl limitations, voltage. phases and ,cycle. ~ or -1 wlTe: bow additional power (if required) ma) be brought in and where.

6. Wa~eT' service - Loauion, sile of Ilnes, Q.

CHAPTER I. BUn .. D.lNG SURVEY AND LOAD ESTIMATE

padty, pressure. maximum temperature.

7. Steam st'n)';ce - Loeauon, size, capacity, tern~tlllreJ preMUR.-~ of return 6-,yuem.

8. ReITigerotiO'1'. brrne or chiUed 'waler(iJ fuTnished bycustomcr)- Type o[ system. capacity, ternperature, gpm, pressure.

g. Architectuml cha,racte:ristics 01 ,space - FOT , selection of outlets that will blend into the space dt"Sign.

10. -E.xisling ~~.'f ,ftomltryingequfpme1u and ducts > For p:mible reuse',

U. Drains - Leeation and, capacitv ~wage disposal.

,12. Control facili~,it!5 - Compressed air seurce and pl'1wure, electrieal,

I~. Fuuru:i.ation IlTUJ. support - Requirements and [a,cililies, strength of buildi,ng.

H. ~Qul'I!d Gful vibration con,frol requirem~n,t.i1 - ]Rda,ltj,on orrefrigerat,ion and air handling apparanls location to critjaJ areas,

IS. AIr:ceS5ibHi~J I:or moving t:qu,it:mt:nt ifrh~ final loft:cworJ; - Elevators, sturways. dOOTS. - accesslbi.Ht), fl'Q.m street.

, ..

16. Cad.es. local and nation(J:l- Gov,erning wiring.

drainage. water supply, venting ,of Te~igeratioa, construction of re£r.igenlianand air handling app~a,tus rooms. duclwork;' m, dampers. and v'l!llliJation of buildings, in gen

. eral and apparatus rooms io,particular.

AIR CONDITIONING l.OA:D IESnMA TE

The air condidomng load isestwated to provide the basis. Cor scleuing me conditioning equipmenL h must take i:mo account -ehe hea.l coining ineo the space from outdoors O,rna design day. as weU as, the: heal bei.nggenerated within :the s,pac:e. A design ,day

is defined as: .

1. A day on which: the dry. and wet-bulb temperatures are peaking simultaneously (Chapter 2, ·<Dc.6.ign Condit,ion.~').

2. A day when there is [it,tle or no haze in the air to reduce the solar heat {Cho.Plt!T iI" "Solar Hrea-' Gain Till", Glw"}.

3. AU or the intema] loads arc' normal (Clla1'tcY' 7, uJntermdal'ld Systtm H~ai~Gain").

"t.be time of pea.k load can usually be eSlabnshed. by inspection, although. in some cases. estimates must be made (or several dilIerent times of the day.

ActuaJly. we 5itualion ofba'ving aU 0:[ (be loads peaking at 'the same time will 'very rarelyoccw-. To be tealsrier, 'iall"iOU5 di'Ve:rsityEa.aon n:lIm be applied

to some of the load components; refer to Chapter 3. "Heat Storage, Dil}CTsity, and Stratipcahon."

The in.filtratioll and vemjlation air quantities are esumared as described '\n Chaptn o.

Fig. 1 illustrates anaircondiUQPing load estimate lorm and is designed to permit. systematic load,eviH· union. This form contains the references identified to dH! particular chaplers ,of data and tables required to estimate the various load componen15.

OUfl'POOR LOADS

ThO! loads born o~Jldoors consist of!

E. The oUtH raj'" enlt'fl:ng windows - Ta,Mt.: 1'5, pagt:.s 44-49,. and Table 16. page 52. provide data from which thesolar beat gain through glass is estimated.

The solar heet gain is usually reduced by means o( shading devices all the' inside or OUl~ side of the windows, faetcrs are eontained in Table 1'6~ In addit.ionto tIDs, red:u(uom. an or part or the windowma)' be shaded by reveals, overbangs. and by adjacent buildings. Chart I, .page ''J. and Table 18. page' 58. provfd(!an easy means of dCletJ,milling how much the wIndoi\!.' is shaded .at a. given time.

A large port jon of the solar hear gain is radiant and. will be ptliftiaUy iS~ored as descttbed in Cha#ltn j. T able: ? tlmi. 11, pages JO-J4 J pro'vide the: storage [actors to be applied (0 solar heal gains in order Lo IUT"I'V(!: a t the ac'tl.,HiJ cooliing load imposed on 'the air conditioning equipment. These s'torage Iactcrsare applied 'to peak solar hi!a~ ,gains obtained from Tavie 6, page 29, with overall fa.ctors from Table i 6, pagt! $2'.

2. T.he .nrn mys stnking tI.e walls tmd' roothese, ilficQflIjun do~ with the high outdooe air lem,peramr-e. cause hear to flow into the space. Tables 19 a:na 20. /}{J.gt:s 62 and 6J. p-ro'

t - .1:

vide equivalent temperature differences for

sunlit and' shaded walls and roofs. Tables 21, .22, 21.-0 24, 25, 27. and 28, po.,ges 66·.']2, provide the Dr3nsmiSS:io·n coefficienlsor rates of heat now (or a ... arile:ty or roof and wa U ronslructions.

!S. Thl! air t.emperabn't! outside the condh';on~d space ~ A higher ambient temperature causes heat to flowthru the wind.ows. partitions, a.nd noors. Tables 2) and 261 pages 69 and 70, and Tebles 29 lU1'dJO. F,ages- 73 arid 71, provide the U"an.nrusslOIT (1()effi.cifJllts. The tempeJiature differences used. to estimate the' beat How thru these structures a.reco:ntaililedin the note" after eacheable,

1-4'

PART 1. LOAD ESTIMATING

1 CHAP . REF

TABLE REFERENCES

TABLE REfERENCES

CHAP REF'

lUll

T

I SUN G~'IH. OR T TEII'.DIFF. I

SOLAR: GAnll-G'LASS ..!lH~O.!!U~"':='·..!:D:.:;'~O~.,:E;,:.~,,,,,,TI.!IO!!IC!...... ....., ,..... _

GUs.s f WITH) i SCI Fl X rTBLS6&7,81E hLS 16.1'1 _C=.O=N=.O",IT",''''=O.:..:":::s",I_: _ _,O,.,B,_· _-I-..:W.:..:·II=--_I-J%~R!:!H:'_--I_..:D",P,--+_G",R",I-=L=.,-· -

G!.AII " .. ,..roo Sa Fr x ~}~,g.~~' , I xl PP Sz.54 2 --"O.=.U",TDOO=",.R,,(.=O,"A:.L'+:: IT:-8_L_S-:I...,.3:--+'_:-'O:- . ...,19-1l- __ --I + _

Gus. So Ft )( [ .2cl I Roo'li (RM) I TBLS ,",,5 p 20,22.. 3

G.I.l\S5. [ WITHon 1 SO Ft X TBl15 ]1THL 15 CORR .... __ .. _::;O.:..:IF..:,I'I!::;I!:y.E;.:";.;C;.;;E ..... ..:I._, ...:..:X:...;:I:.,· . .:l~· _I:.,.,t:x:..' _!:X._· _!:x~l....!!x_"=-·~·=-II..!.. .

STORA,GE pp 44.49 >I" <19 J I I .

SnUGHT so F!! )( )( pp • . 1 OUTDOOR ,UR

VEl""" '1, IPl •• U x rl TB .. L 451-'C'."~.IQ.

I..IiTlON r

_ n x P 97 . c ... .I •• FT _. _

C·,. VfMTI:UTIOIi :.

Sw'!MCUIIi.

RiVG.:i.'I,"a, D.ooR'--" ....... {Tn AI} C ... I'. '1!.!l1J(J'" = _. _

OP,IE'N' DOORS__ _ __ _DOO.S J. ,. 90 _. C:t'!i!/COfII -=. _

UIIJ.,USl H" Tns 46,47; p 98

'CIlJ.,C:"~: FEE'r X TaL 44· p' 95 C"IIfr: = '

Crill IN.FILTIUTlaH .• ~f:'42.. P 9.2. 'I

, __ --'~C::F;M:.' ,;O::,:U::;' ,:r;:,;l>::OO:::::::::R::;. • .:A,::IIR:...:T:.:H::,:R::_U:;:,...:A:.· ·P::.P::.A:.'::.R·:IiT.:.:::U~S_.~=N:!;Q::T~E::3===C::::!;:F"'~:2!.

To. 33 r 151--.1- .

tns 25.2.5

PP 6'9.70

-

a &: 4

-

SOLAR. " TRA:HS.GAIH-WALI.5 & 'lOOF '

WALL 50 FT x f 1 xI .,

4 TB~S 21::22. I

__ W"'-="""L=-L --"SO=F"". T~X TBL 19 Xl I ' 1

--, 23 •. 2.4 ·OR .25 I

_ -=Wc::~:.:L=L _"S::D:.;FT:...·:...::x:.. ;.62 J xl I

t '"""1 p, 1>6·69 J I.

W.U.L $:Q 1FT X • XI.

'S

-"R:.:Q"'Q~,-__:S"'U'-'N!.... __:SQ::· ",.:..FT!...£:..x [TOL20)' ,-j([ TBl.S. 27 •. 28 1

RQO'-SH~DEIl' Sa FT X F' 6J -;J 7l. 72 l

TRANS. GAINi-EXCEPT WALLS" !ROOF

AL'L Gu"S$ PARTITION

NOTE I

x

Sa PI X HoT" PP'1i9 70X

'CEILINa 50FT X

HaTES ~r' Til:. 2& GilD pp '73 74 lz, __ ,t l' 2, _

h- Hoo.A SQ FT X

~ i ~IN::.':.:'="'::::T:A~A~n::.0:::.N:::_.IlNLlia!lTlO:E . .!4L..~CF=II~x:.. __ .IN!.!Q;UI,,,E;_j'L..' _)(~. ·;__!;I":.l!0:!I __

~

"NTERNAL HEAT

PEO'LE x

hu1.s.4S ,p 38100

PbWE;M L.liHT'

HP •• KW XTIL5JPlQS" WATTS )( :s •• x l.~~J~j~~~

. APPLIANCES,. Erc. Tou 50-52 PP 101'1Ql2_~m :6~g1

ADDITIO.AL H(AT GAJ"'S IBLS 54.57 re 102·109 X -

!--

1 Z fIne 5i!{IYIi~ SUI TOTAL

I &:3 : ..;ST~· ~o~~~"C;!!!E,-' ....i'!SQ!!_. l:F'r.!.·_!;XcJ[J.T.!lB.I...L ;~A!L!.;.il.~LII8Llj~)<~ .. · .:1(=-.:,':;;';\3;' '~1=' :\1.... -

'~ ~5~u~.~T~0~T~A~·L'--

SAFETY nCTOR

e!l3

ROOM SENSIBL'E H·:;:AI'.

i 7 I

ii I~ i 8 ,...........

.,__..;. I 6 'r---

3

&:

~ ""DDITIOHU HUTGMHS IlL sa p 109

'5"" . ....:.:.::c=:..:.:=:::..:.:.:::.:.;:...=O:="""-Uu....i<ILLJ,>GL _

~. I ...:II.:·~:;;'O:;:;R:.· .!;I.:R:."'N::.5~J .... ~$::.o .:;'F.!.r.::X:::..::'It.::-O~9:.X~· lINWQi.IT~E ..ol?~G:.:.~,'l.:.:..X:.·o..Lr .. 'L..! .:I4~PL..t..JI~BI.;I4

~ ._-'S:'.!·u!!.!...'.!.T~OT!.:·A:JL .. _

S.nrr FAC'TO~: e 113 %

ii."~' CHART J ·So.... Ta'L 59

l)~cl' p HO 'D"o> P 1l0. 'FAN p 111

IIln Q.,. ,... + UU. Lo", % + IH'. ·t. '. '%

OUTIIOO~ .A'~ NOTE 3 C~II X N OlE 1 FX el21 I" X 1.(11 EFFECT III E ROO MS ENS I B LE H E. A T .:

LATENT H EA.T

IHFliLTlUTION

NDTE A

C,", x Non: 2: "./L. X 0.·.·.

.P!OPlE

P.o,," X Teu 14 480ft 38100

StEAl! p 107

LI/'H. X ~D5_D_

"'''l'l.tNCES.ETC, TeLs 50·52 fe' toHOJX CPR'nS_LOW rlt 5

7' ROOM LATENT HE"T

1.= __ - ,_:!S.!!U.!.P!.P=LY!....2D~U~CT!:.·.!.- ...2LO,!' 'Ee!"'!,:k~' "~G~E._· ..:!l~O~S:;:'S~__r;p'.:'!U!!.!O 2 .. '!c· _

OU"TDoo~ AIN Non 3 Crill' x NgTf 2 (i.,l. X .'2' n )(O,'U EFFECTIVE ROOM LATENT H'Ur

8 'II , ~...:;.E.:.F..:F .. E;.· ~C~T:..:. I:..,V;. . .=E_:;R~. O~..l:0:...'l:1."'_:;T..;O~r.::"~L;. . ....!!H..:cE:..· A!:l..!T_I!I.I.... ...

,OUTDOOR AUt HEAT

SE;NIIILE,' Nan 3 CFII x NOTE' F' X C1 - p 12.1111') X '.'08

7

GRAN:O TOTAL .HEAT.

LOCAL I'11I1l: 1

s". TIOI I P!:AK LO~D

lOCAL 1"1 .. ,[ ILl., IBH,

e

",'01'

lE5UI.1'IMG EMT' 6' L:VG CONDITIONS AT APPARATUS

. C:FN o. ..

Tn_F+ p125CFlllt x (To .. __ F-1 • ..-F) =T.o.___F

T,.~ +p 141 SF X. IT ... ,,_F -T •• ......-F) = T , •• -" FROM' I'SY·CIi. CHART: ·l.oo-F. T, .... ~

I .. ru .• T,IIT,IC:Ui!

APPARATUS DEWPOIHT

ESHF

UFE.CTIV! EFFEcrlv~ Roo. SEN'. HUT

&~~~l'l.':t = ,EFFECT lYE Rooll TOT"J. HE4T - ---

Tal. 65 P 145. OR PSYCH CK"'U. FIG· 3.3 P 116

IN'O'ICA.TEO ,ADP - F SELECTE:D' 1.01' ,-

F

T:[IIP. RISf;

DEHUMIDIFIED Alii 'QUAHTIITY (t!~:IIF) x (1 ... -"-T .... o.-") =----P

EFF~C.T"''' ROOM :SEN!. HlAT = CF' .....

1.08 X F 'H, ••. '!U

O[:HIIII'.· efN .

8

StJPP!';YAIIR QU~::rITY I

S~Vi1! r--' !!R,::oo,::; =-II..:S~E'""",..S"- • ."H!.'!£~".!.f = C.Io! ••

(,08 x F '''I;'~. DI',"

C:nl ...

ED8

IL.OB

NOTES

1. Us!: OR"I!·BuL8 UU!I,) Te.,,'p'E,RA,TlJltl; DIF,F,EREHCE ;FiROIiI: To1l' Of' :E$TI'iIIA1'E; FORIll.

2. US'E MOISTURE COIHEN,T tG~ILB) OIFtERE~,CE r~OIil n,.p OF ESTIII'ATiIr FnRM.

3. NOA"~L"'Y, USE "erN V~~T!iLAr!ON' FOR ·'Cr.II OU·TPOQR AlA.' How • • 'E". WHEN INFlllUTION ts To BE Q,,'S'f:'r. REFER To PAGE 92 To OET:ERIiItiE -Cr'" QUT!lO·QR· AlA.'

4 .. WHEN IHrlL ~U.TION I~ NOT TO '8[ o"r$n. AND "CrOl, V[HTI~TIO'H" Is LESS THMI "·erN 1"''fILTRU!ON'.'' TM!:!'! TilE ElI:CESS INHLTAAllON

IS AC'C::,OUH:T:E!D "OR 'HCllE:. - - -

ii", '",II. ,,0.,1 'III 10t11 Iii •• iiii. Ijt:n.!iiiiliiiilil "',""'!!' c." i'!)Iii: '""1'1 __ !J1f:"IJI,,,,o.i: ..... ,PL, ,Lin!!! iiI_gunn :'O.lIi[II~,

t.Hi·. i.'fiII"".IIt! ,I, ilU'JnlliC aJ' CI'U'IKIiIl')I, A lII'iiT'a~. ,ttl ,rl.''I: (,,'Iii.

WIi'llii '.~iII'''U'''. In.!!ni' I!U~ 'oil!i!;,"'~ :J.J1i1 "~.illnil':.' 1;1'l1li,

With Carri •• M ... lh ... d for .... E211. Wllhout C"rr'" M",lh ... d h"" ~502.4.

FIG. I - AIR CONDITIONING LOAD EST1~{ATE

4. Th« air vapor 'pres.stu,1! - A higher vapor pressure surrounding onditioned space causes water vapor to ,Row~hru the building materials. This load is significa11'lQnly in Jew dewpoint applications. The data required to esrlmale this load is contained ill Tal,le -Iq', pagi! 84. In eomforr appli atierss, this load is DCgleered.

5. Tin: wim/. blowing against a sid« oj the building -Wind causes the outdeor air tha t is highe: in temperature aud meisurre content ta' inlil· zrate Lhr\l lhe era KS around (he doors and \ indov,rs, resulring in localized sensible and latent heat gaiDS. All or pan 0,[ ,will infiltration may be offset by air b ·tog introdu ed thru the apparatus ~or ventilation purposes. CIIt1P~f:T" 6 contains the estimating data.

6. OllldoOl' Otf' u:W.ally required fur verrhlatioTl f'lurpQSf:S - Outdoor alr is usually n cessary LO Bush Out the space and keep ih odor level down. litis verreilation air impose a COQling and dehumidi(l'illlg load on lite apparatus because l,he' heal and./or mo,iSlU~ must be removed. Most air conditioning equipment 'permits some outdoor air to bypa.ss the COQlulg surface ( -e_ ChQpter 8). This bypassed outdoor air be owes a load within the conditioned space, imilar to infiltration; instead of corning thru a era k around lh window. it enters the room. thrill. the supply air duct. he amount .of bypas:! d: outdoor air depends on the q,p of equipment used ."i ouLlined In Cllap'er 8. Tab.leO, page 9'1. provid,cs 'the data (rom which the ventilation requirements {Of. most comtem applicatlens can b ,timau:d.

The focegoing is that porli n of the load on the air ondiuQnjng equipment that 0 iginut'S outsid the' pare and is common t aU apptkations. _

INTERNAl, LOADS

Chapltr i remains th dara required to estimate llJe heat gain Irem most items !.-hat generate heal withh, Lhe eondiuoned spa c. The internal load, or heat generated within ale space. depends oil the character or the application. Proper dh'f!fSilY and u~_ge factor JlIould be applied toall in rm J iI ad. \ wiLh the solar heat gin. ome of th ~ iruernal h'llin consist or radiant heal which h pardally stored {as described in CI/Qp~er J). thus reducing- the load to be impressed on the air condilionil1g equipment.

eneraUy. intt:TTu1.1 h£a~, gains comist or some or all of the [ollowing' Items:

t People - The human body thru metabolism

E

1-5

generlte5 heat within irsel] and releases h by radiation, convcerleo, and evaporation from the surface, and by convection and evaporation in the respir.lmry tract. The amount of heal generated and rel nsed depends on surrounding lCDlpenm.lJ'c and on the acLivh:y level oC the person, all Iisted ill Table ~8. Fagt: JUD.

2. l.igllts - Hlurnin nr convert elc mea) power into light and hea (refer to CIIll'/JkT 7). 'orne of the heal is }', cUaIH and is partially stored (see Clw.pl~'( J).

3. Appliance.! - RC."St3UrlUJts, h~phal$. Iaberatories, and some specialty shop {beauty hups) have electrical, gall. Of steam appiiallce5 which release heat into the spa e. T'ablss 50 thru 52, pagu 101-10), Ii 1 the recommend d heal gain values lormo l appl.lam:es when not hooded. J a po i ive exhaust hood is mw with the appliances. the Ileal gain is redu d.

4. Electric c:alC1~i£~iitlg rnachirllts - Refer [0 manu[actwrer's data 1(0 IUlne the heal gain [rom electric C"dkulatilllg machines. N011llaLly .• nOlt ;JlJ o{ the machines would be in use simultaneously, and, til refore, a usage or diversilY [a t r should b 3 pplied tc he full load heal gain. The machine may a' 0 be hooded. or parri ny cooled intemany. to ]1 educe the load on the aircondirioning system,

5. 1£1 clrk motors - Electric motors are a signiti. cam load in. indu trjal applications and s.nould be dlOrougb.Jy amdyu!:d wirth f espect to operating lime and cap cil)' before eSluoaring the load (see ttem H under .. :jJllr.1: CharacterIlStiCJ and Heat Loa___d ources"]. IL is frequently po sible to a ruall mea ure thjs load in exi [. ing application. nd should be SO done where po sible. Table ,J_ prlge 105. pi ovides data (or esriruating the h at brain [rum electric motor .

Co

6. Hot pipes and umH.s - team or hot water

pipes rUllning ihru the air conditioned space, at h'OI water ranks In the space, add heal. In mallY Industrial applications. tanks are ap n to the air, causing water to l'vapUnuc II1LO the

P (_ _ Tablf!l '1':" I/ml 58, p,(lges 107·)09 pr v-ide data Ior e. .. timadn the hCOIl gain [rom the e sources.

7. A1I..tn:j/flncuu.s saw·ce.r - There may be other sources or heal and moisture gaill within tI spac • such as e.rnping steam (i,ruluslFial tlcaning devjee5.pre!l!>ing machines. ct ).a.bsorpliall o] water by hygros!COpic materlals (paper. lex· tiles, etc.); sec ChapleT 7.

.In ::I)ddilii~l:l. ~o iht lile';u ,g;m~ ~1i'Y J)! dIe (lIdoo!' mmll. '!l!JI'lldmu ~1~!I'lie!!I, d!.e 3it ,li,Vl'la_itimllW~ \IN)uif. ~I]ltiilnlil d~lit M1~\ti'.mmt pin fir ~,ON~ II,tmI~.. ~ ~c r:rliii~ .p:n.'Ii PUliOf:M l~.Jlm'tild m d:i.!!liU: _ bl!! r I~llli ~1r ~r W,ll~!!!lr tMu r1liJ JIY~J~ aiJ!i'I .i:\ea[:: MI~ ~ ~d&il ;{d(lf(1 !)Q

, ,-pLl ~!I. ICI,IIl11li "'Iiil' d~;fJ fl IDIniln;g II.IUu 'w,~ ~_ 1101 i ::._ - (MIfiI!l!l!Oil., ~~L oUl iijf 'lJl!.e Iliiip~ly ,liIQjJlIl:l .1iI ~I;U ~Iif maJ,r:~"m~Q' ~ h.~ ~~U~lfilill ,clU(i1:.,. 'l1iif: !tIfoc£itUTC! il~Il" -UIn;!!1iiing ILh~ ~E E, - ill ins ft,onl I!;i1H1!' 'IQW1Il"~ i:n. ~)!liNi!:!L~~ of nmm lI~iUl;n.de' tC):~d" roof I L[i,~'Jiit: lwd; ~I!!I p:tIi1d: ro,~~ )~!i!Q!~, LD~d ~I '~:filta,iiil·eil 11'1 ~:h!Jr' J. J~.' .u~I;.l. :rnd lnblili',.1 i~ ~llIfIa ~a'. ~g~j; ,IU·''u.

HEAffNIG m;4,D 'ES\11U1I

ne l~~jlm~' L_iill ~~Jw'th"ll h, 'liiI! 1r.'-"lIil,tialioi[l ~tI:!lelm;~[il1l I~I-, hrouWig equip!ilfi~m. Norma;lly. ·~ti_ hil:"H~flJ!! Ir!o!d hi ~[IJI]~~ed 'Of du! wimlt~r d!~ig~! ~e;m~i ~n~1!i (ICfl,\!~~Jr'f 2~ ~:li~:l! Ilr u~~'!J:FriII1k,g ~t I'! il~~t~ Ih~f,~6~ • l\U< !l't~lU ii, ohllJ Iklr 11111 ~~Ul lii""m on h"r' im!Iit:~~ Iif!!_~' ~,I:c~ Uftil~iI~, t11~~. Thil ali;. nuI!.e !lPill~l U!ltm ~n[i!ll <l:c'lOOJUIlkI!..,~ hea" I' -~ II1hnJI Olt~ til~,iJdiillllll ~rU(!J,'llfli! !lUf1'l;I1lI11:1~~rli:' 11~'t '~~ le.!l '3f.-d tbl:' ~lcat ;t"~uil;M ttl QIh /I: dl~ ouuloo <l,[r w!"!kh 1n.;i'~ ~~IiiJ.U);lle ~nd/rw ii71la,y .Il~ r,i!!.q,lli'" ~!I !Oil' !iI:i!'j!I.IJHn: 011'1. rG.I1i'i!,~Jt:t' ~ M(i~~,jlU UrI~ ~.'I',M\l;!iml~ tlH (jD~IIi'LiitlUI~ .i.nd p:~u:r'!:I f!:lf d .. ~.nuw~~~1Il1J b~1l i~ ,~Jj,,~plm' jj ~~U'" '~~!Ilh d!i! Ir'!JJ '~Q1!;d~lg ~~ ~n&uOlll!:f:DII Iilir IJ)wtElth.,a., "'g. i' n~M~iIlJ1alla, a !J~iI,'JI!1!i atlrnl:l,!)e riU~~ fm- COItlro)illinM tlI~ l\u~:~1I: 10li1l in !II ~undhltg ,trrliJnmf,

IUI,():i::IM~!1' f,ut;llifl, diiil~m~y !~ f'iUI,~~d~'md in 't hI)' 1:11',,1 PJi!itiWll (~r'lhil; ,!:i.i!iitd (1g: ~!Ulitl i:li ~ -fli pi!l: U.l.i:I\~SiWLjilg. 'Cilpil~ll l\~'t.y II'fCtl ~I!I:I mOl,~ be Iluhi!!!~d wl.l,!!;!'! the iltm~lIiiJi' -'wJlblin ll.h~ !!opii:!~ U' Ilh~iW'~ 10 drt!!!, t!I! few d,~ dll!-I'l'iI.J.~OO4!j !!It'll. ~Q.i!d. T'hiL' I'r ~ Ilp~ h. - I~fi ~1'I'linl:lOWi ~ -'fi li fi In1 Y'. 'f,!'tAli'I' "-, ~11!l 2llI~ rU'fjr~i';d6 rreroommt'fh1 ~ ~lilul1:e dt'!!!fMll lond"rii,9IU f~ J V~IiOOr:W OIIf;1fln~no1i1l,.. ,ill nn:! 'l'~bJi!" H

'1~ ~ fflilU. in~ ~:I~ ~ din;), I~Jj:F l'~li~lflrl'ili Ul'Ilg lh,!! I'ihilr

~1 'GIII:i~tiIV n>dI:i.eHl@i1'! wJlc.111 'I"Ipef.'illHfig 1n Ih!'~

maiQmm~"

The .pnt_~_ 'd dr'Zruplly 1'J~tllul !JI1" ~IC'!lllIpt.l,f,iII' ,tme 1001 §I "db T!iS f i.II~jo wl~r.!l _ -. I} 1i1'd~lf1<& i" bHl:uplld ~._ ~th~ilIil5i ltihe: ... ~- J ~11!lm !(!I,r ~ IlIiil~tm~1 b.ult'd 11m 1Ii~ -fl ~pu~!l:'I' 1i~I!!!I~~!;:L :y~!, Altbmi;g~~ ~I,lt!i, [~'11 !I1f Il~rl ~lfllll ~!t-y IJIl! !!!!Iec(lv.c hu r~lli'lhif!£ fud CIEOIWIly .• I1rHf~ l'i!(I,lliill tei~!J:i]nIH"nI~p,,~ul~Y iii R:qui~d fOI:

pi!LillJjjll- JQ. Ie'. i~ !'WIT l~' dn'III'II,ti.1.11! to' pmvil~1le dl~ .Didi!W~'[i!l}I!I~~1 -pli'u;y~ 'it .... ~iI~ l,f «I~nl~'I!I;!,iU~ ~'I~DI1:uj.&A b mlueri\pl~r~dJ ~~~'t!!~ (if pitik,!lJJ i ~q,ui~!!!tl, a.[~.u hJfcedJ d1,yu;l!:n?ll, H !I', tJiI(l~rUJ'~, l;l"!,!hh]i'I'~ that tbe '1lL!C of i!JtOrll~ in rGtJ!J~lllr dlc• h~iiUn.p; ~{ii!ld ~1fiI(r itl~o plll~ e] ~llllj~jl1!"'nll I~~ec~ 'i.I~u i.~M 'be ili.'pp~~ctl

'w~di,~ .-

i';ki nOtll~:ir ,I.-Yilld iljlj~mJ'~m1g' I~~J~ ei!lil~l! I,~d~m.:!; :n'l:l hi!i.!'O!I.'tli !lIiDiptlLi.!llW, -~' :i]r Mf~V m hiiil1!i.~~~ I'l ,1~ll, _ ,di~~~ M~II i~!tlrl ~liiJ m~1IJII!I an ,r1il~t'oIl~1'" 000 dm f!i" q]lJiit,~ I~ :IO:I!lilll!,. l~lr R,ivm ~lilb,Ec f,g__d, ~l~e I[~:eigli~ fif iiii,;'t 'I'~lmjn~d ~(!J ~Gtrer. dIe' b'~r.lt IUlid b. ,!ilL~~lJ 1~~IG5It u~ 'lhr ~1I~JU'1 bl:lent ]ud '11I!;iil:)I' I\J:£ Ul.<ill': i'it ~~~~i:ltlr O!h:ilnd~, (:veu,u:,:! g! r-'! ~~JJ' tJCil" '~~gH'!! dlll~I1!.':[,!ldIl'h'l d~wl~~nl: t.,en~[J;f!,n'!lm\ ), WIIIf Ithl,tI!.t'i,ltilC' 1!t'ji-bl.ijlb~~J~ 1':!r.r:n,1. i'I!l.I,;lliv~ ItiIH~idi:~r~ lhe w{',~· I Q.lb ~$,Ie:i;n~-~' t1GIT'i:iililiD (CI!l,!;l~I~D In. ~U.U~U:ifli!III' ,B m~ ~ElW~ ifiill ~I,~"~ I~~~* [!!~!!'liI""'\iI!

To,. [.UI'l""'~lilI,R djll:llllmE'l'iUi 1lI'Iilfl 1W(~liIlrr.1J hu;, IU,Rh [lllltl[li.lde Il!\I.,!Q] 111'!::~la,uw~!. { it!?' t;hlillp:n ~, -ra""J!l' !l!tJ, ,'(lgt: JIiJ~').

I, DIlli!!lM:l! l'!Jum Ull'f!!,I.I))!:!lllU!l1;' IJ~~n! to: p~ l I'iH~,~,I' In' iiI.!!lIj!JI!!itAl i~ ~ thl! 1'~J.u:imdl -~~ v~Hj~I~,

2 •. ;!)UMI!~Oil[dJ, l'll,jJJ aJJiiilllllillll!!ii:'11 mMhml!li ,~;I~i rl'}.fnu :a.' itI~ ~fr 11011:1, ~!cubn.~ iii 'Hft'P.i tW"i!!I' I~~W [~'~Ilr. I. r:nH'iI' 1lli1E' tll.rf;U!~,I,11 f~~n" ;~r ¥O.~tlUI· <IIi!ll1lll! 1!j!ti'lU~'I' it rnd iiiue~u hll'.! L IJ~ "I, 1!I]J~I\I!,i: ~ 1lIl.l!""tipiU~d I~,. 'I'hf- irelfl'~~"'~ d(l~,Ui!11!. ut du,! Plf)~t ul~r:' ·1:1~"'IHi(Jn.

ilL .rnec!lI~!M'I nf ~ h:r if!~iI"!:1fi.~1J ~!ilNiI!Um' t)(,lInt~11!!; ,~jl dl~·ir, d!~' !:lI1~I!:I~IJi~IlIl"" ~I,l" ~h~ '! ':3Q1W IHIJI'Io1 be r;'!l~! 111; lmJ.

EQlJilPIMIINT SILECl'llONl

A I1:i!1:F~!~' 1'!lJ:~d [I' ~Vi:l]tlllll!!jJ;, ~~HI rq III 1,1I~f~C I'll! 'Im!ld 'b!'~!~~ .~~ '~<;Ii'~1 IlJljldty ~!tI:fI~~I!Ilm uhf]!I'F1iI!:~ Ihi~1 Ifl'Jldl ThoE' alill ~~lifllru.I'ldl ,n d,ll!! ~p,f'I: IIUIU ~ ,~~I, [!l!~~ ~~11!1~~ I rw~ ~illU:fI!.ifi.. !I~:I .. _iJ:I,~' bm I~ du' iIo~U"1 II Iii n ii\tIm I "d I.:' iii I b[~1h lCi't~igl~.!'I",\I, 1[i'/,gP~\i"1ii' ,~. ".4:p1'l'11~' 11 1',.- tllftll1ll',"

to," :pFI1'¥I:!1r::. In!oW!;h:llfc~ '!iIlnd , l!llllil ~ ~, 'II' liIl!h,r

~rni i'in~ ~WI:!·t·fi,nlfi' iIr~t!'! wl1! d, Iii tw l~h h~I!~dhi!!.!,!qliflp~11 ~quipilnmlli ill ~{'I~(:~~ (air fJ,Lli1,fd'][7{'i ' ~J~1rnll.!tlJ, d~w poi.lIe" i:1~~,h

eHA PTER 1. BUILDING SURVEY AND LOAD £STt fATE

1-7

'KU.nY: ootmn'1OIl!I

' .... ·.iO._....,T ... ,..- "'.,...:._ID,..,... ... "II!..'. .... .. L'

T.L. 1 r"0.'11

1III'I"IIIfII-"a.' '.' " LI

,..... .. .....

-,....

____ .. ,OItQ:IN AlII )( or = ._ .• ,

____ ,"" •• CIKIIUTID All )( .,,= "

:t01IAL (Anull I_I." ,"fll nea,.) ... .,

''_'' " ......... ' ','D'. : .... •• • ..... '

","U

TO·"',\.· nu ',D' '!IOU.

o-+-------r-------;--_,~-------

:-+---------r-----------;---_,r----------------

..

~ -r--------_,r-----------+-----t-------------

• ,~,----------~----------~--~r---------------

-------------------------------------~------~ ~' ~-------~------~-+--~~-------------

N:

.-4--------~----------_r----~--------------

...

I

lOT,M. TllAHS IIlSSl011 LOS!

~ ... = .. =-.::::...._+- :~::- :-+" __ .....,, ... - .. ':::.. ~ t- __ 'Il_"_' '1_-_--1 :.,:;~:;:~·',.··""'-9;J17~·'C'1IL--X--_-_-_-_-_-:,,-,-)(-,-1 ... -,-+------------

anI_ F ....LI&., n )( - " - '" JC '11.1': IJIflLftA,.,.. N1I l( or X 1.M 1- _

--"-=----1- J --.LII."I< "._")C _'" :IUITOTU '

__ ",II9!)lI=-" PU=I=J:,t- __ . __ . '" x ... • '" ~ /! unn .. ~......... ,.,.

TOtIU..

.... L

... ,

. en .... _1DP •••

_ .. , .

I-

CHOIa:

i eO:;;''',,111 • __ • ,,' ... CI.NCI'R" IU*?=". ~ f~1'DI 11;8 '" Ii~

FIG. 2 -- HEATING LOA.D EST,I,MATE

CHAYr. R 2. D

'Thlschptt:r p n1S the dal.a from whithlhe

ouwoor' r(l;,- ign rnndiuom are nt- bti h.~d rOT vvlOUS loeaJiti and Inside d~igtll r('rmdjliolU for various appficauonL The design oonuitlo,m r~(ablish.ed ri· termine the ltcatcontr:nt 0'£ the air, both eutdoor and lllsM.e. Thtr directly alhxt the load on the .. jr cooditioning equipllleo1 b mey,enting the cnrum~i'on of heal 1"0 the ~)l.leriol' stru U.ire, 11'I'Id the: dlfi"tf" 00: inl heat eontenr between dle' out· door and in ide air. For lurdli!t dettlil,. n:[et to ChO;ltT$ J and 6.

rOllTDOO,R DESIGN CONDI1'IONS- SUMMER AND WINTER

The outdoor design rcondhU'1TI lined in Table J areth indusLF}' acepred d j n conrJitio'O' as publooed ib ARI SuI. 530>- ","4 'lb 19~8 HAt:

Guide. Til wndilLiQAA it lincd. p:'nnn, 3: eheiee 01 olildoor dry.bulb And wel·bulb U:l"llper;l'I.ur'es for dil£eront typus 0'1 applications aJ ollflilined boelow,

NOItMAl DESIGN CONDIT10NS - SUJIAMEJ!

Norma] desgn oolldit.icms oure reoom:mendC'd lor Woe with ('()m/ott tmd m4uJ'lTiai coolmg tJpplicalio7l'S wbue it isoc~MionCl,Uy pcnni~~blC! lQ exeeed the d~gn rroomenndit:ioru. These oOldoot daign ,,:on· ditions are ther limfllIJ:11t'{)usiy oCf"tcmng dry-lmU) and W~i.b'brb'rempf'rQIUfrt:J and mou.tllt£ ,cfmteo.lif, whitham be ~pe ted tn be exceeded a few rhnes a year :[or Ilion perioch. The til' -bulh i:s f'XC eded more fRql.l'Ond' dum th we:t-bujb il(,"mpu:l.lurc. and lUU.aU, whrq 111 wt't·buJb is JOWCT IJun dC$ign.

When coo.lin· and dtJlllImidUi:liofil'~de:b;ydra. don) litre pcr(ormed seprur.n 'Iy wkh these t,Ypet of applicaliom, U5C lh~ normal d· ign dry-bulb tem-

NDIT1. N:

peramJC fo sele dug the seosible cooling 1I1}par.!· uu: u C- a W(l15lUII,;' nnrent onopond:in to the norll1~1 d ·igu w t bulb ll!mpernlDCI! nd 801'1'"", I'll lu selcning tbe dehumidifier (dehydr.uor).

Da.il:y ra nge .is the averag~ difference between the high and low at' -bulb temper,llur:s(or n 24-hr peri(Min 3 des.ig,ll d . Thi'l. nge .... n·. \\,id. ,loaID dimalr:: rondiuIJM

Mli.X~MUMDeSIGN CONOmONS - SUMMER

Moiimum summe design condidom are recom· m nd d ror lflb!1fllhm:1!I fwd indw~T!a' al'plrraiw'OJ where ('xreooing rilu: room design cooditionsfor even shorr pm.iQds of time' can be dC'uirocu(1L1 to a prmluctar proc~l)S.

Tnt' maxi.mun d IGn m -bll~b ;l.Iul wt't-bulb tenl~raU:l1J1~ re inn)h.lr_~!{HJ!. peak (nol individu.al r . It.). "111 rnoi~lur I'."Omenl is an inm'1liU:u~1 pel .• and i lined 0111y for 1JS!i' in 'the sele ,Lion of ·eparaie cooling aud u!chumlid:ifying lIyt-m's 'fur dll ely

nntwUed spa<le5. ach uf these ,condit..i(m~ an be {"xpt: led to be x~led 110 more than 3 hours in a normal summer,

INORN.AI.DEStGN CONDITIONS -WINTER

Normal winter Jblgf'l £.or ditions ruce recoin tmmded ,fror U5t! with aU (oml'Q t Qnd ;nDJulr.In,J ',cedll'lg fl:P· pliclItHms_ The rUu.door dry-bulb Lt'm)Jel'3llJre can be expected ItO go below the Iisted teinperatuees 3, lew nm a year, normally dmi,ng the e, rl)' m!.)rnH~g hours, TI e iUlf1l1.1lilf 'u e ura li51c.'Cl are Ihe , lllfI, ·0£ all thre d)" in the lear 01'1 wh.i h l.he daily n.~r·an l mperarere Inl! below 65 F db, urn the num,ber of deg:rt!e! betwe n65 "f db and. the daily ltIca.o '~tmpef"'tUrc.

1-10

PART 1. LOAD .ESTIMA TlNG

TABU 1-0UTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS-SUMMER AND WINTER

NORMAL DESIGN AVG. I MAXIMUM DESI.GN NORMAL
I
(;OND.-5U M MU DAILY COND.-SUMMER DESIGN CONDo
STATE July a. 3:00 PM RANGE .NI., at ltOO PM WINTER WIND DATA flna-
AND rloll
Mohru •• Mol$tu •• A"II. V.loclty· ..... Alto".
(;10' 'Ory_ W .. • C'9"I.,,'* Dry- Dr,· Wtt· Cont.,,'t Df'(- Annu.1 :"."01111111 Dlrectl.", , s •• L,.ti·
Bulb ,Bulb .Igr/lb of Bulb Bulb Bulb I(lr/lb of Buib 0 •• , •• L ..... I Iud.
IF) IF) dry air) 11'1 If I IF) dryoirl IF) DOYI I Sum",er Wlnl",' 1ft) Idegl
AlA8AMA
AnniJIlon 95 78 117.5 IV S 2806 733 34
B Innin g ham 95 78 117,5 19 99 10 2611 5.0 S ~.O N 694 3"
M~ile 95 80 III 12 95 112 lS5.6 IS IS66 9.0 SW UN 10 31
Monlllomery 95 78 117.5 15 10 2071 7.S NW 293 32
-
,A.'ZON'A.
flag.'aff 90 65 BI 26 90 -10 72.&:2 7.7SW ~.894 3.5
Phoe"i .. 105 76 9.&: 30 1,3 76 1'26.9 25 UAI 5.0 W 5.4£ ~ l,10B 33
-
T_ 105 72 77 30 25 5.0 W 5.2 NW 2,376 32
Window 100 70 B5 -10 4;853 35
Yum .. 110 78 93 30 30 1036 6.7 N 1"6 3l
A,I'KANSAS i
Fori S",hh 95 76 lOU 16 103 10 3226 7.0 E B.3 E .... 8 35:
liltle Rodt 95 7& ! 117.5 16 10) 83 US.S S 3009 6.0 NW 8.3 NW 324 35
CALIFORNIA
Bakersfield 105 70 S4 15 25 . 499 I 35
El C .. ntro 110 7,8 9. AJ 33
Eureka 90 65 52 30 4758 7,0 N 7.3 137 41
heinO 105 7. 76 35 110 75 95.9 2:5 2403 I\.ONW 5.4 NW 287 37
--- -- - --_.
tag,",o at-oct. 9 82 70 103.0 '0 J.4
Long leach 90 70 78 , .. 47 34
Los Arlgel .. , 90 70 78 ).4 9~ 35 1391 6.0 SW 6." HE 261 3.
'Oakland B5 65 60 17 94 68 99.3 30 17 38
-- - --- f-- f-
","OIItaI1111. 0 . 2,6,:15 .2
'olodlltlQ 95 70 70 , 3.
!led Bluff 100 70 62 305 .40
Socramento 100 72 73 18 30 2680 7.2 Sf . 116 39
-- -~ -- ---- --
Son hmodino lOS 72 6S 34
Sen, DieIlO B.S 66 75 10 88 7. 7B,4 35 .596 7.0 W 6.3 NW 26 33
Son FranaKa lIS 65 60 17 3s 3137 12.0 W 7.5 N 17 38
,- r--
San :10 •• 91 70 76.S 25 2923 100 37
William. .40 110 80 7 ..... U 39
COLORA.DO I
De .. .,.", 95 ~ 60 25 99 68 89..4 -10 S839 7.0 S 7.5 S 5.221 40
Duranllo 95 65 70 6.558 37
IFort Calli", -30 "I
'C,o.ndl Junc:!ian '95 65 62 2.4 102 68 86.2 -IS 5613 6.0 SE ".4NW ',587 :)9
Pueblo I 93 65 63 2,5 -20 S5S8 7.9NW ".nO 38
CONNECTICUT I ~
8ridgeport 95 75 99 14 0 9 41
Hartford 93 75 102 16 94 B2 0 6113 7.0 S 8.7 NW 58 42
Ne ... Haven 95 75 99 U -95 0 58"80 7.0 S 9.4 N 23 AI
Waterbury -15 .2
DElAWARE
Wilmington 95 78 117.S IS 0 10.0 SW NW '3. ~O
DIST. OF COLUMIIA
Wo>h,n9fon 95 18 117 .. 5 .8 • 99 6.4 . , 55.6 0 .561 S.O S 7.8 HW 12 39
.
flORIDA
.... p .. ,a<hi<olo 9S 80 131 25 1252 S.O 50W 8.", 23 30
Jocklonville 95 78 ,17.S 17 99 82 150.5 1.5 , lBS 8,0 SoW 9.0 NE 18 30
Key We~l' 98 1'8: 112.5 "5 59 9,0 SE 1'0.6 HE 23 25
Miol'fli I 91 79 n' 12 92 81 150.5 3S IU 7.0 Sf 1,O.lE 11 16
- -- - - - -- - --
PenUlcolo 95 78 117 . .5 12 20 .281 10.9 N 408 31
TQIIIPQ I 95 78 1 ".5 14 95 30 571 6.0 HE 8.6 NE 25 28
Tolloha~,ee 25 1463 N 68 30
i ·'COtto"pond. 10 dry-bli'b Qnd ... et-bulb lelllpe, .. ture, ihl'ed, Qftd 1. cotrK1ed for ojtil1;de 'lI'f cit,.. tC«r.~pond. 10 peolt d.' .. pQint tt",perQt\!re" corr·e<:Ied lot Qllil1.od ••

CHAPTER 2:., DESI

1-11

'rOLE '-OUTDOOR D SIGN CONDI,.ONS-SUMMER ANID' WINTER '(Con'd)

~
N'O.MAIi. DlstOH "YD. ,M A,)(:IMU M OUION HOItMId
COHO. UMMII a,AILY COND.--IUMMII DISIGH COND.
July .. , ,.00 'M IlANQ! 1;1y 01 ~,oo' PM WINTU WII\ID (JATA 11 ... l1li'
STAn - 116n
AND MII'.I", M, .. lohl'''''' A", •• V.I .. dt,. .".1 Ali.",.
an Dry,. 'W"~ C •• hlll· 10",,· IiIiry. WIIt- e.",."'t Orr- , ...... ".1 ' ..... m. I D .HIII ... 'H, LIi'H-
iJ 1111. ("II of ... I:.,l .. • "n, , .. ,.JIb of hill r ...... r-' - I.e." litH
In , If 1 .d.;r girl (II) ff1 IIFI dry (lid If) D • .,. :5ulllIII_ Wiftt", 1,,1 [1I.al
GIOIIOh"
Arlicmllil i7l ,.. 11:)9.5 1. 101 ,12 ISO.S 10 2'9M r.c",,,,, n.7NW 975 :u
... "' .... 0 n. 76 100 II '10 230~ 6.5,",W 19' l.I
1IumwIdI;, '5 1. 117 31
100- -, ,- r-- - - f-
C PI n 3:1
!ii'S , 1. 111.$ II ." 131. HIS, 671'lW "01 lS
M_
~a.n " 7. 111..5 17 t9 20 I'li! 1.0 $,W 9.,SKW 42 31
ID'''"O
w.. '5 65 !~.5 " 10' 71 9U1 -10 Sill .to NW .1 SE '2.705 "j
L .. btDn ,5 M I. 2' ~ 5109' <4.1 76'3 U.
l'ioto,.110 95 4S 61 2t fOO -.$ 67.111 USE .,UI "3
Twin FaJb -10 'N A2'
'~O " 7. U:U JOR 9.8 J119 37
C.nn:; 0
(hk01l9 '5 7) " 19 10. 10 1(0.6 -11' 618~ 1'0,01'1_ 1:1'.0 S'W 594 Al2
Dorwlllll1 -5 NW "0
- '6- t---;, --22 - lOJ - ~l - - - -- ~
11'01100. JIll ISU -10 59'4
l'iIona, 96, 76 103 10 100 ~110 600AI 8.0 5 US 602 AI
!,Ilifl,fT.hl 'VI n 106 N -'0 05."6 11.9 MW 603 ,4O
',""1"". I
Evoftl1'lb. 95 7. 117.5 19 102 U ISO,S 0 .,HO 7.0 SW 9.7S 388 :nl
for1 Woy". " 73 99 20 100 -10 6,232 8.0 SW 10." v« m '1
IrIdh:lIU,p""nl ?.!_ 1tl 10.'" 1:1 9P -loO !".5~ 9.0SW 11.3 5 715 ''0
~ 0- - ~ --
~fI ... !I -::I SW 17:1 n
T-.n ttD"'" PS 71 12" I,U' ",,0
IOWA
C.do;r It<l" d. ~~
'1::1 .... "1'011 95 71 117." ~~ -tS 62.52 IU,NW 6"". U
I)., Mol .... 95 71 till II 10:1 -114 637~ 6.OSW 10.1 HW 1800 .2
Dltb .. q!l. 95 7B 1l7oS -20 'IlO . 7.1 "1liiO' A"
fart Codg. - - - -- I---'
-20 n
iI:,"*,," 95 71 111.5 -10 5&63 U6W I 637' .1
Sbt. CitJ' " 11 12 )' 103 -10 6905 10.0 S u.s HW i.nr 43
WI"",," -,:5 AJ
KANSAS I
C_d" '" 71 u.s: 2Q -10 SAlS 1.75 IIA2!: 39
Oadg. Oiy " 71 , In 21 106 -10 SQ,t, 110,6 2I"J2;1 3
501lro!l HI ~ IS ~ l,226 n
" - ... 100 7. lOll.! f---- I-
", -110 5075 10.0 S ',.2 s "~ "
WIdIIto tOO 75 ft 21 11O 79 '2'UI -HI -t6>4A lUIS 12. ... S \,300' :J.
IUNTUCIlC .... I I
~"""lImn 0 1.7'2 11~.~,~w 9" lIB
LovINIII. U 1. til" U 99 0 ."f1 1.05W " •• S'W "'9' 31
U:nnslil.'NIt. I
AIto,.~ 20 H I' 32
'",Or! '. 9~ 0 III 13 U 13 161.2' 70 1103 I 6.0 SW :1.6 , J.O
~po<l 100 7B 109'.S I~ 10J 13 ISO.S 20 2112 5.0 ~ 18.6 SE 1'7 31
,
MAINE I .
..... ;;.wa 9il 7,:) 95 U :.1162 "5
,,.lIP 90 1:3 95 13 4J
lor Warb!lll" -15 NYI' ....
--- - - -_ ,_ . --- - - --
lelfq I -, 4-4
IEIHIpGirt 90 7P 1'8 1] -10 1i"~,5 1.05 IUIN 100 .u
MIIii!m.t -15 ~
-- - - - f-- ,--_- - ---
,"","' e 9644 "'W 1.7
Ptriond 9(J n 95 13- '93 -5 7m 1.05 IO.4I'1W U " ..
'_'_'d 1 -70 ,4.
'; ,CI:iiT......., ... iIo 'd"..klll IImt 1II".t-blilb 'Irem ~<lIu~.'. I.", orod 1000rreded fOr !I!!i'lll!ie af ~ty. k=an:_pCIftdJ Ito I,. ... d"wpoiiol I."'p.,,,tur., COIr, .. cte.d ror ,al"ll/cle.

1-12

PART L LQAD ESTIMATlNU

TABLE li-OUTDOOR DE'SIGN CONIDITIONS-SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT.)
NOI.MAL IDES'ION AVO. MAXIMUM DEStGN NO'IMAL
COND.-51iJ'MMIEIt 'DAilY CON'D ....... SIIMMEI OESION CONDo
SlATE Myal 3,00 PM IlA:NGE July al 3,00' 'PM WiINrE:1 WIND DATA, EI,.",.,.,
- floll
AND' Moblu,. M'of.llur. D,.,·l A"'II. V.I,.'cUy .nd lob .....
CITY Dry- w.t- ('"n".nl'· Dry- ,Dry- W.I- (ont.nlt Annual 1!!.'vallln,8: DlracliDn S ... , Lall.
Bulb Bulb Igr/lb of Bulb Bulb BI/lb ' Igr/lb ·of 8ulb ' Dog, •• L ..... I Iud.
IFI IF) dry 01,) (F) IF} IF} dry air'} If) Day. 5ummer Wrnler tft) {delll
~
MA'RYLAND
:hlli,"a,,, 95 78 117.5 1:8 :99 0 4487 6.0 SW B.2NW 14 39
Cam.bridge 5 INW 39
Cllmberland 95 75 99 18 39
'Frederick -5 NW .0
'Frostburg 'I -5 W ,,0-
Sal"b"ry '0 NW "0
MASSACMUSETU ,I
Amnenl -10 NW 42
80,lon 92 7S lOA 13 '96 78 135.9 0 5936 9.0 SW 12." W U 42
FaU Rfve,l" -10 .2
f,;II:hbu'li 93 75 102 17 -1'0 6.743 W NW 0402 43
tawell -15 43
Nantucket 95 7.5 99 0' I·U 45 Al
.New Bedford 0 .. 2
Plymouth -5 W ,42
Springfje'ld 93 75 10.2 17 -10 9.0SW 199 42
W~eft~tt 9'3 75 102 17 0 62,5 "2
M.I(;"IOA""
"Ipena 95 7.5, 99 -10 82.78 11.0SW 615 .. 5
Slgll!apid. -L5 NW .. 3
Detroll 95 75 99 19 101 79 135.9 -10 6560 10.0 SW 12 .. 0SW' 619 .. 2
Oo:anabo -15 8777 9.5 NW "6
flim 95 75 99 20 -10 W W 766 .. 3
Grand 'li:gpid~ ~"5 75 99 20 98 -10' ,6702 B.O W 12.1 N'W ,63'B 43
'Kalamazoo. -5 W "2
Landng 95 75 10" 20 -10 :rU:1l 9.8SW 861i "3
Ludington -10 7458 11.9 W ...
M .. rq, ..... fle 93 73 90 20 96 -10 87"5 10.6 NW 652 1,7
Salil'!naw 95 75 9' 601 43
Saul! Ste Marie -20 9307 8.9 SE 72A 47
MINNESOTA
Ai .... andrla -25 NW
Duluth 93 73 96 19 -25 9.723 I:USW 1'3 •• SW 1,12B .7
Minne<lpol'i. 95 75 103 17 102 -20 7966 10.05 11.3 NW 839 AS
51. CIO<Id -25' 46
51. Paul 95 75 99 17 103 79 131.1' -20 7975 11.0SE 9.5 NW 719 45
MIS$IS51,,1
Jock1on 21 103 83 155.6 15 5.0 SW 7.7 SE 316 32'
Meridian 95 79 12" 21 10 2330 4.0 SW 6.3 N "1,0 32
Vlck.burg I'S 78 117 .. 5 21 '96 10 2069 6.0 ~W' 8.3 226 32
MISSOURI
,Columbia 1 100 78 109 • .'i 19 -1,0 5070 8.9 SW 739 39
I(,an .... City 100 76 106,5 19 109 79 135.9 -10 4962 9.0 S 10.3 NW 7'1 39
Kirknille 19 108 12 ISO.S SW 969 .to
-_.- 11.8 S 465 39'
St. LQuh 95 78 117.S 20 108 81 135 .. 9 0 4596 9.05
St, JOleph -10 5596 11.3 NW 817 40
Spri"gf,eld '8 93 79 135.9 -10 4569 8.0 S 10.9 SE 1,301 37
MONtANA
81lting$ ~:-I : 70 20 lOA -25 7213 1:2.4 W 3,11'9 46
B'UH~ -20 NW 5,538 46
Greal Fen. -20 SW 3,687 48
Havre 112 20 -30 8416 7.,0 E I' 9ASW 2 • .498 "9
- I--- 20 I-- 7.1. 4.090 47
Helena 905 67 71 97 70 n .• -20 7930 7.0 SW I SW
I(ali,pell 95 65 :56 -20 8032 5.2 3,004 .8
Mile, City -35 7S91 .5.6 S 2,629 47
Minaula 95 i 66 41' 20 -20 7604 E 3,205 47
·C:ornnpon<!. ta dry·bulb .. nd ... et-bulb lemperalure •. lined • o .. d hcorreded 'or ,,,llilVde af dly.
fCorl.e~p<>nd. 10 peak de"'poinl """'perature, correl;!ed fO'r altilud:e'. CHA (IT,Ell 2. DESICN

1-13

"ABLE 1-0UTDOOR DESIGN ,CONDIT.,ONS-SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT.)

,. ... 0. -
NORMAL DESIGN MAXiIMUMDfSlGN NOIMlll
COND.-SU M MI-. II)"II,Y' 'C'ONJi).~IlJMMI!. DESIGN CQN!),
.1111, 01 3JOO' 't-' IAHGI! Julir <II ~.oo PM wlNITt'k WIND 0.11'1'. 1."<1-
11ATII till"
AND M.IIIII •• , M.l"., •• A..~. ".1..:11,., and .... '" ..
CfTY 1iI...,- Witl- 'C!llillilfll'" D..,- DI',- w .. ~ ,C· .. ,-rt D",,- .... I'! 11.11<11 .... ",.111 .Dir.ctl ... ~~ IL !I-
a.III, 11;" .. (g,/! ,4H a.I 81111t .. I .. (,,-t or I!I¥I~ Ii-.nl! I-----~-- I. .... J 'I.I!
[f! (1'. <4ry ' .. , 1ft Ilfl I!fl ,d". !!lrl (I'I DIJ'II - 'W' ... I t 10:1*9)
I .ASKA
G~~I~ -20. 1,156 I
~ 'II,' 111 124 70 T06 -1Q !iVBI)' '9.0 5 10..65 '1,180 .1
~ -'15 ~W NW III
Nanh "-II. tS f-11 -t~ 26 1'04 -1"6 1U -2(1 t.3U 6.DS T.fW 2.10.5 ~l-
o-ha, 9,5 "' ]'2J 70 110' 10 111.11 -10 ,",5 1..0$ 97 "'IN IfIl'l I
V:a 95 1'8 11~5 H -'5 7191 9.2 2,6]7 <41)
YOi'll -15 H"'I
INlVAI)A
ILotV-..n 115 75 76 .co %0 S I,IU 36
1- , 95 65 6,1 .,1 l~ 66 M;9 -5 5621 11) 5W ,.o.W '."'1 AO
TOiIi!pQlI , fin 11'.' SE ',12' ,a
ww-....:a. ,.I ~ 62 ~o -15 63:.57' 1.0SW 8.1 H'E ~,1,:t U
'N W .... MPSHIUI \
1-& -7' .u
C_rd 90 r2!- ,,, 1 !II -13 1"00 5.0 NW &.2 NW 219 43
!IC, ..... - i- - -- ~20 - - - NW- ,u
M'Grod'!.".' 90 71 9'" 14 92 171 43
I'~, to 7l 9' U 43
IIOW JfltSfY
~1Io"'ic: at., '$ 78 111.5 1A .5 SOlS 13.0 SW 15,B NW IJ 19
,'-",Il'.ld 9$ 76 P9 U US .41
t:!!I!'!dln 1<1 '02' B~ I U.S 0 10,.OSW 30 "0,
- "lr -- -.T '- f-- 171 ~~
!!osi 01'0._ 75 "
JIn~ ctty " 15 119 0 );iiW .&1
"'-GIl!: !iI5 15 9'9 14 '91 II 140.6 0 5500 1'l,.06W 17 .• 1 HW 10 .,
I'of_ ---:, -75 P9- -1'- " 13.0 S'W 10- -".-
s.-;, Hao:k 0 5369 16.1 ,41
Tr.nfOI> '5 "II 117.$ 14 96 0. !!256 ' .. 0 SW 10.9 NW lS6 AO
KIW MI.XICO
~. " 'I 10 t,U 26 9 68 U.'1 0 ."'" 1.05W J H S.IOI 15
.' til V$ 711 17 :U -10 ;'1m 6..05 7.15 3 . .643 n
~,FII PO " to 30 ;0 0 6,\" 6.0 SIf 7.1 NE 1JKJfJ 16
N W vou:
;., ~)' . '3 ,." Wil':! ,. 97' 1J 'Ill.! -10 MAl 7.0 $ 10.5 S '19 ,0
1I!onll!l!ll'!lrtl!ln, 9S 1~ IOU -10 6811 6.8 !'I,W 915 .u
~f(ara 9,' '11 90 ~11 U TI 126.9 -5 6923 12.0 $'" 17.1 W 604 .131
C __ 90 n e: - _, - ,&58 A',
-Z} UOS 1'.0 10.'
~...t -1(11 INW ,0
OJ-. flQIll, -15 w Ui
lIhoaI 6'1.4 --,.- .42'
-1.5 11.31NW
1<1 .... "' ........ -10 :SW .2'
lQe'l'lodd -2(1 W .",
"_Y«IrCiIiJ - '95, 75 81 ~w 10 r-i1
" , .. 100 1.,,.5 ,0 ,-,.11)1 Ill.O 5
e rll -,20 sw ;U
~I! ~15 sw ,n
o.w.QO Oll- ~J 90- - -10 7116 12.I.S 363 "3
111d'I .... r 95 15 IO~ II P5 ~S 671' I.OSW 9.6W 543 ~3
W."nKtllldz 93 rs 102 II 2311 .3
5',-)_ 93 r- .,,- 102 II 9'6 -10 6.899 9.1:1 5 11.2 S AO:O .. 3
WoJ~1 -15 SW U-
MOil''' CA.OLIH .•
~1I1 P:l 71 114.' HI 93 0 £236 6.o.INW 'UNW 2.1P2 36
ChoFlo!tI! 95 78 117.5 16 10 322 .. s.e SW ".3SW ,81'19 :IS
Gr .. ..,boro P'5 7r- 1-.23., 15 10 38 .. ' 7.P sW I9C 37-
lI:ol'!llgh U 78 II., . .!!: 15 98 812 155.6 10 3'115 6.0SW 7.95W :I,U 36
WiJlII!n." U 711 111.5 15 '5 III 150.5 15 2UO 1.QSW ,,A SW , 3"
I ·eo.rrtclp.onlili til ttry.,b ... Jb a"d WilL b"lb I IIlplliTot ,II • .-d. al'Jdl h _rood" roo ,a",""". of dly'.

tCon pCOId. '10 peed, d .... ~1 t.mpuahi"', mrr d for allit",d ••

1-14

PART I. LOAD ESTIMATING

TAIL'E 1-0UTDOOR DESIGN CONDi'TIONS-SUMMER AND WINTER (CONT.)
!NOIM,A!L PUION 11 ...... G. M"'XIMUM !DESIGN ! . NOIMAI. I
C'OND.-SUMMEI , DAILY CON'IiIi.,.....S'UMMEII :DE5IGNCOND.
July at 3:00 PM .'R:A.NG'£ July a! 3:001 PM I Wl.UI, WINb D'ATA EI • .",.~
S,tAT£ ! -
lion
A!MP :Mor.lvr., Molsll"" A ..... ¥'IJi!lcl'ly and A'b.v'.
,
CIfY 1),1'1'- WI'- Coni''''· 'Dry- !Dry. WIt- Cont',nlt Dry. ,A'nnua'i • ,.".111"11 Dlr.dion • SIll 'Lall-
lIulJ; Bulb I4r/11i! of Bulb 1Mb Bulb [gr/lbo. IBuib D •• r •• !l .... ,.1 Iud.
I:PI If I dry old IFI' ' IF) (fl : dry 1.11,) I,PI O'oy. 'Summer Winter. Iftl Ideg)
MOIUt' :DAkOTA
&lrfllc!rU: '95 73 9.5,.~ 1:9 103 -30 8937 9.01NW 9.1 HW 1',670 ,.7
Dt¥lk, Lake 95 70 77 -30 1:010A 10.1 W IABI .tI8
!'orgo 95 7' II0A.iS " 19 -25 10.,9 NW 900 AT
Grund Forb' -25 9871 N:W 83:2 U
Wlllhton 95 73 96.' -3S 9301 a.O,SE UW 1;919 A8
OHIO
""'tIn 95 75 99 19 -5 lOA A.:
CinaNla'i 95 78 117'.5 22 10' 81 I ,IS. 5 0: .a990 7.0 SW &.5 SW 553 39
'Cle".i'and 95 15 99 19 liOI 19 13:).9 0 bU. 11.0 S U.7SW 651 ,.2
Columbus 95 76 104.5 23 95 -10 I 5506 9.0SW 11 .. 6 SW 724 40
Il)aytO<l 95 78 123 23 99 0 5"12 B .. OSW' ILl SW 900i '0
Uma -5 oil
S'lndulky 9S 75 99 0 6095 11.0 608 42
lol.do 95 7S 99 19 99 -10 6269 10.0 SW 12.1 SW 589 4.2
Youn II rio"",,, 95 75 99 19. 1.186 41
OIUAMOMA
A.dmo.e .'0 H 162 I U
lartl'elville -10 1'1, 37
Oldahomoi Oiy 101 77 108 21 1:04 '0' 3670 10.0 5, 1'.5 S 1.,254 35
'fll!!a 101 77 10'1..5! 1011, ;1:9 UO.6 0 10.0S N 80. 36
OREGON
I"~I" '90 66 71 I:' -5 71197 5.6SE 3,.501 44
Eugene '90 68 61 19 -1.5 366 ".c
Medford 95 -70 76 19 I,A2B 42'
P,e ... dlelOn -u W 11,",..4 u-
Portland 90 68 iii 19 99 70 103.0 10 ,.353 6.0HW 7 .. 3 S 30 46
Ro."burg 90 66 .51 119 4.0 N 5!t3 ,.2
Wamic 0 W 4:$
.. ENNS1!. VANIA
AHQQna, 9:1 7!J 119 U -5 1'.469 ,AO
Bethlehem -5 'I "I,
&I., 93 15 102 18 -5 6363 9.0·,5 13.6SW 670' 42
IH'lH'rilburgl 95 75 '99 14 0 ,,1·12 7.6HW 339 .AO'
N .... Cafll", 0 f- NW ~
I
011 City '9.5 7S 99' 18 .2
Pt.lladelphlo '95 78 117.5 ... 97 0 .. 139 10.0 5W 11.0 NW 26 40
Pltt.burgh 9.5 75 105 U 98 79 126.9 0 S.UO 9.0 SW 11.6 W 1.2A' AO
RBlldlnlJ 95 7:5 99 0 5232 ,9.0 3'H '0
Suan:tan 95 15 99 1.4 95 -05 6218 6,0 sW' '1.6SW 7" ,n
Warr,!tn -1:5 NW '1
WlIllamspan -.5 N'W 325 ~2
RMODE 15LANID
Block MQnd 9" 1S 99 5897 20..6 N,W "6 .&1
Pawtu,ket 93 7:5 102 101 .1
Prayldence 93 75 102 14 0 598" 10.0 HW 12.1 HW e 042
SOUT" CAROLINA
CharlMI'on 95 78 117.5 1:7 98 B2: 15.5.6, U 1866 10.0 SW I 10,5SW 9 33i
Colurlibia 9:5 75 99 1'7 10 2.188 11,0: SW "111 34
Qree""iIIe 95 16 10~.5 1,7 10 lOS' 7.0 NE 8," 982 3S
SOU,t! OAII(OTA
Huron 95 7S 106 19 106 7' 126.9 -20 1940 10.0 SE I 10.7NW 1,28,2 ...
Rapid City 95 10 85 22 103 11 95.9 -20 7197 7 .. 0W 8.0 W 3.231 ...
$10<1" Fan. 95 7:5 99 20 -20 HW 1,'2'7 43
·'Co-r"!t,pO<'1d •. '10 d,'y·bulbtlnd wel'bulb 'Iemper,a'!"et lisled:" andi lis C'OI'lreclell for altitude, of ,city.
tCorre'pond, 'to :peak dewpoinl lemperature, corr,ededlo-r altTrvde. 1-15

IA I. 1-0UtDOOR DIS.ION CONDIT_ONS-SUMMIR A,ND WIIN1' I (CON'.)

, !'ItOI,M'" IlIESION COND.-SUMMIil ,J!!, (I' 3.00 PM

M._M¥n

br)!- WIIf- c... II· Dfor,,0. a .. n. ("fib 01 Ivl.,

1'1 (fl d'ry !Ill') [fl

'DAS

I!IIi .... 100 ";4 "

Aiilorillo 100 72 'I ~

All\tift 100 ,.1 1(1'I.s

t.rown.vilhl 9:5, ,10 131

AVO. DAII.Y I,"'~I

MAXil,MLlIM· DeSiGN CO~D.-IUMMI'I Jlltr g 3tOO PM

lMo.~ Dry- w .. - c. ...... t

... 110 • '" I /1 of

,,) If 1 dry alrl

l' 'un

110.. -10 4196

20 167 ...

9' SI) I SO~ 30 621

~1--+I---1I--::20 ~$-

10110 35.9 O:lW

IS 1501

106.6 10 2532 10 }1J5

~ 117"

20 l:ll.5

1.5 206t-

20 15l~

'0 IO~

12 '''' :to

T __ $.SII

CM-~. ,,5 76 10,1.S II 9' lO 3118 6.0 $W

~CIt1

-""'ICNUI-_-"_'riJI-=_ "";;- • ..!.----f---.:,'="S +-:::":":'''-+---:'=-=01.5- ~1:-=.,--jI-=I00 1'79' Il'-5~-=.9--+--0~_"'3""'6n- 6.0 S,W

• M mp,hlt ,,5 I 78 117.5 11 1,03 13 1,5.5.6 0: 3090 7.0 BW

Nalh'tlil. 9~ 78 117.5 17 ,e (I 3613 B.O W

23 101 rz

I--co-2-:-. --tl~ ,

14 U

CorjM a.:wI 'IS eo 131

• Oolle. 100 n 109.5

hI' 100 71 115

__ -:::9~P~~a~'w~'~ ~I~OO~-:::6~9~~n~

I'otI Worih 100 71 109.J

'GaIY_ !'Oft U 10 131

~, 95 ao 131

p J. fiMo 1(1(1 -+-::"'=-+---:-IO=:·9~,.J~--

PorI ~ 95 " 12.

r.vr. ""loIIio 100 111 I OP.5

11

101

100 II

-

102 8'3

75

111,6.14

NCIIMAt OlSlCfI CotilD.

W_If1I'U WIMDI DA.TA

AI. ••• \(.,a.c;JoIy, _ Dry- All •• 1 I'" 1111 '. bndI •• .ullt D ....

'IFI Dar. ~!!t... WIm ...

fl ...... - tis" /I._k¥.

So 1 .... .1 [fI'l

7:/ NlW' W

1.2SW 9.3 W 9.8 HW

68'"

PoD S 10.1 S 1,1.' :32

11.051 12.1 SW 3,657 3:!i

1.3 N 62' 31

U SE lOA SE 15 1~

'3.(1 Sf 11.0 Sf -+--=2~'1 -1--:::1•

'.0 5 10.' "'It 4jQ "

101,0 $I '.CISE 1)l@ 29

!.~ _ -:-:9.~O.;;.N;".,W~_ ~3~7==:2~O_1 :12

10.0 10.5 HYo' 708 '1r-

11.0 S 11.1 Sf 6 29

.0 S 10..5 SE .U 30

&.0 ~5.5 3;:1

1111.7 U 30

i",() S 8.3 HE! 6<16 29

UliAH Moo:I_

Los'" O,d ...

Sg 1.1110:. C1ty

I

9.5

61

7.0 S

S 7 •• SE

9.5 95

:11.5

17 17

Viii IAI.

CalM H....,. 115 78 117.J

~~~'~O~ ~~~9'~~75~~~'"~~~I'~4-

INor1foIII P5 71 "1.J 16

I~ 115 7. 117.5 16

101110010. 95 76 111.5 1'6

97

"

68

-IS

-I'

-10

-10

11.0 $"'"

9.0

-10

-10'

-20

1051

LO,S

lL6 S

3011

10 35:11 1,'.0 2. 31

" ~.ro6I ,L I 3-116 37

9~-1- - --I---:c15- 33U 11.0 S-+I:='Z.~1 -, ... :---i----=-1c-:.-f.--=3'::c'-

98 15 3'22 6.0 SW a.1 SW 162 :II

o .. 075 iI.2 W 1,19" :sa

WASH rON

North H.crcl as

$NtH. u

$pollio.,. 91

T_a 115

--~~~~---~-- - To"" kIcHNI

Wala Willa

W

'11'. •

,6(1 ,60 "A.S .II,_'

-1----1

11 11

U'

6:5 6.$1 U

70 61

99.3 .11.11

106.1 1'99

'9.11 Sf ~"I

,11.2 SW 1.879 AI

1.0 VI' A7'

--~I~B.'="9--~'--~I.~O~~ft-. -

5.4 S,11-52 ~.

,I.

o

SW

AIlU 7.0101

6311 7.0 S.

jOl' 5W--

'no

1.2 SIN

,5.0 615

15 -·1,0

,

:nu

,4.1

1,160

11'05

Win VIIGlNIA ~Jd

CM .......

--H-_:~ Mort nj;Dlifg 'a'llt..n:bu'll 'NIM Ilfto

9.5 15 99

'9.11 7~ 99

4.0$W

v.r '.2 W

17 n )9

1~ 0

-10 .5100

- -- --- --+--""5~----

-~

'-10 -5

w

'"'ea..,'lj:!OIIl,:h III d'J!·bll[b 'lind "",1'-'1010111:; Ilimpe'O ..... ioH 0.1.,0:1, alld I" tiOft d '01 q'ltitud" of ciIy. tcOl'rupand, 10 JNO~ EI_poinIl-"'p.ra ...... ,_ .. · II 'or "f!l!vd ••

1-16

PART . LOAD ESTIM

TABLE I-OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDllIONS-SUMMER AND WINIIR(COfrlT.)

N.OI:.MAL DESIGN ·1, .YG. MAXiM'UM DISION NORMAL
COND.-SUMIMEI DAILY COHD.-SUMMI .DESION CONDo
.. July .. , 3 iOO PM. .AHaI Juty at 3,00 I'M WINUI WIND D·AT. EI'.va·.
STATt I lion
AND Mallh .... M.'ttvr. Av .. V.I.clty alld' Allov.
CITY Dry- W.t. ee"I.lIfo o..y- D.y- Wet· Can'.lItt D.y. ."lIu.1 'rev.IIIII, DI'.~I.!'! Se. lad·
8ullo Bull. 19r/lb af lulll 1,,110 lulb (gr"/Ib of Bulb ·Da ••• L.v.1 Iud.
(f! (f! dry alrl If) IF! IFI dry alr1. (fl Day. Sultl"'.' Wlnt.r Iftl (dalll
WISCONSIN
AIhI""d -20 SW "2
ihu Oloi" •. 79 :1 -20 NW 885 1 A~
Gr.en lIoy 9S 75 99 14 99 131.1 -20 7931 8.0 S 10.5SW 589 . .5
Ila' C'ron e '9:5; 75 9' - 17 100 n I 161.2 -25 7"21 6.0 s 9.3 S 6n «
M.adbon 9:5 75 103.5 18 96 -15 7405 8.0SW to.1 NW 938 A3
Mn",alllc •• , 195 75 9' , U 99 I -15 701'.1 9,g:SW 12,1 W 6,1'9 43
WYOMING" I ,
C ... p.f -20 SW 5 . .321 43
CheY·Me 9.5 65 6U 28 -15 7536 9.0 S IUNW 6.39 ..42
LOAder 95 6.5 66 :281 -18 B243 5.0 SW 3.9 5,.4"a «
51! rldo , 101 -30 7239 S.OHW '.9 NW 3,773 .5
CANAOA
.. 1.0 YINCIi
AND
CITY
AllnTA
Calgary 90 66 71 -29 9~20' 9:1 10.1 3,.50110 !II
Edmontonl 901 68 11 -·:n, 110320' I B.9 1.6 2,.219 I 54
Grand Prairie -39 7.9 2,190 5;5
Lethbridge -32' USC 15.0 3,018 I SO
McMurray I ->42 1,216 51
Medicine Hat 90 65 -35 8650 9.1 9.0 2,365 50
81: ms 1'4 COUJMlJA
ht .... an Poln.! I 17 9.9 20 49
fO(l""ebOll -38 3.7 1 .• 230 S9
P.nlicton -6 1,121 50
Prince Gltorge -32 9500 7.2 2,218 5~
Prince Rup""'· 8 6910 8.0 '170 .54
VOI>COV¥ r 80 67 78 I .11" 5230 7.7 2.2 '9
V'ICfOfiCli 15 541O I 12.3 22B '8,
I
MAII'il.ITOIA I 1 !
'rcll"~on -32 .10930 1.2'00 SO
Chvrdlill -4' 16110 lU 115 .59'
The POJ , -39 6.' 89' SA
WI .... lpeg 90 71 83.S -291 10630 11.S 12.0 786 50
NEW BRUNSWICK ,
Co'"'pbelllon -11 0112 "
fred.rictal> 90 75 101 -6 8830 ~9.2 1601 A6
M_on -8 8700 .9 , .. 11 "6
Saini· John -3 83BO 7.9 13.8 119 '.5
NfWFOUNDLAND .. 6
..c"'nllr 8\"ook -1 9210 "9
G .. nd", -3 94'0 17.2 A82 49
Goo.e loy -26 121"0 10.3 1.(4 :531
Sal,,' John. 1 8780 "9.3 A 6,3 "8
NOnHWEST I
TEnlToRles
"'''Iavik -.16 17870 30 6,
Fof'l Horman -'2 16020 300 65
----- -- -_ ._- - - -- -e- 68
Frobill .. " -47
Refl)lule -42 9.2 56
Yellowknife -47 682 62 ··,_oi'Pond. tv dry-bulb and wII,·buib lemp .... "'.e1 li,led, ond ;, _rected fOl: al"tvd. af city. te- .pOnd. to peak d~ ... poI"'· 1~",pe.olure. CO<TKI'"d for altitude.

CHAPT P. 2. DESIGN CONUITI NS

1-:1.7'

lAaLa 1-0UTDOIOR DESIGN CONDIT.IONS-SUMMER AND WINTER (CONI.),

NO.MAl DmGN AVO. M.AXlMIII,M IUSIGNI NO. ,"'''''
i C,aMD,,~JUMM'. DAllY C'OND'.---SUMMII DlSlGN COND.
e "ADA ... ., at 31.00 riot lANGE July .. t ,3,00 PM WI NT" 'W[ND PA.rA II,,,.·
"In
'IOVINCI M""uN "'.1"11'111 A"g. V.I.~II., !!!ftd "tlll'lr'
ANID' Dry- W, ... C.nl-'i.t1O D,.,.· Dr.,. "" ... e'III.lIft Dry. A"".,.I .. r ..... 111 ". DIr.ctl .... Je!! L.,l·
etty a.l. b .. IlIrll~ ,of 8wl ,~ .. "Ii! ('lIt/P!! of' B .. n, D •. r.' lInl 1 01,411 I!!
I ---
('. (1'1 dry QLo~ If I If I If 1 !Iry (I.) - If, I:I1.y. '~JnI!Il!Ir Wlnlv: Uti (dell)
MaY'A ICOhA i
H,,!!fi!~ 90 15 101 .. "'70 6.6 9.6 83 4'
51'-" ! 1:120 9.9 13.1 191 ""
Yo_ 7' "520 13.5 136, U
'ONITA!IJO
fori W 1kI .. ~24 103.50 U 9.6 044 411
Ha .. Atvft I (II ",to I 103 4l
Ko dtInQ -301 '11790 I 110.0 752 "9
~1II!l!I1 -11 78110 111),8 :lAO ....
III:~ -3 7310 I,ICO .3
1.arod0l'l ~1 n.' 912 43
Nat1h 10)' -20 '.6 11,3 1,21'0 "6
Ottawa , 90 75 107 -1.5 .IJO 8.9 1'1.'1 339 ... ,
' ... ~,h I -11 6A8 ~
Sowfa l.ooIIolIi -33 .,.,:5 1,.221 50
WiIvIry -I" 131 '"
n. ..... - -261 1,1PO "
TOt""" 93 75 10'2 0 7020 8_1 I.e.! :179 .c3
WIn._ J 12.3 637 A2
Sa ... ':hM ..... 93, 75, ~O'2 635 "1
,I:JMClIDWAID
IILAMD
'haflolt~ -3 8380 8.7 11.3 74 46
QUI "
"""'do -19 10440 'U . 37$
1~lAt. -<10 1.60~ 55
Mont »II -III 13.3 150 48
M.ontr.ol I 9CI , 7, 107 - 8130 9.9 1.2.3 187
--:9 I 46
PwtH~ -3"9 13..4 " S8
~Ot., 9Q 75 107 -12 9070 9.0 IU 11'. 41
s...",kJal'lOi'l , ~20 I Ito .so
Sh*,o~. -12 tiliO U 6'20 AS.
u....IUl'en -13 ,SO '46
I
SAl .... rcHfW ".
I'InIr.<. Alb.., ~"I U"30 ~ .. l.HA 53'
•• gM to 71 92.5 -3.e IIOnO 12.4 I:Z.I 1,881 , SO
"
ScnkG'fOOii pO 70 "1 -37 10960 10.7' 9.7 ,,, .. 5 52
$ .... '" Cwr_ -3:1 9660 . 14.6 '1.,671 50
'UllOM nl"TIOIY
Da_ ~u. 15040 • .on ,6-4
WJohI',on. -43 18:.1 :1,:219 • 61
J "~MI~ 10 dry-buu., ,_ .... _ bvlb _PWGlfllfiH liittd ... lid II _iia.d for alfiW. af dIy., ~ 10 p ... k d_,,"*,,' ..... ~ •• _'MhI;d _ o.ltiftHt.

1-t

CORRECTIONS TO OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR TIME Of DAY AND nME OF YEAR

The normal design conditionl'l for summer, 1isted in Table 1, are applicable to. the mondl of July at bout 8:00 P.M. If qlUl ntly. the design c~nditiom.'i at other" times of th d 'Y and other rnomhs of .the mu I, b mown.

.

Table 2 lists the pproxirna.te CONte jom on the

dry-bulb nd weI-bulb t mperaeuee :r m 8 a.m, EO 12 p.m_ b d. n the rag dail range. The drybulb COlT ions are b sed en ;uual • of wuther data, and the wet-bulb ,Dons aIPune a. f,lativ Iy COnstant dewpoint throughO\lt the 24.hl' period.

Tabl.e } lists the PVro im ee cor ectioos of the dry-bulb and wet-bulb . mpennu s &rom Ma:rdl 10 November, based on th early ra~nge in dry·bulb temperature (iSumme normal de_ign dry.bulb minus winter normal design dry-bulh temperature). These corrections re ba d on anal i of ather da and are pp1iQlble on] 10 tbe ooliimg load escimale.

Example' - Cortlediol)J'iC) Oed;l" Conditions Givt:n:

~ r:.omfon IIpplfCluion ill •

ork ell "

Find:

Tbe approximate dil)··lblilh end wcHml" l mpcntufCI ::Ill 12!OO moon In Octooor.

Sollution:

ormal igo conditions for New Yr. il!l July at 5:00

p.m. are !b F db, 711 F will (T;oble :I) ,

D. II)' flingc in N,t.w York Cit)' is H r db.

Vel. rly rnngc in Nt'w York Cily == 9~ - 0 =95 , db. CoIi'Ift it COt Iltnu - r day (12 noon) &010 Table 2:

Dry-bulb ... -5 F Wet-bolb = -. 'f

Gom:cti n, for time or ,..car (October) lrom Table i':

Dry .. bulb =-16 F Wa,buJb = - 8 ..

Dell.IfD ndiliolU .ilJl I! noon in (:approxilJl.lle) ;

Dry-bUll = 5 - S - Hi, I: '14 fi

WeI·bulb = "5 - ,I - 8 - 66 IF

. S!IDE COMFORTDESrGN CONOnIONSSUMMER

-he Inside design cooditiolos--llsted in Tnbt« " are reeemm nded fot types o( appli atiens list d .. These condidons are based OD experien gathered ftmn

man applications. suwtantiated by H E «Stl.

Th ·optimum r deluxe oondiLioll:S arecho cD wh eels are not or prime i.mportance and 'for omlo t· ppllcations in localities having ~um:met ouul I' d ign dry-bulb t.empetaWr or 90 F or less.

ince 1I of th 1oads, (sunJ Ii h. ple, outdoor

air. ete.) 0 not peal:: simuJta'neou ly .£or any p 0- J nged periods, it may b unee nomiaJ [0 dalign for the optimum conditions.

TAILE 2-COIIECTIOMS IN OUTDOOR DaUiN TEMPERATURES lOR 11 (for Cooling I!.ood :nl'l'lor~

0' DAY

DAIlY 'UN JIM.·
IIANOE 0' DRY.
TEMPI'A- at lAM PM I
1\11U' Wll-
IFI aU1.1 • I III 12~ 2 a .. • I Jill 12
10 Doy-&U'lb - , 7 s I 0 ~I -2 - .5 ~ • - ,
W .. i-"'!bo - - J -1 D 0 II -1 - I - 11 - .2
U Dry.Bulb --12 ~9 -5 -. 0 -1 -, - 6 -10 -IA
~'.d!! - :) - 2 .-1 I) 0 Q -I - , - 1. - ..
1-
201 Dr;JI\!lb -110 -10 -5 -1 I) -I -3 - 7 -11 -1;6
W~lo8uRb - • - :t -I o· 0 0 -I - :I - 1 - "
15 IPry.~ -16 -10 _, ~I 0 -1 -3i - I n -II
w~ - • - 1 -1 0 0 II -I - :I - l - :5
30 Dc-t-!hllb -16 -n -6· -I 0 -I -Jj -10 ~IS -21
W.I-&!Ib - s - , -I I) 0 I) -1 - 3 -4 - 6
U DIy .... !b -"'it -1<4 -7 -, D -1 -6 -1.2 ._ II< -~ ..
Wet-Bl.Jlb I - 6 - " -2 0 0' 0 -I - l - " - 7·
40 Dry-f!!l.b -Ji- i-'_16 -III -I 0 -11 -7 -~ .. -21 -21,
WeJl.klb - 7 - ~ -2 0 <I 0 -2 - •• - 61 - ,
45 ery..B.db --76 -17 -, -1- - -1 I
Q -II -16 I -2-4 -~,
W.U!!tb - 'I - 5 -2 !!I Q -I -:I - 41 I - II -1·0 °Th!! ;;!QiI., ranll" of .. ..,.bulb I.ml'.r<lhl~" ",1> d'''",renee betw",-n .hl!! "'lIh!!1! ~!!<l 19 ... " d..,.bulb '.mp"rahlr" d"ring a " '-hour p"rlod on It "plcal ele.tion d'ay. ·I$~", Tablto I ror .lIiI ,a!II' af dall., rotlge.fclr a parllc .. l(lf cllyl.

Equ.b"- Ou.dIao. "."0111 p.rof\l,., ot any 1iim.-QIII!Ioor·;;! ." , ... P..,GI\I .. ..._ f"j,1 ,~ " Co".cfl(>ft from abo ... loble,

CHAPTER 2. DESrGNCONDrnONS

1-19

1ABLE 3~ORRECrION$ IN OUTDOOR DESIGN CONDIT.,ONS FOR TIME ·OF YEAR

j

'fIalLY
IA,NO. '01' DIY· 0,1: 'TIME OF VI.'"
TEM .. I .... • Wf'I-IIULB A 1iI:IIU I' hpt. Qct, No'll.
rURE[fIiO March! A"ril Mail' Jun' Jlllly
.,...,..Sulh ... -39 22 11 --I 0 0 -9 24 "
120 -2 - (I 0" -I -13 -'IT
W""'8u'lb -23 -12 - 5
US Dry4Vlb -1\ 2~ H .. Q 0 -I -20 36
'W,n·8<;ft; -18 -II - .s -2 0 0 -.4 -IC -:21
It II DIy·aljilb 30 -:10 11 .. Q 0 -6 l1' -,n
We'.8~lb -1:1 -10 -- :5 -2 0 o --3 - l8 -16
--:20 --~ :", 0 0 6 17 -'.\19
Ie" 0.,.-8"'10 -30 -11
W..aulb --15 -10 -- j --, 0 0 -3 ~ a -I,'
--1-"l1li ~b 29 '9 HI --3 0 0 -6 -16 Xl
W.,.. .. ,'b --I~. - 10 - 1; :I: 0 0 -, - II -Ho.
t, Dry-l1.ilb ~2' " 10 --3 -0 0 -6 16 --21
'WlI1'lulb -- J.-' -10 -- S 2 0 0 -3 -- 8 -1'
" Dry-Bulb 29 19 -10 =3 0 0- -6 16 -26
W ..... hlb -I~ -HI -- J -2 0 0 -3 -- • -u
15 tky-lulb 2' -19 II -3 II 0' -5 16 -2;5
W,.IoI<lI:DI -I. -10 ~ s -2 I) 0 -s -- • -u
" ~lb 2' 16 8 3 I) 0 -II -HI -20
W •• ,.liilllb -13 -- II ........ , , -J I) _o --2 - 6 -'11
"1'5· Dry..lV!b -1.4 - " A -, I) 0 -3 ., I~
W.J>.Bulj, - '1 - ! :l !) 0 o -2 - ~ - 8
70 Dry-lulb -IS - " " -1 0 0 -2 '7 -=iT"
W,,,, .. S .. lb - .& '" :l I) 0- (I -l oil - Ii
., ~lb -II • " -1 0 0 ~ 6 11'2
W·et-!.iilb - 6 .. 2 Q I) (I .-1 3- - 6
60 'Dry.,I'!i!rb 9' '1 3 -1 I) o -:I 5 -J()
W."'hl~ - .. l 2 0 (I 0' ~I 3 - 5
Dry.Bulb =T- r- 5 3 -1 I) I) -2 " 8
15;
I w.t-eulb- - 3 l :l (I I) 0 -I " - "
so O~ 5 A: - ] -I 0 (II -2 J! - 7
W.HlIiRI ~ 3 , - t II 0: G -I 12 - 3
I
"Yearly rOIl;_ Ciffemp~jj't .. \l'. i. the d1fferorn;e betwoen 'the '."",mar and ..... 111t'er "ar",ol dlu!~n d"'t.bu1b h,"'perCl!uret !fnbJ • 11.
Eqo.!!!t!con. OUfd,O<:Ir deillll'i 1iimIH, ... tuh!= O ... ldool' de.I\ln h"mp.'rCllurc from TaW. 1 + Correcl~a". 'ram abo .. " labl,,_ The commercial inside design conditions are recommendsd for- general comfort air conditjO'i1lng 3p' plications, Since a majority of people: are comfortable ait 751' Dr 76 F db and around 45% t'O 50'"0 rh, the mermostat is, set I!Q these temperatures, .mdthe:se condidons are maintained under partial loa.db. As the peak .loading OCClJN (outdool" peak dry-bulb and wet~bulb temperatuses, 100'0 snn, an peo.ple and Ughts, etc), the temperature :in the space rises to me

Gesigtl point. tlsuaUy 78 F db, .

If the temperature in the conditioned space iii (orced to rise. heal will be stored in the buildirtg mass. Refer to ChrJ'Plnr JJ "Heat Storage. Divt:7'sity a.nd Stratification'" for a more complete discussion of heat ~torage. With summer cooling. the temperature swing used in the calculation of storage is the diie1'enc:-e between the de.s:ignlempeta~ure' and: the lIlonmd thermosbt setting ..

The-range o£ summer inside de-~igfl conditions, i provided to allow :for the moSt 'economical selection of equipment. Applki'ht:ions of inherently high sell.

siblc heat factor (relatively small latent load) lJSually resuit in [he mailt economieal equipment selectien if the highcr_d.ry·by.lb tempersnrres and lower relative humidities are used, Applica~ions with low ' ensible heat Iactors (h'igh latent load) usually fieslllL in more economical equipment selection if the Jower drybulh temperarures and higher relative humidities are used,

INS~D·E C'OMFORT O:ESIGN CONDI1'IONSWINTER

For winter season opera"don. the .inside design conditions Hued in Table f are recommended (or general .bea~ing applications.Wjth heatin,g, the temperature swing (variation) is below "he comfort condition at the time of peak heatiTlg load (no people, lights. or solar gain, and! with the minimum outdoor temperature). Heat stored in the building: ssructure during partial load (d!ly) operation reduces the required equipment capflcit'Y [or peak load operation in the $afi:l~ manner as it does wish cooling.

P RT I. LOAD ESTIM I:NC

TAILlE 4--.IC'O.MMrNDEIIINSIDI DESIGN C.O.NDlrIONS·_'$UMMD .AND WJN1tIl

II,IM¥I!I

n'l· 0' ,,.,,puc+llI01\1

ODll.A." CO""QII'I Apf., 1'k.;t9. KoI.i. Olflo, No,p"'O ~ $doDo!, de. 'I1'~LI"O" _- 1~"fiiij~~1

11;1 .... IorlMror •• ~' ~.o.p"_,,,

s."p ..... o, .. ,. -'Co

LOW SiN,S'111-. HI~· IIA9"OI ""l1CIlTl:ONI lKlI'" lillm t!M!!!1

..... d" .. 0ti\0- o...td!!, lor,

•• ~ ,. ,,,..,, ...... K.

ii"""aon-COMPOn-

AsH-mill" o'!nI <!I. M"d, .. lng 1_10 "'''

... L 1 .... ~ .... l , .... Orr- '1IIiP-_
~ .. ~, .... tiM. 1"""1 WIb ....... :
BI Ifl tI'l lfJ' Ilfl (f) (P;J
~$ 2 to , 7"'''6 :3'wo -1 7j..cT1 -.,
II:! -4
51)..1$ 2' 10' ~ 72"''' ,$.lO". -3 n75 -.,
~ -,
-- I---- --- '.7a: 1"30 7140 6I)..5Q , 107 n~1A 40-15 -3' 7L7t.. -,I
.. -;II
---
:n-IO S5dJ I04S 6MO Jill' ." 61-72 '$-30 -4 7,1),1" -.
'No -, IN5DE tNDUS1RIAL DESIGN CONDITtONS

Tablt!' lim typi'c-"l u:mpt'r.uura nd n:lalhe humidiLid used in prc.parill.g. proeessing, dodrnanuhi lUti'llg vari:ow, prodll!.-.;t~. allldrQf ~~ enng both raW and fiRlshed goom.. Th condition!; i1.teonJ lypi III of what has ba:m used, nd mily vary witb .iJppli· Cilllp:tU" They mayahu vary 35 cit ng~ QC_an in pl'OC'e!\' • pfOOU 1.5>. <lml knowledge nf Ihe -!Tel.fOr tempc:ranm: and humidity. In all n:.~. the tem(M!l"3lorc:- ilna humid"y (;and.lions "liMd the perm.ir.sible 1~ltlit5 ofVOlriilti(Jfis on Lh~Coflduiun shl)ultl be e u,bU hed by cemrnon agreement Wilh lJ1C ,,-1,1- tomer.

Sam of the llondLtious Listed bave 110 dtcl'.t on the produ t 01 proc;:,ss Qfb r than lO inrn'rue' the effi· (l'"lncy ol [he employee b m30irl,ruin~np; cvmloll cendiuens, Tbi OOI"UHllly imprm~ wurkmil<n hip.

,. and \IItlihll'nui~ • d~g~ ccducing l'ejcc..lll.md p~odu.cuon ("O!!1. In rome cases, it ma \H: .dlJi bl· In, ernprenuse bdwe -n tbc: requjtw lOlldi(iolUo :nn.l corn(oC{ cQnditions. tu maimain hl-gh (lua1it (om· men~Ul _I('wi I h ]'0"",' prtxlunion 'COSI.

GCl1el"Ql1y, :spc:dA_ lnslde design onllhiomare n:,'lLlir('d ill .in h.1:'>u iul applianio.wLS lor on~ UI'" UlOre o (.11" (allowing fc:w..",.

7'1I~)lf6 51).01i5 77:'9
._
'.11 SO ... " 71.10 -n. •. 0«I" d,oJ.gllld'Y.b",lb I_.p ..... "'"'~ __ 1<1' h .... d\lCl.d .... hoi ,adlont !llIMlt 0'. IiIdlac_ tg, Ih. ~ ' ..... ~ ·mId , .. ...& It,.

adjoe ... I.1'D ~p_'.~Ot "'- __ '" Oi' pqu .. 111- ,,,djonl ~ .. , ~ "'_!he body'.;Ii hoi· 0I'.dd: p-' _,. okd 1'-- ,10",

1;100. orind_, Illot ... · ... __ f. cold 1n ~ :...:I "*'"PClI'tiI", 'IriIti.iIo:!t Qf' GIW.oc6!i-.!!ocoinL M ii!iiMgtH do'It ~ _11M ..-... ............

""' .,.".,..' .~~ _(llill:d ,1_ ~ , ..... Md· IrH,~d~ 1M _... _ f!!CIl'Qr!b,.~ IIr' -- .,. kIr ~

't1'~ b .bQo.. a.. ~r 'M.,.. ., p .... ~ __ Ioct.dl~"""'_

rr-p"~"M it;e ·hi '1M tI'Mi' ~af ~·U"I,,"li !iiIn!. 'Iood =ndltk:iM 1M 1:ilIh. '"II !!OI' .... "*11. 1.1 ••

.,.w~ ""'-.~Aea",," tell, do!INioog >hop. b. '_ ..... ;1. .... ......, hi....,. '" g,oMli. .

(. A constant ttm'lpaUUN! Icv~l is. 'requited (01' dOle foleRtlGr: mta$u,rlng. gaging. mchin- 109, all' rgrmdingopt'r.u:ions. U> ,prevenl pania,n and cc:nu.raction ,of th~ machine ptrts. nunJ.ined produ ( and me:aruring dmca.

'annaUy. a 0011 'tililU tmlptncure is m.OI iJnpollanl ilhan tnr: ltM'pcIauue l'evd .. AI c-oll,t;tIU r Iative bUnl.idj~y is s:COlldary ln nature btllL should not go eve 45% (0 lnin~mizeformlldon of heavier 5urbcc moi~lurc ·6Jm.

"I:Qn·h groK-opic m teri b uch as mcaab. gbu, pl'Ut.i • erc., have II propen)'of GlptW'inWiller molecule wilhin lhe mJaos.copicliurl. (; erevices, f'onning an ~uvi.ible. rtOfl-<:oDunuoujI SUI face fi.bll. TIll': deruh of this lilm i!noea.o;o when r-eJ ·til/eo imrnid.t iRaca!ie$. Henct", Utb f11fO mUiit. in m fly in5l11.na!:". be held below a u iiica,ll polnlilt which Iru:uls may etch, or the electric re&!.SI.Ulce qf imuli-dng lD~tUj3Jb hig.

nif1 .. n IV dt:U . iCd. -

2 Wh'l e higldliOlhhed stU'bees are manuf~c· rured or storoo. Ii COTlsl-llfU "dative humidity and. oornpcramrll iSl1laintained" to TnLuimbinase insur(a moisurre 'film. 101: 'l,mpc:rdl'urc: .. nd humitJi;lY h!!)uld 1M! ill, or a I,iul.e-

lliId.Qw" the 'mmlrmr. liDtUfiLimHl w m.inimiR: penpir.!t~!i!n G£ ilbc: rmr{lleIJ'a'I!.ilW. O!J.JU·tLlIW~ tan· per.atNln:l and l'nJiilfil:di L7 mi!!y [111:0 k' requkm bru m<ldliml! memI ttl 'plie¥mt l!I!id'lil!l(,! ·or ,mr' ~Ili 'Iof Ilht [PUg, 0'[ tIlDoc nr~ ch(DeIi. 1\n:t!h ~,pUc:;ltil!!lIn 0' l!his ~pe. ~~ lh~ '!2-TIdhiaR:!1 ue DDt HmIf1tHnm 2<t, bnH ,iO!! d • 'lhi! IIU_. oJ ilD I~i.runlid.tel' Olny PJ~"IfI~ til Illl'dowll ~k!l be due ~u~'" til) Dillf,ifil!l' dle !tllillmRUN'" l!tt lnDI!lJ]'lIR' ,ilimimlulii:L:iGin .Ill Un: :5Jl"l!CIe j'bQwd 1M ~y, Iw.fCiT~ ~be ~£m f,DC1JI".u,lJ;!!['t: il! ndu~;: (:2) Eluming l!.be W'~l!ltu. li.hc in.CiHa:ill]'l~ ~N~. be ~Im~md! lbefll!TC It.he m'lllIIM'w.-, ~\!C ::II, ~ •. ' If,o, I mtllllJP i:J[ din ID~ l'DDl ed dming:IJh,IiI[d~1 ~~.

'Ilk CO:i!I'!:fiIO~ il~ IfCtliJli,v.-huu:ridi~ b reqUI!m'~ E~ ~il"ltU!!~I!I, lhl iltf\flflilflih. ,1:i"b~,lh)', :lind ~C~fil1! IDE byd};(l~'pjc m 'I.Gria~, mGl1 !U ~ Lflfl 3nd. 1)1"Ipe!'. The bilil!mhtit,m.u.5i~ ,_00 fM.c'~nMOlhd, in ,wme a,wlialjnM ~ ~ ill me '110 Ir£ai of !QtK: de~ - city. ~.~m," ,td .,~r£ l~cdIii[ n.lK.~ it ,mlllljfii!jRd .U nLliJWi' li'!mn~b~ ,p'f SS%_rdho.

~. 'Thil:illlmpmiluR' ,!;!nd relaidvgl ~ii!umfdjt)i, '11:n~ ~,:m ;[J~r.tl't;cd 100 fqUb~ lllt!!:' '!'alii: 01 d'mll,. tal: 'Of W~roi'C!!lm 1~!ilDl. IWFb Q Idryi~g CI!~

~e1 'iIlr; mpr m-atiimp. p:1i~rnl~O'll1 uti q'll1itllil~!lmi~ .i11Kn 1M el:i!l!m,iiru;i ~.omp!lW:!i'I,{]i!I. fC!r" mtfill;:!ti-on 'OJ YCil.J..I., ,et.:. rGllimlliml1'ly" h gh tel)l' pc:ra:tg!1fiC5 "I!Iiidli ow iblumi(ffi]tiC';!!, InacD!.~c ~.il1g' Ig'~~~ ~J.Mlru 'C'mIp!lH~torQ' W1IilClT:lli\!C: die IF.I~e 1lD![ 1(i1lLJ:IDj~ I[~nhm. ,~~i.I high Ilfttlprr~IU~ ilill!ld frill!J1i11i,'¥cihlJ1flid.h illllR:il'Se rud! p~ as, 'FHt fell1mM~ti~ nt,

~I. 'L1oornlL{lrii!i m:ruuiR pi'cci:sc: 'a!!~~IIi!,,iI of mth u·mt~mUj ~ fiid l!,d8:t.i,,~ ilmlumdiill y ,or ~~rn:her. B~'d'l, tCJ5ullR:]nd q~ruI~'Y nIl'!lm] mhi1:mlll~!il"~ ;l[fl!l:' fi~ttmul:f ~igJI,OOI ~Ol ~~ ilIl~'STM S:mll!lala:rd C.flnlhliolll;S" C'F 1!i.t 'IF' ,dh 1fII[J ,1iO.%, :11'11.

ti\ ,\-Y,1I:1I. ~m:«, ;1l!dlll!iri1li~ >ii1:pplim'Lio1!l,1' whDle ahe ~(i;J1i!ll h b:~~li"ii r _ n~ 'I.!ir :~IiId1 i iliE_i!, g.rm ILeriilib dooo.t klltJi t f:_n:ro ,a;ml!tofiil~mlI, 100lu1 niolii.~ j~ w:tlliDe ;all. .... t hie ~ ii1I'pply ~t ~Urni !kiil' 1m!::' ,I'll~iid: or die wnli'l:ll:R. ,c.e.~U r. tll~ I~DmlitiOIi\I Ilo be miliil'l'm;indI, b-., $i'Jt:, m~ w,ilil ~ a~ norm.Uamd

"·I"ut.:r~ ~ ~~ tfQ!m11?'!M!: da.ted (Mn. ~~. ~J~ h~"'I:ii1ho '1~IIiWrol\rtl ~"W~ 1fcd'l nl~1 Qnumlnm !I'if-I .t1:!!iI'l~!J:J!m Tl:m~tlncil Iin!'lR:~ili il'i'C' ~I LiM'tt1)lt~ 'r;ft!l~U~ 01' ili~ D.D (f!:'l1k!'li!'1 !I~fiorlllJm ,I!.m;;J:Ii'!!1) wh:l~1 DID:!! 'f.l.fltii· ~l~ hlB, fiC1'Iiiifj ';;. ~~, J.nM~!,lhl'g,~" F"

~ hk :b~i~f 1I}~"i'(;.

PART L LOAD ESTIMATING

tABLE 5,-TYPICAL INSIDE DISIG:N CONDITIONS-INDUSTRIAL

(listed conditions are only typIcal; fin all. desigl1 (onditions ere esJablished by customer requirements)

DAYs
I lULl 'IH
IRDUnay' raoc£u (FI (~)
ABRASI,'11 Manil'a~r 1:5.BQI ,(:5-50
-
BA,KE'" ~ough Mlur i's-e.G ~o.SO
Flltmel'llh'g }'S.S,2 .,0.'1'
Proof 150. 9\M& SO-8S
Ireod Coole<' 70-80 B0-85
C~1d Ram 4Q..t' -
~d'It""p ..... 111.82 6s.1O
Coke Mh,lng , 9$.103 -
C:radc.,. & BI.culiJ. 60..65 50
Wrapping 60-65 6(1·4.5
fltorago-
Dtt;;,ejI In~r"d!. 71) $3-6$
,fretb !ng r.,d., lO-A5 1IiJ.IU
Flowf 70.75 :50·6~
Shortell I"; 1 A 5,,"0 55-60
Svgar 110 35
Wot ., 32~5 -
--
Wr:UI Paper 70-80 "O-~·
BRIWIII:'f 51O"lg_
H .. p~ 3~1 -, 55.60
Groin so 60
- -
Uquld Y~.,.I )1-3.4 75
laijlor J'lo-35 n
AI .. ~Q.l(S )"5
-
F."" entll"2 COlDar--
--
to'!!", .. 0.4S n
,.1., 55 15
Jl,odcllliQI Celiar 32 .• ,:,,: »~
CANDY- Ca~cI'I' c...ten all-IS .co. SO
CNOcOlATE Hand DiP!? ~ b. 6().6S so.,S5
En'~ ;"0 Rm. 15-.'0 55-60
En. Qbinll- --
loading &.d 80 .50
- -)3-
Enrgb". PO
$Irlngl"g 70 40-.50 ;',
TUt1MI '(l..(~ Ol!' .,: ,0'
f'ocltttnlll ~ 5.5
70-7, ----
Po .. Specio'hy alii, 'U
G nerG! Store!!,", 65-70 1,G-50
CANDV-HA.RD, Mf;. , 7.5-80 30-'0'
Mhdnll ,s, Cooting 7""·BO 40-'$
Tllnoll 5~ DP- 5j
I'odt~g 65.75 .. ~,
S_aO" 6J.7.5 ,'.5.50
. Dryi"9-J.,lIu.~, 0. ...... -120-1.50 15
Cold Im.-
MOM",all" ... 7.5-80 4.!i-:lO
CHIIWING OUIM M'III. n n
toi:r"g 68 63
"llppinll' 72 .n
r.. otdnG 71, A7
Wr(lppin9 7A- , .511
i DIY':
IUU ! ....
INDUSTRY ".OCBS ' 'f' 1,,11
CEaAMICS •• Inlet_, 110.150 .5O-PO
MCfld1r11J Rill. 60 60-10
CIGI)' Stlilna'l!lt 60-80 as.65
Dllcal &. De_CIting n~8Q 4".50
CEIEAl, hdu;lglo,q i's.tO UoS41
COSMma M'II. 6S;,o -
DISTILLING Slora g a---
6 .... 111 60 35-40
LIquid Yeast 32-3,
Mt;. 60-75 ".5-6(1
Ag" 6$.72 -.50.60
Ula.'CAL 61HtrGl'k &. JW"r
PlODUC'fS Col .. &. fl'd ....
WLOMIIn, 12 15
f",b.~., 6. 4O
Il.mlcGlI ~;
M'g. &. Ldb.· 1t) ~"
1ih.~~ ..
Cab. 76 SQ-.5J
kulllidWe.' ""'M.
8. CoBb. 76 SQ..55
CIa .. Tol. ....... I, n 40·'.5
No.10r AHe .... '11' •• , 74-76 1lifl.63
S,..i!d!QeClr-- ---
Me&C~
, ADem. 73 50
I
Cap. Wlndlota 73 50
IPop. $Mqll_!_ 1J ~o
C"",o::!lIdoi WrappllllO 75 • .5-70
1.1, htnlnll AnMfor 68_ 20-~
'ei lam.
Au. ... a. T,ui 76 30-60
R_ r!fi' ... -
l",oceSs s.Je"'.,,,,
&. COiIJpM o"rd.
'lllIttll 14 3~O
I'Uts Dr,1ftg 1I0 -
SMd: Tr.,1dnI 11-20 -
Slvg,. .. e.SO . JUS
GLASS c""",,, Comfort
Vinyl lain" 11m .. . '5 15
.... THEI Dt,rln...- ,
V_ ... Tn __ .d 70 7S
o.r-T!I!~ no 75
~
StorCljfl! 50-60 40.60
"iNSEt- fIIina 'C"fort
OPtiCAL Grill!!!;"" 10 SO
'-".IClfD Mf. 72,.'14 $8
Oryil>v 10.75 "'.
Stonolle 60-42 50
MU IllONS M.'iI! ".mI~Qn
EI ..... "h-
I . Orylnllll'am 190
-
Orylflg 1'0Jn ... 110 -
Iiou ,'ow<l.. D!rylftt IU -
Coo.4 riCII!I &. I.ococl
!'awder T,p rMe 70 40
load T ,acer Pellet. 80 , ~O CONDITIO S

l-Z3

TABU 5~1YPIICAL .NSIDI CONDITIONS-INDUSTRIAL (Contd)

(Lied condHlon are only typical; final .dlHi9" ccOndiit 01'1 are established by eU$toro_l' requirement,)

D'I'(-
aULa IH
IHDUSny nOelss lfJ rAl
'MAblAUtJ'. '9~SIQl'CI'.
neAL 10::80 -- --
•• IonI,M'. 30-31 ..
"fMr ""ta_ 75-10 IS·s!
~!~ ... 10 :u
Tobie. C~~J.' 10-11(\ .co
Tab .. t Coat"1II BO :15
Eff.,....K!lllt- 90
Tab'" & 'owel' ... 15
H)!JH)d-'c Table! 75-80 -30
tol 6 10 30050
COO;I hi'll' eo 40
OIo"d' .. 1Ia.l' 'rod. 7a.ao '·10
Am Iii Mfg. 80 35
OI.lo~ Cop..,l 71 I 4O-.!l0!
top .... StQrollllli 15 3J-llCI
1a'oc;_1y COIIIfotf
IoIotka Mfg. to I J'
u..., &1" g,d 70-10 2'0-30
5 I C_fort
... 1111111al ..... '-fort
'HOTO Dr.,~; 10-12.5 400"
MAftlJAL Cv II. hcklnW 6-5-75 40.70
Stotii;.- - -- r--
I'll 'Gn, fiI
"op""CMn.d
P"_per 7o.7~ "o.U
$1'1' Iy Aim 6().SO- ""."0
N'llfat. fllill "Q.JO ~o.,o
""-,,me MfO'·-
1l\_s.rtiftt. --- f-
COftIpound:l 110 25-30
C.IIi",ho". -. "U"'
75-80
PUWOOD Hot p, ~-" .. to 60
CoIdp,.n 9'0 15-25
'lKll10M Sop I'OtIJO pl'lic: AnGL COII'IM
MACH G 91 MQldilng &
----- =ii )~~
S.~09.-
Cool(., '0
Clllii_&.GIol'a ~CI
M~I
GDII"'D"~"" C_to.1
,lI,dJlflti: g Predlbi
ram ~
Honing "".80 3,..<45
PbITINrJ M"Iit!llDb UIha; [
,C~ 11010 u;.~,
~S~ 7'-80, 411-'1
5h " I&. W .. \'I Prirlt. C-'M -_
$'«0"., FQldlrlg, eft. ComtCH1
IEFIIOII.l\ flON' Val .... Mfg. zs I .. 0
IQutPMlNf C_p ••• _. ........ , 1(1..76 :10.,.,1
.. frio tvkw II. ."'. Ca"'Mr'
h,i'ina 6S-12' 41
IUIIEI 0"1'101 Mf,. PO -
GOODS C"II'I.III nD 80 25.30
:Surg leal Arlkllu "'·9Q '.15·30
:5torClg. I.~. Mfg_ 6'0·75 "o.~O
Lab. (1I.&l'M s.d.l 73.4 "'0
lItiXnlIS COrtoft
~_&P;a'ing 70.7'5 5PO
Caf'dI"11 113-17 5O>5Ji
~1n1l1 .. IcnOnv 110 55-60 D'lYIlUlA II"

,,1RotEn

'-1>"11 I.ift;;;,---

CClrtllniiJ~ Splnl'ljiill

75-80 60

---sG - --80-

Wea"'i"u

w~

,a.",

COl II

~,

IH •• IMD

~f.". Ii 't:irrum'Q W"",!IIgl. -

$plirWnl! B~

T _inQ 80

lorS,p.,ItIO

n.~InD -

W.ovln,

ai;Wi'ol.d AClllclt.

Spun Rayon

,65-10

-.--

60

--1-----

&0

--.0-SO-6O

----1--

Pkilo.GI

c;;- g,~.

DtD'i1fir19

~rti_!I::.II _

\11':01 0( c.uprommomum S,!,o§Ih.nc flbtr

1',.", .. W.Oy -=CI~'_-::-:::---1

ViIClllJe 80 60

1-----

(e'IO"III11 80 70

Nylon 80

fOI .. (eO

.50.60

CI"c ... · .. CI;ICJ,."

Mfg_

~" .tI!!oII

$111111 '"II L SMpPllIQ Sforagll' .. ' •• p. COfId t Qft .... OI

'ocking .. :ShlIl.PlIlQ

70-7.5 !XI

7:s.U 71 7.5 15

:!j$.4!Ii 15-.11! 75 10 n,

60

CHAPTElt 3. HEAT ST()RAGE~ DIVERSI1"Y AND STRATIFICAT'f()N

The normal load estimating procedure has been Ito evaluate lite ins amancou. he:n gain to a space ami [0 assume that the equipment , w ill remove the he,ll at this rate, Generally. ir W3. found that the cqt,ipmcnl selected em this h;Ji'ii .... ',i! oversized and ther '{ore capable or .Halln:1 ining much lower room conditions than the orig,inrll d sign. • tenstve nnnlv-

is, re arrh nnd testing hav shown Ihi11 the reasons r r his arc:

1. StoJige of heal in the buHding tru ture,

2. Non- imulraneou . 00 UlT n _, o[ (he peak of lhe individua! load (di ersity).

3. Stratification 01 heal, ~r SOIlrU.~ ases,

This ehapeer contains the d UI and procedures (or cil(llCrmini,rtg die 10. .d the qui I mcnt is actually "pi€king 1111) at allY one lime' (i'lnual cooling load). tak.illg inro ac aunt the above factors. Appl ication of In se data to 'the approl riare individual heat ~aim r '!Its in [he a tual cooling I ad.

The a HI a l cooling load IS en rail considerahly blow the pea."k t tal in tantaneous heal gain. thu requiring smaller equipm III to perform 3

Jl>Ccillc job, 111 adeJllion. the air qU3ndLies and/oT , a~erllu.unilies are redu ed. . ultirngin a smaller OVernJl1 s}' tern. Also, as brought om ill the. tables if the equipmen: f operated ome""h t longer duro ing he' peak Ioad period, arH1/or the temperature in IJp pa e is allo\\,cd io ris a few uc.'g. ees at the' p a I<. J erlods during cooli11g -p rauon, a further redu Lio~_iQ.._~,~quiT~d caracity .result . :rhe smaller

y lem operaung for longer periods 3.[ umes of peak load wm produce a lower first "t 10 [be customer With commensurate lower demand charges and lower opel7,ltiog'cOSlS • Je is Ii ..... ell-known Iart that ~uipmem. sized to more 'fIoarr J] et the requirtmen' fults in a more elJi II lilt, b uer openting

tern. Also. if a smaller s'yst m 1 selected, and is b don (!xte:aded period ol operation at the peak 10 d. it results in a more eccnoraical and efficient S)lu rn at a pa.rltially loaded condition.

Sin e. in most cases, ehe equipment installed to p rform a specific r.,mctioll 'is maller, there is less margin (or error, This requires more exacting engfneer,ing' including air distribution design and sy t In balancing.

Witb muli~5wry. mu lri-ruorn appli arion, it is

111'\110111, d'·sir.llhle til provide. omc n 'xihilil in th ;Ii1rittl' 01 ,,;)1Il Iliad tn :t'lln\\" Ior intli' idual ro In mntroll In.nl pi'kup. Lf'. (:,c!l'f'r:tll . it i~ rer rnIHelDeI,." rh:u rile full rerlur- inn [rom srnrage and divt"r~hy he ('ij;.('n on Ihe overall refrigeration nr building 11l:1l1. W:ii.h ~Imi(' de~ree o( conscrvmism on the ail' sid{' fir mom loads. T'hls lli.:gwe should b detc.'rmined hy the cllgim.:er [rom 'In'ojc l r quire, nlf.'IHl> :lIId rm,Lomer desir s .. 0\, s stern ~o d sign d, !rllll l'c'l1l1 linn em rdri~cT:'Il,ion 10 d and J. than fnll I'rdUtli011 'Jill air ,iell' or oom I ad, m S:I II or II". n · ... ihili!'. r 'cluir menu. 'x ept fit 'lim r 1:Ie;!" lonel. In .uhliri m, surh :1 S stem hn a 1m o ~"l1inI{ ;md op('r;Jlin~ ro .. L

STORAGE O~ HEAT IN BUILDING STRUCTURES

The instantaneous Ileal gain in :11 [}'pi 31 comfort appli tioll omius of sun, light. people, transmission rhru wl'Il'l . roof and gIRs • infihrari nand venrilnrion air ill d. in some es, 1J13chiner • appli-

anr . lecrric calculating machin s, etc. la

pord It or dli in ranraneous heat gain is radian lIle;lt' which does nor become an imlant:lIlenus lo;ul on the ~quipment, because it mu; l srrik.e ~ solid surf ee nnd bo: ~lbslJrbed b this surface be'forc becoming II I ad on the equipm lilt. The hre·:aldown

11 (he various insrantaneous h at .If.I-in.s in _fl radiant h at ami onverted heat is approxirn;;ueJy as [ollows:

RADLANTI (:01'1"'1:: :rlVE

HE'" HE.A

, ilia r, wi 1 "'t.iII in~id hlin(lli, .suln. wilh insirle Ihlinrh FIII'r.:"lcern i'l!;IHi

J ncande .-em I.igh

Propl,!:-

I nn"m i'l'lioll

lllnin liol1 :md Venlil. titm Iachinerv m , f'philflces!"

HIO".{.
!l'Rn; • 42f::.
.. "tflo.;. i'ltlh'~l
~41";, :2 '"
"
4O";, 2(1":,
6m"': ~n,n/"
IM"~
21)'!!iO'~;. 8 -20% ·Tht' rc;mlOllllillg' 40% j~ di~~ip3~ed ~IS talcOI load.

'I' !·'1I1smi"~ioil l(j~d i~ (,(1Jil~iderc(l 10 he H)O'\, fl)n'vr::clive 1011<1"1.

Til is I,llld I~ nO~lOall}' ,;, fchHi¥ely 'S I'll a II paTI (I{ the llllni 10. d, 1111t1 ror ~lmpliri!y J~ e,on .• irlered to be Ihe in'I~IH;lnC01I~ load nn Ih ... equlpmenr.

Th ... In;1I1 f!""(lin In~C'hiiti!f}' Of appliances varies. "'1~f1'C1l1llIfig lirOIl [hI! lempCF.iin e of ihe surface. The hilflll:r the ,url'l1 e , .. mpcrlllll'e. d"lii; grealer the radi nl. heal 101111.

1-26

PAR I. LOAD £STUd

CCN5,u!.Hli SPACE TEMJIERATUIRE ANI) EQUIPMENT OPERA riNG PERIODS

All the radiant heal froIll sources shnwn ill -ihe above table "trikes a solid surface (waU~! 1100r, ceilillg, erc.), it is absorbed, raising the temperature ai the surface'.oC the material above thai i'l"l ide the materia] and the i,t djaceru to the urface, This t mpera un diltcn:n e causes h .It now int the In ter] I by ,conduction and inte the air b I onTt'"cc· UOIl. The heal c ndueled awa ' from the ~uda e is li! ercd, 0,1 rhe h ,a ( convected h m ! he surface b nrnes l; n insramaneous cooling Ioad, The" perrien or radiant heat bei.ng tored depend~ .011 the ratio

or lh resi U1,n e to heat flow ;into the 1IIi1! rial and to he-at Ho into Ill' air film, With mo l C'Il'lN uon meterlals, lh re jill" h at

flow into the material is much lewer-than the: air r i tan e: therefore, most o[ th radianr h l will

~ tored. However, 3~ this pmc o( ab rbin,g

ra.dhnu he._l continues.the materi Lbeceme warmer and, less capable of storing more heal.

The highly varyi~lg arlCiI.rebti~IY!ihMP pea~ o( the lnstantanecus sollar heat gain r ults in II large pan o[ i_( 'ing s d ai the lime of k ~l r beat gain, a illu rated in ig. J.

Th upper line in Fig. J is typiL:t1 or the solar heal g(J/" for a w t exposure, ana rhe lower curve

Frc. ~ - A \.-sT XI'OIl!1Rr.,

c---- - --------

FIG., 4 - J\r.TIlAL COOLING LOA.n fROM. 'F1.umU:SCENT LICtrf1i. A VERAG£ CONS-rRLJC'TION

is, til ,actual cooling 10 d ~han resuhi:s in:1I1 y,er g; co nstrurt inn 3 ppJi ra non with the spate let"," perature he'l:d constant. The ,reduction in the peak heat gain is rup[c)rox.im;ne,ty 40% and. the. ale. load lar the peak heal g:Ol,in by approximately I hour. _ he r ss-harched a eas (Fig. J) repnxnt the Heat iored and the to d Heal Remove £rom the

oonstrucuon .. ,in all or dIe heal coming Imo

pac' must he removed, the (WO areas ;ueequ_l.

The reliHH1el'y (OIlS.t3I1t Hght load ~ul15 If1 la:rg poruen bci ng stored jilt "ctu -ihe I iglu.li are turned Oil, with ,3 decreasing amount bein,g stor d the longer rhe ligh [S all 01"1, as Illustrated in ':rg. ".

The upper and tC)wer UN reprexm th in_taMtan au heat pin amJ a ural ooling l031d (rom IluoresrnJl Itght:s with ruumt pa.ce temperatur .

heeress-h rehed a a ar th Heal Stored nd the Siered Hear Remo ed from the construction. he dotted line indicatCSlb actual cooling load (01' the fir t day if the ligb~ are on longer than the period shown.

Figs. J tJ'nd ,., illw'trat t.he reJarioruhip IiJrcwe n

tbe hi! ramanecus he I in .2n.d the a.C1U I ling

load in ~1\It"r.lIge onstruetion spaces., 'WiLt; ligh n-

trucuon, less heat i IIOf:d at the peak (I lit ng' apa ily ;1'13;1 a 1)1 ). amJ wirh heavy onstructlon, more heat is stored at the peale (more scorage (upa .

ill' vailablc), as shown in f'lig. 5. This aspect .a'IIects th . l 111 0·( zontng rt'qt!ired in the de i n o[ a yt m (0_ a given building;. the ligh'tCj' the bl.lildiil~ c nU-UI("Uun. dlC more auenrien hould be given 10 Il,in .

Tbe upper rune of lor I ,. is the msta'nLU'I,eous

Iar II at g. ill while he three' lower cerve are Ute a au: I ("of)linp: I 'ad 'fo light. medium lind h,.a.", canst: u(tif)n respecuv I~. with a constant tern 'tao uire in th ~pace.

ne mOl i[ III rhar ignificamly affe III

srorage n h~al IS the oper,ating period a'f the' ir o ntliuoming equipment. \11 nf the rurv, S 5chown in

FIG. 5 - ACTUAL COOLl~G QAtD, SoLAK HEAT CAIN, 1.IGHT. MWLUM' A 0 HI'.hv", GoNSlillUcnOJ'il

1-27

(:"11. ,ER 3. HE .. ~

Figs. 3, -I, (Inri. j iIIustr te the a,clual cooling load rg~ 2:·1 hour ope.r.ujon. H the equipm ent i hut downlte,r 16 hours f opel1l.~ion, some of Llu: 5t!JlI'et1 I\e,u remairu in the building enstru 'i n. his h--, must be removed (n - 1 in mu ( :qua he (OUI) and "till appear as a J ulldo 0 I .- h n the equipment is turned on die nex' day •• u inti l ted in F~g, 6.

Adding the pWld wn Joad 1,0 th coorn I d rOT lb;u da'), ,re5ulu in Lh - actual coolin - ~ 16-lrouroptrtJtion, illS .uu tr I.cdin Fig. 7.

ThtIJPper C'urv·e R-p nts d_r wtint neous heal

in ud the lowe!' lcurve me 4C".Iu r cuoling load for thal day with a III ttmperature m~un 'ned wilhti.ll the spa.c.e during lJ open tin pc ied 01 Un' equipm~nL The d 'ttd lim: repre 01.5 the addition I cooling load from the heat Idl in 11'11 bund·

ing IOONltUcUon. "1 in It.ht 1p'Cf!

r duri g idu~ dt ni, t·

UUlC m Wion I d .

bro~g_h I b1kl to Lhc: down period ..

horter periods of operation tn the putl-

dowll 10 d because m - to stored heat i. Ie I in the buil ing conw"uction when the quipmem is ShU'1 ,oa. Jii8. 8 iUU5U1Jtes th- puJld'own load lar 12·htJ1Jr ,l,r#Kr . lion.

dding' this puUdown LOiId Ito. lh ling 1 d

lor th t lb fItSUl in the aCltua! ling - {or

J2·J,our oper:al'ulI. as ilIulura in E.g. 9.

The upper and-weI" IOlid £lU"RS are lite in·

tam neeu heal gain and Ihc! a l'l.Iiid ,ooling load In ave ~fC constructi n 'paa: whh CORlta.nl tern-

[ . une maiD~intd oduri1ll riod.

The ,.hatched at' a, in r'p nt Ith f!'J.'t

SLr· d Ilnd 'the StOred Heal Roe-moved rrom th

_ , light load (fluons en.) is $.hown, io Fig. 10 Cor 12- rmd l~h,OUT operG'lion with connanl 'pace l 1 PC' a lure BSSllming I I1)..hour operation of lights)"

F _ (; - Pt:Il.IJX)WH AD. \.All HUT',CAIN. F G

.EST..ExPosUJt; r J6-AOua 01" nON

I AlIT G If -

Flc. 7 - ACl"UAL (,;ooLJNG LoAD, OLAR. tl.EA:T GAIN,

W _ XN) U • lli-l-i,OIiJR FEllATION

F.re. 8 - Pu LOOWN LlA.D, SOLAM Hf:AT GAIN, W :,\1' Ex:POsUR.£, 12',1110' R f'fJl Al· [ON

F.u::.9 - OTllAl. 0 LING LOAD". L4.R HIT 'GAIN, W I! ,'OllUIt£. 12-HOUR 0, RATION'

l-~

t· . .\RT I. LOA1) ESTIMATJiN(;,

Basis of Tabl,es 7 thru 12 StQrgge lOge! Factors_ SQlar and light Heal Gain , 2·, 16-. <ind: " .. -hol.l' 'OpdratiDft, ("nolon' Spoe. ' .... pcr,;!'ur.

These' tables are' calculated, us,ing " procedure dc:vcloped rrmn a series b(tests hi! aerual buildings. These t(.·S15 were conducred in office' b1l.lndin~" fillpCl'lm.lrkclS. and resklences lhrOLlRh(ml lhistountry.

The !1!3.gniIIU[h: 01 iibe st, rage clIeCl ~s derermined largely b')" the 'lhernml capacity nr heal holding

apac.i1y of the nta~e,dPi.ls .surr,olJndtng the space. The d1(~rmal capa,cin'Y ,of a, m'lI'lerialis Ilheweight times It:lle lIipecific he.1Il ot the material. Since: the ::'I,>edfl heal or f1IIoslronS[nt litH) material isapproxhuate:ly 0..20 Jitu/ (Ib) (F). the thermal capacity h tJirrccll.y ,proponiofllll.o the \v(',I~Jill or the malerial. hereforc. the data i~l the Illbler. '!'i based on 1,veight or rite' mau'dals 51:11TOUndin~ t1hc sp<lce,. per square 1001 0:1 lloor area,

,UUI of TableJ.lthl'u 112 Storage load fo.c1tolrS, Solin and light Heal Gain 12-, 16-, and 24-"nr OIM'~on. C",lIlla .. t Sp;:iA 1iIlI'llPliI'ah!r.,

'Tabies i Ortu II :Irc UK'd to determine the aerual cooling load from lhe solar heat gain wieh aeonstant temperature mairualned withj:" the space [or d.ifferent types ot construction and periods o~ oper· ation. Wi th both the 12- and 16-hour factol'!!., the starting time' is assumed to be 6 ll.m.5UI1I'lime (7 a.m, Daylight Sav:ing Time), The weight per sq flOr types Gf constmcdon are Hued in T,(1~Jt·tJ'll tI,ru JJ, ,po.g~.s 66-76.

The actual coo~ing load ~!I determined by multiplying the storage loadfaclorfrom rnes<c tables for alii)' OT all times by the lleak. solar hC<iltgain for the'particular exposure, month and lathude desired. T dblt: 6 is a. cempilarion of the peak o;olar heat ~il1ls foreach exposure .. moruh and latitude. These va'lue'; are extracted r.rom Tablt: 15, pt11!.t' I-t. T!u~ peak solon- heat gain Is also :to hf· muhip~ied by either or bath the <I'pplicable o'llcr-aU-[ac(ol" for s,hading devices (TaLle 16, pag~ ~2) and the QTreetiens listed under Table I), ReductIon in wl:lr heal gain (rom the shading of the window by reveals and/or overhang shoukl also be utilleed.

Example, , - Aehlal Cooling Lo"d. Solor H'eo.~ Gain Civen:

A 20 ft x 20 {l X 8 fl outside officfl room with Il·!nch !O!'nd ,aggregate eonerere floor. with a nQfJ~ ~il.e fin·i~hl .. 2'!IiI-lm~h solid san~ plaster p3rli~ion~. :110 ~1I~pertd~d c"'iling. and :l IIl·[nch common I)fid:. outside wall whh 'yI;·indl ~and awe· ga til: plaster f'i n !sh I) n iful rle Ii .dO! Ire. i\ I (j, fl )Ii !I fl ~[eel !l"uh ",indo'w with .. wbi!l~ "t:nCIi;m hliml is in the outside waH allld the wall [aces west.

Flind:

.-\. Till! almal r;ooJing load fr;Qlu dil.coolar heat gain htl Jllly :1( " p.m.; 40'" North lathude with the lIir conditioning eqtlipmclfll operatil'lg 24 hours durillK the pGiilk. loafl pctlO(I~ ami iii eonstant t:.empt'raulft: mfiimained wilMn the room:

8. The roalingl03d at 8 p.,m. ,for ,:he &arne ronr"fibn~ ..

Solution:

The we.i,ghl per sq ft @f ROOf arreaof Ithls room rr.alucs qb· ('lIned fmm. Chapt8 1) is:

(20 X R)- tllii X 5}

OUl5idc "";III = 20 X20 X 126 Ih/!q n

(7':tdHt 21 ,p.g't ft6}

= 25.2 Jh/~ fit floof an;. .

Ftnor

"" U21h/sq II )loor;OIfeil 20 x 2(11

= .~ x 20 X 21) X !I9lhJ..qrl

(7""'. :l9,·lW.tct'11)

"" 2!1,!'i 1!J/!!q Ilfk;or ;11l1't"a

~ ". go X 2Q1 ~

Odlmg = :~4 x to x:ro x :"9 Ihf~ (I

. (1:~b'l! :P'.1M·~ .7 J )

"" 29:5 11)lsq h Root .. n::a

NOl"E: On!:-haIC of the I"n:llion. IlOOl'and ceiling lhlcli;. nC!l'l is \L!lel:I. a$.~umillg (!'I:;1l the: 'P9cr1 11_v~ IUid hd(,w <Ire rond1:t.ioned;rnd are ulilidng tile DUI(!f l:ialv,es for stOl\lgc' of heat,

Total wcigtu per YJ (t of: I100r area

=2r...2 + IS.2 +29.5 +29.5~ S'1,4·lh/liq Ifl.

The O'Yerall if:u::un fOf [he window with the 'white: "'tHc;tia hi i nd is '0.56 (T o.fI'l!' 1 &.pttgC' 5:2 j ill mIr die OII'l'£Clllon 'flill Ileel ilaAh = 1/.85.

• \, !iIOl"'~ f"t::lor. <t. p .. m. = Q.fi6 (Tl:bl.t ',.,

The prill!. ~la:r heillgain 'r~r' ill, WCllilt'ICp03UR in July.' +0'. Nonh la.titude= 1M il.tu/(hr){1q rt).(T.&/lI 6).

AaWlll'llXlling load

= ( 5 x Hi X 164 X _'i!Ii X 1~) X '0.:66= 11'00 .Btu/hr 11, • .sIOrllge lfactor •. ~ p.m, "" .20 (ToIIo.fe .1)

Aaoolcooling k1u.I'

::: (. Ii)( 1.6 X 1M X .56 X ~) x .20. ;0:: 1"50 .$WJ.hr

Tabte 12 is wed to determinetheactual cobling Load Irom the heat gain [rum lights. These da~ may abo be· wed to detenn.1fi1e rlIx aot:ual cooling load from:

t. :Pcople - except in densely populated areas such as auditoriums. mea.ten, e[c:" The radiant heat exchange (nun the body' is, eedueed in situations like this because there i, rclllitlvc1y less surface available f.o!!' the OOdy to radiate to.

2, Someappljances and machines that operate period i cally, with hotex~erior sur(aces such as ovens, dryers .. hOI tanks, etc.

NOT'E:For Items I and 2 above. Use' vahl~S listed for ltuol1esremfxposed ligim.

1-29

Example.2 - Aduol Cooling load. LiQnb and People ,r ,I "t'!!;

'UU' /,i,m' PXHI10 ac~ ill 1_\tllII/l/l' , ""hll' liAh! 'ltCi'll !'lin of ~ ... ~tl~ Ix'r:ooq· h or 1II,.,t nllC;,l IIUI Int'iIIlUI'I- Ih:'!II_ ~t, e"'I"~! fli _em I,~tll.s and • pc'lIJllc. '1 II "!III 'crtlllCl1IWrr to lie' 11l!llm.lHled <lL '1 f dlJ Willi 24 IlItllr "10("(;1111"11 "'lJJnng the

I puitxb.

SollJllion:

The Illite: tlllll~fl afne:r Ihl: light'll a,ltl."' lilr~IG:{I lin! :IJ II hunrs ,II 01.'111. l(j II p.m.),

to It ".Iltd fa mf = .8'7 (Tab/~ nJ..

n If.l nC1!!!gain r~Qm people=21",:htu/hr

rr",.,l' 16, Jlllt.l' IUO)

fi 1.

Til :lIrlIQI, -'q load at .. ., rn, f~th 'thl' I IlI.IlUmm OD ., (he pecple _Trifle a.{ 8 iii .).

rn I d

li' S." )( 1.2" )( 20 20) 11 2t~) P( .8;

IlIolhr,

rAILE 6-PIAK SOLAI HEAT GAINI 'MRU ORDINARY GLASS· Iltul(hr)(1", flo)

Henlo! IX'05UU NORTHI lA'1IITUII SOUTH
\AI. -1- - r r :5 - - MON'H LAT.
MONT HI Nt N( I IE SiW W HW H •• h:
.Iv ... J' 156 10 42 14 "'2 1~7 U6 226 .iI'
Jvl, I. Mil}! A. 153 IS: 52 u 52 1S2 1S1 231 H.v & Hili
Aq& .. ,..u I n "1 hU '" I" 19 163 ,., 24-5 Cd &,. ..
01° s.pI & M-cJo 10 III '6" II! u III 167 , .. 2SO Sept & ""_colt 0,0
O~A'_ 10 19 163 HI U 141 16l 19 14~ All. I, "10<'11
..... 1. ... 10 52 I U2 Ul lil I.U "2 52 233 Jul., a HI.,
Oft 10 ., 1.1.7 156 82 1)6 . U7 ", 126 J ....
.,
J_ .• .10 I:» U~ " U' l,J t,s I~ 2AJ ,D.'C
hi" "M.~ :10 IU 1$11 66 1<& 66 lSI UI 2 .. 1 1'1 .... ., l.iIi
110'0 A". ,& .... ,..u I 1) 130 161 '4 14 9~ hill 1]:0 2511 Od i& :,.",,," '1'0°
'-!PI" M.d! 10 10) 16" 127 Ui "1 16.4 1011 2A1 Ii.", &' M",f'c!o
Od" f.lo I 10 66 ISS 1<19 13 10 IJ! 1>6 230 Au ....... rll
N ... & ".. , II' 37 ,.3 161 HI6 1111 I I,'~ 37 2tO ~ul, , Mo?
D.c; , U 137 1'3 120 16l 1:17 28 202 .I,,",
- - -
,.lUll. I 26 I" 160 13 II .. , 13 160 J~ 250' b.c
Jldy &. M .. " If III 16J, I~ I.e IS 16l 131 UI N.y'" J ...
.... & ApOIil , 11 III 165 II) 26 1 'Il 16::; III , .. ., Od' ,. ..
20° ,
5.I.~h I 101 B1 "63i 1,,0: ,6$ 1.0 1,6:1 I] :Ill S.p' I, Miilii'Ch 20°
Oct .. ". , :.2 .. 1 160 III 100 ,.7 5'1 206 ,"UII& April
....... &.1 •• " U 121 116!4 141 164 Ill' 10- lilO Jvly & "".,
IrlM I II UI .61 U'l 161 111 II 110 JOIn.
- I-
J ••• :lO 139 loll PO 21 90 ~>61 Ill,' no D"!e
J .. I, .. MIo,. .. 131 tu 100 :HI lOCI 16. III 246 HiI'!II'l I: J'.PiI
A.II .. "'jWiI II , 10. IU 17~ 63 ut UJi 101 ns Cd I hili 301°
30° S.,..I, M .... d' t to lSI 1S2 105 U:t u. 90 '11 5111",. M~d"
Od&FM I 39 US 163 1.(.5 163 us ;)'9 179 A. ..... A~I
ihw .... " I 7 16 116 ~62 159 1 " 116 16 It' July II Mo,
D_ ill 12 las 1162 163 WI IO~ 12 UI Jlln.
17 -1-
JV!!. ns 162 III ,,, 111 16'2 III 237 Dlle
bly & Mo,' I~ Ill" 16A, 12.5 69 12.5 164 127 23:3 No .... J."
40° Au. & 4 .... 11 11 '102 167 lA' lQ2 h' 16' 102 21" Oct .. ".1> 40°
5oopl" Much p' n 149 16,2 140 162 149 58 183 hii'll """reh,
Od .. hI! 7 3' In 1,63 162 .63 122 315 U9 A .. t & Ap,1I
"' •• "J." .s U 100 15.6 166 11'6 100 12 10:3 July & Moy
p_ ;S to 16 HII I~ .~. ,,6 1111 !IS J"I'''
- -
.I ..... HI 126 I,U IlJ III In 164 In 1~ D.c
.iliil,. :Ii. ,,,,,,"y U 111 I~ I A." 1G6 Ul U-3 II" m N"I",lh ..
SOD ..... 1 .. AprU 11 94 151 157 1::11 1'$7 U. ,. ns Ocr .. f •• SOQ
'"", .. M...,h • , IJII 16,3 ..,1 163 11, ~ 14, hpll M.nli
Oct ,. F ... J 29 lOS 1$1 1,61' IJIl IOJ I 2'9 9~ ........ "'''';11
I" .. " • JL ... .iI 9 64 12:7 1S31 12'1 , 641 II 53 J'u-Iy'" Mil'
!)H :!i '1 AT 116 141 116 '7 '1 '0 . hn;.
S II If Nf N N1I¥ -1 w I S1l¥ H.ri,~
- -
fJllPOSUI.E SOUTH L ... llITUDI
-
1.la. Cain St •• '1 Salli Of HIIU Altitude D .... polnl O"wpolni 5.01,,11 'L.,
Cerr'.dlan No S.uh -1::1,%1101.0,,1 +0.7% per 1000 '1 "In!'!!!! 07 f lielow 67 F D., o. Jan
:<1/.8.'5 Or 1.17 -7" j:;;II' 10 f +7% pe. Io.!' ·0"% ·"'I:nlroehrd rrom, r",!>I. 15, pall- 43.

tSdor 11.01 IlcUn 00 Ike •• upo>u.._ 1m Notlh la,'I"o:I"'} C!f 00i' .~II! IUp_~ 1m s..vth 1011ti/d'nJ CiGnj .. h lI',i_lIi' ;cd diffi"e ,ocd.ar~ .. "'" ........ t ... ,.., _'1JII'l I""-~I 1M, day. 'n... ,ololf II oi 110'" "'II"'" lot "'Is ."poJ,U". Dr Ih-.. g ... ".,,, 'II!' ! • U "'" pedod 16 o. 1-0 6 p .... 1 T'I>liI 10"011'

f "" ... l..w.. :1 tJon;r " ....., ... IfIg111t1;", 'IiCIiIa. .of iilili - ... Ihb Hoffl; lor Southl "'~!I i. UOI'I}lo;.L

1...JO

TA'BU7-S1I'OiAAOE lOADFAClO:IS" SOLAR H'EAI O,AfN 1iHRUI GLASS

W.lTH INUANA.L 511""10:&·

24 Hour Opc;ra1iofl, Comfant Space T emperotll.lret

PIon, .. 1M.it!i Iifll

NfD" ...... lIN

'0

WltG"', n.,.o,ft ,,,1'11 .... -1

AM

AM
, ~,!! n u , I ill OIl '5
.OB' .r:i1 .0&.1.06 .os .0" • D'. .0 • .CD, .113
.07 .06 .o".O:!l .0<1 .Q.4 ,03 .Q3 .o~ ,02
.Q2 ,D~ .11' .01 g g 0' II 0 !! .. , 'I " 'JC II 'llI! !,

110" .".' II!(!

~Q

,,"' .sa .~ ., 2 .'17 .21, f .2e, • U .48 ,60 .$1' ... .6 .~o .2~ : .1.IQ ,I ~ I, J~ ,1'6 .73, ,J. ~, .Z~ .I? .17

1: )' .. ~, " 7
,18 ,11 .16 .14 .H .M'
.rr .l~ .1'$ .1:1 .11 .0'
.I~ .1 ~ .1 Z .11 .ft7 .~ 110 •• ". .l9'.5&.IIl • .59 .A~' .ll .. n, JI '.xl .11 Jl' .Ij .\1 .l,Q .M! ,.1111, '.D. '.oJ' .06¥ .os .0, '.a. '.0"

10<1 .A.(I ..51 .M .43 '" .35 .2~ .;11 .20 .11 .16 .tI, .I~ Pi, .GI JJl M .05 ~$ ,.Gt .<M .p .Q:J .ll'l

n .A, ':10 .10 .1' .)lA, .Al.U .1'11 •• , •• I'~ .11 .119 .0'1' .et .02' .II~,' ID' .01 (!I I) " (J II '0

Ul'OIUIJ [~ .... ,_I

15111 ..... ' 104

311

.DA .le .~1 .'9 .<\.4 .62 .l3 . ., .27 .1' .2,1 .19 ,I~ ,14 .12 .11 .Hi .011' .0. _07 .M ,04 .oj .oj
.1)3 .10 .AT .iil ,6,'1 .ss ,SI .14 .u .2" .21 .11 ,.15 .1lI .Ill .It9 .oii ;07 .06 .&.; ,M .04 i,O" ,.03 N • ., ...... -
0 .30 Sf .n .U Al .69 .50 .30 20 .1:7' .13 .09 .05 .0' .113 .0' AT 0 0 0 0 0 0 1i50 I ..... 1'00

10

.N, .oa .J'" .n • .JI .1lO .66 '.f)1 ,,,"I ." ,":11 .J'. .:n .l' .I~ .n .n .n .11 .1(1 JD9 .c. 1)1 1FT
.~ ,iii .n .n .s~ ,~ :70 .n .oIi~ .'9 •• 'S .i6 32 .11 .1,' .11) .n .10 .119 .01 .W .06 ",a .!lS !iii"",,,
.10 .2.1 ,4' ",a, sr .1-11 .n . n . .1'6 ..so .:2~ .16 .11 ~ . .AI!! ~. m .02 ,.CIT .01 (I G 0 0: s .

1!1~ " ......

w ... , ~Oii

:Ii)

, .ll~1 .08 .09 .10 .11 .2' .~'i' .'3 .M! .~ .611 .q .n .1\1 ,n .16 .1' .11 111m .10 .011 .DI .c- JO
I .117' '.08 ,01 ,(18 ,1'01 .l~ ,AO A! .(!~ :10 ~ .50 ,24 ,,0 .17 ,15 ,11 .1'1 1.10 .09' ..pI .01 .06 ID,S ""'l!" •• '
.O~I .aA .06 .01 .09 .23 ."1 .61 .11 i .1& :JfI. ,60 .;1'6 .17 .11 .0 • .0, .cIA ,,03 .OJ .01 .0, (I (J
·,oel .IIII' .D9 .10 ,'10 .to .10 .. 11 .I'~ .3J ."1 .413 . 5~1:'J .19 .17 .15 ••• .Xl .11 .1'0 IfI'f JIll .o:t
• fIt 11, .lil .09 .at M .ot .11 .16 .;U 66 .61 ,60 '.lS .;iii .17 .IS .1,' :.H .10' ,til' #! .06 .a5 ·W ...
;~J ,0. .06 .Iii ,01 .till 10, .19 •• ,2 ' .6!i .ill .113 ,'.'.30 .li! .13 ..0, ,0(. All ,00 .Ill ;0' .(11 Ci ,...... uo ......

n'll HIQ

SIll..... ~

.O~ .1l9 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .11> .3' •• 9 .61 .60 .19 .17 .u~ .n .12 1.111 HI .111 ,0' .0" ;04
,0'7 ;0. iDt .09 ,10 .10 ,III 10 .16 ,u "':I .d~ .~ .n .11 .15 ,U ,II '.09 III 101 .116 .06 .05 '.ooifl .... '
,l;Il .O~, i'il '"0' .09 .09 .10 ,'Ill .11 .39 .63 ,N '11 .21 .11 .12 09: .06 .0-10 .a~ ./112 .o~ AI II
.(11: ,)7 .. '} .11 J~ .76 ,n II .11, .h .1:", .1' .11 .n .2!6: .n ..20 .If .111' rs .U, .1' .1' .'10 ,.. ..
M .31 Ai.1 .7~ :1-1 • .7'1'1"" ,n ,',' .Q &81 .lIO ,;"1 .so :26 .12 .,' .11 .U I.U .11 .11.1 M .0. ill
0 .25 7~ .. 13 .n .91 .U, 911 .96 in .9~ .99 .W .2.11 .1T .12 .o~ .0, .0. ~ ~~ .01 .Ill .01 I"". 150" .. .,., IIXI

Eqya'!O!'!i CQ(!!I'!g ~';";nl. IIII/I;r .. !I';;ak lolar 1111<11 gain, illiJ/!hr), {;q "I, 110'1>1 .. oIl [Win.dow ,orea,'q ftj

lJ( (5Ilad.l! 'OdOr, Hen,O!! "aC1hlr, <11K-" tCII"pf •• ~II

11( 15'10''1:111'''' """'Ol', { .. bo .. ., 1011:110 "I cllt~r~d II ... -.t}

·'nterned ~gd!l'!tiI de"l~ II !:Iny tyllt! of Iliad. loI:ilJllii:l DIll ,h. II1~d'. of th .. gIQ'~'

tTtI._ "'cllm, apply ..... n mol","';nh'Q <I CONST'ANT TEMPERATURE I,n thtl' Ip.lKO d~,i"g ,,,. o".~oli"4 peri.cod. Wh ••• ,,,. '-mp."oh'~. it, olio""'! 'g 1"";"9. oddl~ellt!l IIoreg_ will ,.,ull dUn"lll pM. 1.00. ptri()d'~. h'.r to l'oW. I,J '0' ClppllcobllllJ.lo"'1l. foci"".

lWei.". ' .. .., 'Iq ft of 1100'-

, . I 'I ~W.I!l1:i1 of' Oo11il!i. Wellll-lbl + .~ [Weigh, of l"o:rl'tllloM, F~ (ln~ (.111119<,1111

Room GIrl Ildg Erlori04! OM 1M' "'()r~ Cluto,lde .. 0111_ '" - - - -- '-lDar Arij(lliiiR~ II:! 'ft ~~-

I '. ~ !Weigbt of ;Portll.lon., Floor Qnd C.lllni.lb)

11_11'111 cit, Ii'iUi'l10P' ,Nc (hjlild~ "',QII,I ~ ~ " ,'-" --;,-;-" .. ----

dOD!' A_ ~G ... ..O!.l .. '. .1:1 rr

_ . . ( .. tWitl;", 0301' 'Ou ,;4e W.,II., lilt T (W.'Ihtof &or, iii) T !.!i IWIi!tItI c:f P'wJi1kb .. nd (;ti!~. Iii I'

Jal ..... "t.'_ "'_ ~ 1I,,~(!dl"" -- --- --- -- , . . ~- - ~

flOor 0\'''0 1"110011>, ,(1: It

IW,!!!"" of Ou~~ W!!!, PafllllC!!'l; floon. C!I!!!!nil. §I'~~_d!!!",I_M!_"'l>lilf' o,!d .~~~~I, fb) Air Oondlll.,.,.d iFIOQ, "np, Iq fl

With r;i9 on fllOOr-W.lghl O'f' nOCir ","Quid b .. ", .. Iilplld b, 0.5010 oo"'p.''''9I'. 'er IIII.uIClIIIIIII.r~'d of "'g. Wld;!!11 ~.r 11:1 110'1 (!Om_ IIyPIU <If_.!r''(tlol'l are .(Qo<IIQln.'d In TQW •• 21 Hi ...... n. piilli!'.J Of "" .. y " •.

GHA,PTER. 11. HEAT s-]·ORAGE. DIVERSn'l:' .. \NU STR '.-rIFle,,\ TI:ON

1-3.1

TABLE I-ST'OlAGE LOAD FACIORS, SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU G,LASS

W1T" 'AUi GLASS, 01 Wilt'! EX'Iil'.HAL :iN_DIl 24 Hour Operata on, 'Constant Space remperatufet

'M AM IllPOSU •• :

I'_.m. L_III ',1' ,. "'10 'I1'+-'_2~-+_:J+a-l_._+-5_' :j-.+_7+_.+'_' +-1 II_, ' ..... U+·'_lI""i _'_I'f-..:lI~'FI+~4+~S+~ __ ~ __

1111, ...... .IT:D .313, .J!3, ,.11 12 :u .2.5, .13 .~:2 . .XI .19 .17 .15 tu .'12 • .11 . iO M mI 'Jf1 .07 ,06'.1);6,

~OI,I' ,.il on .~, .36 :1- . .21 .2,. :12 .2'1 .H! .Ii" .IO!' .I~ .n .10 ,01 .CII;07 ·,06 .O.S .0:5; .0. ,03

_____ ++ 3_0 __ +.3_1+36_· ·+.6_:S~ •• _6_1 _'''_' \-.~J .26 .JI .11 .16 .H, .12, ;0' :,00\ ,N .03 .D2' 10'1 !Gl 1)'1 (I ~ g, 0

.16 ,.26 .34 .39 0 .~ I .3~ .30 .28 ,26.23 .n .2D .11 .16. U .13 .12 .10 .II? .01 .• Oo-.~ /J.,,~, 1·.~,6.,1

.16 .n , ... .-I, .~" ...12 '.36 .l1 .21 '.2~ .23, .20 .11 .Il .U .12 ,.111 .09 .IlS .oa .06 • ". ~ ,.27 ~ .67 ,I' .61, .n .n .1J' .21 .11 .1151 . .12 .09 .M ,OJ .M .01 .01 /01 .01 -'II 0 i I) .01

iEXPDlU.i [l!Mo;'I !;,oil

WilQKTI

1' .. _ .....

!fI!~."1

!,SO ,_v .. llXl

:10

SUN TIMI

AM

'.01 .U n .31 .JI . ..Q .U .41 .:l,V' .J;S: :32 ,n .a6 .21 .~I ,I' .16' .IS .I:~ .12 .11 .10 lot ;0., .05 .12 .~~ .35 ... ~. 1"'9 .'1 ..17 ' •••• 31> .31, .~7 .U ,.21 .11 .. ]'6 .14 .n .10 ,0'11 ;II! .Oli .06' ;06 I) .11 . ..0 .19 en R 72 .60 .;j..I .32 .23 .111 .U n9.1)1 ,~' .Ql .O~ .01 .0'1 .01 (i Q Q -f-----,I------

,.10 ,Iii ',13;.20 .21 .l!i .~ .... .ill I .:'11 ..Iii . .(2 .3,7 .3;3..2~ .:26 .ll .21 .19 .1)1' .15 .1" .13 .12 .Il'1 .061',12 ,:Hl .30 .39 . .111 :.!IiI _g ,SJ' .sa _U .37 .~I .:¥1 :n .10 .1:' .16 .i4 .11 .11 .10 .OS II I) I,~:r .19 .<11 .. W j~ .12 .11.15' .61' .. U .n .n .llI .09 .06 ,G' .0) .In .01 ,01 0 II

.11,101.10 .tll .10 .1"..21 .29 ;U ."::1 .AI' .'" .40,.3-01 .::10 :1.7 .J .•. n .~ .11 .. 16, .1-' .13 .11 .011 .'IW .01 ,09 .Ot .14 .:12 .JI ',42, .50 .53 .51 .44 .~s .n .~6 •• 2 ,I' .11 .15 .. I~ .11 .1 1 .o~', .02 .03 .11$ .06 .Oa ,12,3" .~J .,58 .78 .78 .66 .ee ,29 .:20 . .1 ~ .0'9 10-7 .0':; .03' .OJ IO~ .O! .0.1

.13 .11 .11 .10 ,10 .10 .10 .13 .19' .27 .3:d .• 1 ",. .,38 .!3 .29 ,j6 .23 .21 .IB .ld .13 .IJ ,n ~ . .op ,Of' to!!' .09 .1lI' .H! .12 .1' .lll ,.110 •• 1 ,., •. ~J ,35' .3D 15 .22 .n .H.,.U ,I~ .11 .0.9, '.~ .03 .0,' .06 .07 ;(11 .01.14 ,29 ,4, .67 .... 6 .71 .53 .33 .22 15.1! .0' .03 .Q~ Al3 .02 .Oi --------r-------~_+_+-+_+_+~~

.... , .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .. 1:0 .10 ,12 .17 .n .J.!: .39 .l' .2, .26 .2'31.20 .11 .16 .1, •. Il .12 .HI: .O! .09 .OP .Of! .09 .0' .011 .I)~ ,11 ,19 .29,.'0 .-'6 . .to .32 .2' '.221.19 .111 .1 •. 13 .1'1 .10 .OS: .02 .!U ,05 ,W JOB' ,1)'9 1,10 .10 .1:1 .l7 ,~~ .U n .'9 .31 ,2'1 .U .10 fJ'7 .OS .. 0, ,03 .02 .01

---------r--------~~~--~+-+-~~-+- :-r4-~_r_+~'~~r-+_+_~---------

.16 .23 .• 33 ... 1 .47 ~2 .51 A,I . ,66· .69 :n YII .1Si' .'2 .411, .A2 .lI7 1.9..1 ,~I .:1'7 .fU .13 ,21 .17 .1' 11.313 . U ..51 .l1~, J6 .],0 :;11 .16 ~9 .ID .bO -', ... ~. .ll 3,' .19 ..'D :2:3 .21 1.111 .16 . n ,~II 'u 1.66 )',,, . .12 1m .9'1 .f1 ,,5 -,V, .. 911 " .51 I-l~..l~ ,.J6. II .~ .~ .0<1 .02 m .0' .011

"'.n. ......

........

'Isa B .. ,. ...

UI .. H'

1!o'& __ 1110'

~

1"" 1, ... ", 1:00

:Ii!

IY' •• y_ 1001

30'

N.wlh

'Wjj,~

5.111" ••• 5~"'

15011 ...... '1'10

~,

EqlNltlom CoolinG load,. lltu{hr - [Peal! solar ho"'l ;"''''' 81U/(hrl I~q fltl. Ir .. bI", 611 X iWindo .... cueo, .q f1]

>:: ISha<! .. h!d",.,. Haze f.e~I'u. ol~~. 1(11 .. """. oill,

X 1S:IQr'CIt·e ''actQr. ( .. b.,,,,, 11'01;1'", iiI ,d~.r~ed Itlm .1

t·Borl!! IiIl&u - "'nr "';·"d""" with njj ii!lw., l"D:cll',,~ d'"yice. Wind!)' ..... wltll J" .. dl., ... i:I!I!"kM g.,.. 11:". "",hhl ... ~ ,.I".d.1iI bV 'nternal p.gi"~II"fI' ore tgMlcl.r.d 001'. gillin,

tfh.ie 'get.;, •• C!ppily when molflt.aining II CONSTANT ifEMPEILAYUAE in the IPgo~. durins II>" Op.,crllllg peoriod. Whet' th" flllmpeoolur. i,

gUO~ to, ;"; •. addllijjlltji .Iorug .. will' r'JIII! du,ing ,....,It 10IId periods. Ref., 10 robl. 1.3 fo. ".ppllc,abl'e ,510<Og." foctan,

I'W-'lllhl,. · "!II ft .fl1'.iH-

.. 1·ld ,",_. I..... - . . . (W.lghl of' Outside \Naill. Itil 1- YJ IW .. IIj'M ·of Poffitiooo •. ~IHI' e .. <1 C,,,III"II. tbl

......... 1 OI!I . . II "".111'.'.,.' , vAt Of 'moo"II!I' O<Il1:ld ..... Il'!l.l .= '_ - _' -- -

, F'I~ A','eo i~ 1_",. III h

R· . I 111-' I' ._ (' .. , 'Id·.· !iI.. IWei;ht .. oJ I'arlltle<lo, Floo, ell,deem"!!, Ibl

_ n, .. Q1 ,nter",r rolil IiIwb .. wall,I'" - - __ ~. __

, flloilf Are aln ,Roam, '!I!~i

loijMmM!' 1_ U:kK!r QrI 1If$j..,:dJ ... ~"QI.hl of Clo;rhid. WolIl. Ibl.±.IW!iuM of FIG<lf, IbL -I. y,. lW.ilJki IiIf"<,,1iiio;Mu and ~i~:!!11. ii!J,

- fic!4r .4n!l !rt IotIm, ~I fl

bll!,.lliIlidlligor 10n* _ 1",¥'wJ;hJ'll'f O,uh:lde, W'all, Porl~llen$. FI~.!! C_"II~liIi. !ilr.>eturul M"mban !lnd Sll,~porb. Ittl "'lr COI'Idltlolled !';IGOr .... r.o. sq fl·

WUh w~i' OIII·floo~~W.IQiht of flo»r .hO!.l~d bll mulliplittd b)! 0 . .'10 to ;OmplI"t.otll 'or I".ulglli\lg .U.u of .,<.ilil. W·'llhh per Iql ft of c:GmIllOi'l tt',p.~ 01 (onIlIVCiI ..... 'lifo!! am'ol .. ,d I" 'I'"blltl.n III ... U, pali;i.,·66, III,u 16.

t--J2

PAR .. I lO,e\U fS1 BI.\TIKG

TAIU V-STORAGE I:.,OAD FACTORS. SOlARHEA1 GAINTHJUJ GLASS

W,ITIH INJ'EIIINAI( $H""O.INO DIIVICE"

16 Hour Operation, Constol1ll Spcc:e Ternpernture'l

WIJ9,UI

{ .. _",,:,.

•• "." ... 1

'11(1'01''''.1 (1. .... ".1

.. 13 I OA .1, 1"".7 T·'I I:U . .2. !I ,,, .11 Ill' .16 I·u .12' 10'0 .1It

~" .U .• 1 ~ .n .V .n ~I .IT 't .!~ .n .11 M .f1J

..H :11 .J'l ...58 J.J.i. .U .111' 11 ,Il I.n .U .11 m .41. m

-- -~--'_--<r-~~~--~--- '~-4~---

1~ AJ ",!.6<I' .,.. • V· .H :ra II .. 11 17 t·1S .1::1 .10 OIl

-. ~l 70 N .HI " ;17 :J' XI,." I 1. n .1~l 'CIt

I.' JIM 79 -'~ .U .U .1" 16 .11 .n ..of sr .10. 01

.U -.-jl-:I--"-,-,+-,6t.-~· ~6~ ~~1~6 11 .14 '";"1 r.-u-··+.-l.-·+-.t- .. -+-n II I·H .Sl .. ~ J~ ,6" ,~I .H n .,~ .7'. J.II .1.5 .I~ 10

.07 JI .sr .rs .I"~I 6' "" :m .2D .IJ .Il .Of' .05CU,

." j'" .,.- -:;; .. r... " ,. ,. '-.5-9-.-1 -.-'-.J~~f--.l-.-t-'l';-~ ~:;1'

~ , ~~ I ;; ~; 1; ~ ; ; ;I~.:: I ;-' ..... :-~-,~+~ T:

Dt til M .011 .16 U ~ t.1 .II ..u ::19 AD .• 2& .n .11

'--I r · -- ~--I---i

ISCI".. nJ! ~1-.7] :J'!J- " II J' 16 l.ll "~ ~ .55 .i1:

WtiI 101 1~,;.It .1'iI' .17 II U 13 J6 ..J~ ..... M .611 U

]!I n .111 .~D j .10 .1(1 .10 M .1. -1 l.u ,II .n 7·. ..KI

-----.- f-----<- ---- ---~-i··~-

UQI..... 111 I ,~, m 1,'1' II III It It

N .... lIow..u 10iJJ .. .It .11 .17 .11 16 .1' I Ii .6 ,,_

JO n.'II.II.11 .11 II II .10 I .,1. I .l1I

---- ---- --- - ....... ----- r--- ,....___,"---I--t--·II~·

~li' 1.1011 .. •••• u 1 ,Ui 35 :r9 I .JIll . .0 .... .IJ '~III,

.... " I·DO ~5 I U .n .7,& I.1.' .17 .13 .,. U' .17

5!i1d.. I :Ie tJf ,n .59 .~o J .86 .n ,'~ .'15 "'1 .91

I~'"'''' ~IH!

~,

154 & .-". 110

II'

nil I ilili,"'lfif UHI

--

l~a ... ' • ..., 1011

lQ

1.10 &. A'!I!'lIr IGO

l'

.1' 11 .oj

-f.----~

JiJ IN OJ

II .09 01

,U

I~ Ii '

16 .IS AI

.n

14_ ... ,!oHl.

,Ill' 11 I'~

~? 'A·I .n I .6~; .II, ,10

,t' JIG .It

I' .n

.II

~

),;1

." II

Jt .21

1--'"----1"- c--

.n I.D

.11 .s\'

.n ,II?

cJA .n ,~J I .1'6

I P"Qk tola. jo.'GI soin, !ity,/II!,I hq 'II. OI'!!bI. t!H I Wrnd ..... orllu. "I 'ftl

• l$hode fo~OO',If9l''' teaM. ... I~I., 411 J51:0,1II1I- '_lao. (aboor .. lobl.QI.I ~ .... .d ;,.., II

'1A'1n.pl 1h<tdmgid'''~1 II ClIly I~p. 01 "'<ld. laoi:at1!d OIl d al· 'I~r> ,,100:<rf~f_'l app.!" '"'11." _."!'D."'"", • COH5lf.ANf If.MPUAME In rh. oll ..... ..r 10 J.Mg. odd.1>onol 10Iav- 'II...,." r d'vrioog po;CI md ,....iodw. ,

~ • .III''''; , .... OJM"f"olil'l!il piOnod - .... i .... , hIt ... f!'R"0·, ..... b

'0 ., JGb&. I.J 10<' a:ppiiotD.bie ~III" '11iUvn.

JW~ill'M "''''< !.q H Itt fll .... -

jVt,,';1JI m' 0.,'"'''' Wel'" Ibl .. YJ (Wiighl of Pa"",i_ .. tlOOI' ond """'''''II. rbl

11_ on 1I1<1g bt~rl<;," 10nii ... 11' tII"r" 1;IOII'I.d .... oilil = f'- . .. . It

__ r ...... ., g ill "IXI''''' aq .

!fJ (W'~!g.hl of Parlrt""l!" ~t.a~ ond C.,U,nll"llbl

f100r ),,,Ul I .. flOG"'; "" h·

(W"lIghl Df 0 .... ",.1 .. Wl(llh, Ibl .. !W,ItIIlIoI.fl.ffIQollr, 11» ... Y.i {W·club! of ,,"111·0<\1 and C,I';"O, 1101

(Wllighl C!'! Ou,.!de ""!Ill. P "",I.i 1:1'", I'I<HIn, C~II~nll'j SlfY(,tYrlli M"mb ••• o,uji SuppQOI1, Ibl

Enli." a"ildmll or loo>~ ... • ~_.... .. "'-_ •• ••

. ~JI ,,,onf .... "",,' ,.,a!l. lq n

W jth .... g _ r'_~ W'ig 'I' 01''- INo!.II! b .. ""'1!t1!1i~d. !I!~ Q.lQ til' I. """l!:!f. f .... ......ttr ..... g·It'if.:l 1:1' InIg. W~b''Jpt. iq It of ~_ 1)'" .. D' ~QIO~I~ ."" _fl,J ..... d In, 'u.bJw1 Oif III", n. fI'CI1Ie. &:!o :i ....... '16.

CHAPTER 3. HEAT STORAGE .. DIVERSITY. AND STRATIFICATION

1--33

TAILE 'O-STORAGE LOAD 'ACTORS, SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLASS W'TII! •• IE G.LAI;5 01 WITH EXTERNA.L SMA.IDEt

16 Hoor Operatiqn, Constant Spa~u Temperaturet

~O:Iull !II-do W)

WllHrI I~ ........ ft .rH- __ I

.1S .:22 .1'

.26 .2$ .11

. ~! ;22 .2C

.23 .20 .It

.15 .1::1 ,09

:1 • .U .,06

7

,

; ." n 11 I"

5 I

.33. .19 .26

..31 .:1.7 .n

,It . .IJ 119

,

"" .... .. .,

.... "",

,

IXI"!uun 1S. ..... l .. '

I ..... ~

15411 .... ,.

II

.16 1.:13 .31

.3i' I .11 :0 ,,:S .26 .21

.:22: .N .• , .17 .21 .1' .'7' .16 .16 I .1' .12 .09

.I! .U 116

.1>4 ,.1:1

.12 .IQ

.0. .03

....... ,.

.II

.:11 .37 Ail ..AI .3'

021 "" AI .. U, A I

.l-3 .51 .J6 .62 M

", ;3;1

.J:t ..H .B I .51

.u .AI AI'.", .AI ..5-4 .n ;;g ... ,34. .6t 5!

.AI .iU oZ •

..41 "U .2.

.31 .27'.2:1

'11&_, ••

ao

.HI..Q A' ..53

.33 ..H, .Sl .51

.A, Ao n .:n

.~. .2tl .1' .2,

.OJ .10

..53 .51 .39

.!S7 ..53 .41

:12 ,Mi .'"

.12 .2'1 - ,.26

.31 :rJ ,.2)4

.n 1.11 .. It

.. n .11 .07

1511. '!I,_ 'Ia

.J3 .3.1 :!lI M

» ..2. .21 .:1.4

,.06 .Q4 .IS ~,I

~ M ~ ~s ~ M ~ • ~ ~ s ~ ~,~ ~ ~ ~

AI' .6J 3'3 .12 .II n .6i .-It .11

- .....

.

......... 1M

~,~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .R n P M A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ n ~ n ~ ~ M M ~ n ~ M n ~ ~

.11 ,,10 .10·.or .10 .U;.15 on .4. ".1 .71 M,,,,,6 .29 .:HI .14

.. ,- ..

~ ~ ~ ~ » n ~ n ~ »

.34 .31 ~I n ..13 ;n i.11 .21 .2:3 .30

.11 .1" .1:1 .n .IL .10 .10 .I~ .29 ,At

..16.42 ,«'.:14

AO .411 ..51 .... :;

N ".6 :75 ",3

.l~ .29 ;35 ~ .n .a2

w' ...

_,.....,

, .. - ,..

.If .30 ;H .26 .1;4 ,n ,)2 .lO

..lllI ..21 ..2J . .n .22' .20 .19 .11

.1' .U; .1;3 ~11I .11 .n .ill: .11

.11 .17' .. ;U_'..1'

.11 .IP .l9 AO

.n .~1 A .6$

.3' ~ .29 .26

M • .10 ,32 ;2&

33 ..19 .31 .21

...... 1M .. -- .31 S7 .W 1M .72: n :1'3 :I, I; 71,. 35 .1,

.... J_.30 A7 .to iii .72 ,;. .T1 .1B :19 .10 .. I'

~ .-.IM 117 .4 JO .71 .u .II .11 .93,' .'5 .'7

"'I .11 .~'; .,2 .A,

.I' .I~ ,.ii() .JI ... "

.111 .11'9' _62 .3" .u'

E'qIi!t1b!. Coding IlocId. 1hI/ ........ (P.u.mar ...... iQlalo!" ltu/flu! lUI If), (Tobl. 6)] X tWindow area. Iq tt]

X 1~I1'o!. factor, HQiK. fadar, 'Ilk., IClKrpfllr .oilj

X IStorog. flldor. tQ1:!1iW1 T!lIbl4l ar d!u!r!ld tlmalJ

filar. gIG. - Any ~ __ witII I!I!!< Imide ~i"'l' d.v:1q. Whujo..nwirh .h,un,. d .... '. 0lIl lb." oul"_ or ,had,d I:ry .~.f" .. 1 P!f"l:ojctn.l OR' mn$id.rlld bore III'erli.

tfn... 'Dtfiorl oPJIIJ wken _iII_INng aCONST.ANT TEMPEUTURE in fI,,, ~ durlnv th.· ope-roting period. Wh.~iI Ih., t.rnp_tu ... ; • . atla"edro .......". ooWltlii>NlI iIiorag. will ......tt dllrmg p.ak .!Ioad periods. ,M.r to falo', 13 for op,pllttl·bl. d¢u'1lg.' fadon.

IW .. trt ,. ... 'f:! " ., fIo .. _

.

L ..______ ['"' . . -, .. fWel:!!!!.!!.:luttId. Wellls, n,) + {We1tht Df floaf, lid + Y.! (Wili9'" Qf !l'arti~ and C.tij""" 11»

- - .. "'............ .-- DrI IIrDlllnd ~ "'._' R ft -

. r_ Ar .. " in _ •• q

'"-ob_ . IWelllht'Clf (llthl"'. "Hpl!, Partil'l_. fIoon" C .. IOng.; SlnidUrol Me ... b .. rs .. nd Supp""". II.I

_lliildhrIQ or z- = . - . .. '. ". .. . .

, AI. Conditioned floor Ar .. <iI. Jq fI

W'fIh n;g Oil Rocw-W!!illht of ftoot- ~I!I b. """ltiJ;oII.d by 0'.50 tQ. mmp!lnl~te for ,lnl!!l!lItj!lll efIRI of rug. 'W'iilghb .per ~ It of __ tvPM of~1:I!!! are caniQI~d In ToW .... :1'1 til ... 3~, !;HIll'''' 66 ",,,,,"6.

I,.IIU n~5TIORAGIa,.O,.D ,FACTORSr SOl.AR HEAT OA'N "MRU GLASS

12 Hour Op_ation, Cons,tQn~ Space Tem,pllf'Jaiturelt

,UJ'OSU.II ~IL.II

WIMMTI [110,. ••• ,fI, .. fI ......... 1

IIiTUNALIHiIID."

I.AU .i.AI. 011 IXTilIIN'AL 'HADIt

IIXPOI:un ( ...... ~I

'.nII

.

iIIM ......

I!IN 11MI

IN I ..... 1M

N

15111, __ 100

,.

I __ _ _ _ r , _ _ _ I

.1iD "lIZ ..s, ,70 ;" 7'1 A' ••• ,JiJ .!D'.26 .~I. ;U XI .Il ~ .:5. JSI .51, _" .so I ~S,.<IlI XI

.1,1 ,«I Sf' .10 ,7$ n ..u .. , ;3~ .ll .21 .21 .2t~,1 .41 1";1 ..511,,;'1 AI .:$j ,A, I,M . .J1':.U m ..u A' .11 M .12 ... , .$I) ... .lO .17 1.1' .~~ :JfI A1 '~ 75 :.n n .at M .sI'.ll ,.111 , ----------~--------._4-~~_4~~+_+_4_

:~ •• 21,,,1) .In .6A .12 :n l:n n .~ .• , .31 •• '1 ,.0 ,*2 "'6 .!iI..!ll6 .61, 06" ,,", ,,., ,611 .5<1, .16 .22 .31 .31 .!I-t .13 :n :J9 :n ,65: .Ill!. .U .,~..4.J7 ,39 • .43 $.$ .114 .u .70 ..... 15:1 on, ," 29 ..... ,'" :n .;II .. , . .1'] I_" .:$01 _H .1 rII .:'.ll, If .l!I .31 .J.( M .1.'.&11 .H, J'6 ,4'I.A1I'

'- --I- ,

~1 3.7 .27 :~~ .U .'11' .10 ,63 .n .1~ .1It .",. .• s .U JIO ',37 .,.. .!I6 .0 ,47 .,u .P' ,6(J ..'5' .33 .n .11.:5, .n .2:) .u .JO .u :J'4J:T1 ;;00 .35 ..:13 _~j. :sJ ~, .31 .:313, ;3" AI oSlI, .12 -"II ..-

I ~ J:I .~I .U .1.1 i» -"O;.H,.o .. Jt .to A .n.211 jO .'IT,.1f .I!I .:H 79 .roll ""I M

A.J . .lI II .lI /17.1$ ~A - .:II -" ... ,., ~,I n, :..u ,.,it ...... ' J,' JI M '03'1 .31 ~, Jlzl ... ,·+ _J4--lrl -~-------

1.1i7 .lJ ;B .'11 '.2. n .2G':1 M ... .n n M . .:u "" ,.". .,.. )J,,';29 .n .iU All -', ,SI' "' ...

TI ,M ..1:1 .20.11 14 :.'I:I.u ,M SI .I'll .., .n; M.)I .21 .22 ., •• 1.1.1f1 .)3 .nIl .. ' :71,

'!'.SIII- .. "" .. 'UXII

I ......... 1l!G

!loll

ua ........

UG

ISO I, ...... '100 ..

~JJJi & .". ~.I

..

.'[:- .... -

AM PM AM PM

1--, ,. . .

1 I, 1',11 , 10 n 11'1 I 11 it ,! I ., I, , 1IIIi.1q·llI,. :a :II ... ,

.:HI",:I' .W .~t "3,, .:0 .;Ul.lAi .n .JI JO .11 J -I, .4~.q A.l!..42 .U -U.3l .J!O 1.2f ..It ..25 '

.n .61 A4 .Ill .n ..2,' .:n L23 .70 • If' .17 ,15 .3.'1 ."11..511 .AI ", Jl2 ,&.I' .lO:ZI 'OU n .20

~ .10 ! *.» .21 .1' .11 .U .n ~ .u .AO I.,n .H , .... , _,. 31 .H .1" .tlli, .•• 011 .12,

.~I ." .11 ,11 S1 .£0 .71.1'6 7)1 n .~I .111 .U .~4 .50 .J3 -'3 .loCI ...... U .u .$<1 .:IO'.u, .:n ,0 .1lj.10 .51 ~.,o 29 .l6.2~ .21 .It li.U.U.u .11 .$7 "'I .U . .lit .u ~I, .21 .l.* • .n :I" .121.11.1.,5 A) .lS:.1t .U. ,.1'" .'1'1 .09 .:u.§.71. .1. I.}(I ,.S.I,3'!I.JI:3J •• 1 .1', .12

!hoi" ••• No ....

,.,. .2. .'b .:25 .Eo .22 .iii .I,lu .. n ,lUi .6'1 ... , ... .!, I oM .~.»!.u ;.2' :2', -'0 »..u, .1' 31 :0' ..2. .2'2 311 .1' .1' .n .40' "'" flJ -'" A", ... 11 .l~ ,.3·1 ' . .21 .n·.u .2,1. 3O,.H .lI, "J .lJ . ..II .lIO .1,1 ,." .. 1lA ,U .19 .~I ' ..... 110 JS: .n .16.1.21 .2 •• ",17.Y .11 .» I.JO ... '

.,11 ;'1 ;,.' .9& .'i.~6 IN .9\1 ,'61 .• ;' ." ." :7S JJ ;19 '.IJ' ...... .II:JII ." .n i,n ." .'tI on :,911 ... .,. ,91 .'1 ,R .M ., •• 91 .9' .1 ... ... 1M '1 .,~ .~ .M .tt: .'!i .t,s' .• ,'

+--- ;I----~--~--_...;H

.... .. ~,

Eq;;VI'- CoolI,,!! l.ood, Ilulhlr 111'_11. 1CIJo~ i>e<rlgain, Itul(hrrII'lClItJ. trabll.6)1 x (Window iU'~, 'q til

)C {Smut. fadDii.H(I'jjii 'iii.;tQ!f, iitc.,ICIIGp .... "II

III (!tofte.G_ fodor,. fah_ la~ et ~t"".d Mell

·lnt~ali lhaC!JnG1 d.vk. Iiony type of lillade !ag;,t.d DR .. ' 1itiW" of '1M 1I1'QlL

~k" "Iiii", -Arr; _.;,"'_ , ... ifIrI "6 ~ '., ~"'II~. W ...... , With.hading d~ on ' .... ~d. or • -.d '&, .~,f lpi'a~ QN

tCg ~ ~ d.q,dl bc."'D ~ ..

tn.... fad ..... apply w!n!1I 'ml nl!l1Wftg (I COIP4.STANT ftMP£kAfUH I" 1+1. 'pGU ihuini1ha, aPl'I:OtI .. pl'riod ......... tM _ploI'"tlin I::t. aI~ hi too'lnll,lICWltta_1 ..... "'01., ,...; I ... Vh dll""'c! f!"Q"!oood' pltf'iod .... , tit 141'114. 13 f ..... Ilppl~ IfGraQ_ 'Iidon.

tWiil,lill p.,,, " Gf floar-

fW.tgihIi of O\JhIde Wa"'lb~ + !AI tw 'of'~ Moot' -..; C",IO)

1'_Oft Illig, Exterior 10 ... or ' ... _COiITJid ... oIM ... -- - _' -- ~ .t.r.«I 1nlDDm, "" If

MI (Will III 0' PClI'tIIIoo.I._, 'floor oPl.di C.~lb rbll

too", In IldGI IoIt.~1ar (Ho ouhId ...... Ii" -~D ... '._, lq II --

[Wlllll'iI of OubJdI. Wall., Ib)1 + !Yhl,Iht of floor. Ihl + .,... [W.llilht of Pe~,aNlC.IiIlIJq.III)

'la,.",.,111 1100111 'flaor CH!I ;n,,,,nc:J) ~ ~~ -- -:;;~~". '- .,___ .. '- ~ ....... ''''.0, .............. !Sq] ..

rW~[lIhl 01 Oll1'I1d_ Wit!!:. I',artffil;;ftll. ~, C.m.. SIfIIdvnII 10.4._"", and liD I

&,6, ... ~rnd"'g Of lone... - - "'10' OMdl~d ·fkIof Ar+o, RI ft

W nlf an floar-V,..ighloll Roor' ~,b., .wipCi_d, :1).,. 0.3(1 'h;o CQI!I!!p~.'tor ~ ,.fl_ gf Irq W.lIlNoo pat' .ql fI of _1IIOf'I..,p., ~r.~ 1m! ~~.1I:11ft laiR, ,21"""" 1', P!II,," 66"""" 70.

HAPTER 3. HEAT

G,E. DlVERSJTI',

.'TR.\ TIF1C.;\ TID!'.!

1....35

TABLE .2-STORA'GE LOAD fACTO'RS, HEAT GAliN-LIGHTS·

Lights On 10 Haunt yij'lh Equlpi'i'i18f1t Operating 12. 16 and 24 Hours, Constant Space Temperature

I 'QUIP. arEa. AnON

"'.~

150 .... '" 100

30

.11 .. 67 .71 .7' :16 .19 .811 ,n.l14 .86 .81 .29 .26 .21 .20 .19 .17 .U .14' .12 .11 .10 .09 .08 .31' .67 :1'2. :T6 ;'9 .11 .11 .15 .,87 .88 .90 .~o .:lIla .n .19 .16 .15 .13 .12" .10 .0' .01 .07 .06 .25 :n .13 .88 .91 .,.11 .116 .96 .9B .98 .99 .26 .17 .12 .011 .OS .OA .03 .02 .01 ,01 .01 I{} 0

~--~--------~~+-~-4--~. ---

uo ... ",,1oIr

16 100

liD

1

i

.:l

J

.!

....

150 &,nl,.,

12 '001

101

w tnl NUMIII Of HD'UIS Anll IL~HT5 AU 1iU~NED ON

COt '"' 'II ..

.. 1.!!'r_1 0 I 2':1 4 5 ,I , • " 10 11 It 111 14 IS Ui 17 " 19 2. 21!n 2:1

24

.60 .112 .lIl .8' .84 .U .115 .8S .86 .88 .90 .32 .28 .25 .23 .1" •• ~ :19 .8141 .16 .lil .18 .BI .89 ,89 .90 .90 .30 .26 :12 .19 .16 .:l:t :n .85 .89 .92 .n: .961 .96 .111 .98 .t9 .16 .• 7 .1 ~ I .01 .05 r_-----+,----------~r_~--+__+--4

.&3 .90 .911 .91 .\13 ,9" ,951 .9.5 .95 .96 .96 .]7 .51 .89 .91 .92 .9" .9'" .,~ .'5 .96 .'116 ,91 .36 ,42 . .86 .''1'' .93 .t~ .97 .9' .98 .tt .99 .Vi .26

f---+--+~f___I__t_- '-1-

150 It. '..... ,3.' .5S .61 .65 .611 .11 ,;]' J1 .79 .'111 .83 .39 .1S .:11 .28 .'l!i .23 .20 .IS .16 .15 .110 .12 .11

:. . 24 tOO .", .S6 .6:3 .68 .72 .15 :78 .80 .82 .U .16 .• 0 .J" .29' .25 .20 .11 .17 .15 .u J:! .10 .09 .OB,

.;: l.i 30.17 .65 .77 .8A .88 .92 .9" .95 1.97 .98 .98 .35 .23 .16 .11 .07 .0.$ .04 .OJ .02 .01 .01 0 0

c~ :~r------+----------~I--~---+--t--~~~~~~~--+-~--~--r--+--~-~--~--r-~·--+--+~'-~i---r--

!!i 'I ~ 'i 150.. ..... ..51.15.79 .ee .801 .81 ,U .83 .S' .86 .81 .39 .:u .:Jl .28 .25

· i _I ; 16 IIMI .-416 .73 .71 .12 .!.l .12 .113 .14 .115 .li1 .88 .'0 .3.I.!!!I1 .::1,.5 I .20

:0 ... • 30 .2' .6' .80 .8' .89 .93 ,U .'5 If:? .98 ." ..35 .2) .161 .11 .01

;: : ..51 --~-__,I--+--f__+--+-_I--_I_--t__t--+_-

i ~ ~ , 150 ... ". . .69 ,86 .a, .frO .91 .91 .92 .'3 .,. .95 .9.5 . .so

~ - 12 100 Jil .55 .811 .!BB .9(1 .n .93 .9 •. " •. 9~ .9S .'8

ID .~O .11 •• 'B .91 .,3 .96 .91 .97 .9B .99 }IIii' ..l5

e- ISO 1& n!l!l' .23 .33 .'1 I."., .52 .57 .611 .60 .• 9 .72 7Ji .59 .52 .A6 ~"2 .37 .3-4 .31 .27 .25 .23 .21 .ij8 .16

~ .

:: =- = 24 100 .17 .33 ," .52 .56 I .61 .66 .,69 .74 .71 :79 .60 .51 .H .37 .32 .30 .27 .23 .20 .1,8 ., 6 .141 .11

l .: E ., JO 0 .4. .66 .76 .82 .11 ." .'93 .95 .9'1 .98 .52 .3. ..'A .16 .11 .07 .0.5 .0 •• 02 .02.Q1 0 0

= _ .1 1'---+------t-+---+---1;---+--t-+---I---I--+--+-f

~ 1 :: 1 ISO ... "... ,SI .6A .68 ::J2 .n J'l .1' :11, .75 76 .78 .59 .~2 .16 ."2 .37

i ':U': 16 JOO ."" .6C! .67 :n. 74 sr .11 79 .10 .11 .Sl .00 .5' .. U .17 .n

_ ~,"" J 0 I 01 ,5J .TO .71 .11.41 ,88 .Pll .. 93 .95 .'1 .98 .52 ., •. 2" .re .11

;. i'a~----~----------~·--r-·-+--r--+--+--+-_+--+__+--+_--.~---I-~~4_~I--~~~~~r__r--t__r-

;:i' :1111 no 1,._ 1.15.79

a .= '12 lOCI .6C1 ::n

;i!:I~ 10 I.U.72

.1Ii) .M .86 .11 .119 .'" .91 .93 .9:3 .J5 .11 .14 .86 •• 8 .• " .19 .92 ." .9l .72 .12 .17 .8'1iI .92 .P5 .. 9~ .91 .'8 .~8 ,52

"Th .... foeiforsl apply ...... " !l!alnlainlnll g CIONSTAHT TEMPEIATUIlE In 'n" 'pact> dorin, tile 'coperoli"!! period. Whe., "", ,.mp"rolu,e I. "lIowed to .IoIlng. addItional .t<lrrgg. '11'111 '.'.,,11' durhllil pe .. k load, "rlad", Ref.r' '0 Table 13 for oppllcabl" 11000,,;e fClt'lon.

WI ... IllIhh operatl"G thill ., .... IWIIIb.r af' IioiirI a .• 11'1. tI:in. 0' .qlflpfJlenl op .. 'o ....... "' •• g load f!!.~IQr of 1.00.

1L1.lIt. O •• Of , ....... r " ..... , ... 1 "I than 101 H"u1'11

Ckca~ " .. cq,m.._ 't b .. qu red to ,,,til _ of Gil"" QIt rotlftv 11_ Of' !I!Of'e !holl ..,. 10 houq DI\ .. hldi '!hiii> lof;l- ~ bOILed. 'TIM IroUowlng li~ IhoI p,_dllr 110 djvll'lh. Ioadl fuoan,

""'WITH liGHTS, I I O!'UAflO~ rol SHORJE'I PiEIIOD II'HA ... 10 HOUItS and 11-0" !!qQipm'llnt Opltl'uHngr 12, 16 'Of 24 Il0l. ... col IftI· tI",_ of "'II Q'IIl!Irgl! p!I<;!'k tood, e!!.lrapolQ1e ./Qod h.d ........ fg.jiow..,

I. Eq!!lpl'!I.'" .gp.ral!.nlil '''I 2.01, hoor ..

a. U •• f 11 .larlJge load facloR) OIl lI.t;;d U,I' ·to tho(! limo!! Ih. 1~1Ih1. .. ,. turlW!d off.

ill, _ If! the load flll.den beYOftd Ih I iOIfl, hour IIlItI !hI! rillht 01 hl!vYy 1in,,1 10 , ... I.ft to th. hour thlll '~hh .. r .. '111 ... 4 ott. IIiIm ...... He loot few IMIwI 0' .. quip •• m D,u.ta!lcin *ilf.aut d. IiInal" kIoid to<llOlil!.

L EalroJ!Ol'ghi! I\e lard f.w ~ III Ihe so .... I'Ob ,of r.dlldion 01$"" eNi hou.. 'Ih.lcobh r,

2. IEqUipment op"'oll"U ~ 16 """rl.

a. Follow fh. prlKed,m~ " S'11I,p I, ~s:l1'I1i1 II", .10.<111" lo .. d fadOI !fQI ..... in 2-4-hOllf .. q u lpm.nl ,o,p.', .. ll ..... labl ...

1:1. HiliIII' GOiVlJ'UCI D Ii .... ' •• 1 of load ~odon by gddu.g t!!_ III'" W",iu .. 1 for !hOI 16th hou, 10 th,,1 d"lIllied 0, 171t! hollr to 1tJ. I. hoof. ek-

e. n. load facto .. fat Ik. """"I1iWClt .. d 0 flo. n.l1d!Iing-oH ....

~ Dnt "I IrI.St.,.. Ib OIld Ie..

3. Eq" pn",.,I' op ,., ~"III 'Ote 12 houn.

fallow pr<!Ud..,.." Steep 2" .1.1:.pl I" Ship 2b add votUH of

12 "- III ,"ol,d" ,"otjOd 0, 13m hovr 1061,. hI hour, .. ee,

~WITH UGHTS IN OI'RAT10N fOR LONon: "UIOD THAN 10 HOUIS and rt.. ,,,,,,ipm.,nl upendinlJ 12, 16 !If ~" "'oun .. I Ih. lim" of the .... roii po'ol IaGd. "1I,'~apolaU lo .. d , .. rtOO'. !II '!:OIIQ.:"'"

I. E'qulpm"nt op.rallnll fOl' U lioun,

CI. It,. Ih., lo .. d f"aoro cnll;f&d 111'''''111; I Olh hal,l. D.d .,&Iropojal • l .. ",ond f •• 10th hou.' 01 tlii! fal. ot Ihll I;:nl .I. hou,..

lb .. folio ... lit_ '~O",. p ....... dur. al Iii S';;p I b (j' "to" .... apt ,hitl .....d ',ottCIoriI b.yond I 0Ih hou r "ow to I" "g"'. ,dooppu., off Ihe I'll" t ... '-n.,

1. £,q"lp'" ,,' opm.alm, far 16 hou .. 01' 12 .._..

o. Ule I" I .. od f,odorsn 2-4-hOUT •. qllllp"'I'!~1 gpl!I!ation labl. til Iii led th.ough 10lh hour and ,,111, .... 0101. b~,.ond the 10111 h .. ur 01 rh .. r a I.e of tho 1101' I( houn.

b. F"I]a .. ,h .. 1'1,",,,lfu," In Step 1 b of "A" ""Cllp! 1I>lf' Ihe load hl~h:m beyond 1 Olh' how. !!lOW 10 Ih. rlghi.

t. 1'", i6.h ..... f IIqulp"'.n1 operation, folia"" I!\!! procedore. I" Slept 2b rgnd 1e af "A,".

d. h» 12,hOllf equiplllreAt ~ .. ronon\ folio .. 'Ifle p,«edur", ; ..

Slilp 3 o' "Jl,",

1-36

PART r. LO.'\D ESTIMATI.NG

I!!!o;q''''pl.

Ad! •• ! .,01.,,;. for 2A-hou, !!qu;p'men" ojl ... <ition G.nd d" .• i~·e nCl'W yalull. IQI' 16-holil' Clq!lip", .. nl op"r",liQn t(}!' fl"sre:ocent I.iljjlhh ; .. opereflon 8,md ., :J 111:I"fl, lind U .. "rI(~O'\lf'" ·of 1 SIl' Ib/.q 11 of floor.

EQUIP W&IGHT§ NUMBER Of HOUIlS AF'IlEI l,IGftTS AI.E TUINED ON LiGHI'$
OI'IIATlON, lib p ...... It 0'1'1
101"" •• of "0<>' .. ,,"') Q :I 3. 4 5 '6 '" • 9 10 H 12 13 14 U 16 17 U 19 '20 :l!1 :!:.!: :!!3 H'IIUrI
.37 .Ii'!' .11 .7 • .16 ;19 ."'1 .ss .U . ill> .117 ,.n .90 .911 ,.1'9 m- : .::13 .20 .!9 .17 .1.5: .IA .12 .11 IJ
24 150 .;17 .67 .71 .74 .76 :19 .8,1 .83 ,84 ;l9 .26 .:U .~O ,19 .17 .14 .u .1I :1<1 .09 :(18 .Ill .06 II
-
.37 .67 .11 :7A .76 .19 .,8,1 .8] .BA .66 .811 .29 .26 .'3 .20 .19 .17 .15 .IA ,12 .11 .10 ,09 ,011 10
.60 .El7 ,90 .91 .91 .'1')1 .91 .9.04 .9>4, .• 9!i .9.5 ,96 .96'1 .'r7 .~9 .:U" 13
16 150 .51 .79 .1\2 .RA .85 .117 .18 .89' •9Oi .29 .2(1 .23 .~(l .19 1.17 .15 8,
.6(1 .82 .83 .84 .0.4 .8A .85 .as •861 .!l8 .. 90 .3'2 .. 28 .'2.5 .or3 .1'11 10 §W.lg'" ,,, ... 'q It .. r flo ... ~

IWet'llii of O.toJde Wail., Ibl + Y... IW~gllt ofParlilion., Floor a~d C~Uing. lb]

!lOtI!I1 Qn !l1!!!g E!!.t!!.i",. (OnOl' or !I1Qr" <)I,I!~ld., WQ!l5) = - ---floor ""'.:<.' in kaono. Iq: ft' -~-

~ I""' .. !gil! of j'crlitioM, I"!!>W .:Inc! Cofi1!!l\l, Ibl

R.eom ," ,lIldgr..'e.IGt' (No olinld e ",,,II., ~ - floor :.. ... -; ~ 11_. ''1 -it

(Weigkl."f Out,id" Woll •• 'ib) + (Weight !;If floor. Ib) + 'Y.! IWe-lgM oJ !"c"11tk...t o"d Ceiling. Ibl

l!Io • .,,,, ... nt Roo,," ,Roo. OIl! gr, ..... "d) = - - - - f'~- • -.... '. ,,-- ft-- - -----

1IQIQ1' I!\f'@a .... ,..00fn" .Jq

(Weig"! "I OUloid ... W<:oli. :l'am!i<KIJ, floo~J'l Ce!lings. St!'U!:!'un,t:'M"",l\Ien ami ,s..pportl,lbl

~idif. lulld'lnQl or i'tCfle ~ -_. - -- - - Ail' Coodllion"d-I'IOOf''''''A,.''",~;-;q fi

Wi't'h",!! ;;m f1oor- W"iIlM <If 11"", ..... " .. Id b .. niulliplil\'d by OJjIl '0 oo .... pei .... 'te far In ... latlng effuct of 0;)11. Welg"" pe"q h of<Qmman !ypt •. af tc;;ut .. i:ti"" are rottlol:..ed In full!.. 21 Ihru 3:3, poU~. IS6 1ft", 76.

SPACE TEMPERATURE SWING

In addition to the storage ol radiant heat with a constant room temperature, heal is stored in the building structure when the space temperature is forced to swing. If the cooling capacity supplied to the "pace matches the cool i,ng load, the temperature in the space remains constant throughout the operating period. On the other hand, if the coaling capacity supplied to the space is lower than the actual cooling load at any palm. the temperature in the space will rise. As the space temperature increases, less heat is convected (rom the surface and more radiant heat (5 stored in the structure, This process or storing additional heal is illustrated in 'Fig .. 11.

- ""TU.' I»CH.JNG LCAO I\IITIl COPril51"""T T1El!!!PiAAutJR'E

..,

::;1

" ..

..

,.a.IZ1UAI!". (JO(Il..IJilC; l...OAO w'-'''' ~ ... ~e:"'Pe:iu!nJRE: SWING

I ...............

'''-, ~"._

~F--------------;+==;~--~i --------------

~.I___-----S-\IO-'IfG-b"V • R.QQ!oI' T~MP'E"' .. Ti.I~t

FII:;. II ~ ACTUAL COOLING Lo,Ji,V WITH Vi\RYJNG Roose TEMPERA. TURE

The solid curve i!! the aciualcealing load [rom [he solar heat gain Oil a, west ex~ure with a constant space temperature, 24:-l1oul" operation. Assume 'mat the maximum cooling capuity available is represented by A, and that the capacity is controlled to maintain a constant temperature at partial load. When the actual c.ooling load exceeds the available cooling capacity, the temperature will swing as shown in the lowe. curve. The actual cooli~g load with temperature swing is shown by the douce line. This operates in a similar manner with different periods of operation and with different types of construcriorr,

NOTE: When a gysu~m is deo;igt1,Cd ,[lor a temperature swing. the' maximum swiq,g occurs g!'ll'~ ,ilt the peak on design days, which are deFmed as ~thG~(," d<!ys wnel'! all loads simultaneously peak, Unde.- normal operating (I:mdilions. (he temperarure remainaconsrant or dose to constant.

B.asJsof Table 13 ~ Storage Factors,

Space Tel1llperaturl:l .swing

The storage factors in Tabl« 1 J were computed using essentially the same procedure as Tablt:s 7 thru 1 Z with the exception mat the equipment capacity available was limited and the swing in room tempera ture campu ted.

The magnitude of the storage effect is determined largrdy by the' thermal capacity or heat holdLo@:

CHAPTER 3. HEAT STORACE. DIVERS]TY, AND STRATIF[CATWN

1-31

TABU 13-STORAGE FACTORS .. SPA'CE TEMPERATURE: SWING Btu/(hr) (deg f swing) ($'I ft of floor a.r,ea)

NOn:: TM,s "eduction is "0 be faken GI tilt. Iil'1le of peak looa only.

1511 and (hr.

W~HiJ U I~" R_

-t

GW'S .. not ("") -

I Hi

2.

1'2

: ott,le.

'i 81it. .li!'lflb...,. h:I:I .... N.fllii Sid!.

1S0 15

.l11li ""

0...... 25

~------~---75---

'0

25

100

100

1:M"'9T z_·t

D •.• ""."", s... .... .~ ..

1:50 .1101 0... 100

3-0

"..,.." "'.';' .. ,

"_'.1",

tI .... I .. 11

I.IId""eR

1·60 , t..5$ l.JO 1.:50 11.'5 I':U
lAO UI 1.36 1.30 Ulli US 1.25 11.20
,'95 .,91 ;PO .90 .88 .15 .8!1 .10
75 1.U 1.7.5 LAO
50 1.65 1..50
U US
7& US US 1.10 I -
50 I.AO I 1.35 I ~
n, .1.30 - I .- -~ -
1. 1.10 1.10 .9:5
50 1.10, .90 .10 - II -
25 .85 ;70 - - I!quaflorl. ~ Io! P_kCooIlng Load" lful~ - (floor AJlM!, fq ttl. X to"tlred ire",p Swl!1g. Tal:!l!! ~. ,,"Pille 20) X (SIOflaOI!l fact .... ' abo .... 'tabl.l ""'''1iI1It IlMr Iq ., (If fIoor.goy b. obi .. "," ftom "quafion _ page 30.

t'" 12--lioou,~ ,_'. 2d.s!,.. __ "lIIp 1Wl!lil.

:,01_ iVfio Is the ,.~n1 of '1iI1.,,,, co .... 10 th. 19101' ..... III11AO.

apaCE), ·of the matuiabsWTounding the space. It is u.n.u~ by the <Wl.ount of heat available for slora.ge. Load paltenu. for d.ifFer-etll appli:catiow vary approximately as mown iUlhe fint.mluolO of Tllbl·t:JJ. For iru,r.ance. a:noffioe !building has it rather Jarge varying load with a biBh peat mat OCl:urll Intermittently. An interior zone has a.n intcnnittt::m peak but the load pattern is relati.vely co'nstant. A haspltal, 'on the other hand, hll$ a constane base load which is present for 24 hour,s with an additiona.l iruenninent load oocumng during daylight ,how-so The therma.l capacity of a material is the wdght times me speci6e heat of.llhe m-'l!teria[. Since' the ~peci6c be-a,l of most ceastruetion material sappfloximately O.2G·:Btu!(lb)(F). 'the Ithemlai capacity is directly propoctiomd 1'0, the wei,gbl o(th.e material, Therefore, tbe data in thetables is"b.alSed 01'1 weight oE lh.e materials surrounding {be spa,ce, _per square foot of floor area ..

Use ofT,oble 13

- Storoge Fagan.

~QC:1!f Temperature Swing

TgbltJ n is wed (0 determine the reduction in cooling load wbe!!1 the space temperature ill {aired

LO swing by reducing Lh.e equipment. capacity below that 1 eqlilil'f~d to In'aioti'lin thetemperature constant. This reducnun is to' be subtracted from "lhe room sensible heal.

NOT,;: ThiJ: fC'tli'lltl'ion ill only 13k,en ,;11 ,:I'Il!' lime of pc-d t;'ooii"ll/oaa.

fxamp'e J - Spo.:e Temperature Swing ~hcn:

The sa lUe room 'I!, in I£JIIllllfJlt: J, flllgr1l!.

Fint.!:

The' :I. 111:1111 cooling load III "' p.m. [Fom Inn. lighu, and ,pt.vptc' whh , r 1I::m~f'lIune swing iUl the spilce.

SoIU'ljon:

hI:' pca:I:; !o!:luihle eooling' load. ill thiJ9. IDQI1iI rr~m ~hc sun. liglns. lind prople: ,(neglecling n-ammi.uio.n in!iII~IlI}Il, lieluiI.ation .'!IId plh~r [nterna] lIelit pin) is

:;700 + 51'90 "" l'O.890 SUI/JilT. j E>;ampitl I ,aTld 2.)

NOTl!:: The peal !-'()OII:i1Ig load In (his moll! cccurs :II ... p. proll!iroillely " p.n,. The soJaI' and light load~ are almo.n at their peak at4 p.m. AI.thtmgh ll!!! trans· mh",lon, acrosoi the large gla!lS 'Window pt!l'k, ,a~ about! p.m •• the peak iI!lfilnation and vllnliJlltion 'load also Q£curs a~ ! p.lll. and the nli[lvcly smllll InI.'ll!IlIIliAllion I01Jd across tl:te 'willi pakll mw:b I:uer :u allOi.I~ 12 'fi'i.idn.i.ghL Th~ ,um,al thtse loadi re-

]-38

PA RT t LOAD ESTl MA':f1 NG

11111£ in Ihe peak ,oooiling 10a,1 OO;liuing .1liiIXJUI .. p.m. ill dle "p.iiice-5 ... jlh 'lhl~ I."I!.P05U:~(',

The weight of the m~ [erhl!~ ~mfl1li ndillg I he room 11'1 EJr!lmp.l~ I is 91.'1 Ih/lq lL of flyor IIH:R.

RedllUioll in ~lillg IO:1d '!lr !I. , F .wing (Tllal .. 1J) = 20 X 20 X 1,", x ! :: 1'680' I\wJ.hr.

Cooling load = 10.BOO -;, 1080 = 9'210 Om fhT.

(Fen uJlllpniscn Imnposn. Ilu: Iml:lm;!J1COIl5 h!l!;]:t gilin 'rom 511n. light!, lind peopl~ 'in .hi.! piUlic\ll~r l'QUIll i, 1'4.610 8m/br.)

Sinn: thr Qoml;d [iltlTllml,n ~Uil!K i • .J1101I~ 'is For jaf""'. lhe dO<lgn ll!l1l')lC-f;lhl" (78 f = '5, rlbe~iiI..l ICntr.lg +S Jo' ,wing) OCCUfI< ol1ly 011 '11i:!dgl1 peillll: days Oil 11li!linu:: or J)eilk load, Under I~auilll lo;!d "I~rnlion. the room lem. ptmIlllTe ill between 1!l F db and 78 Ii' db. 01' "I I.helhcrn1ostal stlJlifll fl!i F), dcpefHling on lht"IQ<:id.

IPRECooliNG AS A MEA.NSOF INCREASING SlORAGE

Pre,cooling a space below (he ulm.peratu.re normally desired. ;'rrT'~l1JtJ th« sll)ragf! 01 hf!t11 3t the lime of peak toad.ofllly whenth. precoolirng ternperature is maintained :l .. the ronlrol point. This is because the potential temperalure swing is increasedrahus adding IO the amouot of heal slared at the lime of peak load, \iVherethe space is prec.ooled to a lower temperature and the contrel point is reset upwanl to a cornr;nnableconditiou when the occupants arrive, no Dlddiliollii.tl storage occurs. In this, situation, the eeellng unit lIbl!Jlts off and there is no' cooling during the period Q,f warmillS up. When the cooling unit~gins to supply cooJing again. t.b~ cooling Ioad is appyo:xlmalcly up to the point il wo"ld h3JYC been witOCIII.H any pTecooling.

Precooling is. \If'!"y l:IM:Cul in reducing tbe cooling load in applications su h as chuTches, supermarkeu. ~ealcrs."elc .. where the precooled ll:!mper-amr,e can be maintained as the control point .md the befillpcrature 5win,g increased La 8,F OF 10 IF.

DIVERSifY OF COOLING LOADS

Diversity of cooHI18' l,o<ld resuh!i, from. the probable non-occcrrence of part of 'the cooling load on a des~gn day. n'"eni'l.y (actors are appl.i'ed (0 Ibe remgaation capach in lilfge au ro,nditi:oning S)'§terns, These fa.ClQ·rs vary w~th location, type and she ·ofthe application. and are based ,entirely on r.he judgment o[ 'the' engineer.

Generally •. diversity Cacton can be a.pplied lO people and light 'ODds in Ia:rge mu[ti'"StoTY office. hotel Oli apartrnem buildings, The possibility of ha'll'in,g all' of the people present in the byild~n(ll and all' of the lighu ope.ralingal (he time of peak. load are slighL N'omlaJly. in large offil;le buildimg5.

ome people will be away from die office on other business, Also. the Hg1ninl( arrangement wiJI [requemly be such th,u the Ug'ln:,i in the vararrr offices will not be on. In addition f() lights being oft: ben.Hi~e lite peaple are not presenr. the normal maintenance precedure Iu larg' office buJ.lding:s, usually resuks In .arn,t:; lights being ~noper.uive .. There.fore, <I, diversity (actor on me people and Ilight toads should be applitd lot sdecling the prope:r size r~frigeralli[cmequipJ[lera.

I he sizeof the diversity hlr~Ol depends on the siZJt Ilr the building and tht:erlgineer'J jllldgmem of lhl.!' circumstarnce5 invohl«L For e.xampfe. the dl'llCr.lity Factor on a smgle small offie,e w~th I or2 people IS I ~O or no reduction. Expanding this to oru: floor o[ a building with.50 to 100 people, 5% to 10% may be :ilbsent at tht: tim.e o.f peak. load, and expanding toa 20 . .30 or 'U).story building. 10'70 to :20% may be a:bscnl! during the peaL A building: whh Ill1edOTninantly sales 0 ees wourd, h-av:e many p!:aplf' out in the normal cOUrY of bU$'iness.

This same ~oncept applies to aparunerns and betels, NanDaU,.. verry CeMl' fK'o[J.1c a'fie ipreM:rH at the time tib~ sollaJ!' lind lr.tD.YD.WIOI!ll lo~d.s are pealing. and the lights are' nocmaUy rumed Olll only aliter sundown, Therefore, in apa'l""lm~m.& and hotel;, the diversity factor can be much gr~~:ILer than ""im office build.'ogs.

'fhaerr:d.uctions in cooling load .arereal and mould be made where a.p·plkab1c. TtJbl~ U lists some typical diversity (acl'ol'S, based on judgm.ent and expertenee,

r.lu 1.4-nPICAL DIYID'" 'ACIOIS '0. L.AR:G'E IUI\.D'"GS

(Apply to RefrigerQt!on Copgci1'y)

"PI O' ,."UtA-nON

:/'! 10 .VII ,jO to.60 .1019 :V'O

DLV •• SITY PACTO:I

r---------~----------

101'10 ;1.1 .210 to ,50' .90 I!O 1.0 . .&0 10 .YO

Offlu

ApCl """'.!1t" Hot.1 D.pCl 1TtnI .. , :stor.

IIId!.iltriIl'"

I,

..., .... 9.

'E~

~; ~d (;0.. IPIOPH!' .ad kttJl, Il!.!'fly - (It,a' Go, .lu/ .... ~ n

KISt(>taQ,.P,Qd<x. r!ll!UIZ) X ~DI¥aqjlyf"!OCh;>r. ,Qb_ la:br.}

oJ. d .... n.lty 'actcw d;CJVId 0'-0 Ito. oppll.d to 111, ~ load.

I.far fO CIIGpIv 1.

'UMQf lable ~,.

- fypl,,,1 Dh'Qnity Fadors 'for Lgrg!!l BuIldings

The diversity {ac.ton listed in Ta:b'It If iU',c to be used a3 a guide in de~f1l'mininga. divmby' [actor [Qr iI.IlY pan.kub.r applicauon. The find factor mwt

nel:er.I in]1 bt LJ;;ued 11 I Il:Idgfuenr \)If dlr ~D''''n u[ 1'1 L" m"'_Ill'~ 'Ir.!:r1r;1~1~ ih1'o'1plll'elil

STRATIFICATION' e'F HEA,Y

~nU:111! 'fii' lIit'il'_w-rnll~' h'olu, "luI tlO:1f11i when: h~"' ,~ 'liu;;!,[ified' Jim! ~l~U If't'illLi,l' l~lt;:' 'I"l l,i'lrIl .{I-~~I ~n th' ;;&~ ~Q~dll~iall,l!ng eqll,.l iID liIliU l

be high

~hi!!

!.~~I,Il':.lU WIilJY he nUlIwnnt'-llI ·.1,1' lI\1(1 '*I ~i'id6J, f:l:il lng!! 'With .. ~~_ - light r!~ _1 ~I/« !'='Ilin.~ plml.llllli I"t,Uil.~ ~,~ It !II' •

The 'fiml Still; tiu i !ni!l'IIlIiIJ~ IIPJ.l~i~:io U, ~fldu ~I i I iI,pplirn~foWJi. cllHJn:.b~·~. lIlidiw:rINJIIIU'o, Il,d the .~"r.. rile 'R'mmd 5~undGn !!VIJJlt'!i b:Io IIJpp.lu:::iIt'WrI_ 't iJu;:h m mJ(~ buii;dhl~. h~1 ~\I ~11i p3n:me-n\'Ii!, WI! bo:' _~. lh(1: bad t 1f fl,,,!\' hoi, - oiI-- ~~mJ! [I) j, • mOl ,_ I'~ J lob 1.':' roo 'UDlillr o:'llh,r,'U h, - 1 ~nil~ tl- Jill .mlll r1~~ ,roof, «I~1'1~tIJll'l\I, tu'lol'lll ~~ ,hu... .. nd [ijIoTH' .rioll from the '!II:~,p I rml'~ IIi dl~ "f~~b; T'h~ ,roll, l'l:: mr ~)ij lon. 11)[ ., roo' liJlJd i, ~lllHjl!l' ~~% (~'hl! ffle. i~ ndi -I!.ifilllll): IIJJ'! Ui:tln l.1J d Jt. .1 5U~ (I , . i~k h,p -IU ,(2ti%lYU' hl~de_, IU~" '--mll he WiI'u u lUml~ili)r1 Jo;]d 0 Illo ~I.W I~'~ro.

-lil'l i:JJl1Y ;roo.mw,~th . h~~I;, ~gUIn:P; • .! 'hI'J'i ~c p rr~ ol 11101:' <WIn, recuan 1111<1 I bCI~Jl~ f"1! .~~ I~!Q'I" 111 'TlPly -air lurCiUlli1 wm !>u bf. at I.he> t'II u K u ['Qui It'll. ~(jrn~ i U infh~C1:'d i'llID L:H, - eu ppJ ~ ~'J' 'H!iltiml. Nonnllll,', aLi~m ~J'\ ." St1ri!ltifil·I.I. '~i1~11 31~-iDl(~'lI, . 1 In ·!lll' 'YPp.l' .1'1;'. U alr ii!.afn:nl!!i~ '-~.,f\ IIIg;h ~i~' wlin • I(lt r, .• r. lhjll II.'U'\,'i:!E1 imll ,~o d :r1!'Jr2S d I 0";

tbt: !lUp - Iy nir nlily I.i Ji,lI1blliliL.ttd. lrern r.b. i!i' een(~iu~mi~~,E: ,l~)~d, r.hi'!. l~ttl(5 hm iii !!, li',gE T-.t1t1nr.dolfi if! lo,n:' i~ nilif' ajr i· 1'0' I~ {:I!IJII!I'!_m~cJ. Jt i~ [lUll' l'Iu, fIi!,;U pro ru ~i to iJ' 1m I' I nUiI1 3ir '!.h:tf! nt~ry. d.S I llm,!,s,'t ~~ JII, J !!? HlIJ by bram; .~Q.' t!dQr au Llu,· U:th tJll1' <lP'.iD'd'tU c llhi:s, I S.II'III~ Il:Huh:s ,iI'J _ I~p 'f ~liJui:'Me 'in loi'IJd ~h:U1 I.iJlr:' 1f:fil:bf:[~fI~ ~eaU~.ed by I~Jihaln~ IiLg ~ii _

umu _H}'. ab>Q!'U.;l UJ f' Ito:20 F riw in t:~j 1I'!lJis;t ,~

l mil '11UUi~ n1r3~ -- IWJi!f'li'ld IU lo d. rtdi i f,oD if du::n' c[ltlYi~h IL t rol(lM -l1 bi' COrl/rjl«t iid) he .. t ~hr. ilPfl1'l' .-m "jJ'l::'lIHI'I_

Ilu~ I UI' ~n"- .. ,~ I I~W 11)1 I ,',Imlll t:ven h;, "" I HI! ~ ~ piJJlly h' I hn I p If. U'111 n lUI ,cd JLli 'I in I ,til !i1~(liuM I) I kell . here

~ ~r I~ L~:O:: h 11 ~I ~'I illuou h ehe 'e iiiil~f.lH j.,j I (I~,

\1'I{hll :!il!;!iJlfnd 'Ii re~I~lilgili_ ~lIJm ~f 'th ' rmIYf!t'tiW' hI! ~ iI1 om ref<.::rl IIp;h~' Il'ln..... iiml!O! 1'111 pi IIIIW ~. :u' Al (I he r dl WI! he.lI " if 11111 I h, 1111'11 I UU, lItitl, IfY"~,li'I', ~'r( Iii i~~ng _11 t'ljWlL iii' _llH!> u up u .1 !n~ ill ~I! I Ii, tuw hun ~Iw p]~ilru!!n II ('~, Th~ r "11~ti"" -. IlIIT ~ 1!liJ1~ inrr~t! Ith~ U~lllper.1ll'tU:l'~ 'o.F

I" ill 1Lh1~ ph~IiI' r-O ~~. e 'lVhl h c:a~_t h(l:'l I (- W

'Ill : I l I!!i iU!I'~1 'id [[J~I! Ii 0[' sllmcturc:l \Ie... V,"h~ the ,~fI "g p.1 ''I um i'ii U ~ a . m:,ul!i1, air ''lli!Jl',~nl<Jo ~1m. Ii1I'J ILbe ul Ul"liI ~,h iIJI(l'W1 tt!nilll.l b ilIDH] o'¥H Iii' mir;Jl rurure, GI'IT)' i nil 'mCf1Je 0.1 tlH~ O;)'flo\' f'

t c h --, I inTI} L pi "'f11 I r.lll f'.u ,

C:U'IH.IUI.llIg u .il "' hili .I I I '1I1lll' Ii U, 1111 "'p'l..t ~!:u!.h Ijj "1l~\I'CUI ~~,h rljj I'M.nJ .iif.d tl,i IIpfl ... m hl~d, m Lw "l~f ~W' I 'l(liI'l'I I nr (limm t,mg~J.I!' Iliad whh dw !lho~c UlltdidQul, Ii C (,01 1:a~if!'OO 'i~1 , tlllJltI J 2.

1-41

CHAPTER 4. SOLAR. I-JEAT' GAIN THRU GLASS

SOLAR HEAT - DIRECT .AND DlfFUS'E

The '&Olal" heat Oil the outer ed,ge or the urth'5 atmosphere is about H5 Bw/(hr)(sq, It) on December 2'1 when Ule: sun iseleses; liO the earth, and about ,415 nt.ul(hr){S(l fl) on June 2.1 when it is ,farthest away. The amoum of solalf heat outslde the earth's, aunosphere vartes bet ..... een the5e limits thrioughQUl the year.

The solar heat reaching theearth's surra!;;€: is, reduced cons.iderably befow these '6,gw'es because a, large pan oE it ~sscat~e:red. reH<E'ct£d' back OUI ime space, and absorbed by tbe atmosphere. The seatrered tIldialionis termed di.Uust! 'or sky radiatioTl, and .i$ mon:; or less evenly distribueed over the earth's .!iUJt{ac~ because il is: noLbi'ng more lhan ill reHection (rom dust particles. WlJ ler '{:ape'!' anti caene in we atmosphere .. The solar heat that comes directly through the aamesphere j~ termed (Urul radhuio«, The :relat:ioruhip between the total and the _direct and diffuse radiation at :liny paim on: earth iiS depen.dent onlhe foUowillg twO [actors:

L The distance eraveled through the atmosphere

to reach (he point ,01. the earth, .

2. The an'l.oullt o( haee in l11e ajr;

As the distance travtEed or thc,nnmmt o[ hate ificrea~5i the diffuse radiationccmponene increases but th" direct component decreases, As either or both o( these faclolt$. increase .. the overaU effc l is to reduce the total qu.antity of h :.a~ reaching tbe earth's surface.

ORDINARY GLASS

Ordinary glass: is specified as crys~al~~ass 01 single Ihiclness and s.ingle Of dcublestrengeh. The solar heal gain ilirolllg:hordinuy glMs depends on ns loa lion on the earth's surface (latitude). time or day, lime of year, and. fa¢ing diretdon .of'the win·

dow. The dn-eel r<ldj~tion ccrnpooeru resuhs in a heat gain to the oonditioned spu, eonl 'i lll'hcnl.hc window is in the direc,r rays o[ the 5UTI.wl1erci\s the diffusl' radiation componen.1t results in OJ heal gain. evc'u 'when the window is not. facing the StU ...

Ordinary gias!, a bsorbs a smal] portion 01 the solar hear (5% (0 IS'%) and rcA ctser transmits the rest. The amount ~eHeCled or rransmiued depends on the angle of in idcnce, (The angle of incidence is, the angle between the: perpendicular to we window ~urrace and. tllt; sun's i1ly~, Pig. I S, p"gs .H.J At, JoW' aJ1gEes 01 incidence, about 86% or 87% is transrnitted and 8% or 9% 1S reflected, as shewn in Fig. 12. As the angle 0'£ incidence increases, more solar heal is reRected and ICS5 is lram;miued. as hewn in Fig. lJ. The toLal sclar heat gain to the conditioned spaceeensistscf rhe rransrniued heat p)u:~ about 40% ot the heat thar is absorbed ill the glass,

--11-_-+-- ... 0 •. 08.fI

Heal C:lillJ to Space

",. (AO >:.Q6~) + .ali R "'" .BR4 R or .BiI R

J ...

TR ANShlliTl!tI

Flu, 12 - REAC'tIO'N ON SoLA~ HEAT (R). OIUHN.UV Gt...\SS. 80il ANCLF..O" INCJDoENCE

[·AR.T I. LOAD ESTIMATI.NG

Heu Gili'1 10 Spil.ee

.:: r -If)ol 1)6. R). ...2 iii.

= ... ·I'~ J.l or .-"1, :R

Gi'.ll

l'A AN Sill" "EO

Ftc. 13 - ~l.f:."'l,UO"" ON \OI.ltR HE.JI,T (R). Oll.btN: RV CL\_ ... t;,8W ANI.U_ 0 INt;IIJENU,

NOTE. TIle: 111', of Ihl'·,I"mf-.:ltl ,,,l.u 1',...1 g.,ing inln Ih. ~rJ"l'e' m Ilcrh(:;1 IIUill dl(-fnlrli'~I'I'I~ fCllJOf.n[Illi!~

,I. Th .. outdoor Iilm wdliClI'1H m app~01um",.d ILl! [SlU/ (ht) {5Cj_ It) (deg F) "",iJh II r. ITIl'bwln.d ~1',1I .. cil,. during Ih(' summer.

2. The inside !lIm ~mdt'm i~ "pprtl'lOl;lll'ty 1.3 BIlIl (llr) lSI;] (I) (deg F) 1)«;1\11(:, ill the a".-r.ll(1' I~~m dd1gn" air vd""iti.t'S a~JOII.'I the tl'lllo"~ nr·e "llprtlXhn:ucly loo·m (pm.

S. ,,[ outd'oorrempcratUfc" r.i (qual 10, IttloO'II1 temperature. (lIe 81 ... ~ Ilcml~('Ur'l" I.~ :111,,1\01' ''''JIl, III! .duu.! <Il1'dOrlwol h..:ll

I II " !tin

Ilt'Wln!l in = [JI-;- '.:! II '1'1:1"". "f 111"

., .. ~ Ihe ""I'(I ... !trl'~UII~I.H lilt' n."!" Ih" ,;b·" Icn'I,,·,r;UII.,r- 01'1"'0' rho, nU~lnJli memo ul Iho: "1 ... "rl ... ·<1 hnl [0 fin .... IMj. Lhe Ip1I(E. rhL~ I.ili I, l ... nmled fill I" H!.Iil1g ,hI! !f~1l ... l<>UL>!!I or he .. ' ,un., lIlt: Itl .. ", jl ,." II I), le.nlll" ,11111(' d,iI(cr'~Il'oe hculicc,fl ll1,M.- .. ml IHlhj"n .. )I"Ll.e ·("n,·lmll 'HI"!, uf Ihe. :Jhsurhe.! h~l1l l(iliI')I; iu~llk

'. Thi~ rasolli;!lg :!PL,llo:" "!I,lIano "'!'II ... ,11"[1 Ille o.lllhiHIIL 1~lnperature I~ hclnw 1,11;- IllIutl !l·ln!J.t"r;Ullfl.·

BaSil of Tabl'e lS

- SoleII' Heal Gain thru Ordinary Gloss

Table 15 provides data £\)Or 0". IIJ"'. 20.D, 30", ~f()", and 50" latitudes, If Of UI. . .h month ur the ~f'ar 3ml ('or ead1 hOillJr 0'[ the day. 11m, 1J,lIlk include IJhc direct and diffuse rndialion arul Lilal portion (.!~ the heat, absorbed ill ahe gla\!i wlll{h gets inw dh: 'Space. h d",~ 111),/ inr ludc the II.m .. H1is .. ion .at ht'~I,1 IIcrOM the glass ,au~1'!1 hr .J relllpero.lLUre dilierclIL'l' berween the outdPcu oIud i'llSlth· air. (See Ciiaptt'l ~ for "U" values.)

The <lara ill Tnbl» J J iii based 011 the foLlm\'i.IIK conditioru:-

I. A glOi~ area ("qual to $~P-c. !llihe 5:t~h :U'C:t.

Thi is, t pkal Ior wood wj!.t wimdows. For meral sash windows, [he glessarea is assumed equal to 100% of IMe sash area. because the I.:lJnductivity of the metal sash is v !')' high ,Ind the solar heal absorbed ill th.e ~a.'Ih is u.105mi.ued 3.lmo5t insnanmneomly.

:"110 I},; The wh uca:equab 'l.r .... "lm;HJ;!I~, 1t1j.7.. (J(' .!.he ifl..l'lflflfl' opmifiK '(OIl' frame nroenmg with friune waii,) ,..llh W(UHI <lli!h 'Windowi, no'''~, of l.u.~rHlrl' ope.ning ,,'1111 lllll •. hle I1l1l1l TI)&tal, .ulil ;" j",lmrliJ .• ""nd 100% Qf mil· ""LlfY opmililG wilh ClR:m.ent.

winLlowl.

1'1( ... 11 WINoowAR~

2. :\'0 h:lil(' in Ithe .. ir. ~ Sea tevel elevation,

-1l, A sea level dewpoim rel1lperlJUJiI'C of 66.8 F (95 F db. 75 F wb) wbich apJll'Ol(imately corl"eJponds to '" cernimeters uf pr«ipilabttewate:r vapor. Plecipitable 'water v::tpor is aU or the Waller vapor in a column (Jf air (rom ~a level to the OulCI" edge of the atltlosphere,

1 r these oonditions do nOl apply, lQ.I'! thee ronecLUlU fattr1lTSi3[[he bottom or 'each p:lgc of Table J 5.

.0 .. , of Table 15

- Solartt.ol· Gain fhruOrd)n-al)' Gfau

Th~ botd fflce vatuC'.rm Tablf'! IS i,uJicat~ 'hit! ffI(tXlm~im$O'ar ',tnt gain lor tht: m.unch for <tach. expolfur". The bold lace- IItiIluCl's thai CI'f'l bo:udindi· nu« the )'It'arl" maximums far cocll exposure.

Tabl;: 15 is used to dt'u~rmine ithe solar heat gain lhru ordinary ghnsat any time. in any pace, lame or building.

1;,0 dct!l'TTIiine the actual ooUfIIg load dut ,10 tht: solar I.ea, gal:'I,l'der to Chnpll'r fl. "HttU SJor,age. lJit",u(y (md Slrati{icl'ltl:on."

CAUTION - WhIte Estima,ing MiJ"f.t~lIr. Rooms lO.rBuilcii!"lgs

I I ;t haze tacior i~ used on one eXp0i!ufIC to desernuue the peal. room or building load, tlte diffuse· component listed for the orlu-r expoSUfe!i rnusr be divided hy rhe haze factor to result in the a(~ual rooitl or building' peale. load. This is because the dlfhi C cnmpooe'nL increases with increasing haze, as

I":.in,:d on page 41

CHAPTER. 4. SOU\"R HEAT GAI,N ]'HRlI CL.\SS

Excmpl'e l - Peak Solar Heat Gain (2 fxpOSlIrlu,J

Sin~ IJI!! limt: :n ""'hld\ tile ~k. !I<llllr load >1)«(111"11 In it S[lIlt.C wiLh 2 '0pfflii;11CS i. not al"ra,.~lIpp,3r(1lu. lh~ 50Iu 111:,1.'1 g;,in i5 gtflern:ll)' 'calrul",tC!'d :[1[ mnl"C (!lOIn ~mc 'Ii.1'I'I(; 10 del;erminc il~ peak.

C>ivcn:

,\ mum wilh eq",,1 81;:1~ lI~~ on, the Yi'cu ~Ild Sou,lh iIIl to· :North l.uilPde.

find:
I 'ell II; I'Ilhu hC'illplfi.
Sui III ion:
Fnnn TIIM,. J"
S"hu he;IL gain -
SocplCrnlilC1" 22 2:00 3:00 '.:00 p.m.
Weo.l 9!1 1:19 149
So>u1h no III 44
Tl'Ilijl! 200 220 191
SoliiU hcal g"",in -
OC:lo!)e;r 2.! 2;00 5~OO 4:00p.m.
WCSI IJ.8 1,22 U7
50mh 11' 1M 59
Total 22.'1 226 176
Solar helli p.Lo-
Novnnl"ct 21, 2:00 ):00 -I;OOIUl'I.
",(:Ill ;·1 UIO ~I
SoUHl I~IJ 104 !ill
Tutal 21, '00-1 1.51) The pe;lk HlI:ar hl'llt pill to tho morn opc,un at 3:00 p.m. nn '~otM:r ~5. T!u~~ak room milling Ioatl does n,Ol nCC6. ~1"i1)i' eecur at the Mille lime III tfll~ peak wlar' hr:ugai.n,

hccmr~t' the peuk lTiln~lllls:JLnJl I'!lul, 1)('fIph:: load, etc .. , mll~ Qt(:;lrf al 'iOme~.lhcr' II PIC.

EAampJe ,2 - SotarGain C'orn,c:fito"" f:O'l:tors (Bottom Ta,bl. 15'

The ,"ufldh1011' on ~hich -1'..011' H p, h:L~J IIIi> rll:>[ ""Pl' I)' 10 .. H ItlLIU~. !tina: 111&111), citia ~r~ tlK>\C' w.I I "cl.a,ud tl'1!iny hl!llc fiiffcmern del'iglll 4\ew poinl'l ,and MIllie h'll'C in inetr anuosphere.

GivC)n:

A wot cxposu~ wil~ 5i~d at lIli"nt winch), .... l..ocai.ion - Topc:h. KIIlS3I

. \ Iliul!l(! - 991 [\

UC'!Ilgn dew'point - 09.8 F 39' Norih 13,linudc

Find:

I·~;.I,: lar heal !{>lin,

So'hulon:

By impet;1.!ioQ IlIf T Gbh~ IJ me OOl!cdlml(Uaa: TO'ar"e; lor ~k !WlaII' !leoti ~i:!l. OOOturi'l1g ~u 4:00 p,.m. on July I!S

- 1641 Blu/(ln) (sq rt)

Alijume ,asome'llrlua:L h<!ty ronIJililiOil,

\Itlmdc COti'ettitl!'l = I ;OO'i' (1lluuom, T,pblr 15) Dcwpo£nt dilfcK!1CC= 69.8, - 00.11= ! F lk""pili~n oomtlinn = 1- (5/1.0)( .'07) = _919

{bottom '.TaMe r.5) I-liz¢: correction c:: 1-.10 =.90 (holtornTtJbfll! 1:5)

SI~1 Q!h ccrrecrlon = ~1/.8!i (hullom T(lbJ~ H)

SGJu healg"l,i0, ,n 4;00 p.m., JI'II'f 2'

= 164 x LOO? X .979 X .00 xII. 'i = 1'Il1 Btli/(hr)(iq et)

1-44

PART L~LOAD ESTlMATJNG

TAILE 15-S0LAR HEAT GAIN THII.'J ORDINARY GLASS Btu/(hr) (sq ft sash area)

O· NO.RTH LATITUDE AM SU'N' T Iittot E PM O· SOUTI-t LATITUDE
Tim. of Y •• r &PO$UI'Ol 6 7 B 9 10 II . Noon I 2 ] 4 5 6 bposu .. Ti_ufY ....
Norih a 45 R# H 78 80 4t 80 78 74 65 '45 I 0 South
Norlh.,.st . 0 119 :rs I~~ ~~ ~~ 14 13 II 6 0 South ....
Ent 0 Ill> IA- IA n 11 b 0 Eut
Southe4ft 0 37 42 27 15 14 14 14 14 13 II 6 0 North .. st
JUNE 21 South 0 6 II 13 :1 14 14 14 14. 13 !~ 6 ~ North DEC 22
South .... s. 0 /, , I 13 14 14 14 IS 27 17 Northw.~t
West 0 6 II 13 14 14 14 43 93 135 I ::r 116 0 W."
Northwest 0 6 II 13 14 20 53 95 113 154 119 0 Southw.st
HorilO"hl a 28 87 1<47 191 217 2.26 217 I'll 147 87 28 0 H .... mont .. 1
North 0 37 541 61 65 66 67 66 65 61 54 37 . 0 South
Nor+h.ut a :~~ ::~ :ig 124 ' 80 ;! 16 14· , 13 11 6 ' 0 South .. st
JULY 23 E.d 0 91. 41 14 14 I 11 II . b 0 E.rl JAN 21
Southead 0 46 52 36 18 14 14 14 14 13 II 6 0 Norill ....
A: Soutt. 0 6 II 13 :! 14. :1 14 14 n ~~ I> 0 North a
South .... st _0 b II 13 14 14 18 ]6 46 0 North •• 1t
MAY 21 W.d 0 6 II 13 14 14 14 43 91> 139 152 121 0 Weri NOV 21
Northwest 0 b II 11 14 16 43 86 12~ ISO III 118 0 Sovtlnrect
Harilont .. 1 0 29 91 151 195 223 233 223 195 151 91 29 a HoriaoI!f"
North 0 17. 28 31 33 304- 34 34 33 ~I 'lB 17 0 Sou'"
North .... t 0 110 141. 113 102 /:d 24 14 14 13 12 II 0 s-the.st
AUG 24 Ent 0 129 163 148 1m 4i. 14 14 14 11 12 io a brl FEI20
~outh"lt 0 67 19 05 35 IS 14 14 14 IJ 12 ' 10 --0 TorRI.Hf
I: South 0 6 12 13 14 14 14 :: ~: Il , 12 ' 6 0 Narth I
Southw.st 0 6 12 13 14 ,i .. 14 65 7' 67 0 North .....
APR 20 w.a1t 0 ,I:, 12 13 14. 1"1- 1"1- 46 103 '148 • 163 129 0 Wnt OCT 2]
Northw •• t a b 12 q 14 14 24 61 102 133 '41' 110 0 South_.
!-lor izont .. I 0 31 97 150 206 23+ 245 234 206 ISO ' 91 31 0 Horizontal
North 0 6 1'2 13 14 14 14 14 1<4- 13 12 6 0 South
North •• st ~ 95 ~ ·101. I*~ !~ 14 :: :: :~ :; ! g SGvth ....
SEPT 22 bit 134 151 I" b.t MAR 22
!ioufh .. ,t 0 95 118 101 6B ] I 14 14 ,14 13 12 6 0 tr.>riII .. d
I: South 0 b 12 13 1<4- 14 14 14 14 13 :~ 6 0 North I
Sovthweri 0 6 12 13 14 14 14 31 68 101 II 95 0 NOrtttw.st
MAR 22 W.1t 0 6 12. 13 14 14 14 47 107 151 ffff I Jot. 0 W.d SEPT 22
Northw •• t a 0 12 13 14 14 nit 31 68 101 1 95 0 South".st
H.,..i1:clnt.1 0 32 100 163 210 240 240 210 163 100 32 0 H.lzoftt.1
North '0 6 12 13 14 14 14 14 14 11 12 6 0 s.utII
North •• .t 0 67 7' . 1.5 35 15 14 1<4- 14 13 12 6 0 Sollfhe .. st
OCT 23 East 0 129 Ib] , 148 1m 41. 14 14 14 13 12 b 0 E.1t APR 20
South .. st 0 110 141 133 102 , 1.1, 24 14· 14 13 12 6 0 ;North .. rt ,
I South a 17 28 I 31 33 34 34 34 I~~ 31 28 17 0 North A:
Southw.d n 6 12 1< ... 14 ?4 61 13] 141 110 0 North_st
FEB 20 w.rt 0 0 12 13 14 14 14 40 10] 14B 163 129 0 Wnt AUG 24
Northw.st 0 6 12 13 14 14 14 15 35 65 7' 67 0 Southwest
HarfJ:ont.1 0 31 97 150 20b 234 245 2H 206 150 97 31 0 HOI'ixo'!t .. !
North 0 6 II 13 J.+ 1<4- 14 14 14 -13 II b () South
North ... rt 0 46 52 36 18 14 14 14 14 13 II 6 0 SGvth .....
NOV 21 E.st 0 121 152 139 90 43 14 14 1<4- I] II 0 0 hrt MAY 21
:iouthead 0 118 153 150 124 S6 43 16 14 13 II b 0 Nortbe .. st
• South 0 37 S4 61 65 61. 67 ¢6 65 bl 54 37 0 North ..
Southw." 0 6 II 11 14 16 43 86 124 15.0 151 118 .0 North ... rt
JAN 21 West 0 I> II 13 14 14 14 43 96 139 152 121 0 W.rt JULY 23
Nort;hwest , .0 /, !I 13 1+ 14 14 14 I.B 36 52 ·46 0 Southwest
Horizoniel .0 29 91 151 195 223 233 223 195 151 91 29 0 Harilont·l ,
Nort" .0 . 6 II 13 14 1<4- 14 14 14 1.3 II 61 0 , South
Harth"" .. 0 37 42 27 15 14 14 14 11- 13 II /, .0 5out ..... rt
Edrt 0 116 141 135 93 43 14 14 14 I] II b .0 bit
Sauthust a 119 ~ 154 133 95 ~ 20 1<4- 13 II 6 0 North •• st
DEC 22 South 0 45 65 H 78 80 ~ 80 78 H ~ 45 0 North JUNE 21
Southwed a 6 II 13 14 20 53 95 133 154 15& 119 0 Northwest
-Welf 0 b II 13 ''I 14 14 43 93 135 147 116 0 W.st
Northwest .0 b II 13 14 14 14 14 15 27 42 37 .0 Southweri
Hori.ont .. t 0 28 87 147 191 217 221> 217 191 147 87 2B 0 H_ir.ont.I
Sol .. r Gain St •• 1 Sash. or HOI. Altitud. O.wpoint D.wpoi"t South lAt.
No Sash D.c." ... e ",am 67 F Incr .... ",om 67 F D •. c."" J.n.
Correcti"n X 1/.85 or 1.17 -15% (MII~.) +0.7% per 1000 Ft + 7% per 10 F - 7% pe~ 1.0 F + 7io Bold Foee Y"lues. - Monthly M".imums

Bo.ed Velues - Yeo.l\, m,,~imum.

CHAPTER 4. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRUGLASS

1-45

100

TABU 15-S0LAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GlASS (Contd) Btul(hr) (sq ftsosh area)

1,00

10· NORTH LATITUDE AM SUN 11 M E PM 10· SOUTH l)..TllUD£
Ti_DfYHt" &posu~ 6 7 8 9 10 II Noon I 2 3; 4 5 6 & poi ure Tim.ofV .. r
North 19 ,,~ ~ +S 44 43 41 43 , -4i 45 SO H ~ South
N'orlh ... d S5 131 1 '''0 lOb 6S 28 141 14 IJ ~ B ~. Soui.h eo $I
hd 5<1' 13+ ~ 1391 98 041' , _l! 13 I_i_ I:J " II B EDt
Soutuuf 18 4'1' 55 41 25 14 14 I" !I. Il II B 2 Nort~ .. d
JUNE 21 South 2 8 II I) 14 11 14 14 I" 13 II B 2 North osc 22
Souih..,.d 2 8 8 13 1+ 14 14 14 2S 43 5S 49 18 Northwest
W.st 2 9 8 13 , 14 14 14 +1 98 I 139 ~ 1)4 54 West
N.orilt ..... ' 2 8 8 13 ' 11 18 28 es 10& 140 ~ I) I S5 SOl.!thwest
H_ilA"t.1 4 ,.' 107 1M 205 2.ll 243 2]3 20) 160 107 44 .. Horilont.1
Nwth, , 5 14 19 3S 33 )1 ' 10 I 31 n ]5 J9 14 S South ,
Nortk.ad 42 U7 148 131 1091 56 22 I ... '" 13 III 7 I 50uthe.d
JULY 23 Eut 50 135 158 , ... 2 98, 11 14 1<1 I~ I J II 7 I ~" JAN 21
~!!ttu •• lf 16 57 66 56 J1 1<1< 1+ 14 14 13 " 7 I Northeest
" SO!Jth I 7 II IJ 14 1<1 14 1<1- 14 1]' 11 7 I Nonh "
5couth'nrl I 1 II n 11 14 14 1'1 32 56 66 57 26 No"'hw.,t
MAY 21 Wed I 7 " IJ 14- I'- 1<1 4] 98 1"1 158 135 50 Welt NOV II
NDltlr .... 't II 1, II, 1:3, 1-4 , .. 22 " 56 I~ 13) 1!48 127 ~2 Sollthwail
HOriZontal 1 42, 107, Ib6 210 236 l41 , HII 210 166 107 "2 3 Horilon!.1
Nonh I 15 II> 15 IS 11 14 14 IS IS III 15 I Sovth
Noriheut 17 113 130 III 80 3" 14 14 , 14 n " 1 I So" II •• Jt
AUG 24 Ead 2S 138 163 149· 104 46 ,. 14 14 13 II 7 I bri EB 20
Sovth .. st 18 H 94 8S so 27 14 14 :: 13 'I 7 1 N'orth.ad
I South I 1 II 11 H 14 14 14 I) II 7 I North •
SollfLwm I I 1 II 11 1'41 I~ 14- 21 ,60, 85 94 79 18 ' Northw.,t
APR 20 W.n I 1 I I 13 I" :! 14 '111, 1m , 14'1 1113 llB . 25 We.1 OCT 23
NorlJ._d I, 7 II 13 14 f+ :!4 IS III 130 III 17 South ... a.t
HoriZon'.1 "1 J8 lOS 11:>1 213 2 .. 2 ~ 1-!2 213 167 105 18 2 Hor'Zof\t.1
2SO
North I b II 11 14 11 14 1-1, H 11 II 6 I Sou+!.
North.ut I 89 ~ BO 4S 17 14 '4 14 13 II 6 I Souih .. st
SEPT 22 E.n I 130 1604 : 15,1 lab "7 11, 1>4 14 13 III 6 I Eui , MAR 22
, SV'uthe,uf I 91 1.21 12'2 94 56 11 H , ... l3 II : I North ... t
It So"fh I 61 13 191 24 27 28 27 24 Iq 13 I No.rt'" &
Sogt,hw.st i 6 II 13 I .. ,<I 21 56 '14 112 121 91 I Horth .... d
MAil 22 W:.st I b II I] 14- 14 14 ~~ 106 151 1103 IlO I W.lt SEPT 22
Horift ... d I 6 II 13 14 14 14 45 SO 89 I Soutftwest
HCM'izont.1 I 31 97 160 207 215 2<1<7 .. J!I M7 160 97 31 I HoriJont.1
North 0 5 10 n 14 141 I .. 14 i'4 tJ 10 5 0 I Soutt.
Hanft •• d 0 58 66 44 28 11 i 14 1-4 '''':1 I~ 10 5 0 South .. d
OCT 2J ~ut 0 118 155 145 100 ~O 14 '4 1'1 13 10 5 0 E .. t APR 20
Southast g I~i 147 11V I'lJ ;: ~ : ~~ !; ~~ 10 5 g North .. It
• SovtII 40 55 65 ~O 18 Horth •
SOufh .... d 0 S 10 13 H 18 46 Bt lil 149 147 101 0 North ... st
FeB 20 Wlnt 0 s 10 :~ If f~ r4 40 100 145 155 118 0 W.n AUc;. 24
Nonhwe:&t gl 5 10 14 14 14 I'- 28 <1>4- 66 58 0 50Ilth.e,1
H .... izonf.1 22 85 139 19l 220 UO 220 I'll il'l 85 n 0 Hori~nf.1 I
North 01 + 9 12 I) 14 14 I" 13 12 9 'I' 0 Soul'll I
Non";}"st '0 27 31 11 13 14 14 14 13 12 q .- 0 Soli' h .. d
HOY 21 fad 0 99 '43 132 9) 39 14 14 11 12 9 4 0 E.st MAY 11
Southead 0 99 IS] 161 146 109 10 ]1 17 12 9 4 0 Nonh ....
l Soyth 0 35 bS 91 96 104 106 104 9b 91 b5 ]S 0 North &
Southw.rt 0 4' 9 12 17 )1 70 I ()Ii! 146 161 151 99 a Northwa:tt I
JAN lil W.-d 0 4- 9 Il 13 14 14, )9 n' III 143 99 0 Wed- JULY 2J
Nodh ..... 0 4 9 12' 13 1,4· 14, -- 14 Ii' 37 27 0 Soulhw.I'
, 1751 1751
HCM'izonfal 0 17 62 131 202 210 202 fl'l 1.2 17 0 Hori1:old.I
Nonh 0 " 9 12 13 1<1 I" 14 13 12 9 '" 0 South
Nwth •• d 0 IS 28 17 13 14 1+ 14 13 12 9 " a South .. Jt
East 0 86 137 130 91 42 14 14 13 12 9 4 0 i.,t
South ••. '" 0 99 1!)4- lin 149 121 11 Jb 23 12 q 4 0 North .. d
DEC 22 South, 0 S~, 74 109 116 :m: lit. 109 ...J4- 74 SO 0 Harth. JUNE 21
South ....... :0, 'iI J2 23, lb 79 121 1<19 163 15~ 9:9 _O Northwn.
W.d 0 ~ 9 12 13 H 1+ 42 'ill 130 I 131 at. c W.1t
Northw.d 0, + 9 12 13 I" 14 1+ 13 11 28 IS 0 Southw.s-t
HoriJont.1 0 14 00 f20 107 I'll 202 19) 167 120 M 14 '0 HCM'ixont.1
Sol., G.in St •• 1 S.,h. or , O.wpoinf O.wpoint ,South Lit.
Hue Altitude
Cor"ction No Suh Dec,ule From 61 F Increa,.' From 67 F Del;. Of Jan.
, X 11.85 or 1.17 -15% (Mol_I +0.7% per 1000 r, + 77" p.u 10f - 7% per 10 F + 7':1 .. lIold Facl! V IUi!U - Monthlv Milximums

80tlld V .. I ...... - Y orl)' mluirnum~

1-46

PART I. LOA.OESTIM .. \TJNG

200

TABLE IS-SOLD. HEAT GA'IIN TflRU' 'OADINARY 'G'LASS (Conitell), Btu/(hr) (sq ft sash area)

200

20· NORTH LAnTUDE AM S U NnW.E: ' .. !I'''''20'< SOUTHlAl1CfUDE:

I

Time,ofY •• r &poi"... 6' '1 II , 10 1 II.~ Noaa ,I ",1 J .. ' 56' l&pDIWA 'nlMofV • .,

North, 28~" n 25' 19 17 15 I 17 19 25 I 3l~' 28,50,_,_"'"

North .. d • 1 81 154 1+* 122 83 3.8, Ii liS 14 i ,.. 14 '12 I" ]: I SovtItnd

Earl '1' in i H,S 160 14.1 ,'l6 -411, It 14, 14 '4 '12 'I 13 1 E .. ,

Soltfh.ut II 28 I 62 73 b6 1 H 2, IIi, 114 14 14 1,4 12 9 I 3 1 :N~ .. at

JUNE 21 , ,So.vt'h I J I 9 12 14' ,14 14 14' 14' 14 1412 9' ]: North

, SaLlthw!lrt 3 912 '4 Ii J4 ,1421, +4bb .n .il, A - Jtorihlll'm

,'-e" J'j 9' 12 14 14 141' 14 'I 41 96 I'UIN~,' '8,1 vvtit

1 IN~rth_d 3' 91 12 14' 141 J.41! 15, 18 83 122 1410 :~B~ WIIw ...

1 Horizol'ltll III! bO .121 1'7t. 216 I 232 250' 212 216' 1761 1.21 ! 60 1 II H_boat.l

DEC 22 '

:Nortft 21)',' 21 I 23 I I" I 15 14 14 14 15 I 17 21 2.1, 20 Sou:tIt

'North.... 71 :1121' Ill' 1111 • 73, 31 1414 i 141 'I) 12 8 3.,~

JULY 2,1 ,&",,75' l.fa 1163 145 99' 46, 14 I 14, ,If 1l J.2 _l _l',' ..kat

,~~ •• t 131 7Q B,5,' 79 57 2'i' I" I 141'If, 13 12 IB! 3 !'!~!- ...

"SolJth 3 8,12 13.111 14 1<4 141114,'13 '1218 3 North ';.- ,.

S.,uth_1t 3 8 12 13 lfl4 1'4 1_2', 57 79 _l5 _10 .11 .•

MAY 21 . Wid 3 8' 1.2 13 It 1:4 I I~, 46,99lli45 163 148 75 !!i_1f ".

.Norltn.tif i 1 81213 1 ... 14k-M.. 31. n 1111381132' 71 So""_'· ,

iH .... t.J J B 55 118 ,(75 216' 240 -151 2-40' 216 1 irs ' 11855 8 1'i~.t.I

JAN 21

I

NOY 21

AUG 2."

'NariJI I 6 10 II 13' '4·, 1,4, 14 . 14 '4 13 'II' 1 101'" .5o¥tII • ,I

N~.d ]'1 -45 I!III ~ 89 SOl 1'8 14 14 14 13 II '1':2 I. ~ '.',

EAd 53 1"12 i1l5' 149 1'06 51 1,4 t4 1413 I 'I.t : 2e-It:':: FE' 20

'5r.!lrtttlm I l7 , 89 II) 'rOlii' 98. 55 201 14. ,+ 13 II 7 I ~

I; I Soufh 1)":2 1 7, III 1·4 II 201' 24 2:6 I 24 201 14 II 7 ... :N:;;ti;:--··

Sowtl'lwut· 2:' 1 II 13_ll.:! 14 .201 I _5i. sa 10.8' t u, _jt I 2." He

I

APR: .20 iW." 2' 1, iI' III 14 1414 51 100 149 116§ 142 . 53 !I_... , OCT n

Nar'lfl..,... 2 1 I II; 13' 14 14 14 18 50 89 'Til llii i 4S S"ltfllw.tt

. HOI'itont.1 5 48 1'017 167 2101 235 2.47.215 210 Ib1 101. 118 is, H_ilMt.1

SEPT 2J

MAR U W." 0- 6 nil] 14 I( I 14 4S 104,149" JI63 1]0 0 w ....

'Nor...... '" 01. II I 13 ,., 141 14 1'''iU'' S9 . 17 I 83 O~ ....

I 'H_ilDtd.f' 0130 OIl. IS3 11'i8' 22!1Zn 122S,' 198 '153 93' 30 0 HWImM.I,

NortI!, 0 ,4 9, 12'. 13 14 14 14 1312! '9 ". 01 So~

IN........... ,0 ++ I SZ, 29! 13 I" 1+' I. I] 121 '9 + 0 SoutM.at

OCT U I, ,... 0 'XI 147 14,1 lOG 49 I~: 14 I) 12 'Ii I)' ult

Sollf!lMd 0 91 146 "'.0. 149 11'11 7+ 21 13 121 9' ;4 0

s-th 0 21, 50 76 !I:) lOb i !III i 106 93 76 I 50 21 0 Narf:h

~ s-t'h __ 1It -0 4 9 11.. 13 ~2.71 7+, .119 1<ji9 1600' J<46 ,910_ ""~It_

I

FiB 20 ,~~ 0, I" 9' 11 13 141 It "9 100 141'4799 0 '!'lit')

'1'{~!f"IW.~ I o!" 9 i 12 I,l I 1'.,1', I" Hi I] 2'i !SZ' 44. 0 SouthwHli

'HtrilMt.1 ,Q 18 68.1127 11'1 196L2DI 1'6 171 1:27 68 1,118' 0 Hori:I!MIta:l!

I

API 20

I

AUG 24

NOV 21

!IIIAY 21'

JAN 21

,I

,

JULY 2]

N.artfiJ 0] I 8 II 131131 Il tl '13 II B 3 0' ~Id!'

Nolih.... 0 24' 26 I 14 11, 131 Il I 13 13 II I 8 J 0 I Sovt+l.r ... t

E4r5t I), I 71 1.28 1]127 'II! +U III u: I,l II B, 3 01 Earl

~I)Llth.nt I) I 73 144' 164 ! 15813'5 91 ,I ~{,16 II 8 I 3 0 ~art~ ....

South 0 28 I b' 100 123 1'3b 141 I 1]1) 121! 100 69 I 28 0 NarI,h

South_It 0 3 B II! Ib 4691' 1 ~ 158 164 144 .n. 0 Nortft....t

W.d 0] 8 II 12, I] I] +J 91 121', !128 71 0 !t.~~

North •• dO ) ,8 II 1 12' '13. 1,3 13 13' 14 26 2+ 0 Southw",

Hort:z;ollt.1 0 5, 048 1101 i 1<1-61, 172 110 112 14li 101 48 5 0, ·H~t.'li

North 0 Z I 7 II ,12 U 13 :13 '12, II. 7 :z 0 'SovII!

Non'h.m ',0 14 I 18 12: 12 13 I] 13 ,12 1:1 7 :I: 0 SiCIiIlI<hMd

! Eut ' 0 56 118. tlL I 8S 14 Il '13 1211' 7 1: I) e. ..

, ,Southnd 0 I 59 I n ~' I S9 I H ihit- 6020 II 1 2 0 !,!~~NIt

DECZ2 ! Soltfh, 0 25 704, IH 132 146~,1"6 132 1117425 0 Narlh

l Sf)uthw.,t 0.2 7 II 2.Q b097 i t:l4 159:ttY' 13~ S9 Jl. N~hweit

I Wm . 02 7. II 12 1111 Il' 14 'S5 '121 :~ liB 56'· 0 !" •• t·· ,"

I North.at 0 2, 7J II '12 11113 13 1.2 12 :111 1+ 0 Southw.d

H.:wiitonl.1 C" :ll. 9211351 161 I no 161: 135 92 _It]6 I" 0 I Horb:~t.11

JUNE 21

I "'-' St ... 1 S,uh, or H ..• _,._', I A· It_,·t.,,'._" '" 'D.wpaint 'D.wpoint 1 South 1..1.

Saar "".in NQ S.uh: .~ I) Dec.,. ••• From 67 F Inc,._ From, 67 II' OIl"C.or J,n.

Corncdclo-n x 1/.85 er 1.17 ~ IS% (Mill.) +O,l'i~ lper 1000 Ft j + 1% per 10 F - 7% per 10 F + 7':{0

CHAPTER 4. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THRU GLAS

1-47

TABU 15-S0LAR HEA' GAIN THRU ORDINART GLASS (Contd) Btu,/(hr)1 (sqih 5Osharea)

300

]0' NORTH LATITUDE At-4 SUN T"'" E plft 3,0' SOUTH LATITU[)E
nm.afY.u , 10. II' N_II I 2 :t 4 I 5 6 &poi",.. Time ofY •. ar
&p'*l" 6 7 • -t ,
North II 2j_ 18 I .. 14- 14 J{ 14 1<1 14- 18 2'1' 13 South
Northe.st 105 P.n. 130 97 5S 10 I~ 14 ,. 14 12 ' 10 5 South.nt
EDt 108 ]56 161 I,n 98 « 14 : 14 I" '4 12 10 5 flit
Southa'" 42 75 ~ 90 73 4-4 17 I' 14 14 '4 1'2 10 5 !"l""h •• d
JUNE 2. 50tHh S 10 12 14 I~ 1'1' 21 I'll If. 14 12 10 5 North DEC 22
Sou.lI.alt 5 10 12 14 14- 14 17 44 73 90 90 7S , 42 North,!!,.,t
W.d 5 10 12 14 ,I, 14 14 V, 98 1-43 16' ~ 108 !'fa If
N,,"I\ .... 5 10 12 14 14 14 ~ I'll 55 'H 1)0 rLn- 105 $outh""es't
H Ql'j,on I aJ , 19 61 III 180 211 240 250 240 ,211 180 131 61 Iq Hori~ont.1
NoMh 22 20 , .. Il '14 ''I 14 '14 '14 13 14 20 2.2 Sou."
Norih .... 93 III 123 ' 89 46 16 14 , 14 14 n Ii 9 -1 South ••• t
JULY 23 E.d 100 ISS 164 145 99 +l- I .. 14 I-It 11 12 9 .. Ellrl JAN 21
South .... 42, 82 100 100 83 I 53 22 1+ '4 iIJ 112 9 .. ",ort~ .. , •
& South .. ., 12 14 20 27 )0 27 20 I .. 12 'I 4 North &
Southwa" 4 9 12 13 14 H 14 53 BJ 100 100 B2 42 Norlh ..... t
MAY 21 W.lt 'I , 'I 11 13 14 , 14 14 <11 q., I"~ :~ r~5 IlJO ~.st NOV 11
, North_' .. 9 12 IJ 14 I" 14 II. 4b !II? III '?) Souihwest
HarQo.,t.1 I s 66 11) 176 711 13b 2'6 136 21<1 17& 123 ob 15 HOf"nontel
, North b B II I) Il 14 14 I~ I) 13 II 8 6 Sou'h
,Northe." SS lOti 100 66 U 14 I~ 1+ 11 11 II 8 2 South .....
AUG 2.· hrl 66 147 1165 148 102 <if> 1+ 14 13 13 II 8 2 Ellt FE8 20
50\1thdd )1 '18 1.2T 12' liZ li2 J'I 15 I J U II : ~ l'Iot1h•uf &
I: SoLlth 2 B 13 27 47 58 6li 58 47 21 13 North
South"" '2 8 II 13 13 15 39 82 112 129 121 98 i 37 Norlhwilf
A'PR 10 W.d i 8 II II J , J 14 I. ' 4b 102 148 '~' 117 66 !"'Iut 'OCT 23
Norih.", 4~ I II IJ 11 ,,,I 14 t4 "J7 60 100 ' 108 55 501111; .... ,' I
HCN'h.ollt.1 b 107 16'1 '00 215 235 22S 200 161 107 H s Ho,iJ.on,.1
North .0 5 10 12 13 I" 14 14 13 12 10 5 0 South
North.~lJt 0 74 90. 40 15 14 14 '" 13 12 10 S 0 SQutheut
SE.PT 22 En! 0 124 151 I .... 103 48 I" 14 13 12 10 5 0 Ea.si MAil zz
~outh .. st 0 '18 III 152 '4' IIJ 67 25 n 12 10 5 0 North •• ,t
• Savth 0 9 18 bO 82 98 105 98 82 so 18 'I 0 Nortll •
, South_It 0 5 10 12 IJ 25 61 III 1+1 152 III 98 0 Northw.st
MAl 22 W .. i 0 5 :~ 12 :~ 14 I .. 48 LO' I·H· 1~8 124 0 , w.,t SHY 22
North .. cd 0 5 12 14 14 14 15 40 90 74 0 Soulhw.st
Hotizonl'.1 0 2!> 81 Il'l 179 202 21:2' 202 179 135 81 2S 0 Horizont.1
Nornl I 0 3 8 11, 12 13 14 13 12 II 8 J 0 So lit"
North,ut, 0, ]) '39 I~U 12 n '4 11 12 II, B. ) 0 $olliil.,ut
ocr 23 , E.d 0 79 135 9. 43 14 Il' 12 II 8 1 0 f:.d ."PI20
,
.. 5avtll..t, ~ IJ 1"<: rml~" :~; I~~ ,;~ I~~ '~' S~ I~ ~ ~ol't~ .. n .I
South 18 51 '171 North
, SOllth_+ 0 ] 8 II' 15 47 112 136 159 IU ''1-2 73 0 North ......
FEB 2.0 W .. t ~ ~, 8 n 12 13 14 4J 94 In I~!I 7., 0 ,!",u~ AUG 24
Nartt. .... 8 II 12 ' 13 14 13 12 18 39 33 0 S-ouil.w.d
Harboll',1 0 II 49 100 14) 171 179 111 14] 100 49 6 0 Horizont.1
NDrift 0 I b 9 II 12 12 12 11 9 6 I 0 5011111
North ... t 0 8 16 9 fI 11 12 12 " 9 6 I 0 Sou lI .. d
NOV 21 Earl 0 27 109 I'. 83 35 12 12 II 9 6 I I) E.at UAY 21
~ovt~NJt o ' 18 I'll 161, 16~ '43 :~ I~ I~~ -'I 6: I 0 ~ort~ .. st
i SOldh 0 10 68 109 137 151 10'1 10 0 N'orih ..
S;"d 0 I II 9 23 b4 110+ IoU JI.:2 161 127 28 0 North .... d'
JANI21 ' W •. d 0 I 6 : :: :r 12 35, 8J lib 1U'f 27 o ' !'U'! JULY 23
: Nort:hwast 0 1 6, 12 , 12' II 9 16 8 0, 5.o1l.·h ... ".
.Horn_tal 0 '2 21 71 109 ns 145 ])6 ' IQ'? 1'1 27 I 2 o I HOI'ilOnt.r
North 0 0 4 9 ,II 12 12 12 II 9 '4 0 0 South
Norlh .. d 0 ) 10 'I II 12 12 12 II 9 4! 0 0 SOllth .. at
Eari' 0 0: 92 I ,OS 80 31 12 12 II 'I " 0 0 E.d
nsc 22 ~~'d ~ ~ I~: 1~7 ::~ T43 ~ , Ii I~; IIj 4 ~ g ",art~.<lJt JUNE 21
out 113 159 1!i9 64 North
SoUthwnt 0 0 ... 'J " 28 72 143 162 157 114 I) 0 Non"""e.t
w.ri 0 0 ... Ii " 12 12 32 BO 105 '1"2 0 0 '!V_Ii
North ...... o i a 04- 9 It 12 12 j 12 " .., 10, 0 0 Soutft ... st
Horizont.1 0 0 19 60 97 122 131122 97 60 II;! 0 0 Harmont.1
Sol., G.in St .. l SOIl!" Of Hua AI;itud. D.wpoint . . I, D •• polnt SoutJ., L.t.
COtI'.ctian' ·No, Sa,h Deer'!I. from 67 F 1 ",,:;r .. !., From 67 F D.c. 0'1" Jan'.
x I/.B5 or 1.17 -lSi .. (!;.Iox.1 +O.7iaper 1000 Ft ,+7Yopa110F -71.perIOF + 7io Sold Fllc. Velues - Monthly MOlimums

eo.lld VelulIJ - Yell~I'r' mlllimum.

1-48

PART I. LOAD ESTIMATING

400

TABLE 15-S0LAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS (Contd) Btu/(hr) (sC! H sash area)

400

Time of Year

Time ofY .. r

<400 NORTH LA.TITUDE

7

4

PllAi - I 40' SOUTH LAmUDE

SUN TIME

6

w .... South .... ' Hori-zont.1

oposur.

6

5

bposure

JUNE 21

North •

North •• st E.,.

32 20 12 I 3 14 14 14 14 14 I J 12 20

118 ~ 112 73 ]0 14 14- 14 14- 13 12 fa

126 f61 162 1+2 95 +'I 1+ 14 14 13 12 10

I

9 10 . I I NOdn I

z

32 6 I.

Sollth South •• rt E.rt

Sout~u" South S,Hdh ..... rt

5 I 88110q 1 II 9q 7 I 34 14 14 13 12 10

I:. 10 12 19 35 +I 5<4 44 ]S 19 12 10

6 10 12 I J 14 14 J4 71 99 III 109 88

6 6 51

Norih •• rt North Norttr..d

W.d North ..... ,t Horilont.1

/;, 10 I 12 13 I.. 14 I.j. 44 95 [42 162 J61

/;, 10 I :12 13 14 1.1, _J:,.. 14 30 73 112 r.n--

JI 82 134 J]9 210 232 Uf 232 210 179, IH7

126 118 31

w.rt Southw.st H"';lont.1

DEC 22

JULY 23

..

MAY 21

North Notth .. st Ea.+

24 14' 12 n 14 14 '1+ 14 14. III 12 I 14

106 127 ~ 66 26 1+ 1<4 14 1'4 13 il2 10

liB 161 164 144 98 43 14 14 14 13 12 i 10

24 5 5

Sallth I

South.... I

hit

Southut So .. th Soutk..,.,t

54 v6 11''1 12.!I 110 82 42 J!> 14 13 12 10

5 10 13 26 « 63 69 63 +I 26 13 10

'5 10 12 13 14 15 42 82110 12S 11996

5 5 54

West North..".t Ho~iJ,ont.1

5 10 11 I] 14 14 14 43 98 14+ L..!!:1 11.1

5 10 12 13 14 14 14 14 26 b6 I 105 127

24 73 121> 171 201 225 llJ 225 203 171 126 73

118 106 24

west South .. rt Homo"t.1

JAN 21 I.

NOV 21

AUG 24 &

APR. 10

Nort!. North .... b.t

7 S II 13 14 14- H 14 14 I] II 8 7

b9 102 82 46 16 14 14 14 14 Il " 8 3

84 147 162 r 45 101 '.j.5 14 14 14 1111 8 )

South South •• rt b ..

So ... "' .... South South..,.tt

48 105 138 146 139 107 101>26. 25, 14 13 II B] j

3 B 24 51 89 97 91, 8'1 5 I 2+ •

) 8 II 13 14 25M_ 107 1)9 I j_4l,' 138 IJ!S 48

W.If· N'",rth_d Hori':tonhl

) 8 III ,13 14 14 14 45 101 145 162- 1+1 M

3 8 II 13 1+ I.j. 1"'11 14 1646 82 102 I 68

9 47 100 150, 185 205 214 205 185 150 100 47 9

West South .... HorizOIIt.1

FEe zo ,

OCTU

SEPT 22 I hAAR 21

North North .. d E"st

o 5 9 12 13 I 13 14 13 13 I 12 q 5 I 0

o , 5 I 58 26 I 3 I J 14 I) r 3 12 9 5 0

o 116 149 139 9'1 45 14 13 I,) 12 9 5 0

South •• st South South •• st

o 9115 '11 ~8- I ,151071 '2332 90 4-1 14 12 9 5 0

o TT 1-.0 122 110 81 +I 12 0

o 5 9 12 14 41 90 In 157 1102 144 95 0

Wild Northwe.+ Hori~ont.1

o 5 q 12 13 13 14 45 9'113 139 149 116 00

o 5 9 12 11 13 14 11 26 58 51

o 21 67 124 .153 17b. 113 171. Ir.J 124 67 21 0

~.st S~ Horizont.1

MAR 22 I SEPT 22

OCT 23

& FEB 20

North Nort'h .. rt E-'rt

o 2 I> 10 II 12 12 12., II 10 b 2 0

o 35 I 33 12 II 12 12 12 I I 10 6 2 a

0, 85 I 17 1 Z2 88 39 12 12 I I lOb 2 0

South •• d South 5owth"".rt

o 81 132 161 163 144. 107 63 20 10 6 2, 0

o 21 I 59 104 137 154 162,154' 137 104 S9 21 0

a 2, b 'A 20, 63 107 144 rl'tf II.I 132 81 0

NIH'th •• d :

North N....thw.st

w.st North"" ... Hotilont.1

o 2 b 11). II 12 12 39 88 122 117 85 0

o 2 I> 10 II 12 12 12 II 12 H as 0

o 8 29 b+ 101 123 In 123 101 M 29 8 0

'!f.d South .. ri Hori-zont.1

APIt 20 I AUG 24

!

J ... N. 2',

N;'rth:

N"rth .. st Ea.t

a 0 3 7 9 10 II 10 9 ., 1 0 0

o 0 12 7 q 10 II 10 q 7 ] 0 0

o a 91 100 7<1 33 II 10 q 7 3 0 0

50ufh •• st South So..+h"" •• t

, w ...

Northw.st Ho.i'lDn,t .• 1

o 0 109 1+1 151> 1-4-4 ~ 70 27 J 3 0 0

o 0 59 104 13'1 158~ 158 13'1 1M 59 0 0

o 0 3 7 27 70 I I I> 1-4-4 156 144- 10'1 U 0

~ g ~ j : :g :: n (~ I~ i~ g g

o 0 16 43 7] 92 103· 92 HI 43: 16 0 0

... ~ •• rt North Northwest

w.tt Southwtrst Hori~ont.1

MAY 21 I JULY 2]

DEC 22

Nort" Nilrih.,..t Ea.t

a 0 2 " 9 10 10 10 9 6 2 0 a

o 0 7 6 q 10 1,0 10 9 b 2 0 0

o a 72 86 68 31 10 10 'I 6 2 0 0

South Southe ... E.at

SQuth .. d South Sowth,...ri

o 0 88 134 148 142 115 7J 30' 7 2 0 0

o 0 51 9'1 134 158 165 158 134 99 51 0 0

o a 2 7 30 73 115 142 148 134 88 a 0

North .... Not+h North ....

'lfe .. North..,est Horizontal

00 00 Z2 b q 10 I<! 31 68 8lt 72 0 0

I> 9 10 10 10 'I I. 7 0 Q

o 0 8 32 5S 71. 85 71> 55 32 BOO

JUNE 21

Sol.r Gain Corr.ction

Steel Sash. or No Suh

X I/.BS O( 1.17

H .. ~. -15% [M,u.)

Altitud. +0.7"/0 per 1000 Ft

De.point D.~"I. From b7 F + 7% per 'OF

D •• point

lner .... From 67 F - 7% per 10 F

South Lat.

Dec .. or J ..... + 7"10

Bold F .. c" V"IUB' - Monthly Maximums

BO~Bd Velue~ - Yearly maximums

CHAPTER 4. SOLAR H AT GAlN THRU GLASS

1-49

500

TABLE 15-S0'LAR HEAT GAIN THRU ORDINARY GLASS (eonld) Btu,/{hr) (sqft sash area)

500

SO· NORTH LATITUD~ AM SU N TI M E PM so· SOUTH LATITUDE
Time afY .. r E>pa.",. 6 7 8 y 10 II Naan I 2 1 4 5 6 bpas"r. Time af Yur
North 29 12 12 u I~ 14 1<1 14 14 13 12 12 29 Sau'" I
North.a:d ~ 125 ~4 SO Ib 1<1 1<1 14 14 13 12 10 9 So"th.«d
Eu!' 13'1 1M 162 1)6 Y'lo 41 '4 14 14, 11 12 10 9 EASt
~lfth •• d 61 IU~ 116 I)) 124 '18 61 2l I~ n 12 10 8 Nanhant
JUNE 21 South [j 10 II.> 39 b9 87 9) 87 b8 39 lb 10 8 Non" DEC 22
Sollill .. e:d 8 10 12 13 14 2"' 1>1 98 124 135 12b 102 b4 Nol1h .... ut
WHt B 10 11 I] 14 1+ 14 ", 'H ns 161 164 IlQ Wllllt
Nor1Jn..,. 8 10 12 IJ 14 14 ntr 14 16 SO 94 I~: ' 11211 50,,"''''.''
Horizont.1 44 lib III 173 191 214 . 214 PH 113 133 « Horilon_i'al
NQrtk ~'I II 12 13 114 I~ 1<1 14 14 13 ' 1.2 II 21 S,allth
Nartkent 114 111 87 41 115 14 14 11 14 n! 12 )0 b SOllth .. ri
JULY 23 Eari III 11.1 (6) 141 q6 4] I~ 14 1+ I) 12 10 b East JAN ,21
Sollthenl 6:1 101 lJ4 143 Ilb roq 70 26 11 13 12 10 6 Northuli
• Sauill II 10 21 50 80 '18 lOb YS 80 SO 11 10 b Norlh "
Sout"wut b 10 12 13 14 2b . 70 10'1 I~b 143 IH 107 65 North .... st
MAY 21 West b 10 12 13 14 14 I. .\3 9b 141 163 161 131 Wast NOV 21
Northw." b 10 12 t3 I~ '" 11 14 15 +4 81 111 114 Southwest
HoriJ.OfIt.1 31 15 119 l59 188 20~ 211 205 198 159 119 15. n HOI'i1onl.1
Nortfo 8 B 10 12 n ,. 14 14 I] 12 10 8 tI So"th
Norihud 7b ,. 70 31 13 14 14 , ~ 11 11 10 8 4 Southud
AlIG 24 hst '14 14S 158 I'll 98 45 14 14 13 12 10 fj .. E.I! FEl20
-~-!.!.heut 53 1111 1+4: IS? I~l il2 99 40 Il 12 10 8 "I North.iut
• South I 1 9 lb 73. 105 130 1)8 110 lOS 73 '36 «1: 4 North •
Soutt. .... ,.d .. B 10 12 13 ...0 11'1 1)2 l!il 151 144 III , !.l North".,t
APR 20 W .. st 4 8 10 12 13 11 14 45 98 141 168 145 'H ~est OCT 23
Nol1hwest 4 B 10 12 13 14 14 14 13 )1 70 9.4 7b SOllt ..... ul
Horj,.ont.1 13 46 89 131 160, 17«1: 185 179 IbO III 89 .. t. ,IJ HoritoRt'l
North 0 1 8 10 12 12 12 12 12 10 8 4 0 South
North .. .t 0 51 4b I 16 12 12 12 12 12 10 8 " 0 South .. rl
SEPT 22 E.:d 0 102 138 . DO 'I) 43 12 12 12 10 8 + 0 Eut MAR 22
Soutn.ut 0 86 Ilq 162 ~ 145 105 5b 11 10 8 -4 0 North.",t
., South 0 II 51 9] - rJ I ISO 158 150 tift 93 51 II 0 North &
Southw.rl 0 .. 8 10 17 ·5b 105 1'45 1 162 139 86 0 NOrih",.,t
MAR. 22 Wut 0 "' B 10 12 12 11 +J 'H 1)0 138 102 0 WIISt SEPT 22
Hartk",.d 0 '" B 10 12 12 12 12 12 Ib 46 58 0 Southw.st
Horhant .. 1 0 15 49 88 118 140, 148 140 118 BS 1·9 !S 0 Horilont.l
North O. 0 4 7 q 10 ' II 10 9 7 'I 0 0 South
Northeast 0 29 ~O I 7 q 10', II 10 <I 7 I 'I 0 0 Soulhud
OCT 23 e,,(t' 0 73 '19 lOS 79 35' II 10 9 7 .. 0 0 eut ..... 'Pll: 20
Sauth ... ,t 0 69 III 1'15 157 11,4 ~ I:ll 24 7 4, 0 0 North .. d
I South 0 11 53 99 131 151 ~ 157 137 99 53 17 0 North &
So!ltf,w.d 01 0 4 7 H b'l 115 144 157 145 III b9 0 Norlh .... d
FEB 20 West g 0 'I 7 q 10 II 35 79 lOS 99 7) 0 West AUG 24
Ncrthwest 0 '" ~ 9 10 II 10 9 7 20 29 0 SOl,lthweft
t
Hom.ant.1 0 2 1'1 'IS 72 all, '" 8~ 72 I +5 19 2 o· Hornonul
"'loti" 0 0 I '" 6 8 q B 61 '" I 0 0 South
Norlflauf 0 0 5 " b 8 , 8 b 'I I 0 0 South .. lt
NOV 21 Elist 0 0 51 b4 57 18 'i 8 b 4 I 0 0 Ead MAr 21
South •• ut 0 0 b2 95 127 12:1101 bl 21 " 1 0 0 Norlh •• d
" South 0 0 H 70 lib 143 1&3 I'll lib 70 H 0 0 North
Souflrwed , 0 0 I 4 21 117 101 '127 127 95 62 01 0 Norlhw.d
JAN 2. w." 0 0 I 4- e 81 9 28 57 61 51 0, ' 0 W.st JULY 23
Northwe~t 0 0 1 " b 8 9 8 b .'1 5 01 0 South"'ed
Horilonhl I 0 0 '" 13 30 H U 47 ro 13 .~ 0 0 Horl10nhl
, North 0 0 01 1 5 6 7 b S' J 0 0 0 South
North,out 0 0 0 1 5 " 1 I; S ] 0 0 0 South •• st
Eut 0 0 a 27 47 2) 7 I; 5 ] 0 0 0 east
SOIl~h .... s:t 0 0 g 41 101 116 100 62 2S ] 0 0 0 Norlh .. t
DEc 22 South 0 0 31 99 131 141 I3r 99 31 o 0 0 Narih JUNE 21
Southw.st 0 0 0 ) 2!) 62 100 JI6 107 41 0 0 0 North'Wed
West 0 ~ 0 3 5 6 I 23 47 21 0 0 0 w .. st
Northvalt 0 0 3 5 II , 6 S ) 0 0 0 SouthW'@ost
1-1 o.i,O"t.I 0 0 0 5 19 33 4() ]] 19 5 0 0 0 Hoti~OI1t .. 1
St .. 1 Sash. or , O .... point ,D .... point South Lot.
Sol.r G.in, Hexe A1'itud.
Correction Ne> Sash D.c;rUJ." From 67 F- Inc;re,u.' From ,6·' F D,c. or Jan.
X 1,/.8S or I 17 -15% IMlI~.} +0.710 par 1000 R + 7% pet IOF - 1% per 10 F +7% -_

Bold f-oce Volu61 - Monthly Mo.imum5

1-50

PART I~. LOAD ESTIM.\TJNG

Hear Gain to pate

:;:: (.4 X .!i~ R) +.43 R = .G3~ R, or .!i.J. R

Fie. 15 - RI::A('T10N ON SOLAR H£i\T (R) .52% HEAT .-\USORS1N" , GLl"S • 30° ANGLE Of' I: CIDE 'et:

All GLASS TYPES - WITH AND WITHOUT SHADI~G DEVICES

Glass. other titan ordinm")' gfa.!s, absorbs more solar heal because it

1. May be thicker, or

2. May be specially treated to absorb olar heal (heat absorbing glass).

These special glass types reduce the transmitted solar heat but increase the amount of absorbed solar heat flowing into the space. Normally they reflect lightly less than ordinary gla because pan of the relic tion takes pia e on the inside surface, A portion of heat rell (led (rom the inside surface is absorbed in passing back through 'the glass. The overall effect, however, is to reduce the solar heat gain to the conditioned space as shown in Fig. 15. (Refer to Item 8, page 5 J, rOI" ab orptivity, rellect1vily ami transmissibility of common types or glass at 30'" angle of incidence.)

The olar heat gain factor through 52% heat absorbing glass as compared to ordinary glass i.s .64R/,88R = .;28 or .73. This multiplier (.73) is used with Table 1;; to determine the solar beat gain thru 52% heat absorbing glass. Multipliers for various t pes of glass are listed in Table 16.

The effectiveness of a shading device depends on its ability to keep solar heat from the conditioued space. All shading devices reflect and absorb a major portion of rhesolar gain, leaving a small portion to he transmitted. The outdoor shading devices are much more effective than the inside devices because all of the reflected solar heat is kept out and the absorbed heat is dissipated to the outdoor air. 'Imide devices necessarily dissipate their absorbed heal within the conditioned space and

Heal Ga.in to Spa e

:;:: (.40 x .15 R) + (.37 x ,77 R) + (.12 x .77 R)

+ (.08 x .&1 x .77 R) + (.40 x .15 x .51 x .77 R) = .4!f2 R or .49 R

FIG. 16 -l9;ACTION ON SoLAR HEAT (R), 'l~-lNCH PL.ATE GLASS, WHITE VENETLAN BLIND, 300 ANCLE OF ] NClDENCE

must also rellect the solar heat back through the glass (Fig. 16) wherein some of it is absorbed. (Refer LO Item 8, pllge - J, (or absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissibility of common shading devices at 300 angle of incidence.)

The solar heat gain rhru glass with an inside shading device' may be expressed as follows:

.. R

Q = [.4<1p; + Ip; (a", + 104 + "&~od + .4a.rad)] .88

where;

Q:= solar heal gain 10 space. Btu I (I1r)(sq 'ft)

R = total solar intensity. BtuI(hr)(sq ttl. ([rom Table U) a = solar ahsorptivity

t = solar trarumlS$ibility r= solar n:flecrivity

g = glass

~d == shading devi~

.88 == conversion factor from .fif!,. 12

For drapes the'above [ormula changes as follows, caused by the hot air space between glaSli and drapes:

. '1 R

Q:: [.24a, + l. (.85.11&<1 + tid + fir .... t .2fa,rr..:l) .811

The transmission factor U for g.lass with 100% drape is 0.80 Btu/(hr) (sq Et) (F).

The solar heat gain factor thru the -:ombination In F.£g. ] 6 as compared to ordinary glass is .49R/.88R =.557 or .56. (Rder to Table 16 (or IA·inch regular plate glass with a white venetian blind.)

(-51

6. Outdoor ennvus :lwnillg~ OJ ndl. red at ides and

to • (See Tlrbll! J6 tn ~f '.

"1 ~ inee TrIM" 1 is ba ed I'll the 11 t selar he t

WAin thru (rdinary gl • all J ulated ola

.h~allactor sre divided by .88 (Fi.g. 12) .

Th avera nil "pI; ;1-. reRecli'V1t and ansrui sabihr for cnmrncn las . nd shadine

_.t bl vi at a (10 ngl of im:id enee long wi th

ao,tsur To - e 16

Over-aU Fodors for Solar iHem Gain tluLI Glou. hadin&: factors appear to me table below.

With and Witkovt Srio~ '''Devi,es .' _: __ -Ute-Gf.Teble-hs __ .

Th fanors in TnWt= -i6.~. ed on:7-: t r : • -"Ovar.aU Fadotl for Solar' H,eat· Gain thru Glas"

• I - ~

I An cutdooe 1111,,.,. c';:lellicicnt of 2.t:l Btu I ~l'r)':' .Wlth g,nod' Wilhoyt Shodin,g Device.

lsq it) (d g F)lJi;~ph wind v loot,. The fill wr'~'ill _Tillllr '6 are nudtil lied by lhe

2. Ani inside 111m og!ft At 1.8 Btuf(br)(~ U) value in TabJr IS ~ ,tlel'fllli" d) solar neal g- .. in

(deg F). 100-200' £1'- • rhi' is not 1.17 5 nor. ihru dHfen!m mbinOliLIum of gin and shading

dcvj(c'l. he on-t'e j, n i1clOr lisred under TaiJte (5

mally U5 d. ince th r nt pra Ike in well

designed ,5 I IllS is to 'ccp the window wi .It re to be used ilppllir.,bl. ran lUi· ion du 10

• treilJ'U of .. i . tempe mre lim 'n'n Ibt-n.... n Ih inside and ut-

tloo air must . adu ,j 10 thl' iiOm;Sf heat gain to

l. A 30° 3111gl' f in id -'11 C which is rhe angu"

al whilcl1 III st ·-'pGurt.' peak. The: :!10° :loF:le

r in iden 'i5 pproximalcl rhe balaus e point on .. xlucrion solar h 1 cOlllil'l1! through til unosph re and 11.1 decreased t1r,Humis.sib:iJity or glass. Above the ;Joe aflF:IQ th· transmi 'bilit of gla 5 d(-- eas s, !.nd bodo",", t:he 800' angle the NtllJosph re . b orb or If in C:lS mere,

4. A II sha.ding devices fullr drawn, e eCIAL 1'011 'I hades. [xp<' . nre imli _It'S that roller h d art seldom lully draum •. 0 the .;IIClOr~ h w! been sligh t In ased.

5. V neiian blind sial hOl'i,ontaJ at 45° ami shAding screen lars hOrilOntllll ~ 17°.

NOT£: J\ctlilally lhe ! .. ,UCIfJ OJI Ihe 50Lu heal reflected IHI( l.

UII'Quglrl Ihe' Sill", {rum th blinfl i'l ill t IIh;lll. I id 1111 Ulil 10 the fil I p:a..~ as ai uml.'d in (bi) !lmrJ1c:. The tin.t p thftlu-Ii, l!.he gllll lilten ou, mCll(!! of _ I I l!'IIIdiiUo.n ,lttll i., t I ;thmrboc!: iu the glli! s .. and the .econ.d .: pH'> Il.,.orh iil)flllewh.u 1CS5. For implicit • lht' rea i n Ii IJmM ickfi .CI!lsino: !.he 1'!l~IlU

nonnall 'fll~1I og th ond p

.0\ hsor pn\l !I •

. 00 U

--;;;.:.::;~~=:;:.;;;:;:a..,.,....~-- ------1-- h ...'!_fPl' _--I- __ __;.;=---~_~-~=--...:.:;;_..::..t-+_--__,,_,,___-.57

.12

----~i-----+-----------~-----

2

.044 .0;, .M

-----I--__;.cm---+--

"Facton leu' \'llIrdo\1J d"peli'i~-Rn: Ai"c:n for 'l.Ilcb-lII~ ani' Jln~ the: lu".1 dflpery Inlu:r II m;IJl be: different In color and lClI.llIf1c:; BllIm in plr Illlh~ a~C' eu nClC"ll pH.iIql d. and ;!,m count .arplfjlUnlI. 10111 lilt m,mlllntllfm for IIIrtllll .llll~.

flcample 3 - Pg,rlially O,rawn SIUiu:/·e-s

( i~lIalll' III i 111« . III C'1I1l1:;lc 1111: r 'Iiu!! loau in

a bllliiding where lh hlind. iJl't 0(,1 to Ir Ifully rtrawn, Tue tH'(>CCtlmv I~ ilhU(ii'l111:d In the r~]lluwing ell:l'l!ple:

CillC1'l:

\\'('OIt '~XJlO5UR', 40· Nlmn 11 111111111111:

TIl·nll ;p:ltlle wlIld w with hlt'YI drll"o'll.

find.

hal.; lar 'he-.11

U1.

SrI hlll"o:

n In.~pc.·nion of abl;> H, lilt' 1)(I1U::d hl'jldb e values for

polo; solar heat g'dJO. 0( uTTln ":00 p.m. on July 23

~ 1M Bnl/lllr}liOq (1)

mplnd to ordinu :s:lUl.

For·~ .hld'iilifl deYI~ 1m mmhinlclon with omlmllli')' ~.

1-52

I'ART L LOA,OES,,'U .. I,\TIr..'G

1 h("I'~ .... p~;i!C' wiodow~ ha,ve no ,a~IJ; therefore .• ,!~h area t'Orrl;l'lluli - 1/,6& (hullom Trlulo! 15) .

I II I Ii is cX::!I!lPir.. :;..', of [he wi lido.... is wvcr~d with the veIlCrt,lI! h~)lId ,:md 1,4 i .s not; tIJerdOI't!. t ho solar heat g:Jin FOld .. " ('lIl1ulli % {If Ihl! o"cmll rll(IOr F- \1.1 (}r il,(, gl:JSll r~!( "~r.

FUl.iC}!r Cw V, 4hav .... = 'Vi' X '!'I) I· (~ J(, .00) {'raor .. fa} == .• .07

,607 ;:;: !:I'~ J{ ~1:I5

"" 117.2 ntu/~hr)(:.lj fi).

E}(Qlnpla4 - P'eok SO/Of Heal Gain IhfIJSoJeJi "ROO e'ms

(Ji"'l'II:

\VI'S I a'~I""~lIiC'. 411' Nnnh 1;llilude

104" S<.Jlc;( "It" glass ill steel ~:1I1!. double hung Whld,ow

Flnd:

j'elll.. solar helll gab"

.'il.hitiml:

ny insp~('Ihm .,r Tallie t J the ho~ed boldface Y,lillie for pt:illk ,,,,llIr heal, g<lil1. O('c'lIlTii'igat 4:00 p.m, Of! July 2:1

= 11;4 lit II/ (II r) (~ft).

Sl.;t'l '..a'~h 'wj,nduw cone£liun = 1/-115, (boUOQl TQIJ/f! 1'1). ~Io::>; '''R'' sllr" ;i1*Jrb~ :;U.9% of the solar hen trwtnllU'~ ~u TIIMr /61 which 1,IRl:'e:I: rn~ gj<J5S in l:htC ..:IK"!.. 10. :.ri' alL"IJrhinK l,ill.l!;fl.

F'rtm) TtJ"'~ }6, !he faC:lo.r =;:: ~7!.

JABU 16~OVER-ALL '.ACTORS FOR SOLAR flEAT GAIN THaD GlA.SS WITIit ANO WITHOUT SHAPING tlEVlCIS·

.Apply fadors, toTable 15

'Q,uldoor wind ve'loc:ity • .5 mph - Angl,e of im:idence, 30" - Shrading devi~es tuny I!:overing wirndow

'JYP~ OF GLAS'S

li~ht Ml'loiJ;lm Dark

Color Color Color

6LA'SS FACTO II:

NO SHADE

INSIDE VENETIAN II:JNI)· "5~ !wrl":- " r ",,,~I arROLLER SHAOE

""e~il/nI.·" Dllr. I

Color Colo,

QIjTSIO,e A,WHIN6i· ... 1!I..kkt I: lOCi

light M-.d. or

Color Oe.rk

CoIQ«'

ORDINARY GLASS

HEAT ASSORIING GLASStt 40 to ~I!'"I.. Ab[orbifl9

'1'8 to So.%. Abi<:>,Dinq

S I> '0 10"1. "",,'D'O'!:,;," 9

DOUBLE PANE Oft!i'~",yGI,,,~ Regull1r Plel"

-It! to SII% Ab,orbinq cutside ; Q,d"'IBry Gli!I'~ In~lde.,

4B to$bo/. Ab>o"bl'1q o~h;d&: ~",~ul~, 1'1,,1'6 i.~;d".

TRII'LE ...... NE Ori:lil1l:1ry Gl .. u (l.;,q:ulo r ~Ic Ie

PAINiTED GLASS I.;qhl CQlor Med,um C..gJar D".,i Color

ST AI.N,ED C;LASSU Ambor COIQf Dor~ hd

[)"t~ til"B

D~,',k G,,,an G.~l'Iv"d G.o ... Uq~'1 O'pollJ,c'i)nl :DbrlO",,,losGEI,,t

UlO .11.
.H .S6
.. 80 .,.
,1] _".
.H , .'"
;9Q .54
.BO .n
.52 .n
.50 .;16
.83 .....
A:,;':/ .47
2B
.1'1
.SO
.70
.5(,
•. MJ
.;12
.4/'
.'13
.J? !

.ss

.65

.bl .&9

.39

.39

oumes VENETIAN DLltIIl) 4.\i·~""',,~

OUTS-IDE S'HADING $CRfENt

!7.i~L'-

:20

.25

.2+

li9M on

LilJb,~ Ouhld",

Color O(lrk on

Inslda

.75' .15 '.1·) .22 .IS
.1+ .1 ~ .12 .11 .1+
.72 .12 . ill 18 .12
sa .11 .10 .16 .11
.SIi .10 .10 .14 I .10
.117 .1'1· .12 .20 I .1'4;
.&5 .12 .11 .18 .12
.,IIJ .10 .'0 .11 .10
.·n .10 .10 .11 .!O
. ~ .12: • .11 .19 ,12
.57 .J,C .10 .IS ,10 .16 ,20
.15 .18
.1:2 I ,,16 • :18 .1.2 .
"Ib .20
.10 .ra
,10 .12
,II> .'20
.14 ,11 J

. 20 ,. --+-~--+-----~-----+-----t-- •. I ~

. u(! J'. T7II1 1..0". -,""I H u'Z'~,""11

~

APPROXIMATI'ON' Of fACTORS FOR COMBJN .. noxs NOt FOUND IN TA E 16

, a innally eombinatiens p[. ding dni ~es and t)'pe50 or gI may be enroun~,"red t'hl re not 00"" ered in Tllbl". 16. ~ac r tt.n an be' (lproximareri (I) b lII~rIIP; ihe I r he l pin flow diBgrnlll 'il~

1- 3

"';g. I' ,,,,d /h, (2) b appl illg the absorpli"'itv, II' _ Ih."ui,,·il am( Ir.ulsmi ~ihilil of Jl,lau and h,.de<; lisred in ilh~ ble on pag.e jJ, or dt'tt'rmined limn In. nurn("tur~I,.an t (3) hy d, dbuting hUI b nrbt-d dlhin ltu~ de. d . ill" I e anti g]a pane., (f'I~. '7).

Examp' 5 - ApI' Oi.ll;mafiM 010" ..aI' Fodor

li\f"=n:

rIImhlll.' on "in frJ:. 16' cd on ( ~ In- .Ie ",'illl ,n

liltmr pan tlf I~ in h rr,rulJr rille gta.

flnrl:

The n\ , III r- lor •

S(liutirm:

Pipf'" " IhIH.~ dilL' dinnhlll!!"'!tI of sola. 1rI~1 • IOrbed IlI"t !'Tn lIn' 1{1 p"oe ,(~ead air Ifl ot') i "il/lde,1 ·Ir.'·~ • lit! 'l!)% fj"' pcrctivel . h .. "vren lhc IlIl1d filii Row lre he'lI .... nrlw .... Uhin rhe I(tau p~l!Ies i dh 111' I 20''';. in Inti

."";, I;IU' ror 11'1 oulC'f P;Ul", ;md '15'"; In IIIml ~ "nlll "'r tbe' inn ... pam', rh~ di~i.~!lln~ illfle h:lQ'fI on rUV1ni It r Iiln 1I1tC'lt in 1 Ie.; uNlet Fi1f._ U. whirh ,,"",m I hI:' ourd- r 11m li'lr' I( iHi~ 0' 2. Rluj (tar ( hI (deft Fl, the' rul t'. lin ' Qe I! i nt of l.8 (1111' (hr) (.;q fI) (tit!{ • and, h ' \'ft'-all Ibcroul c nrllKl n(~ of he ,.ili PJ of I ''1 'lll

(1lr1 (i\l1 ft) (d 11).

nC'III~IIII"~1 «'(Fil! liJ

~ P'I It .,-, .12 X .77K) + (.'17 .12 171M.)

-I , .. ~ l(.!l7 ,77R) < Of! .ra x 77R)

(.08 .12 •• 77R))

2t'I rC.lilRI 15 ,:"1 77R)J

.". .20'114 R or 27 R.

I:u hAl pin rl 1M mmpared 1(1 1m In~1")I gI' toll = .27kl Mk - ,311

Ww 'Goln W ',~ '$dIaor Date fr_ '110"'. 151 X 1000n foctor fr_ Id'.) SoJa, &a", .Witt! ~ - 15aIaI Dota "._ liGIIL- 15:11 X (0.-..,,11 'ot!t'Or'_ lab J

Solo, Go;"''''' ~ '.tf Dta_ - ($.olor IlI"'"!)1II lGbl 15) '<

IfJr~ I~a_ )( ()ye ... al 'adoii') + II - !l.odloft Q,,_ .. I X (GIG, r~JI

'511 ifill cln:itot, fv:»,. dI,,_ -fOJ reII_, thad tOIle. !hach. . .P'I' _ . t dan by ·':13, ,_d dol'. reoJon by I.G"

f~''- tala ...... .0 ••

Far r..lJy oJrDWII colon b, .n. clOd

~1!1H'GI!I.a $1;1 lhM. J"ly 73 Solo:r M hlpl'.'
Ah"IKI.
30'" .... , .co" 101. 5O"tia:t . Arr. ,,_, O.u·1I;
Id.,.,) Col$r Colo.
6".0."" S, .. JIl. ... J:IO.dIII. H) 2,0' 3.46
6;oop.III, 6:1 ~ 111,111. (11301'.1'11.
6,,u.,.II'I. 6, .. Oo.tII. 1(,,300.111. 20 I"" U06
, HI Pol!!. 4t20p ... :5,30 p.
I JO .... l;U_ .... It.30 0. ..... aI:J UW Ui7
1.:1) p, •• ofJ3CI p..t!I> .4:<30 P.IIII" 0Vbl • CQ a ... """o

-Ir-.'_br '.4.

(.....ow ""ade b_~: •• Metal. Clio O.Ol

ncOi'!Oi'it ftf I oliO .... ",hH;;;in.. M 101,101. 0,057 liriC.hel' wid., 11.5

p , Inch.

1Mt»1 .... at ob_b'-', Q _ one" 1ft ~forI a mo.d - 0 ..

.O~ ID 5 '~"-...o . !PIo1 allp; '. 1IfWIIOO,.. !l6" 19

10~ 110 f61 ...... ~ nbf. pr ... ,~ ab_plb! avol" III' 0' " , __ • __ gln,1t Iyp -

AHOIUB IV MEA' AlSO liNG Gt.UI

r&1d.. !.oror
<!!_ 00' M ..... foct"r .. 'C.1or dial II
o.t.ulp- .-b.o,e.d'
I~" rWo)
',0 •• 11\1.,(; • .,11 56.1l
104 Pal. '1lIu.,G, •• n 69,7
!.i Ugll'it Ilu., 58.4
Y.i Us ,II'!!. 70 ••
Y.. P.al., ,lIv.-(if. " 418.2
!14 1':01. G'.lIl1 50.' uw

I"AR.T L LOAD ESTJMA ING

GLASS BLOCK

Cla"s hlor], dilfers from sheet gIllS ill that thenis ail ~Ippll:,cillille absorptiou 01 solar II 'at and a fairl IQIIg- LillW lag before I he ht,H I iaches the inside (;JllU II j hours). This is pril11;1fdly;tu 'd by rhe thcllII.d storuge cap~Ki.Ly of lh '~'I ~ hlo k. usell, nw lugtl .ns<1qJtion of hc.u inf.r'-'.I'l·~ the ill~'lk ,u'dac > l,e1ti!.lel'a'll1re al the ~lnnJil gl~h!> block whirl! 111.\ I tluirt" lower mom l unp .raurrc I, m: "!Hail! lIlIld'UI { colldidi)lts ,t\~ xpluilH:d in Chap. ,,., 2.

• ~h~u1illg !lf~\,ict's on the o III door ,Iddt· o,f gla~~ blur!.. <tn.' alrnnst as effcC1iv~ ;1!; with :111\1 uthcr kiud of !-;'1a5~ Sillf" I hey keep ihe heat flW:IY 110111 the 11.111 ~. Shadilll{ devirex lin the inskl ar U(~( Ire rive in rcdUl!ll!ol th IIC!H gain because most (If th", lH'al I eflc:t'h'd l~ ;l\}\Orbl'(1 in the gla:s.~ I1I0rk..

Sasis of Tobie 117

~ Solar Heat Gain factors for Glass BIOI!

W1thand 'Without Shading Devices

Til, I,u!wrs in T(rlJ/~ 17 are the ra~ r I tli

I'OnduCH'(~ hy the A,SHAE on S'VI: ,.1 t pe~ of glass hle k.

n) ,,1:;11, .111' la .

tors in Tau I • 17 have been increased to include the 1/.B5 multiplier in T(lbl;: lJ.

Use of Table 17

- Solar Hem Gain Factors for Gla,ss Block.

With and Without Shading Devices

The factors in Tl1M~ 17 are used. to determine tile solar heal gain rhru fill' types of glass blo k,

The transmissl n of heat caused by a diH'eren c between the jmicle : nd outdoor temperatures mu t at be figured. 115i I1g the lI!ppropriate" .. valu • Clwp'ter .S •

Example 6 - Peak Solar Heal Goin, G/as:!: atoek GhreJ'l:

'\'en exposure, "'0'· NO! Lh hllllmll:

GIM. hlrJ('k wI n,1 - w

Find:

fit!al '501'1'" 'I~\ !FIil!

Soluricm:

By in r« 'lin d T:IJblr n. rhe peak: ";1011 he-at gaill on Jill . 2$,

Solar heat WI!n

l '1:00 p.m_ = (.39 X 164) I ~.!?I X 43} == 1S l ~!OO p_ffi. = (.!9 )( It'll} ~ (lU x 98) == II~

Al d'l!'l p,m. = (.39 118) + (.2l )( 144) ;:,.

I'~all ",.Ial hear Ifdin OCClU~ ar 1):00 p.m. on lul~ l!!I,

un

TABLE 17-S0LAR HEAT G'AlN FACTORS.O GLA5S aLOCK

Wlftt .ND WIlHOUT SMII.OING OIVI. pp1y FOcfan 10 TobIe 15

MUln",Y[MQ , ... eTC.' FOR GlASS DlOU
EXP,OSU., I""'anl.".",,,. AI!!,., ~."'I IEX'OSU~I
IN NO"" T ... ft. lui •• IN SOUTH
LATITUDES T~ ... n_lnh,," U\ItITU'D&S
FIiCto, Fad« TIm_ L ...
18!) II,,) H .....
IIh,l'Ih!!!ln! .21 .24 :1.0 South.alf
In. .J9 ,:11 3,0 Ea.t
soulh.cnt .35 .22 3.0 N .. Ii.iilt
1
5,0 .. '1. No""
Su"' ... ·rr ,27 .24 "',0 SUIIIIfI.r t
Wint.r t , ,:)9 .n a.o Win''',
'SDIOIII~ •• 1 .3.5 .22 3.0 NlII'th,w- •• '
Woll . 39 .2 • :)..01 W.~
IN.nlt"" .. , ,21 .24 '),0 S .. lit" •• , fqilufloiijJ,

Solar heat gQin Wilhou' "Od/II9 device • ... (III )( III +- (IBa X 1,,1

SOIGf hill! QCilfi ",Itk ollidoor fIioding d~~lc!u

"'- (81 ,.. II + II" X 10) .2.5

Sol, hl!lut 1101" ... it" i~d" ,*,od,,,,,, d"./uJI

- (III II' 8 .. J( 1111 X .90

tys.e the ,,"'''', J'o~. for on !ot!hld •• , HorftI or Sou"'- U • 1M WI"'er ' .. Cloer ~ """",,.d of .ta_. 30· to SOO Nor!h Dc $ooi1Pl I "Ilwde.

W"erel

II = In""fI'antOllls trc!h~ml.1lGri laao, from r!!bli Ii'. '"", A.b_plionl'Q!llIIIWuion fador from T.,bN 17.

ii = Solar heo. gol" ... olue from r",hIe 1.5 kUf lhe d.nlred tI",. and ..... 11 fa(11I9.

I., ... Solar hnt aaln 'Ii"!II. frOlll , .. ble!' r,5 for :I hOun .orll. "'0" II and 'to"" w,,11 'aclna_

SHADING FROM REVEALS, OVERHANGS. fiNS AND AD:JACENT Bur IDfNGS

AU windows are shad d 10 It greater or cr

dcgr . by the projKtio - , d t iL and! by wid· in around it. This h. ding redu·(;$ t11 1 f

h~at Gillin lhrnu;gh Ut ""'in.do\',! 'b ping dt

air l ray 101' the un o~ pan 0 all 01 the wjn,dow. The 'haded portion has only the diffuse ornpon ni 51Tiking it. Shadine of windows is significant ~n mcnumental 'ypc buildir)~ whe~(! th~ li'e\eal may be larg • even ar th time f pea lu heat gain. Clml'~ L, ihi ha:ruT, is pl'esenledlo , implify du: determin Iii n of the 5ba,dirlg 01 window. by tht'5e projection .

!mil of Cha rt 1

- Shading from Reveals, Ov "hang" Fins and

Adjocflnt Building. -

he locauon of tI e lit" is d tined. br the sol uimtl h ,a:ng,1 and the lar attimd,e angle as ~hown in rig. 18. be solar au uLh angle is 'the an I~ in hotho'ota.l plane belwe n North and] tile 'It' 'I"liral plan p3 iflg thro'Ugh til sun and the poim on urlh, . he olar :Jlimd· ansl- i th - angle in ill verti III plane b tween the sun and a hortz mall

pIal it through a pein . n nh. he I lion oC I h

un with re peet. I the P rtleular wall facing Isdelined 1 the waH soLIif .nlmlllb angle nd thol ahlull!e angle, Th \i II Iar , imuth angle i the

ogl i,n me bon10nul pi ae tween he r. n.

dirubr to the wall nd he. vertical plane pllssinc througb the sun and I.he peiru on earth.

Tit had,ing of a windQ\o.' by a: verti I pro] 'lioll t1!ongll;d the window (.. fig. 19) is he tangent 0 - she w U sotaraziKJuth . ngle (). times d pmh aI lh :p jecnen. Th shading oj d window b , hon-

lonro.1 proj (ion it v 0 th in ow I dt.e dOg

f angl (X), a t ull nt f the combined >if·

the alli'lude angle (A) ,and th 'WaH ~ lar azimuth an. ,Ie (D), limes the dCp'lb of m projection.

~I-" X Tan.A". sola.,r il.hil!lld <Jingle

ill'! , = '1-

- - Cos l3. "fa II . hI. aslmuih aug e

h upper part r C'hlWi 1 d termines he tannl f In 'w ]I 501 r ZillluLh IIln 1 and he b u I'm part determines tan

U .' 'of Chan 1

- Shadll!l;g from Reyeol~. Overhangs" Fins and Ad.lo-c Ill' Bulldingl

he procedure to d terrnine the lOp and !lid!! h din,g 'fran! ChfJ!rl Ii,.

I. Desermine the olar iUim!Jdl and Itil d ' an- 81 from TaMI! JB.

1-55

IC. ]9 - Si'ADJN BY \IV;. PH.O].. ,0,

2. Lo ale [he olar azimuth all' I on the Sail 111

upper part of Clum I.

!t. Pro eed horizontaHy to ure exposure desired.

4. D oOi'J \Jerri 0 It to "ltil.dilllg rom Side" scale.

5. Ml!Jltilply the d p:tl'li r the projection (p[ 111 View) by the" hadin r r m ide,"

aile the' '01 altitud an j on the seal ill low r pan or CiI(JI'l .I.

7.'" hori1QnlaJly until the "0 hading Irem

ide' v iu (45 dego Iine ) del rrnin d i~ Step .; i iruerse led.

8. ' rp vert I aUy lo " IHlding rrom Top" f.Tom Imersecrlon.

91• fulliply Ilhe d PUl [n.:h I, r jecrion ( 1 vati n i .) by the "Shading b' _ m Top,"

r

o,.e,

-siJN'S ~ ,RAYs

I.

j a·5'

-:--~ J

---- ,1.,1"~· '

_~~~ i

-~- IB'

_L I

ElLI1IG.

SUN"S IU,YS <, ,-"

-, " "'

'- '- "-

.... '"

r

.....
l'
<,
" .....
, ......_ "-
... -.....
'- -.....
'- '-....
~"'::"
.::» ",Il,
IlLDG.
II I
7!1'-
I
I 100'

FIG. 2(} ~ ,"iH:\nING OF UtllUHNC PoY ;'\I)TA.,(:n .. r ~h III ,111 Nf;

EJlomp/e 7 - ShCld;'~9 of BlJilding by AdjacenfBlJiTding (:i\,('II;

n.uilrlin~ loc<lte(1 n~ ."hown In Fig, ZO,

Fim!;

S!tllllhl.!1 at 'I p,rn., :tilly :il3. or bllilllinQ: LO he air cumlitioned,

Sol urlon:

It is I'tJCOlnm{.g,lcrl rhar the huildilll\' plans and elevations he' ;;!>etched (0 .nile .... i,11:! ::JppnJ'KIIIIIHf' IOf,II10n or the ~\lI1, to 'cnalill.l I\U!' rl1lgine~r Invis'I!l'il(~ the 511;ltI'i[j~ COI1<liI1l!1i;, f-'WI'Il Tuu!» fit, snlar aztrunut ~ng\~=!r;7"

~ol:[,1 r 1l1tlllldc' sngl~ = :\:;.

From Cl!m'! J, ~lli!ding rr .... m "i~\>e "".1 h/h ~h~d i ng from top :: -7 ft i £t

PART l. LOAD ESTfMATmG

,

SUM'S RAYS

,,(

/ ./ / '

.t/

PLAN

FII:'. 21 - SHADING OF REVEA,l. AND OVERHANG

Ltogt.h or bulld ins: in slHule, L

=- 85 - 15 - (.1 X 75) ;=- 62.!i ft

n~igh'l of building in ~hade. 111 = 100 - (75)( -7} -= 47.5 ft The air condirionec Imildil'lg b shaded fO" helghl of ,4'.5 ~I and (j2.!l (I along the face at ·40:00 p.m, con July 2.'t

f,,;omph} 8 - Shoding of Window by Reveo", Ch'cn:

A sled GIsement window nn tht" W~l .dde with "In 8'1(1,(0 rr'"l,~,t

Find:

ShadIng by tl)c reveal M2 p.m, nn jnly l!3. ~O· Norlll IAll.llu.le.

whIlH.m:

From Tn.M r IS, cwbr ;ulmilil,tbc~.ngtl! = 242" solar ai'l,itudc au~le = 57"

From CIi;ui J, ~hadingfmm~ide:lI:vc",'1:::: .6:x8= ·"!lill. sh::utinlt from top rel'eaJ= 1.9 x a = 14,4 In.

harnple 9' ~ SnQdinlg 0' Wmdow by Overhang'

tJnd .Revoo·' _

Oiv!:n.

The !!03 me window as in EX(Jm(llf1 8 ... il.h a 2 fi overhang 6 Inches above the wIndow.

find'

Shading hy relic a 1 and overhang OIl 2 p,m..lif! july 2!J, 10· North Latlterde,

Suluti{m:

Refer to .Fig. 21,

Shading from side reveal (same ;\5' Examplr. 8) = <1.8 in,

Sh;lrllfl'g fmPlQvl:rhang =- 1.11 X (24 -I' 8) = 57.6 in.

Sin~~ the Qverh:lIlg is Iii inches above tile window, I,he porticn of window shaded ~ 57.6 - !!t,O = iil.u· in.

CHAPTER oIi. SOLA&. HEAT GA(N THRU GLA

1-57

CHART 1 - SHA.DING PROM REVEALS, O"ERHANGS. [FINS AND ADJACENT IUILblNGS

·°320
60
300
Ii.!
~ 80ZlO
~
Jr:
I- 00260
i
~
N
c(
a: [I to uo
c
....
0
(,i) 14°220

IIOI2CIO
110,
I
10
15
III 20
.../I
I 215
<Ii(
§ '0
l- n
~ 40
....
4 415
IX
C 10
_,
0 Ie
en
10
8a
10
7!5
eo
[
.I .15 .2 .3 " GiYlfn:

We!lt facing, u(lcl easement window with an s-tn "11 hlve.1II and a 2 h ollerhang 6 inehes 1I11OIIe window,

Find~

Shading by ""ycal and. overnAug ,at 2 pm, Jllly 23. ft) .. North Ladtude.

SoluliQn:

From Table 111,

,.\umLlm ,aogle = 2'IJ2· A1Uuu:le a_n,glc = 57 '.' Flrom Chm .1,

'1. Enter .. t solar a.zimlllh angle (~'{2·) to We!!! (W) exposure shading from ~idc = 0.5 inch; inch.

! .. Enb!it at. .,Iar altitude lUl le (57'°) 10 !Iud· ing &om 'liM (0.6 inm/ilu:h). Sb..:uiillll lrom !Dp == LIt inch/Inch.

3. Shading br reveal::::: 0.6 X fI = 4.8 illl.

4. Slulding hy ""crOang::::.! .8(24 +8)~6=5l.(j in,

.1 .& ,:r.e, I • .e 2 ~ ..

SHADING FROM TOP (INCH/INCH)

PART I. LOAD ESTIMATING

TAIU ,_ -SOLAR MTiTUDI #fND AZIMIIIIH ANGUS

NOtTH· SuN J.II,21 h ,20 ,M~,_n .A ,211 ... ~ :tl J .. """ 21 J.I 1,21 "11,,24 s. 1.22 Oal.ll "Qv.21 o.c:. 2:1: S,IIN
LATITUDE tiME All '!iii. ,AM' ~ " ,tI.-" .I'll! Nt Iq I Alt N- AI! A2I IAIt "- Alt, Al I A,lt ' A~ l_!o.I! _M_ ~ AI!: All AI "MII
, ,
''''11.4 , , .. AM
:r !,1 !II 15 !O2 15 911 ilfi, , 'I 14 11>'1 , It 66, ,+ 69 15 1& 15 111.1, ~ 5 ~cn 14 I1II 11<4, 11'4 I 7
I 28 'III] 30 103 lO 89 30 '1; 1!! 67 21 63 2:e 67 )0' n 30 6~ 30 100 i111 nJ, 27 111 •
, ,4:1: ! 17 ~ !QI, -15 " +<4 ". 1+2 III ~I 5~ , >42 63 oM 14 +5 8'f +4 1011 4Z 117 41 122 9
10 S+ ,lUI ~ 112 60 &9 SeJ ~I 504 ,~ 53 '1.9' 54 51 511 1\8 60 89 56 HZ 54 176, ,Sl, III IiO
, U &5 11+4 111 i:n 15 II 7i '5 :!b 1>2 12 65 ]6 71 SJ 15 99 71 IV 6$ I+' 1>2 1~8 III'
"11 UN 70 lilt! 19' 180 '10 0 79 (I 110 0 61 0 10 0 l' 0 ''I'() 0 1~ ISO 70 180, ta 180 ,iI2N
0,· WPM 65 216' 1! Ill} 76 :211, 71 lOl t.S 12:4 6<2 nil 6-5 31'1 11 307 1S 272 11 233 , 65 21ti "2 212 flry
2l 54 2M 51 '2·~1 , 6(1 m it 191 54 306 , $) III 54 ):06 ~ 29;2 60 211 58 2''18 ~ 2lf. 53 , i'~11 I
, i :IS,
J 42 U;], K l:S4 45 111 ~I 42 Hi 11 ! lQcZ 42 l'i/l , ..... 281> .S :m <114 ~, ~1 l~) 11 238 J
~ UI 2<J7' 3d ,151 10 271 JCI Zll 2B 29) 21 '291 28 19)' ]0 211 ' 10 l11 :~ lS'1 , 28 247 ' 21 24]1 '*
I 14 24'9 15 151 IS 210 IS 212 14 291 14 29~' ~"' illl 15 1,2'2 II'. 21(1 2Si9 14 249 ;1114 2% I
• , , "
6"'1>iI I 9D 2 PI 1: 10 " 67 I 1 10 j 18 t "iiO 'AM
., 10 113 1:2 10] 15 92 U!. 81 17 72 is 68 P 12 II! III 1'5 112 ' 12 'IO'~ 10 11'1 9 116 J
• 24 111 2? IQi ,K! 'is 31 III 32 n ~l ~ 32 12 1 i B3 So 95 27 i08 2'1' 111 ,1'3 1111 •
.' 37 112. 4! liS <4!4 99' .,. ~ ." n ~ 67 >+6 12 4/.1 IJ:4 44 99 41 IllS in 124 35 1%1 ,
10 ~ 136 s.4 125 5'9 I eM. Iii 64 &0 61 $8 iii bO b7 ,bl S~ S9 11)6 S4 125 481 I3l; <16 U9 10
II 57 I$S ~ I~ 72 122 751 B~ n 5J to ~ 71 ~3 15 , 94 72 122 M , 1++ 57 155 1i1 1156 II
LAT ,12 ,N bO 18Q 6, 180 80 IS!:! III : 0 SO 0 1'1 0, eo 0 89 ii SO 180 Ii9 1011 lbO' l,gO 5? 180 12N
10' 'I"!!,W 51 20:5 6" lU. 72 ,m 75 276 1J 101 'lO 316, rs )01 i5 ,'216 72 238 M :Ui> ' 57 105 5) 20'1 I PM
:I: .fa 224 S+ US S9, 25of, cl>1 216 60 2'1'3 5:11 2;99 Illj 2'ill 61 2~" S'I' 254' Sf us 'f.8i 22+ 46 22'1 :z
1 ", 236 41 2+5 +-!: 211'1 ,.Ii 276 1\1" 288 4S 293 ~ 281 +6 216 4~ 2$1 "I 2,*5 )J' :llt. lG ' 2:32 J
4, :2-1 14'J 2'l' 2§:2 30. 11!5 )·1 27' 12 28. 32 192 1Z lie ~I ·tn lil 2t.S 27 252 11-4"2+) 121 219 •
I, II!) 1,47 12 157 15 2111 1'6 U9 11 1~1l 18 :1'92 11 laa I~ ]79 IS ltiB 12 25'7 ,IQI l'" ,9 2," , I
I, I 21Q \1 128~ 1. m " 2:93 ] 2'ilO il 282 I 12.10 ! ,
I,.Q,t, " ~ I 7~ t 71 e 61 ] 71 .; 79 , I, Uhf
, -
, 6 ·114 10 106 I" 15" la M 20 75 21 1l '20 75 III i!;4 11 9fi ' 10 106 6, : IIi S 1111 '1
I 19 111 .. 'l3: 112 :II 10:1 n i 119 14 7" )S 1S " Ji: " J2 f9 z. !Ol IJ ! 12 19 121 11' 124 I
, lO 130 36 12'1 42 fiI)' ,46 94; i. n 48 11 <18 12 46 94 42 1011 ltI III )D 130 2.1 1111 •
101 ,40 14:1 4'1 Ill' '5 IZO:: 5:' ro.l 67 '5 ~ n 62 115: ~9 un 55 I~ 41 Ill, .jO 1"2: lIi 145 ID
U ,H 1st 55 I~:a. " 1+3 12 111 1~ R 76 n 1~ , a8 i n 111" I!h :ron {; I 15:1: I'll I:~ M 'If.) II
LAT I'IN ISO 180 59 180 70. 110 ,II 110 to CI B~ , 0.' 90:1 (I Ii iao III !olIO 180' 50 180 *,7 '1'80 Int
:to" I f!\A "1 202 ss 208 t.6 111 1il 'l:4l 7~ l1Z 7~ 296, VSl272 12 ;:.0 66 217 '55 lOll 4.7 202 <i4 191 IPN
! "D .2111 41 221 50 240 59 HE, 62 275 61 2113 t.~, l'liS 59 250 55 240 1,1 227 40, 21, U ilS Z
J ]0 2]0 36 239 ~z 252 4" 266 "" t?~ ~8 283 4:8 i!18 ~ ?t.6 42 lSZ l~ 2'39 )0 :no 281 227 3
.. 19 239 2] 'l~B 2B 25' l~ 271 )..!. 28,1 as 285 34 2,111 l,i: m 28 2S9 2l 248 I'~ 2.39 '17 23& ..
I 6 '2% ID :I:~ I' 265 10 ~76 W 'us 2! 28B, 20 2i1!i is 276 14, 265 1'0 ?S4 b 2.% ,5 1I-t] .'
" 1-, ZSI , . :ZS9 B 2"1'2 7 21'!_ 1 201 "
'''ItA r. 80 10 7Z II' 10'1 10 72 ,,, &0 I 'AU
1 ! 2 I iii. r 107 11 91 19 B-1 :13I 7'1 2'4 7~ 23 19 I'll i 87 !3 n 1 1(17 i us 1
I, 14 124 19 lib 26 106 ,)11 9S: l5 U H n 3S 16 31 qs ! 26, 106 I' w- i4 1'24 ii lif> I,
t 'I" 1M 3(1 121 3B ~ 116 ~ 1,G4 41 , 'Ii] oj", 88 14' , on +t 104 lB 1'1,11 ]0 111 I i4 Il .. 21 I,n 'I
10 J:l 1,46 411 1<11 49 I]e' 5~ II~ 01 , Ii]'] 62 " 96< 6,1 un 56 111 , IlO .0 I", I liZ 1146 19 ,149 'Ig,
II 3.8' 1111U: t& 1M SJ lSI 67 140 " r22 75 lui 7J In 61 140 51 .151 '16 IS9 ~, 162 lS: 1M II
!.AT 11iN 40 1180 <fIl 1.110 i6() 1M 71 18'0 ' 10 , lao ,.]. 180 10 110111 110 GO !!to 41.1 1:80 , '10 180 31 180 , liN
,
10,' IN 11. 198, % 101 ! 57 209' ~:r 22:0 Tl 2]& 'S 241 11 23' 67 l2(! 57 209 ,..- 21111 31 19t 35 196. I PIlI'
! U '.1:1,4 i 40 'iI9' 49 2JO ,56 1U 61 251 r.2 764 6' tsi ",,~l ~ uo to i;19 12 21~ '29 12i I z
I J 2.+' m JII Zl~ ].I 2 ... .... ' , 'Z~ .... 267 +'I 1m I ~. 261 ' .. 2,5f, )B i .... 3.0 '2]3, :21 'Z2&iU 224 J
'4 14- nil I'll : 244 i 16 ~ 311 US ):5, 21, 31 211' II 35 214 11 liS 26 154 ' " 2M 14 '2.1111 ,II 21+ "
Iii :z 1045 ? 153 n ;)6) , 19 213 1) ,2i1 2:<1 lB+ 1) 281 n ;l1l I) , J6l I ., 253 , Z 2451 I
, , 6 280 10 2s1 n 'z9. ICI 21t!! ,6 ' :!8CI :1 "
il 6,AIioI I 7 HI Il 74 Hi I 12 13 14 1 ,II I; I .... w
'l' 5 110 .2 I : ",' 19 'i'! 24 8l . ;!b '80 ',U 83 19 91 12 " 50 110 I 7
,
I Ii i2,5 15 Ilq J'J j 10 10 101 35 91 3·J " a5 'IJ 30 1,02 :n 110 1$ ! 19 8 125 S 127 I
'9 17" 116 24 Ut n 122. 4. II) 47 ,104 ' "., 100 '11 11M 41 I il JJ 1'22 2. III 11 136 14 138 ,
10 24 r<4'l1 ]2 1-4'!i 42 138 SI 12'9 57 119 !.G 1114 5:1 lie 51 1~9 42 !Jii n HS 2+ 149 21 i51 1'0
II Z8 1M J7 162 <18 151 59 , 151 66 143 t.9 us 110 143 $& 151 Jg IU n Iii:! 78 itA, 25, , iioS II
LAT I:iI:Ni 3D' 1'80 39: 1,10 sa IRQ , iii 180 1O lao n ~ '180 70 i,ail ,j iee 180 39 ISO lO '180 :l1' leG 1'2N
4Il~ I "",' 28 1<16 37 196 48 203 58 ~ &6 ,21)' ~Il 12.1'2 M 217 sa 2!li1J ,4S Wl J7 196 l' I'" 25 , 1'95 I'~
'I~ 24, 211 32 215 42 2'.12 51 231 57 'i:4l I>!I 121-6 51 2>f1 51 sn ,.~ 212 12 zrs z+ 2,11 21 lO'I Z
31 17 n~ 2if 129 n ;m, .1 24,7 47 256 49 ZWI -41 1256- ~I 2'1-1 ' 13 HiS 2'; ji~ il' .:n-+ 1>4. 222 ,
.t I U!; 15 2-41 2'J 250 lQI 2&8 }~S ~r.1 3,,, ·tll 3'5 ,267 30 258 :u 250 IS 241 e "illS, 5, ':ill] •
• 5 '250 12 2:111 119 26!1i . 24 i:U'l 26 28) 2~ I 2" 19 26i? 12 ·261 5 260 I
['I , 11- 21 !' 1 'M! 1.1i ~ - :.' , ., Jill T~
ro 10J n 2S all 116 2.5 RII, II, 'H 10 101 , :r • 3 ·11'
,
S 10 In 19' 114 21 10. 14 100 11 9J lo!l 100 28 106 19 II" 10 nr 1 us , , , 10 I
~ 11 I~;j, , 21 121 ]:1 120 oM "I'" 16 110 '" : "", II 120 2' m 17 1)4 ID III 0 1)9 , 101 15 , I
1111 ,
~. 23 1411 14 I~'J 44 IU 52 55 121 51 Illl '" In· 34 I<IIJ 2l 148 15, ;t511 12 lSi III II 19 I
27 16<1, ,]9 II!O ,,~ IS7 58 152 ,61 151 58 152 49 1'57 39 I:~ I~ I,M -19' I~ :15 I~ 11 LA1 11104 ZOe ,
~ 29 110 40 1110 ' 51 1·110 6Q I 'lID ,,1'>3 lID l,O tOO §·i 11111 4Q 1.110 2Ii 1110 17 IN IZIH 10' 1"-1 ,I' II
5 n 1'96;, 39 100 ~9 200 58 ,2:09 61 209 58 ZG8 ,49 tDl 39 200 n 19r. !9' 19.5 15 i9. II'rMl I 1'5 2l
~ 2:1 212 34 ,:1'11 +4 22l 5,2 229 55 212 52 '729 44 "il2l Yl '111 2:3 '212, rs W9 12 208 Z :I IQ ~
II, 11 ::26 27 In 117 Z40 ++ 246 *" 250 ~ '2'<t:6 J'l 2<!1O 27 :m 17 226 10 2~1 6 221 ~ 4 a
5 10 :H~ 19 246 28 t5.4 H 260 ~'1 '261 34 2b1l' as 2~ 19 ~·46 10 2), 3 2'35 " I
10 259 III 2M 25 212 U '275 25 :m ~8 ~6b 10 25' I ,
q m 15 :263 III 28t. 15 lU , :i11 , SO""""" 1m
~ug.24 ~,..n IOd,:29 N ..... 2:1 0..22 J.,II. 21 ,.11, .211 11ot'1'. U 11!.4_ .. 21 "'_,21 SUN LATITU.DI TI J~2J
Apr. 20 II ...
, ·v,. mo"jf,1 lroo;l"=.tld tit t
r fOr N 1;Irti. t..tll~d'.u 'IJld: ~M me<llhi .t ,bolf<>m' for So.*h ~.f·,t~~~. 1

CHAPTER, 5. HEA,T AND WATER VAPQ,R FLOW

THRU 'R-_ RES

hi clr pter pr nu, til meLhnd and dou £0 dcte:nninin,g thI: seruibl ud hnt.nl heal gain,' thrullte' oUldDor lurUCIUrt:5, r a buUdin e thru a

moure iUflIOUndu'I Ii ee "ril:h.in lMobuil in

It Iso pre5en[S d ta. (Qr d mining and pr Vtnu 8 'tel' ".po eenden lion enih enclosure urla e or within the snueture materials.

He 't Hows from one po'iInt to anoth r whemlve

lempenturedi.fIeRne _tween, W'I.WO tpOmu;

th 'dir lion of flow i tow n1JJ the ]OWft t

tel' b III on paim (0

whe:never in va p:r ure

bet'Ween, tht: tWO po.inu: the dil'ccliol1 of 8.0""' II -oward, the poim of low liporpressure, he rule t

"'ruh the heat or wale vaPOI' will Row varlll wid} the l'eIillttllnc:e so How between the two _po,.iinta ill'll the fiulerial If w,e ~empe ore and "lapo prc:ssure' 0'

th- ,~po d to ilio

t my int, eend

H AT f,LOW 1l1RU BUILDIING STRUCTURES

H I':(d gain ~ h,·u I~ht! exIt" i6:r C'on.rh'uclion (waUs and root) is normt.l,U~ cai,culattld a~ the lime of grt:Q~t I h~a:' (low. It is' I.iI d by ~~Ia, he' t bein

;Ii rbed at IlK ted _ QrE« and b Ihe tem-

~ _1l.!.J'i di -:ucncc belW nt-· outdoor -d i d air. eth :hral 5CJW'c are bi h') \II i ble an '-M da- and, lhtr- OTe. we he (flo th'l'"U the ex len r mnsuu tion. Thi.s In'tr.ady late flow is difficult to evaluate ILoT each lindividll,alllituati.on: however, h an be handled best by means of an equivalent Wmperamre diffc.r~l1~e

the tnu:n.lTe.

The equj 'em tempe nee &5, that LC'ffI'

pen ure differeD e . hi utI!. illl W~ total ht

flo ' brw we tru tur ta b the I

lar radiation and eutd t mpcratuR.'h ui·

lern l' mperaluTe dill r nee S$ the tru ,Lur

must take lnte account ,til different types of eonstru tion and exposures, dme of' day. L adon of lh buOdrn (blilltude). and d i -1111 C odjlioru.. Tbe b at . ow Ibm the strollUII' • D1a I then be alro] ,tedl, uiin

lbr t6d: ta~ 11 t dow u- fol!'! wi' h - ~U'h"

lenr tem

IJ = U '6t. h c q :: h I Row, tul r

IJ = tra 115m' ion IIi . nco Btu(fu)(sq IL~(d :F ~emp di&) If = rol Ilf.fa .' h.

af~ = equlv temp di8'

Hen. los» thru all! t!1C terior onstructian (walls and 'f'0,,/) u narmall., ('.aleutll'''! al lhc lillle 01 ifJ't!Qtt r 1rt!IU (low, is occurs lea I in lit rn rnillg alter a (to u of i" IOWOUI r u:11lperllura. Thil Jlpp _ 1I~ slu,dy ,ta~ heat 0 ndilOns. and IrOr all pn l~o.lp1:1rpo'5el u: be I umed s such ..

HttJI ~OfU Ihm the ,rnte-r;lor r01l3truc-ljon (fioors. ceilings and plIr,ition;s) iI caused by Q diOertmce in ttrnl!er!:UtJ.rt of the air' on both! side of Hu: Jirudure.

Thi~, , m rure differc-n i ntiaJly C0nnant

dIJI I d _ "d. thut-lor .. me l flo . can be

ined (rom l __ -:. _ - d- te beat flow equatio-n.

Ih~ cu I. teifipu.lw _ II eilbl"f ide.

EQUIVAleNT TEMPERATURIE DiIFFE:R,ENCE ~ SUNLIT AND SHADED WALLS AIND ROOfS

n rell'rifl h .. llhru a waJJ under

late nditi n m.a)' be isu-

il 12·jn bri ,~]I dieM into

)12 in h ~ u n mt .h f ttr- penuUT6 i

earh ,tit'1r ar~ II equoJ al the b ginning. dOd that Ute indoor arlft ollldoo rempe,ar'ur~, ,.~ma,n c~ru'an;.

Whn the sun shines on lhJ w.an. most of thuQ,lar heat is absorbed in Lhe first &.1ice, Fig. 22. This r.ai!!Cs the le.mpell',a~\IIre of !.he firs I lice a.bovema,io[ the outd r irnd tII'It second .life, ,cawing heat 0 ftG 10 dle ouuli If' air and .. 1 to the second - .«. Fi .21, The amoun 01 h A"owing in ~I.her dirt • tion d penth n we resiJ Wl . (0 11 [flow within th waJJ nd thr:u lhe ,outdoor 'r film. The heat Bow into til se-ond' Uc-.e. ill [urn, r i illl! ternperatuse, causing heat to now :into the tMrd sLice. lUg. 24. Th~s proceu of absorbing beat nd paning some an to the nat dice: eolnlnu Ibm me willi to f.he'liill or 12th slice where LIme :v-em inin he ,t is ua:rufernd to. the imide. by' con ection and 'radiaLian. For mil, pani. Ja waU. it l es appro Unate],. 'I boun for

1-80

PART J. OAD ES'"fIMA'T'NG

'II.:.,L tL
~~
~~ ~ .
, .
I
~
~Ii) ~ .... , !i)~ 911
/I'IA - fIG. 2.2 - So .. H. . T AasollBtED IN' YIIl5T SUCE

,,,J\
I
I
I
,
~
If\! 'fOol
G'
::;1
l- ID
I_.i. ft,

FIr.. 23 -BEHAvmll OF AIiISORIn:O SoLAk HEltT

nURINC E ND Tl,p,r£ INTEltVAL

,.
v
,
l~
81'11 i~ j
GlI'D I '(II I@I ~I!J
Vv FIG. 24 - BEHAVEOR OF AB50R8 D SO AR H':AT DIl11I.INC THIRD' TIME INTERYAL

solar heat to paSll lhru 'the wall into the roem. Because each slice must absorb seme he. t before passing i.t on, 'the magnitude of he3't released to Inside space would be reduced to about 10% or that absorbed in the slice exposed to, the sun.

These dl'agrnms do !'IO,t .Ii"OUfl~ for pOI&ible changes in SO/liT inf'c·tui,y or oLltdaor Itfflp~Dhml.

,II A
~ II
~
~ F 1
I
~~~ I
"~
~
II'U ~~ ,
(D<ii (1$ I~~ of!
,A tl.ll .. rs

~:~

10. R'

FIC. 25- BElliIAVIOIl OF ABSORBED Se'LAR HEAT DURINe SmoHn Tn" INTEA,VAL PLUS ADDITIONAL SoLAok HEAT ABSORBED DllltlN • THIS INTEllv.u.

IS I'!"-I'"
~
;~ E::
P;;
..
. '
~
~
- il
~uw
- ~ 1
SOl!"'II I II I
I
I 4 I.I!III
vvv .1 Ft,G. 26 -BDtAV'OI. OF A 1lO1J.~1'J) SoLAR. HUT n- IN T lil.D C .ME INTERVAL PLUS AF.lDmOKAL SoLA);. nL\T ABSoRBED DUltINC THIS I.Nn:aVAL

The solar heat absorbed ar each time interval ,by the outdoor surface of the wall thro~ghoul the day gees thru lilts same process. 'i'K,.2'.5 and 26 show IIl.c total sol r heal Bow dui ~.l~ the second u.d third time imervals,

A r~ in outdoor temper3ulre reduces the: amOURl of boo bd heal gomg LO the outdoors and Moce flows d rY the wall.

This same process occurs whh a n.y type of wall <;Qnlllnlctio~ to a greater or I sser degree. depending OQ th~ resistance to heal flaw thru the 'waH ,and' the rh ~nnal capacitY' of the wall.

CHAPTER S. HEAT'AND WATER. VAPOR fLOW THllll STR.llCTURES>

NOTE: The thermal capacity of a wall or tool is lhl:! demiry of the matuial in du! waU 101' roof, ltim~ the sped6c .bat of me material, urnes 'ml: lVolum~.

Tbit progressiOP of heat gain lD the .inferior may O«UJ' over the full 24-bour period. and auf mu11t ,n a heat pin to the space duriqg> the nighL If the equipment is operated I than 24 hours, i.e. either skipping the peak load requlJ'lemc:llr OT U ;Ii rou,tlne procedure. the nigbnUn radiauoDlO the U')' and the lowmng of m.z OUl_ mnpentuft may deetta,,.. the ~mwiao gaid .:wd orten Ria, tna'R it. There(ore. the tie:u pin caim~le (am and tn.mmls$ion mrq the roof a.nd., tdoor 'WaU,). even whh equipmem optt3uDI las rhan 24 houn, mal' be evalu.ated by the UIe of the equivalent temperature da'ta praented in T4b'l~s 19 d 2'0.

8mb of TaW. I' and 20

- Equlwa:lerd '..... ttiifeNnc. for Sunlit and

Shaded W.lb GAd 1R0Dh

Table, 19 and 20 are analogue oompuu:r calculations wing&bmidl'~ method based on the following" conditions:

t Sob!" beat in July at 40~ North taciwde.

2. Outdoor daily range of -bu'lb cempu21lll!eo

20 dq F.

S. Mwmum outdoor temperalUlte of 9,5 F db and design i'Qdoor tempcrat!.lJIC of 80 F db. ie. II design di~~n(IC of 151 dq: F.

.... Dark, color ""allJ and roobwitlll absorptivity of 0.90. Fo light color. bsorpuvity iI 0.50: for medilllm color. 0.'70

S.UR time.

Th lpKific heat 01 most Q)'ostIucUon I.l'.tateriab is appro imately 0.20 Bru/(Ib}(deg F): the tbennal capacity or typical walb or roofs is proportional 110 lhe weigbt per sq It; this pcnnilS easy interpolation .• ,

Use of Tab las 19 ond 2()

- Equ!vaJ.nt TlHY1ip8t'bhlre DifleT~e for Sun'lt and Shaded Walb' and Rook

The equivaltnl temperature differenClleS in T"bles 19 and 20 are multipllied by the u:anunission coeIItcients listed in TabltJl 21 thru JJ to determine the heal gain thru walls and roofs per sq ft of area duro i:ng the &ummer. The total weight per sq f~ of wan, and roofs j~ obtained byadd.in,g the weigb,lI ph' Kl rt of ach componUit of at givc:n structure, These w~ights an mown in ic:alia and puenmeses, in Tal1ks 21 ~h,.u, JJ.

Ellamp/. 1 - Equh,glun' r.mperotur. DiIf.,.nat, Roo' Gi,..~n:

A fbI roof' cxpolCdllllJ the.un, wiltll builHrp toOfinlJ. I", in. lrw.da,dOR.5 in. wood drd aDd Il~ ilwWikal

d~' criIintI. .

Iloom dcslp IEmpmllUre := 80 F d uldooT ~ mlJpu!!lt.W"C = 95 F db Dally fanp = 20 dq F

Find:

Equlvalml l.tlmpcnlure dilfurlltC' lit 4 p.m. July.

Sol doOn:

WI/Iq ftJ = e + 2 + 2 = 12 IlJ/.q ft (Tabl~ 17. page 11J

Equlnkinl l8DpcnJlM ,~

== 43, ,dIq , (Tdlt 2D, inl:ttpOlItcd)

fxampl.;2 - Da;I, Rang. ond o.ligl'l femp.rc:rfuflI Dilf.ne. Cori"tdjQ"

A. d ... the daily nllF may be mote or leN lIum '20 dcg F: the dl~ IxtWftn IOu"door ,and room d5ip ~peralumr

y be mon: ,or .. UiUl as dq f. TM amatkml co be

appl to llx leqWYdmt l pt'B1!L1'lC dilhra!~ lfor combm.·

r Of II.hcR !wo nri:lhla an: I «I in die nota foIlowlnl

Table.. .9 and! '10.

Clven:

The gmF roof u in ElCtUnprll J'

Room ,~tap k'fIlpenture = 78, F db Outdoor ddilft tcmpe1',liiU!lre- 95 f db 1ih.iI, rulF == 26 des F

fiPd:

£qulnkDl I19'DfI'I9'2llln: difleftllCC YlKk'r dlAnp c:unclill lUi

SalDtJon:

tempenntre dWa;en(le = 11 dq:. F

Dall" nnp: "" 26 de('

CoI'ftCliDn 10 fl{ldv.'mt Ilempcn.run: dlll:ct'CII.cc = -1 lIeg F (T{JJbt~ 20A, InIClrpohn~)

Equl¥lhml {CrlJpcralure dllJercntt = d - I "'" 42 rI. f

fllompl.3 - Of,., Mon Iu ,cmd lalflud.JI

1~~lt1 t.be bal pm r.h1'U1 a wa:U a nJQf r.1!.11C be II

tlu ~ IaUt~ otliwt (ban 'lbole liIled n NCJ'~ J [oIllo~ T.blr 2D. Thb eqllJmcPl tempenlun: dl-rena:" dl!tcnniFiC'd from til eqll.lliol'l in Nolr J. Thil eq:UIIltlon I'dJIM" !be equiQleot tcmperature dilfermLl! [or IlOIAt mdilnion Qui),_ ,A.rull'ifln~l reonectlon ilia, MV!'; to IJe nude! roll' diller. room Ix:fW~1'I (IIuldmr Ind indoor (iClign !.C!!Ilpcrau.ns other tlll.an IS dq F . .Rdu 1.0 Tabtl!" J9 lUI" '20, p4gu 52 lind 6J, and 1.0 me wrrenkm Td"" :IDA. CofTM.ions ktr !.hat" diller· l't1Q:I alUS be made: first: Lb ~ the ~ d{UjftleJil l"Cmpcnlurc ~ for both ;1111 and IhaIk mutt be applied m c:ot'lTCtlonl lOY latitude:.

Given';

1'2 ill_ common Ibric:k. wdl fAd... W'Ut. with DO Imerlor fin sh, loc.llcd in New Orleanl, JO. North latitude.

Find:;

Equilil'UIU tmi]lCrnuft dfr~ in Nmemoo llilll~ noo •

coHertion fw dc:rign lernpc.nlun:: ~ • folio •

PART 1. .LOAD ES11MI\TING

f:llompl. 3', con,d

Sumooi;f design dry·hlllh fot New OrleanJ = 95 F db (Table J, fHJgt I J)

Willlll!:r der1gn dry.hullt for New Orleans

= 2(1, F 1111 (Tabr..: J ,~gr: if)

Vearly ~!lP = 75 d~ r

COlTeC.lion In ontdoor lieljgn temperature ror Novemher ~nd a yurl)' Dnge of 75 degF

= -I!iF (Ttl'Il', J. f1iIg~ I')

Olltcl~r Ilaign d'1'·hIl1b ttmpemmn.: in NIlIY,cmbcr at ! run. = 95-15 = 110 F'

Wilh an 80' F dh room do~l:I'. the oll(,dnor In ilidoUf diRcr· Cfl,~ is 60 - SCI = 0 dc:g f

A\ier:lItC dllily !':luge in New Orleans

"" ia d,c:!), l" (,fable J, illJll;:" r I)

The design dilkren<e of (l deg F ami III I' de:g f daily flInge results in .. -11!:i de&- r addition [0 the E''1ninleJ:l't temperalure diHc:rr.:ncc. hy irul:rpolation in Tabte 20A.

Equivalent I('mperawr~ diftercnceiJ f1;lr 12, in. brick w:aU in New Orleal1& ar 12 IiIlJOn in No~ml~,r:

lIl"", for wl:Slwall ;:n sun

-= 7 (7·alltr. J9) - 11.5 "" - 01.5 degF

TAILE 19-iIQillJIVAUNT TEMPERAtURE DlfF,IRENCII (DIG F) FOIt PAil( C;OLOltIl:lt, SUNLIT AND SHADIP WAlLl'

hied on Dork Co'IQrtd WaU'i 9$ F db Outdoo;r Oetla" Temp; Consta1"l1 eo F'db Room TempI 20 deg f OoUyR:clBge; 24-hour Q,pefOtion; Juty and ..00 N. Lot. t

SUN tlMI
WIIOIitT
U'OStlU QP WALLtj AM PM .. JIll
fl.' ... It, " r ,. t II! n 11 1 '2 I !I S • ., .' it 10 n II 1 2 1 .. :J
I
20 .5 15 22 1" 2A I~ .14 1:1 12 n '4 14 1" U ID ,8 ! 6 .. 2 0 -2 -3 -, -2
60 !-I ~2 -2 5 2' 22 20 15 10 11 12 13 116 1:10 12 II 10 I 6 " :2 I 0 -1
N.rth ... ., 100 " 3 .. " ~ 10 16 I~ l4 12 10 11 1:1 12 n II ,0 9 • 1 6< , ! !I
~4CI 5 .!i 6 6 6 Ii 6 , HI 1,,, " ,. Ii HI 10 Hi 10 10 10 10 t , I 7 7
10 I 17 3Q Q 36 3,11 .)2 20 12 131 Il Sol 14 12 10 II .. .. 2 0' -1 -2 -I -3
6O -1 -1 " 21 30 31 iU 19 N ,3 12 13, 1', II 12 H, 10 I S .. 3 I I 0
.... 100 II S 6 • I. 20 2:' U '04 20 III 16 " U 14 I' U H 1O " I '1 1 6
lola II 10 10 Ii' • 9' 10 15 II 19 HI 11 16 ,,4 12 n " 14 14 U !:I, I:!: 12 12
I
- '21
to 10' ,6 13 1!9 26 fl ' 16 2A 19 16 U I. 12 10 • .. • 2 0-1 -I -2 -2
10 1 I G U 20 24 2. 26 2:5 21 II .5 ., ra ',2 11 10: I ,6 ~i " ) 1, :z
I."" .... 100 '1 7 " 6 " II 16, , 17 ilil 1~ I. 16 I' U U. 11 U) 10 ~O , 9- • I 7
,'"' , • • II I 1 " II U 1:5 16 II 16 U 14 13 12 12 12 n 11 10 10 iii
20 -1 -2 -41 T .. ,. '2 27 30 ,z. 26 20 I' n 10 7 6 3 '2 1 I 0 0..-1
60 -I -3 -. -3! -2 7 12 20 2~ 2J 26 23 20 III 12 10, • 6 .. :2 1 1 0 -'I
.... " 100 .t , 'J 2. 2 I 3 A B 12 1$ l6 HI II IS 14 II 'lO- P I' II, ., 6 6 :5
140 '1 6 " , ,. '" .. ., ~ ., ~O ., II U 16 I', 1,iI U 10 10 9' 9' • 7
-.t .. 6 , 211 ,. '0 '1 .2 30 2. Ii II <II :2 I, I 0 -1 -1
to ~2 -A -~ D I'
to ';! I 0 Q (I I :I: • U n 3'2 3J 36 :15 U .20 10 I 7 6, tl A " :I 1
I
Io .. h", .. t 100 ., .!I " J .c 5 6 '1 II 12 I' I" 22 23 2if 23 2:Z 15 10 10 II , B '1
14.0 I II a I' II ., 6 6 II ., 8 '9 10 15 1I 19 2.0 1'3 II III 81, I II •
20 -2 -3 -A -1: D ~ " HI -2'1) 32 4.0 .5 " U 2l. U 8 S 2' 1 QI 0, -I -I
6CI 2 , 0 0 0 2 4 ., 10 ~9 26- 3A «J A, 36 21 16 10 6 :5 .. 3 3 :2
W." 100 ., ., 6 6 6 6 6 7 a TO 12 . I" 20 25 28 2" 26 1, ,. 12 11 10 9 II,
140 12 n. 10 '9 fI 8 • '9 '0 10 10 II 12 1-4 16 21 22 23 Z2 20 18 1'6 HI 13
20 -3 -" -4i -.2 0 :I " 10 12 19 2' 3~ 40 :17 U' 'II 6 4 2 0: -1 -I -2 -2
60 ,'2' -1 -~ -I -2 C :2 " ,II 10 11 :i'Ii :10 31 3>, 21 12 II .~ ,jJ 1 1 0 -I
........ ~OO ,5 if • , .. ,. A, • • 5 l- II n 17 20 21 22 '4 .' '} T " , .5
1'10 g 7 'I 6 6 6 6, t! 6 6 6 7 , I} 10 14 18 19 20 16 13 11 10 t
20 -3 -3 -4 -3 -2 I • • 10 12 ,,, J3 12 10 I 6 ~ :I 0 0 -1 -1 -2 -2
N."" 60 -'3 -3 -" -3 -2 -1 (I :I 6 II 10 II n 12 12 10 II ~, ~ 2 1 III -1 -2
tn..t.) l.DtI 1 I 00 0 0 D ('I I :r :J ,. !l J :s: I 7 6< :51 4J a ::. '2 ']' 1
I<HI I I ,0 III II 0 '0 0 Q ~ 2 S " S to ... II 7' 6' .. :I ~ 2 l.
• ., II , Ill, " It • 2 :. 41 5 , 'I • • 1D n 12 1 ::I 3 4 5
AM PM AM
SUN 1'!MI !qQU'lion-, H.", Gom ft.", Woll., IllloIl". = IM":"'q n) x l!liqg'¥ole"" •. I!!>p d\fll x r"Q ... mlQ~Q"' ~_ffid~r U, Table. 21*'ru 1j) ·",'1 lI"h, •• or. ror both IfiIU[i:ild llnd .n!rowlt:ih.d ';011 ••

tf.o< QIh •• _drliOlU.rd .. ~ hi (Of,.ctjono 0 .. po,," 64.

r'WtllIliI p..- .q M~ ","oWe. ~ __ tr:1"~ at .uinx&l\ OliO 1:I .. ~.d En J"w., II IMi 1:5. hi' ... '11: ~.I.., !hal! 20 Ibl.q -",11M IId.1i .-alum, of 2:0 Ibbq ft.

eM,APTER. 5. HEAT AND Wf\TE'R VAPOR FLOW THRU STRUCTURES

1..a3

ti I 0:, fo(" w~st wall inshade

= I) (T4blt 19) - ll,!; = -I ~.5 deg .'

No com-Cliofl is needed. {QI' tbe lim or da,y; tb,l.¥. is 11(' .,oynteo:;l [or if! Table 19.

The tolTt'cdon far diffen:lIlt $(Ilu intemity i:J

R. . R. R.

"'-'. = Cit.". + R (Af~ - ~J~.) ,~ lr AI .... + (I - R) "'In

.. '~ M

WI/SCI fl. of wall '= 120 Ih/M! ft (Tab~ 21)

.41 ~I = -1l.5 dcg F ,,~ CQ:frected (Tablr:~ 11) and 20.;1) tit"", ;::: -~.5 dcgF a~ eorreceed fTq!1lt.s 19 and ~0t:Ii) R. =: 116Dn.lJhr(TtJbte'lf,~geU)

R .. ~ W+ OUlIfhr{Tdl'Jlc H. p·I1IJI!:-H/

'. lUi

ill I. =-U.!!i +ii4 ('-1.5 - (-U.5)]

= - 6':; d~eg F {No"emhcr. 12 Noon)

TABU 20-I'QUIYAUNT 'EMP,ERAlUR.EDIP'IRENCE ~DEG, ,~ '01 DA •• COLOliDf.511NLIT .,.0 IM,ADID I,Qon"'

Based on 9S fdb Ou,dool' Design Temp; C'Ormant 80 F db 11:00'1'11 Temp,20 deg F Daily Range, 2 ... hour Operation. July and .400 N. Lat. t

IiUN TIM.
WIIOM'
CONDi~ Of ROOf' AM rM AM
RON O./Iilljfl} , , 4; ,
I pi • t. 10 n 11 1 t: 'I- t I , • • II II It: I :I
I. 1-4 -~!-, -5 -q '1' 15 I". n 3' ,41 "" U .1 55 28 " 116, ,,0. '1' ! 1 -I: -3
~.., til I) -1-1 -I 2 , HI 23 lMI H ,~ .. a .3 40 :!liS :l!lD1 U :Hl IS 12 I· , .; .. :3
I'. 40 " ~ JI a • 10 UI 23 Z. 3', III , .al '1 39 liS 32 21 'j!j 2:G 11 U I , ,6\,
.... .. 9' I .. '7 I U 16 22 ii7 " , 315 31i 39 31 :w. 3" ',I 2. 25 22 " ., 1:1 II
• 13 12 11' It 121: II I" n 2. U n " 31 31 '1 " S ... U .32 )G 21 21 :ro, 'II ,.
Cft __ 2D l-oS -l 0 2 .. U) 116 19', ill: l1) t. ~. 14 iii! 110 6 , 2 I , 1-1 -2 -31 -. '-5
.... • 1-1 -1 '-1 -I (I " 10 '13 15 15 '16 , Ui Il '1;1 U 1'0 ''1 :5 ! 1 -1 -2 -:t -3
w_ M 1-1 -I :-'2 -z -2 2 .! '1 10 12 .4 , IS 16 15 I'- 12 Hi a 6 4 3 ~ 1 0
10 1-;1 -':I 0 :II • • 12 15 III 17 16 '1lS I. 12 1'0' 6 11: . T 0 -I -2 -2 -3 -~
.,.,.- 40 1-11: -2 -I -I 0 :2 .5 , 13 I. I U ,. I. U 12 , '1 S 3. 1 0' D -I ·-1
I
60 ".,. -2 -2- -2 -';I 0 :2 S ,8 100 iii' 13 Ie' U n 11 10' I .. "I ,2 I 0 -I'
20 I .5 -, -4 -2 0 2 6 P 1:1 13 11 ~;i! : 111 1(1 II 5 :i! 1 I) -1 -3 -A -5 -5
I ..... _" 40 ~: -5 _'. -1 -2 a :2 5 8 ;0 12 1'3 HI 11 HI Ii 6 " 11 0 -I -3 -4 -5
60 -31-2 -:I -2 -I I) :I A .. , 9 1O '0 ~o , , 6 • , I 0 -1 ~2
I , 7 I • " tu 11' 1,2] J 1 :I oil I I , • , 10 H 12 , 2 • , I
,
AM ,M I AM
IUN 111M. f.C! lIIll_ It ... , GQin n.,. Roof~. ltill/hf '" IJI,llt9. HI 'fj'~ '" f~~""'lI;>rf 'Ie"'!> ,oil"' X 1r"''''';vnIOi1i coo.N'Jd_' u, f,,!oh,. 27, .... 2B" 'WIIIl !>1!Il~ "f:'r>til .. I: .. d ",,;:I C';lmll kI ... fot.cf t,-b,. .,.,do;c" eqori_I .. ", te~"p dBff 2S","

F.r pllak'l>d .-1'" 'u~ the 1'QQof; on" p'~.!lrdOil ii' IiI;ll!'!tCii<il,ci! JO'ue..

11'0< Q1h.1 ,toI'Idllioni. ,ef ... i,o _~ 'ba'iow Oncj·OfI ~"IIJ.~,

r;W.loM per' ''1 fI"'""IoIl. fQf tuI!n_ "'fl" of ~o.I~li"" ",fa Ih'I,,'d m lobi •• 279< 2!,

TAIU 20A -COIRCTIONS TO EQUI'YAL.ENT TEMPERATURES (DEG F)

oumoot
DHIOH
'FOI 1IOIImII, DAILY b._I '}
'" I P". fill.,
MlN1:iIS
OOM lIMP
',"'1') I ~o ' II 14 " I',' 1D 22 fA :16 2. 101 32 M U ,III 401!:
-10 -3~ . -'I I -.tI -A2 -43 - ..... -415 -46 -A,1 -AI -<411 -oW -.51 -:li2 -£I -5:" -55
-to -29' -30 -31 -:12 -33 -3," -3:5 -36 -]7 =i:lB ~3P -41) -o4'r -"2 -,Q ~U -4.5
~IO -I' -20 -21 -22 -I' -2" -15 -26 -2'7 -28 -2' -30 -:n -:3:1 -3J ... ~ -H
0 ~S' -10 -11 ~J::I: ~13 -~,A -15 -,"'6 -11 -Ill -19 -::m '-21 -22 -23 ~ZA -25
5 -o4 -5 -6 -7 -8 ~S" -10 -11 -'2 -13 -I" -u -16 -n" ~IB -1' -20
'0 I 0 -1 -2 -;.I, -. -~ -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 '-11 -12 -13 , ~I" -15
" 05 .5 4 ~ 2 'I ,0 -I -2 -3 -A -5 -6 , ~7 ..;. -9 -10
'" 11 10 ~ 8 'I 6 5 04 S 12 I , 0 -, -2 -s -A -/li
U 1,5 15 '" '13 ~2 " I 10 9 , 1 6 , A 31 11: 1 0
10 21 10 'f II 17 16 1:5 , .. 13 n 'II lit Pi B '1 16 5
Ui '2'6 2!i 2. 23 ~2 11 :20 19 HI r1 ~6 U " '1,31 12 li1 10
JIG 31 '0 29 21 2'1 26 15 2" 1:1 ! 22 2:' 20 1" 'II 17 16 , ,~ PAR .,. LOAD ESTIMA,l'ING

'CorNCfianl! tG E~quivQlent Temperatur. DU'.·rencel illl Tablel 19 &; 20 far Conditions, Other Than Balls of Tobie

1., OlltdouT Design Temperature Minus Room Tem.pel'llllire r;'rMt"'r or' I.~.u Than 15 d.eg F dh, .nllfQ" Dai1~ Ramgc: n"""'l!f (11 Less Th~n 20 deS F dh:

Ad{1 the eorreeuons listed in TQb(1! ~O.4. Whl:f~ the o!.lldoar dellp' lefl~~r~Hirt (Thblt' I, ~~ 10) minuJ' chI! mom or Imtonr ·1I1:.5[p! temperature (iabtt I, P gil 2(1) & dilffe~nt h III E. deB if db. or rhe dllUy r::Illlge j~ dille","1 hom 'tile 20 111"1 F Il't on whicb TAbla 19 and ~o are IJIkd.

Thl 00I'fI! jon b (0 be .pplied .(0. !JOdi C1tul1lalml tempt:raIllJn: dnr~!;e ... ;ilues. C~pok-d to !lUO a'lkl'lha(Jru wallJ nr roo£.

2. !itunlr:<.1 WOIIiB

"'or !hadC'i1 wall~ 00 anr eXpo'!il.lfr. III1':l the ".lnUl (If cqu.Jv· 11101;0[ remperaune difference lYle(! ror 11f1r1.h (llhad ). CQI' !'Cdt(! if l'iCCCllllIar-y a~ !r,own in CoTn'cUon 1.

lI. Llitil\ld~ OIher 'lhan iO· Noreh and WI" tllhn morathl ",lUI dUlcl'cm IOllr imClUidc:s. T.ble.s 19 alld 20 vllun &" appro,.. matcly «:o"'"t for: tbe e.airOT wqr Will in , .. n,. laUllldr dun'o, LlfI~ .hOtlClE 'Weatl'ler. lri lowel' lUI IJdd wheD die mIX mum lOIn IIltlmdc is 80" to 00· (the DU.imllJ.m ooc.un • l noon), II e lem~lun' ~ diller JllCit 101r ,ClthtT IOlllb (I II. nil wall II appnrumatdy lbe Rmf! 'U I IU.\fth ~r 11 de wI.II. ~ T~'IJC! JB' .oor 1i01~ attitude ItliJ""

TID!!' lempeHl'IHtJ: difl'ermtial Ao~. for an WIt] [\1 n,g or' r"' Ind fQr any I .. titudc fur any mmuh J~ppll)dmar.C'd ~

followA:

wbue

Alit ~ ellul'll lent lemper.1luTe dlllen:"al 'O~ Dluntin lind ILmlt (.I' dfi desired.

lu = ~lvllreJ'lI. IcmpentllR' dlllkrm,or 1(11" um;t YlH or I'I'JQI in "lath a.t de!ltral lime 01 filii.,. UI K" if iil'_l1' for design ,condit nol.

41~ .. : «jnlwalen! lemperature uile__l1'CflCl: ~!i!r W'll1I er _I

''''posed 1.0 the SUIiI. f r dC!Sitod ~jmc IdlY. eerI'r'£~m if ~ry "" e!llgtl condit " •.

n I :: mnirnum :K)1a;t hell.1 gain in 'D1U/(ht)(1ICJ £I) lhru gla~ fur WAll (<Icing or Iwril()olat for ruob. for month and latitllde dt'5ired. Tabl~ 0, ,pag "". or T,../III! 6. p~ ~').

"... :: mli)l.imnm solar heal g;lIll in IHIJl/(br)(1q ft) Ihm II'laNi lor wall faciul!' or hcfrtioitul .for roob. 'Oor JI1ly :11 40· NOfl!h lalim~. faMe U.ptlitJr 11. or 'l661t O. PfJ,g1! 29.

~lIrlmt>rl") mll.flfll~ wJ: pma:dul'e.

'4 LIlli mmiollll mlOT walloI' ·mof

LlgIIll Ullor WIIU , roof:

.50

4~~ = .1lp# + .90 (/dc_ - AIr,) ~ .MAI~"" .• 5 Mn,

Mtllllll1l r.olor w:all or roof:

cquivl11cn{ lcrnpt'raturc dtffilll"Cnt~ tor rolo"l' o! Will or mof dctiRd.

~t~11 = eq~dvilh!;nl !~mpeR[urrc diflc~a:: for gill wall or: roof In. ~hadc ill desired lime of (b:y. wftt<;ted if' IU:CC!.'l:l1')' for dcsign conditions.

4l~ ... = «lulvalr.lIl u!toperat'Ure difference {OF wall or roof e ... ~ ~o the .un for the desired timr of <lilY. or· r(!(tJed llll~ry for design rondWoru

Note: Llrhl CIl)lor =- wMu. cft':am. etc.

M,rdiufII cvlor = 'illu green. Hgtu lllue. ,"y. elC. Dark cotor = dl1rk bJue.. darlt red, din: brown, l!1

5. Othl!T I~,thude. olbu monlth. lisht or medium ooJt) ""all Of roof.

The comhined tOl1loul care:

Light oolor w,illls f'lr moJ

R. R.

AI. =: 1,5 n" 6.1,,,, 1 n - .55 R) l!.t".

iii '"

Medium corer ""alb r roo£ ..

It. n~.

61~ = .78 R _ 6.1:.,.,. + ,(I - .78 R) dl(,.r

.. ...

6.. fo,r Solllh lilt lude!. ~ Ibe followroa: apol!U'C v;Jua from T4bf.r 19:

Sa· 'hi Lat!l11:ldc No nt..1!.1 II

(,aft

South..-;,;., SOuth Somhwat West Norchw,(!1It North. ("hade)

U;u; Ex~re PmlU Sr::Il.nh~l

bat

No:rtbeil.l'

North ( hide) Nonbwat

Wat

Southwest

South

TR~NSMISSION COEFFl'CtENT U

Tr.aJ)!·nII~5:5ion ~fficic:nt or U "alYle is me: rate which heat is tr3:n5ferretl thru a building nruClur in Btu/(hr)(r.q fl)(deg F temp diff). Th rare times the temperature dilfc:rence JS the heal How thE''' he structure. The reciprocal of the U value Ier ,UlY w:dl is the total resisran c of this: wall to (he now of hat. 'the total. reslsean e 01 ny wal] [0 heal now i the summariou (IE the ,!!,.'stn nee in each component of the strucuereaud Ihe n:,ist3.nces of the outdoor am! inside SUrratt ilms, The trnnsmwi-on coeffi ientli listed if! TabltJ 21. tim J1 have been calculated fOIi the most "UIIlItIl("ln f>r1- or connnictiion.

Batis of lablft 21 Jhrlll3

- Tramlmillion CooflkLnt. U fOf Wan" Roof,. Par1i'tiool.

Ceil1nWI, 'Floors" 0001'1, and Windows

TIi{)fes 21 thru J) comain calculated U values based on the reslstancc listed in Table )4, poglff 78. The. resisranee of the outdoor Jurface film co.e:fficienl fot summer and wimcI conditions and the insid!! surface film 15 listed in Table: n.

CHAPTE'R 5. HEAT AND WATER VAPOR FLOW THRU TRUCTURES

1-65

Note: The difference between summer and winter transmission wefiu:;ients rOT a typical wall is negligible. For example. with a transmission coefficient of 0.3, Btu/(hr)(sq It) (F) [or winter cendicions, the Icoeffidem. lor summer conditions will be:

I. Thermal resist nee R (wintcr) o~ wall I I

= U = -0]"" = 3.33

2. Outdoor film thermal resistance (wint!"r) -= 0.17 (Tobie N)

3. Thermal resistance of wall without outdoor air film (winleT) ::: 3.33 - 1),]7 = 3.16

4. Outdoor film thermal resistance (slimmer) = 0,:25 (Tal}l!! J.J)

5. Thermal resistance of wall with outdoor air film (sulmmcr) = 3,.1,6, + 0.25 = 3.4]

6. ransmission coefficiem U of wall in summer

I 1

== R =-3.4.1 = 0.294

7, Di,([etcn e between _ummel, and winter tr nsmission becomes greater with 13rg r U vahres aud less v v ith smaller U values.

U~e of lobles 21 dlnJ 33

- Transmiuion Coefficients, U for Walll,-Roo'$, Po;rtilions" 'Ceilings, floon, Doon, and Windows,

The transmissinn coefficients may be used for calclIhllLing the heat 110"' lor both summer and wiruer conditions for the average application.

Example .4 - Transmission Coefi1ciel'lts

~.ivcn: .

Ma50n'l1' panitIion made (If i! ill. hollow day ~Ue. hoth liidSl finisbed. metal hil[h pla~u~leri on furring with 3A in. sand plaster,

Find:

Transmission crn:ificic:nt

Solution:

TrO!~mL'lSlon coefhcient U

= 01.1 Ihll/(hr)(sq (t)i.l1rg . Tahiti ~6. pogt' 70

Example 5 - Tronsmiuion Coefficien', AJd,jliofl 0'

Inslliation

The UammL....sIDo <:oeffici ot< I isted in 7' aules 21 lliru JO d.o nOl indm1.e IIlJul:nion (e);.cepi for ilal 1'001'5. Tablr:n. PP:g'l$ ;1).

FKquCI'!IIJ'. fihr1!ll!lf imu'Ja.lliofi OT' reflective insular inn III in-

lurl~ in till:: exterior InMildmg structure. The: 'Iralllsmi.~,i~1'l coem lent :f''01f' the lypical ~onSlrucli(lns lisled in Talllcs 21 IIITu JO, wltll in!l!!lllllioll. nlil)' lie Jelclf'nl,ificd from Tab.!l' n, pagt 7'.

Giren:

MlllIDrIr}' 'wall cl.ll'Isining gf 4 In. face hrlck, S In, cont-tete cinder .hlnd. melal I .. tll plast rf'd on fllrrilllg; with ~, 10. Ml1Id plu(e.r .. nd 1I il'!,. or lihrou~ in5llJaiiop in rhe stud spate ..

firnd:

Transmi!.!lion c.oclfi.ciclIl.

Solulion:

Rdeflo Table'S 22 l1fld JI.

U value tor wall without i.luulllLlon = IUH Stul(hr)(~CJ, fL)(deg f)

lJ va.luc (or \\.all wilh i.nsll~3Ilion

::= 0.1'17 niulllll')( q r'l)(fleg :F)

PART!. LOAD ESTIMATING

T.ABU 21-TRANSM;I:S.510N eOEfflCllNT U-MASONItYWA:W·

fOI SUMMER AND WINTEIl Btw/(hr) (tq hI (deg f temp diff)

INTlIIOI I'lNIII!
,,:" ,t fi" ''''.'lifIltl·
THICK- Glrflk11i .. ~. MMel G7~jj1-· ....,.,
NESS ,. .... k."' .... "lInl. l .... W ... · .... · rw:._
1;lfU."'." ",",alto, •• W.II "bI".,., ,It!: ...... III • .....,
.... ',,"':1 .11 flll'l'l ... OIIl1un1 •• 1 ... ,FIII'Ii'I ..
IX'fUJo. 'IN,sH WllGHl (2) ~" %.. %" I lAO' W· l··
"II' , ... 5Md Lt Wt
.111 ftl< "'gil Agr Sand I.J Y,h Sond I !.I WI . Ioardi too,,,
l6~ r,' I'IGIt.d71 ~..,.(:;IJ'PkJ."",m PIoihr(2J m r.-i
SOUl) .. til:*,
'et •. & 11 fl71 ",e .. U .45 .. , .31 ,21 .29 .27 .22 .16
~ (:0 ... · ... 011 12 11231 .3" .31 .33 .all .15 ,23 ,2::1 .22 .19 .U
'6 1113) .27 .2~ .26 .15 .21 .19 ..20 .l!ll .16 . .u
C'.'M_CIIft 8j,01 .41 .36 .39 .IS .:it • .26 .25 .2:$ .21 .11
0.,1, 1;1 (120) .31 .. 28 .ao .17 .2J .22 ,22 .n .U .11
16 (11$0) .25 .23 .::11 .:n, .1!9 ,18 .1l .1' .16 .)1 nONI

'8 (lao) 11 U;5(J') 16 (2001) U (JO())

A DOal-'IL,OCK5 O.IIICK

.30 .23

I. .15

1[:26] 12 (40)

.14 .:U

.ss .-'17 .. 41 .32

.30 .23

.&3 .51 .'1 .3:1

."3'1' .3" .31 ... 26

.25 .70

." .:U

.21 .24

.23 .HI

.13 .11

.22' .11

.21 .2~ .22 .19

.1' .r,

.1,. .15

.32 .24

,OoI<I:iID i:.ONC.·IU

I> (TIH

a 1'i'1I\ ]0(111] 12 1140]'

,Sf .:lcj

.1' .:n

.n

.17 .17 .11

..:ca:,: ',' ~.:;:p: ~~~~ -. : .. _ ..... ;:!Ii ..

'..... - - ~ -;, ~ ~

'~~'

6 [1.51 1[20) 3111~/ .... " IQ 12~1 12 1:101

II 1.0\ !llnl IQ lUI n {.O)

.31 .:u .21 ,II

,1:1

.10 .0. .01

.:211 .:2:1 .1' .17

.13 .10 .011 .. 0'1

.3(1 ,24 .20 .17

.21 ,21 It .1'S

.23 .'9 .11' .15

.HI! .0' .0,

.01

.21

.n

.16 . .1'

.11 .1)9 ofn' .m

.12 .il .115 .14

.11 M .0.

.06

.21 .1' .1' .U

.11 .09 .07 .06

.11 .16 .1. .II

."

.11

.n .10

,13 .10 .011 .07

,n

.10 .0' 1J1

,n .10 .0& ,07

Hot~ow CONe'en ILOC.S

.11 .1'

"'ad I '. j4,n 1i ....... 1 A.. Ii [611

.:19 .2'11

.-10 .21

.2.' .22

BUT) Olld ... A.. 12 U!)

.39 .3~

.:U .• 33

.37 .lIli

• 25 .n

.2 • .ll

.20 .1'

.U .15

• r3-~1 lifW1 A •• 121UI

.32 .29

3.4i .:'1

.31 .2'

.. 26 .24

,.24 .lQ

.12 .II

.1' .'1

.15 .14

:sTUCCO ON HOLLOW CI.A'I' flU

;19 .11 .11

.15 .1' .n

Ii 1:1:91 101"41 '1:2 (4vl

.311 .:n .2'

.:1-2 .2' sr

.32 .2' .:16

.il6 .23 .u

.24 .22 ,2(1

.2l .21 . .JO

f,qlloll_ 'Heol O .. ih,b .. /hr·= '("".o"q ft,] X (U O'Dlue\ X (, ..... 010'111 hmlp 41H. If,,bI-o, 19) "'~Ol Leu. I,,"' ... - '(A .... "' •• q fill )( (ll "'<11"'_1 X (GoUt!llOO!' '!lmp - !it.d. l!!Impl

"rew cdclilion of inwlatlon ...,d oi. '~Qfe' fa "bow .. '"0 .... Ie"". to Til .... :II, p<I.I1' .7~.

CHAPTER!L HEAT AND W,\TER V-\POR: FLOW THRlI Sj'RllCTURES

1--07

TABLE 2'2-TIA"'SMISSION COE'fICIENT 'U-MASONRY VENEER WALLS"

Foa SUMME:R AND WINTI!A
Btu/(hr) (SCI ft) (d-eg F hlmpdifF)
.AII nu .. b .... iI'I pa,e.,lIiel!H l",dlc,,1e Wlli,,1i1 per .q h. rot(,,1 WIl11jlhr P"~ .~ fll.J .urn ",f ",..>11 and fini,),,, •.
INTI:!UOR FINISH
%" l.n1,l lati "'11
11 MI e[l(,. Oyp,um ~~ M.,al G'IIPllim o. Board
NESS N"", '9JClo.d 1', .... ", loll! Wood " .. rh ,.".1111 or
(lnch •• 1 11".llsl_ 0 .. W.II Pltlclt ... .:i "j<lu.,.111 Phnt!! •• !:!
EXUliOil. ... 1iI h .. rcli .n 'furrlnu an I'II •• I"I! on F",lTi""
fINISH ",-C!I;!"'" WEIOM1 {!} 1 ~
IlIi p., SOlid If Wt ¥.~ %" W I ~h.~ Y.ri'
.111 tI) An AUg Sand Lt WI Sand LI Wi ~<!<"d 8"ard
(.6) (:I) "10.1,,,(7) PI<ul"t{J) PI"., .. f{71 !Ph:..,,, ,(jil) W (""
,.,. .... ". A 120' • .41 .31' .:19' .ss .28 .l6 .26 .25 .2~ .16
11011< " IS? .:33 .30 .12 .~? .,~ .22 _;3 .21 .18 .1 ~
~ [Cl,,!!., Aiul 12 -1;5.31 .31 _29 .30 .ll .2:3 .2'1 .22 .ll .HI .U
-~
• 1171 .3.5 • 32 .3 .. .31 .2~ .,,3 .]14 ,12 I .19 ., S
(LI Wt All.} II 132) .30 .28 .29 .27 .23 .21 .21 .20 .17 .14
12 1.j~1 .28 .26 .27 .25 .11 .;i0 .20 .19 .\7 .13
11Il1011_ " 11l) .49 .44 .46 .41 .n .29 .29 .27 I ,:22 .17'
.. ' '*~. 1,810 ... " I 143.1 .41 .37 .39 .35 .28 .26 .~~ ,H ,21 .H.
kltll. I~I "'1.1 12 f6S1 .. 38 .35 .31 .33 .27 .2.5 ,2.5 .'24 .20 .IS
-- H:.llww .. (16) ." .37 .39 .3.5 ,211 ,U, .211 .,25 .21 .16
iC:lb" tn. I 1111") .3' .l9 .10 .28 .. 23, .21 ,22 :21 .~ 8 .1.01
4" 5.1 ... [sol ,~ 140) .26 .25 .25 .24 .20 .19 . IS' .HI .16 .13
-w- e.b,um. .iI ('(II , .35 .31 .34 .31 .2:5 .23 .2~ .22 .19 .15
!U WI All! 61"0,) .2" .75 .lI7 .25 .2" .20 ..20 .19 ,H~ .~J
"H.J. 'II' ~~/li' 'fi I, e: 154,) .12 .21 .:12 ,?I _Ie. .17 .17 .16 .1<1 .12
t.,!C .. , .. 1
Is •. o .. ,10111,) ISd~d I~."I " loll) .60 .53 .56 ,.49 .36 .32 .JJ .31 ,2"; .18
4" , ,. A,.I (I INJ) .:5.'1 .'9 .52 .-4:5 .3i .31 .32 .2'9 .2~ -17
,,,I 151) 11":5) .61 ."5 ."8 • .42 ,32 .29 I .30 .28 .23 17
C ......... n IIleli " l..wl ."'9 ,42 ... .s ."1 .32 .29 I .29 .27 ,n ,16
1110) :35 .:11 .3" .3! .2~ .~3 .2.& .~2 .\9' .U
C ... "OI.II.cll 011 [201 .:1.6 .3S .3·5 .32 .26 .2-4 .24 .23 .19 .15
1,"lnci. AIIg) II 1371 .29 .21 .29 .26 .n .l~ _~I _:20 .17 .It
LCiifJJ '21.53.) .28 .26 .27 .2.5' .2\ .ac .2D .19 .17 J3

~ •• _;'II". .. I"') .32 .29 .so .28 .23 .'22 :12 .2'1 .ra .1"
L.....:.l1· III Vlt A •• ) " IW .. iT ,26 .26 .25 .21 .20 .20 .19 .17 .13
- 12 14S1 .25 .2.4 .::IS .:23 .21) .1 f' .H' .18 .16 .!3
(SIt!!!1I " .. 1t3) .012 .38 .'0 .36 .29 .26 .27 :2.5 .21 .16
. " c: ..... ",." ....... ••• 1 8 (A31 .36 ,JJ .35 ~:l2 .26 .. 2_ .2' .2:1 .19 .15
Incli (401 12 1631 .34 ", .33 .30 .2:5 .23 .n .22 .19 .1 S
-.r- .... UG'. CI." " (161 .36 .33 .35 .32 .26 ;~" :24 .23 .1'9 .1 s
'fM!I!!1 tn. II 13tll .28 .27 .2S .26· .:22 .110 .~O .19 .17 .IS
e •• ~i' ... ~2 10101 .2' .23 .23 .22 .19 .18 .llI ,"7 .15 .12
tl."cI .IOJ' c._.._. " 12'61, .3,2 .211' ,30 .2.8 .:13 .22 .22 .21 .1 B .1 A
,,, "t'O~
(7'1 Iv.) III WI "11.1 6 1«11 .n .2J ,25 ,23 .20 -.18 .19 .n .15 .13
10 ."/eu ft 8 ISoIl .in .20 .20 .19 .17 .16 .16 .16 .U .11
-IH'-'
.~ C.ncr.t. IS.n4 .. " (4n • .50 • .4.5 . "0 ., .. .32 .29 .30 .28 .2J .17
1U'lMlf I~Jl Gn;,,11 AIIIII 6,;rO), .<17 .A~ •• U ,39 .JI .18 .29 .:~7 .:1.2 .Ii'
I'IIR" .\t;IIl) I (9:5l .U .40 .4·1 .37 .29 .~f' .28 .26 .21 .ie
,
-D.r= ';."''''411 In,!! I .., IAOI ."2 ,37 .'0 .16 .19 .26< .'21 :26 :;!1 .16
,- S'ow. (lOG) I 8 11101 I ,J2 .29 .30 .21 .23 .22 .2~ .21 .n ,U
I
1'9.58 ASH"!' G~ide
EquQIio!m H.", Gal .... Iwjhr - ( ...... jU, "1 til X [U .. "Iwe) X leqlii'l'olent 'emp !llff. l;"bI. j~1
H ,,0') 1.Qu;. 'Il!lhJ= (Ar.a •• q ttl X !U ",,,lue) X r outdoQr I.mp - Inlicl!! '.''''1'')
"1'Of .uld ilion 'i!lf I,"~ I"tll)n 'and QI~ 'p"flo" Jo ""aUJ .• r·el;er to roMe 31, p<:tg .. ·15. 1-68

TAILI ,.-·fRANSMISSI·QN COIFfle.ENTU-LIGHT CONSTRUCTION, INDUSTRIALWALLSot '0 .• lUMMI' AND WINTI.

~n1,_II' " , "", -S!1E"'Il<IHG

, • STI.I(!(!IH!!

,

","'. ,,'

,': .1

: I ' 'I "

- , ,

5'O!tl'flllOii '

..11,0. ",miN

I

I ........ .....

1111'" I." ti ..
III (.1 If I
.32 .26 .U
.1' ,.11 .:1"
.1," .15 ,11
.n !J7 .3.
.211 .17 .:11
.11 .15 .11
.22 .19 .2'
.B -21 .:l7
JU, ASlUil CW'. IIIiXfIIUOIL I'INIH, IHIA Itt_I
..... N.", I: It) I.HI .55
t ... u ...... "" .. lin. 1 •• reI I 2) .. 34 .26
,",,,_It. '%. .. h .... 1I • .,d (21 /1) .:1,
24 N ••• III 1.40 .60
Q,oolll •• lJIi" I .... I ..... 12' .36 .21
".mI __ H: 1*-" hn ......... 1121 ~8 .22
.,." y,,"W •• iI, (I; .Ml .n
¥." W,. .... N .... 1"1 .3. .37
11111 •• WbOMI U.·p. ,:. fiI'

(,~IIi!nr<. "Mil Gi1~ .~p. - 1"-,,. "C!ftlx IUllI'o'eu.) X {~~'M I_Jl,oii,H, 1.,. r,\. "-w I.ou, Itu,/Iw ... (ATeQ.fq ftJ X rU .0' .... '1 ')(1""''' '-p, - ~., ~pJ.

"'I'M dil411iQii"'gl •• po_ ,"lid _'ollOn fo. w .. ~. f.'" to l~S'.Pi\Q!I "',

tVaht .. , .'111, Wh.., ... C-II wiI'h cilklr!cl _pcMlid """'.tiIIlh ..... ,!mel ot ..-cI <11M, I'lI!Of IlMor.. W'hwI ' ..... a,. i!DI llielM.""_" U '1IdIn lIy 1'05-

~ "alii" ,litO" bt ",.d for tcIOh, Iheal t'Io!io up-wIMII, f«hjjool no- ~ •• " ftMIIIIply a~. ladOnl tJr 0.1. '

TAILE 24-TRANSMISSION COEFfI;CIINT U-LIGHTWEI:GHI, PRE.AIRlCAnD CUlr.IN "PI WALLS·

'D. IUMMIIt AND WINTII;

Itl.l/'hrl (~ tt) (d. F temp cliff)

tNlULATt»II COI'E MAf.IIAl

MilA' ".QNII WlfH
MnA,L '''ClING ('1 'V .... A.JI 1'.,0 ,:I,
c: .... 'l'td«I;" .. , Jill. C; ... 1ItId" •• (I ...
I '2 , .. 2: J C·
.21 .12 .0' iO~ .19 .11 .0' .06
.~, .2:1 .17 .IS .n .20 .15 ,12
.29 .'7 . liZ .09 .25 .U .11 ,09
.36 .21 ,I' .13 .29 .19 .14 .11
.JI .1" .It .10 .tll ,16 .U ,IOf
.JA .20 • .14 .11 ..2, .1" .. U .1,0
A4 :0 .1~ .IS "" .2J .11 .. ,
s ,32 .24 .19 .:I. :0 .21 .11
. n :. . ..19 .ll' .. a ,3 • .u .:lO
,.69 .~9 ,]I .l. "j" .11 .,. .16 'DI1UI11't (I /ell Itl

II'.", W •• d, C:.If.n 1'1 .....

... , H.lit,~6.1i

•• , Miiiill"!i'fHiIi WIt. ".,lIt" fill, •• _,1 ...

11'1" ....

W '11 'f ... (c.,... ... hI '"'_ ... , "lIh)

1 " .. V".I,iiVDl.

Y_f •• llilt M" .... CIt",""

EquQ ..... , ttotOJ G(I&!, '1lJ/ttr ... IN.-Q.!iII "" )( (U "'1I1iI.) j( (.!JUiI""IDI liIi!!!!!> IlIff. fat)M, III!

H_laou., ItliJ/M '"' lArea" iq "1 'II: IU "0 .... ' !II: (OIIld_ "'mp - hid" '-'pl.

0Pa.- Qddltlor; of 1o!O>J1'''Iion o~" "I. !pQ'CU til wlllk, ,.f,,, 1\0 faU. 'r,,...8'1 1S.

tTtl'ld1 >nlgllt liM' 1'1 ft ~ (Of' ~.II!itr~:-' II!!d;!lWD + ;) 11I/1"f1

CHApTER 5. HEAT AND WATER VAPOR FLOW THR1J STRUCTURES

.1-69

fAILE 25-TIlA!N5MISSION COEFFICIENT U -FRAME WALLS AND PARTITIONS'

FOR lUMMI. AND WINTI.

Btu/(bp) (!sq ft) (de; F temp ditf)

~r INnllOI fINISH
1 ••• 1 .... ""
~" 0"" .... IiI ... II
M'" M .... I .,. ,lallil
.€: L" W.N Lwth or
N.II. 0" .. _ ,."'., ..... P ... , ...... PI •• t __
, . .,.
\"_Dl_ ~.- , ....... ~. ,_. .. ~w y."
W • .4 _.... Sand !.IWt hnd UWI V." T"
IXTEIIOI fINISH SHIAfillMQ , •• It! rlt) (I) Ph:uhn7J ",,",.,'3' 1'1",""arm I'llllterf;zJ kGI'd (2) '_rd (01)
I"' Stn .. 1101 1'oIOM!, Wdlng 'lI,.r ;91 .3,3 .. 2 .AiS .!l9 ..10 .31 .2' .20
01 "' ........ ~" PlywoW U) Of MI· G~P 121 .t.e .30 37 •• 0 .'5 .36 ,'3 .26 .1'
C_.ftl .1Il'''8 (II 2,.6 Wood &. .dv Pap. 2) ..AI 15 .10 .31 .18 .29 .27 .n .11
OR A.yh It ,_,... _la., Ibrd 121 ..42 .21 .27 29 .26 :l7 ,.2.5 .21 .. ,
.. U ~l!dhIi" 121 I". 1Mil101liit IoClr. 131 .32 .20 .23 .,2' .22 .22 .21 • 111 .1 •
... Flo" .... Malt., IIIIlcJlna Pap'r :13 .30 .37 .oW .35 .36, .33 .26 ."
v.II_Ia, all 'HI"' ,~ 1'1 GO' Ii" G)'p 12 . .$7 .28 .31 I .U .3' .J' .:10 .2A .111
"' .. Pip_II III ~. WrtlOd .. Iida 'o&.r (21 .42 .23 .21 I .29 .26 .!J7 .:2.5 .2 • .16
oa A,,\.1i \t" ~Ii' Ioatel I .31 I .22 .21 ::1.7 .21 .25 .2. 20 .IS
I
1111 ••• I') lJ!ia ...... aflt.lI Iou.c! IJ I .30 I .19 .21 .22 ,21 .21 .20 ~7 .1"
I
W_d 11111". I" "-, liiIkIlna rap., S] .27 .33 .3~ .31 .12 ,30 .24 .11
oa ""''' Plf'II"I"II'd In Of' y,." Gyp r:u .AI .. :U .30 .31 .:1:1 .2P .27 .22 .Ii"
W .... l'hIII .... (2.1 ~.' WCIIOoiiI .& Ildg !'ape.- .36 .22 .25 .26 . , .. .2 • .23. .19 .IS
OR "'~ W_iII \4.." lcnuIaling Iaa.d (21 ,'3 ..20 .23 .2" .22 .21 .22 • 111 .1 •
IJ • ., ... ,(I) ~fiI" _tQ"lille. Ioard ta I :0 .HI .20 .21 .I'V .19 .19 .Hi .Il
W.~d 'ltl.s'" HoM, Ina Po,", ... 3 .24 .28 .29 .27 :0 .25 .21 .16
h., ,.. 1"1.1 ~. ,~ (J) or ~ .. Gyp 12 .n .22 .25 .27 .2A .25 .n .. 19 .15
... 'II ........... (J) 1'*m'" Wooci .. lidO PClp •• .30 .It .2Z .2l .21 .21 .20 .11 .1 •
01 "., .... Yt W' 1Nul1l11nll hard (2) .28 .11 ,20 .21 .20 .20 .19 .16 .13
InlllMt_ "III. (") tK." !q.ulallng laatcj 'Ill .2:1 .16 .11 I .1' .17 .11 .17 .U .12
SI •• i, ..... IH.II I'''''s. q 11.1 1111 •• iir,) -"'3 ,60 I .67 ,55 I .57 .SO .36 .23
O •• ltl. '.rl81.11 IFlIlIII!, .11 ~.tli .1 .... 1 ~ .34 ! .39 .31 .32 .28 .19 .12 1 ~'8 ASHAf Guld.

E.qua~ W"IItJ-H.ot Goltio IN/tot - IA,..ta, "" Itl X IU YQI ... I' X leq"h'oh,rjl '.Mp dlff, r,,~ ,91- -""III Ian, ... jtfr .. (Nea, iq ftl X (Uora"" X, I-cl- ,,,mp-lMId. twOlllpl.

P"rIiIIoI!a. ~II "Jlo,,!! !ildlaa:en1~".G' Gain 0If Loll. I'flllhr-" (Ar ... lq hI X fu 'WaN.} X loutdOOO' Nilftp-!",dd. r .... p-5 fl. 'arfltl-., klldtl!ln eN' MIlAr _ adloc..,,_;H.at GoIn,. .tu/~ = !A.u .q ft) X !u ,,01 ... 1

X ladVal .... p dl" Of oodd_ h.OlIp-hkl. '-Ii + 1.5 I' ~ 25 PI.

~ acldllloll of _1G1l6n and all· 1 .. a~.,. Iv pgl"'UJIlMI" ,," "" raW. Jj,,.. .. '.5.

1-70

PART I. 1.01\0 ESTIMi'TINC

TABU 26-TRANSMIS510N C:OlfFICIEN"U-MA$ONRY PAR,T1;110NS·

Foil SUM MEl AND WIHTU.

I

Btu/(hr) (sq ft) (deg F 1emp diff)

HOLlOW CONCRETE
liLOCI( , 1171 .~ 0'"., .39 .Q .It .30 .'0 .2. .26 .21 .'16
~ lOlllJ ~,j ... .Jl .2:l .» f--~- .'11: .U .10
. i 110' r---::.O 0" .• , .36 .3·" .3,.5 .2e .:16 -- 'l'6 .n .:m .l:!
I '"til .32 .31 .JI .21 .119 1--'':''1 .1, .13 .11)
I 8 131) .:l:I 0 ... .2'1 .31 .n .2~ .2:l - ,.12 .:1'1 .11 .1~
'om :;17 .30 .1'6 .1'1 .117 .17 .16 ,.12 .1)9
153) -
I'i .31 Q"" .211 .lO ;v: D .21 .22 '~I .17 ,U
'1,,4 .. "Sill: 1'",,- .2' .2''' .25 .Hi .11. .11 .IS .12: ,I)II
t--
:I 1'$1 ,311 Qn. .J. ,36 ,.l.;! .'1.7 .25 .15 .2' .20 .IS
loth .31 .:IS .:110 .2,1 .11 .HI .17 .13 ;09
" (11) ~ On,. .31 .31; .:n .2' .n 21; .n .19 ~
Both .2'1 ,12 :l'1 ,:10 .11 ,17 .16 .13 .09
-----
'~j WI "'~II IS 132) .30 0"" .'17 .29 .'2:7 .22: .21 .21 .lO .17 .1'
1I000h .23 .2B .71, ,'1,' .16 .16 .U .12 .09
12 1(3) .U 0',,* .2Ji ~21 .2& .21 .2Q .20 .1' ,,16 .~
!!olh .~~ .116 .,,, .17 15 • .16 .15 .12 .0'
-- - ._----- -- - - -
e 143) . 40 On .. .36 .39 .35 .211 .26 .26 .25 .20 .U
~$ ... ," &(;" ... ,.1 !iolh .32 .31 .31 .21 .19 .19 .1' .13 .11
hUI ..311 -'-.'3i, ---~
A~. 12 0 ... JI6 .n :17 ,2" .25 ,2' .1'1 .• U
;L~I IteMh .:]0 .ij:~ .2'9 .21 II .1'9 .17 ,13 ,09
-- - ---
NOLl:O,W CUi
I l 'I' $) .<46 ,Onc .~O ,U ,39 ,JI .2. .l8 .2'1 .22 .16
rrrmrJ I "0111 .311 •• 2 .SA .23 .'0 .20 ,19 .. hI .10
-- - -----
" Po,I ... 0 0". .:16 .39 .)5 ,1'8: .26 .26 .as .20 .IS
, 'oIl> :n .37 ;)1 .n ,11'1' 19 ,I' .I:J .I,
. ~lUI r------:3T- 0 .... ::11 .33 .31 _, .2'5 .13 .23: .t2: .19' .15
, lotlo ::11. .n .11 ,20 .17 .1' ,1$ .n .G9
• flOI ~ 0". J!I ,110' .21 .1:3, .11 .22 .~I ,U .111
80111 ,26 .29 .:111 .Ie .16' .17 .1& .1'2 .0"
-
HOLL .. QW oynUM 3 (91 .3" 0."., ,n- ,35 ,31 .26 .2. .2'" .23 ." .15
TIL,' !lOll> ,30 .3~, .:t9 .10 .11 .1,' ,n .131 .09'
I II") .n _-_.- ,)0 .22
0" .. , .JI:!' .i~ .2' :2' .13 .111 .101
lath "li7 .31 .26 .!9 .17 .17 .1,' .1'2 ,0.
---~- -- -- -
SQLlO G'I'II!SUM lVi .61 ./113
PLASfllll. ~) till
rt5J 2 .58 .31
- (1'1 I"
,55 .3-1.
:I'M } ,'21 It)
,
"51 A5HAf: GII!;!_ THICK.

NI'5S {hu h ... I ... d WEIGHT ,,.,

UI III

~-'~~-----,-----------.------------~----------

~ .. 0'1"·""" ..-

W , 1i

,.1."1 '

.. ,.,·,,!!r11l11

liIIl .. I .. II"1

1_.011

PI.III .' .. ... ,., ...

ij,1ftI,;mt ••

¥i"' 'lad ... <loI!iW.11

lath

"".

Gypt"In

8 nI

; (" ...

I .. ..,") (:1)

.. lenr ... 1id •. Ii ,.n ...

hlf! ,.' ••

Sid •• , .1'

Un- Ildn

1!'Ilthd "In:llhd

1'". W·' ~ .. ' Mo" ~" -I"

Sond I. Wt $ .. Ad I.r WI $a,.,'" LI WI

__ gg 161 "Oil (3) f>t,,&!e.(7) P'1"d.r(lU !Pladwrm I'IQoI.r(2) loard(2} kIord(4'

Eq"",I';Q"" 1'0:1,,111<:0'\1, u""..;;dilj"M;j 'p'u.' ad,loUOIII 1M,,,. Gal .... !.ou, !lNIII. ,. IA,.!!" !q til )II; (U ",.!!!,I l": lovkl_ ,-","-mil •• "!lip-I III.

P(l.lill~., kilc!!~" OI! :DOJI., 'f_'" ,drat.fllI "..:II G.G. O!i'~IH •• It./I'r>l "" IAua,.q Itl X (:101 '\11."".1

- ;.: I~QI te!llP' .Iliff or wfftor I. _' - ... "d. *"""P' + ~" • '10- 2:S PI.

Of." "dduloo "I 1.,1,,10100..' 0"4 cj. tPCC'U 1'0' plI.IIII",,", .,.,fcr I., T"bltU. ptlQ. 7~.

1-71

'TAlll 27-1IIlANSM~SSION C,OEtF'ICIEN'f U-FLAr loa.s COVIREO WITH .U1Lr~up ROOfiNG·

'Ol H'AT !'LOW DClWN-SUMMEII.. 1'01 H'''',T FlO'W UP-WINYIII. IS ....... allon al Bait,,, .. 0' ""\l-I.

ltu/flu) (Iq It) (deg F lemp til&)

THlCKNilS o.

INa:

I. dI .. 1

W NT

II ... lit! fI)

INSULA 1ItON ON T'O' OF DICK, IIhClillS

H. hnlJ. I.tl.",

'\ m

2 /31

.6.7 .35 .n .11 .,~ .12 .10'

.3,' .2% .17 I. .12 .10 .Ofi'

.U .11 . ~ .12 .11 09 AI,

.20 16 13 .11 .10 .09 ..0'

. IS .12 .11 .I)' .01 .01 ,01'

.Il .10 .09 .01 .01 .07 .06

+---1-

U .~ 01 .011 .07

.12 .01 .07 .Oil 05

__ ~::::~~~:: -L ~ __ ~~~~~~:!~ __ J __ .iO __ +- .~ -+ __ .O_7 __ T-_~ __ ~r-_~ __ -T __ ,_05 ___

.'6 .HI .12 .10

13 .Il' .10 .09

,11 ,101 .!!Ii! .01

~-----+-----+-----

.11 .11 .101 .0'

.10 .09 .oil .In

09 .CII ..0.1 .01

1(5)

~ Orf'lO" 1&1

s..,-.:I- I'loIuI 151

~ ... ,_., 121

c-(".ull.~" .Ii •• l

lIn

A,6, • et,1101. "3)

....... or I'la_, (61 ~.d 'kn'.' 151 s".p ... d.d Aa!N TIl (21

.:51 .AII .21

-Itt ,*, A.".II

-".1- "'.11

w ....

P\l00I. DI" Pla..l~. (Ill s...p_d.<l1 P"'tI~. f$l ,St!tlp.,...ot"'_', II" till 1---+------

IHooI. 011 "imf., I~I Su~p."ded "<lif., III S"lpended Acou '111. 12)

Ihltm. or 1'10 iter 161

, 'p_"dr." 'Itr~ , I' I Sus"...... ~ 1· .... :'·

, I"~

I III

:I 151

SlI}

.\1" II I

.16 .12 .11

J' .'11 ,111

,v. (2)

,15 ,1:1:

U

.11 .TI.I Alii .01

.09 .08 .01 .01

.OB .OB .07 .06

Il .11 .10

.11 10 ot

.11 1:1 .1'2

.1 .12 .11

.19 ,u

.13

.11 .09 .09

.10 ..0 .08

.D9 .0. .DB

.u

.n .10

.n 17 .1 J

'27 .11' .1$

.07 .06 .OS

,09 .0' .rJ7

.oa ,010 JJ1

.01 .0'1 .07

.HI ,n .12

.15 .11

.11

." .f I

.10

.11 .09

.17 .ll .tl

.26 ••• .U

.40 .2.e .If

.M .01

,21 .19 .16

.lO' .15 .13

.1 .. .111 .11

.Il .11 .10

.11 .10 .09

.10 .09 .01

,DI J)'1 .01

.,_., or rta., 1'1 s...p_d .. d "0-".'" UI ''''*p."d _d A.cou m. 12 I

Han., or "Ia, 1 161 $on;pwod .. d 1"101.1 ... 151 Soo6p.-..d...,f .r.c-00I ·r. 1 UJ

" .. I11I,-(H', .. 1 "'aw Dow,,) IH.al Gain, .hilh, .. IA,.o, Iq ~I 'WI .. "-IH'",~ ,,_ Up) H.of to.., IN/h' - ' ....... 0 •• 11 hI

.1' .13

.11

.10

• 09 .,0.1

.1] .11 .10

.09 .0 • 117

Iu walu.)1 nil "!lII/ •

.... ' oliff IfIf IIII' 'JUIUI.,- •• do 10 _h ••• f T.w. lJ. p III" 14.

,., ' .... - •• ~~ - . _. boa,d. po 1.61 or ,"",," n'" '!lgi" •• '. plol1., UI. .. .a,", ,Iff w1~"!If.d !K

1-12

PRT Ii. LOAD ESTIMA T[NO

TAILE 28-fRANSM'ISSION COEFFICIENT U-PITCMEDROOFS'"

'OIHI'Ali 'lOW OOWN-SUMMER. 1'011. MEAT FLOW UP'-WINTfIl: (5· •• I"uatl.n ., IIhoHom Ill' .... "'.) Btul(hr) (11:11 ft proloded area.) (d~eg f !temp dHf).

"""CHID looU mUNG
~ I "' .. '0 r,p' I!"'" I .. I¥ ...... ' A.c_1QIIQiI m.
'"': ,.,~ 1II1II-.1 .. ".". PWn .. • • ,_ .. HI •
'iii,. I. .... "' .. ,.," .... ~. '-.4 ... .. ..
PI.tt'" P~"'" PI ....... '%"0, .... -
",-.B. 0,,1"1- ,
~'. "_II t',. tr." Mi· 'AI.
. I
W ••• ' I~.d'" knd llIWt So .. ,. lIWI 1i'tJ" I· V!!'" til"
"."a! 11 •• 1'1) IlI'laoter fila.., flalillM rIolt.r "_,d hord 'Til. n.
UIlIIiU. IUIII.PACE 1 "110 tH 11\10 '" W (n II) CSt ,zl (2) 14) (:ilt u"
lid; !>ope. on ~.
A i,,1i alt pl,,"'<>od (21 .lil .27 .30 .32 .29 .:19 .28 .22 .17 ;23 .2'
511" •• 1 •• ,. ((.I) Illd(l pap.!IIr Qfi 2*,"
",oed .h_thln; 1.1) .:10 .'113 , :l:a .n .25 .25 .2.11 .20 .t 6 .21 .It
... I11."' •• ,.'C.m .... lIdo pop ... on ~.'
$l!lii.t .. E~n pl.,~ til ,19 • 2a .J • .37 .33 .n :n .l:J .11 .2.5 .22
."
A.,h.1f 1.11 lid; pOpe>' Of! ~.
•• iI~ l!!iI m i~"a~ I::!~ .45 .2-' .29 .:n ..21 ,1J ~7 .l:!l .~1 .22 .XI
II .... (I) Ildll pGper O!'I Mi~
lilet 1101 p~ 121 .6" .:29 .36 .31 .3..1 .• 15 "Il1 .26 ,.19 .26 .U
HI Itd'g ~<l.I!'" ·Doo 1Y:R"
SIiI.,. M",.I,{11 ... Dod .... ¢bIn~ 1.31 ."1, .25 ..29 .:11 .:21 .21 .27 .:22 .11 ..D .20
lid;, plllUr ....
I" I! ~1jI Jtripi n) .53 ,:l6 ;)1 ,:13 ;~Q .:lQ .~!! .23 .1:7 ,:I" .il1
r--
W.od Ildll P"'pott o;NI fM'"
Shln.lu 1'1) ph,wood (2) ... 1 .l' .. '0 .2' .26 .V" .25 .2' .16 .21 .19
Ildll p'lIp'I'r ""~~"
",ood "'.ammo III .lA • :U .2 • .:2:5 .:23 .2:11 .22 .IP .15 .Ii .17 ~ 9U, .tJaHA! Gwl'1I .• , E~ s..-.." [11_1 In-~I H''''''Gain, ltv/hi: .. ~ot.~ .... 4. ~ ftl )(1\11 .... '"' ;l(. I.~ ,_" ;&fl. ral!N 20lL Wllhtlt!l_, flooor· Upl "..,1 'laP. ·Iiwo./Iw - n.:.ruDIIII"I.~ _. MI ft~ xlU _.... )( 1.1'1 x i--- ....... - IBtdd.'hMpJ.

"hw0!l41t1on 01· ,colo' ,._.. 01' .~ far 4~ l.-h.r.',,1'0 r.w. 31. pop 7$,

CHAPTER S. H

I AND WATER V.\ffiR 'FLO\ lH'RU STRUCTURES

TAILI 29-TRANSMliSSIONCOI",ICIIN'II' U-C,E.u.ING AND FLOOR. (Heat ,10,. Up)1 BoJGd cmStiIl1 Air loth ."i.ld.J. 8t1i1l(hr) (Iq, fO (deg F temp diff)

MASONIiY' CElUNG
~ ,"'-- N"':''''~ Su ,.~ .... ., PIW!'NIIII,
-= .... ~ - ~.----
~ : I -ti OU"_' h.ul .. !~ A~U.
~ ~ iI"H!ICil· ' Ac •• "UluJ ""' .. ] ... ....... 1 ....... . ........ ,.
INill I "· .. 1 ¥ill u L.-t' Wiilifll!!1.!iI1I MI!!SuuIA •• ...
....G..~ "CII,_ [flldnl ., OJ ...... 1':1 • ..,. ... , ...... PI.", __ %'" Gina-
_. K"' \!!i~ ~~ , %* ",. "' ..
'CONCiiTi WBOIfT ,_" II WI "" ~. ""Ii UW'I foond ~I WI \4" Ii"' MI" ¥O"'
II""'. PI ••• 1 , ..... TIl. 111. P',ijlltj' I .. libtel' I'lomt' P1o.t .. ' .... rd IIDord: Th rn.
'''L.OO:I IUU:I.00.' t.ljl'll UJ 'I) m m (1' (3) IS) 121 i'l "4) m fH
:I U" .10 .. 53 .,. .n j .. " .311 . .u ,;41 ,21. ,19 .28 .2.4
A t391 .63 .A9 .36, .:10 ,A' .36, ." .:11 ,211 .11 .26, .13
N ... SooMI All' " 1.59. 1 S1 .115 :U ,21 .3' ,l' .39 .36 ,., .. , .n 2S .22
.. I rIll I .52 .AI -'2 .21' • S6 .32 . .37 ." 'l .17 .:14, .2~
~·IU.ol •• M; 10 (99) , ..,. .39 ", .2-6 .3' .,, .35 .32 .'3 .Ii' ..23, .21
- III WI-';;; 1O:fr -
M .39 .11 .2' .,<1 .3' -'5 .32 .2) .17 .23 .21
n._m. 10 ./"J 4 1211 .1S .JCI' .U ~22 ~ :n' .u .'J7 '6 19 .J15 ,M .11
~ ::: :0 1 .2" .21 ." ." .21 .22 .J' .11 .n: .17 .U
I .:s,'- .i6~ . AQ- J'O
.m .lD .33, .JO .3c' .2:1: .1,1 .iI'
• feu .All .31 .,. .. u • .11 .11:' .32 ..H .. , .2, .20
~ .. ~, ... 'r601 ,.AI,I .l-iI .iII .2.1 .)0 :J1 .lO ." .:H .~, .22 .It
W' ..... 'm.d • 110' .31 .23 .1d .n :2." .24 .'IV .lAl .)(1 .15 ::11 .19
•• H.~ III !loot J:6 .31, 2S U " .2.5 :n ." .If .IS .70 .1'
-.- ~
. U WI' loft 1 (1'1 ..l6 ..It .25 .ji 27 .25 :J1 .JJ .. .IS .20 .11
M.~ t'"'' ..28 :25 ,21 19 .12 .21 .21 .26 .17 .13 .~1 .16
6 '''2) .J.l .21 .11 .16 .HI .1,' ,19 .21 .1 :I ,12 .1 s .,.
- , 1211- .3. .,., ~2) .'11 .n .21 .32 .lO .1' .1'"' .n' ,~1'
FIHoTlI4> -4 In,' .::n .27 .23 .'to ,':10 .71 ;30 ,:II .1' .1" .1' .n ..
ON S " .1,1111 !Ii I~II .29 .26 ,32' .19 .21 .26 .29 .'1.1 .17 .14 .'18 .16-
I'll" LI"!!!llIFm 1[.:11 .28 .1.5 .n .19 ,27, ,2.5 .2'1 .'M. .'10" .1' .'11 .16
-III! 10 nOJI .77 3" .20 ,II .26 .2' .24 _,S ,16 ,I:) ,17 .15
M .. "..".. .... ~ 37 sr
UWtA911'1 'U" .ll~ .lQ .1' .l6 .2:4 .:11, .16 ,i:!! .11 .15
... '0 18/'" ~. lim .12 .10, .1,1' .11 :n .20 •. ':1;1' .2' .1" .n .15 .14
1" • I" I~",... • t<t4J .19 .~J' .11 ... .11 .11 ., ... .1' .II .11 .11 .11
-~.2tUI' .25 n ,10 11 J5-. - .n .25 .iI .16 --.n .16 .U
• IU' .:2:5 .2~ .~t .U' U .212 .2A .n .HI .n .16 .U
I!i'·H ...... s...t!. Al1I r6 (6A) .2. :n U' .JJ .13 .2" • .2) .22 .15 .11 ,'6 .I~
•• ill It·n 33 "1 .1:' ,It .2::1i .11 .J:a' .:111 .IS J'2 .15 .1.
%,"s."",_ U!UII>tI. tIT ,17 ..6 .l~ .2'0 ;22 .21 ,I' .n .1:5 .u,
•• f II.IWI ... ,. I Qo~, "i--:i7 .11 .21 .Im • 211 .'t .1;1 .11 .15 ., ..
J .... .I.' :I ...... 10 "l~ ,4 '"' . . I '." I" .11 .11 .'1 .11 .1) 'll!111 .Il .1::1
I i ("', .16 i.U . ,14 n I .h'l .15 .1'. .'t ,U .099 .12 .iI ,"AMII cONsnucnOM CEIlINO

-::PI!~OO:::- .. =.-·-r

,2>4 .'21 .2!S
.11 .16 .11
I-
.:1:1 .IP' .til
.16 .J.5 .17 .. '3 .11

--f----

.21 .16

.J4I ;J7 .1" -'9 .11
» ,1t .1' .l'l .JO
,~, .17 .14 .[1 .1$
.I!II .20 .16 .I, .If
.11, .It' ", .16 .. ,
.n .11 .15 ,'19 .17
.J7 .15 .12 .15 .1"
- f-
.20 .11' .1<1 .11 ,16
J6 • tot .12 .1A .13
I'" ASHA:E G;.Id. .22 .11

.20 .Id

~. HMJ ,_, ilP, UF"iOMdlt ..... ,d 'P!U,I, "lOw. H.oIGaifl.I."ih< IAI .... UI ttl X 11.1 v .... 1 )( lowtclOGt ~_. - Ii!!FIId. '''' - ! fl!..

11;-- II!' WI., ,,...,.. II..., 11_1 Gmo!, IIIIIIw - tAl" •• II Itl _IV Ito_'

)l r~ rt "J1diH, I • ......._. '-" - 1IIoiU. 'I ..... , ... I,' f .i8"n

1-74

I~A,RT L LOAD ESTIMATINC

TAIU 30-TANSMISSION COIFIFICIINT U-CEILING AND flOOI; (He t flow Down) Based on Sii'll Air 80th Sidel, Btu/(hr) [5C1 ft) (deg F temp dift)

All n .. ",b.'1 In porenlhe ••• Ind~~at" ",eight p., .q ft. Toiol ... ·1;11. p.' ~ fi I ..... 111 of e .. llIng qnd flCIof.

", .. IiONIfY CriLl ...

r- ~--~~~--

_ .,.-_",;..o_l_f,,,"'_" .,.- ....-~~S .. _"., ... oI' ..... '¥ftH

,.'" OY,I"'" 11,,_1l1li111 "c .... tlc.1- TO.

THICI(. A.coulflc.1 ,M.ol or 1_.1f '1.111 .F II. ,1., ... 111,

HISS N .. n. Till ,,,"W.ltII L",. 'h" I,,!!II A.. .,

('"c!t .. 1 ... 0',," PI.ot •• d 1'1 •• 1 .. 01 " • ., • ..- ~_. 8", ... ",

a". ~.. ~ . ~.. -;~;; ••• ----t--;~'i'"'ii" .. -,..-.-~;-;.~t---,r-.;.._-l..,.....:..:._~.r::..:~

WEIGHT $flul LlWt %.. Y.· $ .. ,,(1 I.IW, S" .. ;f UWf ~. ,.. y,~ ~"

CON!c.n~ It. fl. pt •• I_ ",."... Til" Til'. 'lad... li'I'cnt.r I"la .... ' PIa.t..- __ ocl Iocpd m. TIl.

SUlllnOOI ~,,", \51 m (U III (7J m 'W (2) (J') I"J (I) cn

I!~

lrill.OORl rilj9

~ " , ~ "

'"

._' Ct:!~I!I!!

flOOI

No, .. ...

,. u ... ~ ........

'"

Fie., TIl.

2 II P) .,111 ,;1:1 .3 I .26 ,32 ,'l\, .30 .:11 .2,31 .17 ':23 .:20

~ 13P) .<1" .;10 .30 .25 .31 .18 .28 .'11 .22! .11 .22 .10

S;uond Aaa 61591 ,AI .31 .. 2,1 ,:a .29' .77' .27 .16 .:11 ,!>Ii .22 ."

• !79,) .39 .35 .17 .:U .21 .2,6, .261 U .'1 ,116 .~1 .19

10 H) .36 .3~_........:_26 .2.2 .71 .15 .2:S ., .. , .20 .IJ .20 .]11

lIWt-",;,;I-TuF~3.i .3" .26 .22' .27' ..2" ~J .2~,......,r-.20=. ;:---- -:.I"".I~f--..1(IC:C-· =- .1t

80, Iii/f.· ~ (21) .29 .2. .11 .1'9 .l2 .~1 .21 .20 .17 .,~ .17 .1'

~. ~:: ~~ ·:i! :~:-;;~--:l;:;I~;--r-:;:~:7:--:2;;-'~;--t---;;:~:-;:---:~~~~, -+-:,~~ -.,.,.:!=---+-.:~,..,!--:-~~-

• (40) ,l:! .31 .2. .21 .:lS .23 ..13, .22 .19 .1-' .1' .17

Sand Agg 6 (60) .31 ..1'9' .23 .21 .2. ,22 .22 .21 . I. .1$ .1'1 17

• 'IIDI ,;),0 ,;;I' .n .10 .n ..12 .on ." ," .1' .1,1 .1'

10 (11001 .'9 .v ", .19 .22 .2" .21 -'0 .1" .1,. .17 .'6

U Wt "110 1 ft6f ~.:l9 .21 :21 .'19 .22 ,2·'1--lr-.~21,----;;.2;;:;j)~1--.-;;11;;-' -~,'~._.I--.i17=--.;:.1~6-

80"b/Jtl 4129) ::n .22 .19 .17 1'1 .18 .111 .1~" .1" .'13 .U .1'

6(42) .20 .\9 .16, .'15 .'1,6 .16 ,II, ,1-" .14 ,II .14 .1::1

:21ilf"" .:ii' .31 .:U .21 .25 .:l3 --:2j .2,;-;~~i--.;-.19~--;-.,-;15,....+- -.~20'- --.,.,-

.. (.m .32 .2''1' .:2" .2:1 .%.. .22 .22 .11 I, .15 .1'9 .17

Sc,,,,,~ .Ii II I 6 [6:21 .:10 .le .2:1 .lCl .2'3 .21 ,12 ,21 .11 .1. .1. ,161

8 1121 .29 .2'7 .~12 .111 .li2 .21> .2'1 .2tl ,17 .1. .,. .16

1---:-,... __ +-IO-:-+!I,...:O~2~1 ~.'28 .2~_2!_ ,I' .71 .10 ..20 .19 .11 .13 .17 .1"

U WI "110 1. (19) .7'11 .lil .11 -:T9i- J!I--,20 .20 19 .'7 .13 .17 .15

,8,(llb/fi' A un .22 .:n ,1' .16 .11 .17 .17 .17 .1' .12 .1,5 .lA.

6 (.fA) .19 .111 .16 .HI .Iii .IS .15 .15 .u .u .1' .u

~ (241 .2e. .25 .20 .1. .20 .20' --;-To -:-.9- ". a .13 - - ~-:u-

" c .. ~} .13 .U .10 .111 .11'1 .HI .Ii .• t .Ifa .n .'4 .oil

5!1ft<! "l1li 6 (64)1 .14 .n .19 .17 .19 .11 .It .. I IS .15 .\6 .I,~

• ("41 .23 .22 .19 .\1 .If .18 .11 .17 .U .12 .1$ .IAI

'---'--------' \0 !l04).22 .21' .1' .16 ,Ill .17 .17 .17 .14 .12 .15 .1,.

LI Wt A!lQ 21201 .3:1 .:11 ,II ,16 .11 .17 .11-·--.~17;--t-~.,7.-~.1:-;;2:--t--.~1-:-5-~.1:-:"~'

801b/ttl .. (3131 .III .18 .16 .1' .16 .IS .U .15 .11 ,II .1~ .12

" [461 .16> .!Ii .l~ .U .IA .1' .U .ll .1:11 ,10 .12 . , I

----_._ ---

.~. w." lIuli ... $1 .. ,

fl.or 1'n. .r

Y!. 1..1".1 ...... .,,'

~. "ywoo~

'''I

2· l( ~. 5f., .. " ...

y,.~" IIw .... ."

1V,a" ..... n •• ,

."

2~ It 2' 1.1 •• JI'okl

-f---

--- ----

\0'1" C I. TIl.

, ... ,~. c ..

-,,.... "'.r " ••• -

or """ol.u,"" ...

til" Plyw •• d

~ U".leu," O'!!

%. N.' .. ~.w;I o.

". IlIlIIf.!I!!!1 "' ....

ilionI'

I~. Wood 121 3" Wood 151 'MIl' Woad ("\ 2"' "tt"OQd (;2.)

- '''''';''-'---If-

I~· Waocll5l

2" Woo!.£! _

'*'" Wood IJI

J'" WqOd II)

nAME COH5"fIUCT[IOH eElUJllili

-·--~ .... d-- h,,,.n;I_ .... "!ill"'"

~ .. Gy,.iII..;. ..... -.,,--"~ln;.. •• ~I:- .. ..,.-".-...,...,.A-c- •• -.-II:-C.~I~l'~n:-.

A~ • .,Itlr.1 Mlt.1 ., ".'rt ., .l1li "'_rrl".

TIl. L.lh W.od ,.th '11. A.. .r

!-QI'M _ '-- y."!flj111lf.;_·:::::-.".--t_"';.!,...·.:., .. r .. _:·,.:;= .. _1-1 _'..-:.I ••• ~ .. _: ... .::......--If-',.~'" ., ......

v.. Yo. $1t,,6 It WI SaM b Wt

Till rue ","1.~ 1'10."., "<J~" "o.t~

01 Ifl 111 131 l.!i1 1211

"'" ,"

IoaJ.4 ...... 11

121 1"1

~.. ~~

TlI. rllo

01 III

,oi(l .'1 .21 .31 .2"

.2:1 .n ." .20 .17

__:.~I,~~.~1~5 __ ~.l~1-4~.I~,'~ __ ·7Ij~

.17 .Hi .11 .1.,11 ,.

~ _:'.;_U:.__~.I_'I_i~ ._U;....._.:...12 _

,16 .U .12 .1' .ll

~ :.)3_.!-.;".1,;.,2 __ ,I_O_t-._12 .I_'_

.33 .\7 ,\6 ,II .17 .,,.

,J2 _,.....' :...'4 .: _'_l--1f- __ .'_A _ _';":~t- .1'

." .H

.11

.11

... .11

.U .12

.1' ,lI

.IS .12

.'13 .n

.11 ,ID

.n .lO

.t6 .13

ItS .12

I!quGtlao>.r H.ltl flO'¥< down, u.ncofldklion.d 'pat" o~ OQin, ..,,,. ~ l,v.a, '<1 ttl X fU ... ol~.1 X fOllldoor "lIIp - 11\11111. hliiiJ! - , ,."

Kitch'" 01.0 .... Hut Guoln. 't./h, .. 1..., .. , 111( 11.:1 ....... ] IICi lochial •• ",. cliff', IK 00;101_ I."". - hII.t. ',"p + U • ~ U PI.

CHA..PTER5. HEAT AND WATER VAPOR FLOW THRU STRUCTURES

1-75

5WMMI .. AND WINTEI

TAILE 31-TRAN5MISSIO'N COIEFFICIENT U-WITH INSULATION & AIR SPACES

BN/{ltr) (sq h) (deg F temp difF)

Adcllll.1I .f."'.cth,. Sh •• h 10 A'I. Spo •• (AI,.min ..... F .. II ... .,.u. Imiuh .. Hy '"' .05)
U Y'.I ... Dlrectioro of H .. o i Flow
aMltl,. ",oolIH.n of Adol'n
A!!II!!Iin. Fl ..... Inlvl.Hall af "'.i. Wi"le. and Summer Summle. Wint",
1 ..... 1. I,ac. liolbonltll o.-n Up
W.II. ¥"""
C .. " ... , ........ Added I OM! Two Ad"d On .. Two ,Add ad One Two
I •• f ~I'b [100>.,.1' • 10 01'1 ... .heel th~oh to O1IIe Ohe ... t .he e b to one ~" .. t .n •• i1
fl ... ijf bot'! In air in air .... both in air ill <Jk Q' bQlh in 0;' In oir
1 2 11 ",de. Ipa.crl • paC. sid •• 'po,,, ~p"c. .. d .... Ipa~. .pac •
.60 .19 .11 .OB .:38 .3.11 .UI .11 .12 .06 .OS .. 36 .20 .14
.5' .111 . 11 .01 .37 .33 .HI .11 .n . .06 .05 .36 .20 .14
'.56 .18 .11 ,08 .3o!! .32 .118 .11 .l' .06 .os .35 .20 ,14
.54 .11 .11 .01 .36 .31 .r7 .11 .11 .06 .OS .3. .19 .14
.52 .11 .11 .08 .35 .30 .11 .'10 .11 .06 .05 .33 .19 .14
.50' . \1 .n .!l1 .3 • .29 .\1 .10 .11 .06 .es .. 32 .19 .n
.41 .17 .11 0' ;33 .28 .• 6 .10 .11 .06 .0iC .31 .18 .11
.46 .11 .10 .01 .3'2 .28 .16 .10 .11 .. 06 .0 • .30 .18 .13
.44 .17 .• H! .01 .:11 .77 .16- .]0 .'1 .tl6 .0'- .29 .1 B .1:1
.42 .116 .IQ .07 ,:Ie) .26 .15 .10 .11 .06 .04 .21 .17 .Il
•• 0 .1'6 .10 .01 .. 29 ,26 .1:5, ,10 .10 .06 .04 .27 .1,7 .12
.31, .16 .10 .07 .18 .2.5 .1.5 .09 .10 .oe .04 .26 .1,] .12
.3. .15 .10 .07 .2] .2-4 .U .09 .10 ,at. .0" .25 • loS .1'2
.14 .IS .'0 .07' .26 .23 .U .09 .10 .04 .0' .24 .. 16 .'12
.S2 .15 .10 .07 .. 25 .22 .13 .09 .10 .05 .0.& .23 .15 .n
.30 .14 .09 .07 .Z3 :21 .n .09 .10 .0.5 .0' .22 .15 .II
.11' .14 ,09 .07 .22 .:20 .13 .011 .09 .OS .04 .20 .1<4 .10
.2. .13 .09 .01 .21 .HI .12 .08 ..09 .0:5 .04 .19 .13 .10
.'24 ,13 ,09 .07 .20 .17 .12 .08 .09 .OS .04 .16 .13 .10
.22 .12 ,01 .06 .11 ,16 .11 /011 .08 .os ,0" .16 .12 .09
• 20 .12 .08 .06 .1] .1.5 .io .07 .08 .OS .0 • .15 .11 .09
.11 .11 .08 .06 .1:5' .14 .10 Jj] .08 .05 ,0' .U .11 .08
.,4 .10 .01 .0& , .14 .11 .09 .07 ,07 .05 .041 .13 .10 .1011
,14 ,09 .07 .05 I .12 .11 .Oi .. 06 .07 .04 .04 .12 .09 lJ7
.12 .08 .06 .0' .11 .10 .011 .06 .06 .0iC .03 .10 .08 .07
.10 .07 .04 I .os .09 .08 .07 .05 .06 .0" .03 .. Op .07 ,06 11"1.1 ..... Aiii' I .. I.dI". th .... IIIfIHtI ... Sh ... • .. Iactl .... Sh., •
... 4"., .. I Iliac. "'dd.d 10 0 ...... 'n 11'1
"" ....... Beth II .... AM,S,au Air I, ••• INSULATION

PART l. LOAD EST1MATING

T .. BLE 32-TRANSMI5SION COEFFICIENT U-FLAT AOOFS WITH ROOF-DECK INSULA.TION SiJ,MMIII,R AND WIN ••

Stu/(hr) (sq tt) (deg F temp difi)

" VALUE Of ROOF BEFORt ... DIlING I'OOF DIECK INSUL.ATION

Addltl ... of ••• ,-01'1:11' huul!l!!O!!

Thlckn ••• Un,)

~. IVI , 11 2~ l
.33 .22 ,17 .U ;12 .10
.29 .1. .16 .U .12 .10
.26 .19 .15 .13 .11 .Of
.2 • .11 .. " .12 .. 10 J)9
.21 .16 .13 .1::1' .IQ .09
.1' .15 .12 .11 ,Of ,Oil
,16 .13 .11 .10 .09 .DB
.1::1 .n .09 .01 .0' .fJ1
.09 .08 .07 .aT ,.06 .OJ .60 .50 .40

• 35 .30 •. J5

.20 .15 .10

TABLE 33-JRANSM15510N COEffiCIENT UI-WINDOWS, SKYLIGHTS; DOORS & GLASS BLOCK WALLS

Btul(hr) (sq ft) (deg F temp diff)

OI.ASS

II .... D •• IIlI. l'tI~l.
Air I,..c. ·fhlc: ....... ( .. 1 , !4 MIl ~.4 !4 y,- %-4
WIIMut SIo!wI WhI_ l.1'3 OA! O,5;S O..n o.'! 0.36 0.34
With Stor. W ..... _ O.u a.llus 1.-40 0050 O.1Q

0.'" D..64

DOO:U ._

"_I" .. thick .... ·, ... W_d (II!I," •• I

u

w .... s_o ....

1 114 1'1.. 1%

2' 2M1! :I

01." (V,,· H_IIIII'III')

0 .. 35 0:.32 0.30 ruo

0''''6 0.38 0.13 ,"OS

lUI 0.25 0.23 GAS

Honow GLASS ... oel: WAUl

u

5'{ .. 5%,.3*'''' ThId:-N_Ingl SiJ. 6w;6,;r:4, (141 1~x7'14dV." TlIid-N.omlnaiSrl ... e\ .. n4) 11-A1l II %.3%,· 11Ilck~Kom\nbl 50;. 1 b 12ic4 1161

7%.7iJ4.l~· Thlck"",IIIlIIIQU fib .... _ , diYldIrI, !be m'fily floCl

I n'b:.' "' •. 3%/ Thio:t ... Itt. ,,111'11 flb.r Kt dl<rld ..... tI1t eaori1f;o 1161

195. ASltA£ Guld.

Eq .. ation< Him Gain or lou, ltv/Iv - INlla, HI HI X tu "alU,1 X I~ 1.1111' - .... 11:1. ,",pI ·1ta1kla;lcI lIII!IIb.n In par. nlh_ 1nd1ea'1 w.l",ht "', Ib PI' J.CI ft.

CHAPTER 5, HEAT AND WATER VAPOR FLOW THRU STRUCTUR["~

1-71

CALCULATION OF TRANSMISS~QN COEfFICIENT UI

For types oC constructicn not listed in To.,bles 21 thru JJ. caJcula:te the U value as ,folloWj~

I. Determine the l'esistaDtle ,of ncb cmnponenr of a given ,structure and also the inside and eutdoor aD lIiurface fiims &om Tabl« 3'4.

2. Add th.ese resistances together.

R. = J"J + r, + ", + ' .... ".

3, Tae we reciprocal, U = !

last. of Table 34 _

- Therma RMiIla .. ,., IR, Building and ~ftlUlating Matetlah

Tablt' 34 was extracted from the 1958 ASHAE Guide and the column "weigbtper sq It" added.

Use of IGbe 34

- Them'lQ" R_dance It Buildino and Insulating Materials

The thermal resistaaces for building materials, are listed in two cehanns, One column mll the thermal :lI"f!lIlutarice per inch tllid.n:es.s,. based Gn cond,uctivity. while the other column lists the thermal resistance for a given rhid.neu or cortJU'Uctlon. based on roDductance ..

Exampl. 6 - Ca/CUlatiOR 01 U Valu. Gillcu:

A wan at pet .FrI. "11

I.~balllt]

I'-~

.!I MGL..LDWI ..

.cu.v 1I'1U:

- -

Find:

lITaMmission rocfficien( in .ummer.

Solution:

Refer to To.blt 11.

Remtan~

Corub'uaion R

Ii. Outdoor uuum.c.e ('1\.i mph wind) 0.25

2. Slone bong, 2 in. (2 X .08) 0.]6

5. 'Hol1ow day We, 51' . 1.95

4. SaM 3.ggrqale pllllw. 2 in. (2 X ~) 0.40

5. Inside air nnQce (Itm IIiI') O.ij8

Total &!1qtana: 8M

U ;, *::= !~4 ;: 0.10 Dtu/(hr)(~ f[)(deg F)

1-78

,PART I. LOA 0 EST[MAT.lNC

" !ILE 3.-THIRMAL RES'S'ANCO .-_IIILD~N:G AND I,N5'ULA111H,G .... nRIAlS (deg F per Btu) I (hr) (!iq ft)

OUCII.PUON

D,ENSIJ'f j (Q,.., I' cli'l,

"IlICJI., NBS tllI.11

WIIG"' fl. p•• "1

HSIST ANeE ,I

".'1",£1; rile .....

I k

..... U*I ... '''111'4111.,,'10

BUILDIHI) MATEIIALS

BUI1DIM 101.10

I ...... '.,11.1." 5l1mlllnll. Me

..... I;~_._ril AdlR!-c_ .... IoGr. Gl",II.v .. 0fI' Pliiiil'ft~ Ioo"ril G»,~ij'" 01:' ".nt.r toor,d' ~d

Plywood

I'lywC»d

"11"'00.:1

'l~d or W_,.!'o ....

Wood fl'bilr' 1ocHd:" tw..I!;_dJ _ H_II." __

1.25 I.S' 2.01

0.11 '.06 '.U 2.1l

11..25
O.oll
0.3'
0.4:;
1.2:1
0.31
0 •• '
0.63
o,v.
UI
2'.00
on
0.111
0,91,
2JO:J
0.06
0.12
~gl
o.?l
1.2;~
.10
0"
O,t(!,
1.11
1.52
1.U
2.22:
2..so
0.«1
OJ'l
o.fl
1.11
UI
0.16
I.U
UQ
t,.,
I •• ,
-.:11
l..so
2.00
U1'
1.26
1.35
1.6l
'IUI8 Wood Fib",:, HG"elooo,dT'l'p. W_d Ab.r, Hordboo<d 1l"PIt Wwd, Fir Gf PII'I. Sh.alkj",C! Wood, fj, 01" '1"," .

I.3S 2.G8 .. ;U'

IUllDING: """EI

Yf!fKII' ',,_ ... -.!. ,.11

VglI'a. :S.or, jI'u,y.n of Mopped IS Ib f.1t VOP(I!" Mal, f'1ot1k Fih!!J

65 65 12 12

WOODSi

,MA5QNIf UNITS

Mapi., Ook, and 51,"!!ar HC!rd~d. Fif. '~"" .... 0:1' Si!'llLlof &oftw_o:I.

1,klll.CI)MIIIQI'I IJlltIl. :fil~!

CkllI' fit.. Ho;.iI~ I C.1l D.ep

1 ,,," D.ep

:I C.II. O •• p

;II Cells D ... p

2 C.lb ,I)eep ,eoll. Deep,

C' __ !Iocb,nw.,. 0".1:11 C""'. $QndI &. 0:.0 .... 1 AlIlIl,gal.

'"
:Iii
• 12101 .110
.. no 4l
l 60 15
~ •• 16
6, 50 25
I -4!i 30
10 n u
12 10 MI
I 76 t~
, 6t 23
to 6~, 32
II &A ~3
U " 6il
, 68, 17
, 60J 20
6 54 21
• :56 37
12 53 53
, 60 IS
• .5<2 17
• .. ' :32
12 .431 43
:!I -'45 11
:a 35 9
'" 31 13
I~ li~'!I,hl AI!Glf.1II0" I,hp"nd.cCI !ill!;all. C~.S.lal" .. St.,,,,! P\I",iIoe}

GI'PiUm PortUlon l1l.1 l·~':Z·.sO" lOAd 1·.,2."11,30" .1..",,11 ~ ".12· 1(31)" 3.",,11

1-79

TAIL! 34,-TIIERMAL, RE5IS1A .. CES R-IUILDING AND INSULATING MAIERIALS (Con,d) (deg f per Btu) I (tlr) (,mqft)

I l'wnAN!C1 •
THiel. DENIITY WI'IOHf .... h!lell ,., LlIt.tIII
I .... s "" ,- "III ._ T' .. cll .... ' TIIIIII;II ...
MATUlA .. I DHC2IPI'HlII (III. II flj .. I filii ,,) I 1
-
II c
. .un_ MATllIiIAI.S. t~0N1.1 MAIONU C...wI Monar I 116 - 1)..20 -
MATRIAU Gyp.-flbjj' ~ 87\i'" gy~
c.. ....... '2~~ wood chip. 51 ._ 0'.60 -
Yilliltwl!l_ ...... ,'Ghot .20 _._ iii'. I! 9' -
....... :~ .. 100, ,_ , D:2. _
5ha'1ll. a., , ... ' .... IC) _ OAO -
bpOMl.III' 5m J ~ 6CI ,_ 0.59 -
IIl,,!IIb, "lII'h, Y.,..... jC) - iU6 -
"''Ill, C.lulili' C-.I .. 101 _ 1. J I -
H _ 1,0 -
:5oIMI .. Gnr-..I _ -.. ~Gl'W04r. (0..-, Drt:ed) 1ft _ o.n -
$...:I &. GnneI, or __ Ag1ora&G" [NDI Drlad) UI ,- om _
"'-, 116 _ 0..20 -
"*1111:'" c __ , ~1cIdw. ~ Aalllrwv-- 116, - 0.70 ~
MAn~"1J Sand AVllreg;ohl v- 1!6 U - 0.10
&cillldl "'IINUm. ~ II' 7.7 - 0,15
Gypw. ftcutm
UtII.OII.11M AvIJ''lGut., \i 45 UI - 11:;:1.2
ll ......... gIhJ ..... ohl ~ .u 2.-U - 1139
UgMw.I,,1II ..... gol., 011 ""!!'!'!II!.ailh v.. <4:5 UO' _ 0.41
"1fI1ih .. ulH'8- (I - 0.61" -
$aftdAIIII",g<rt. 105 _ 0.11 _
Sond AQ,,.,a1w liII 10J .loA - 0.09
s-d '-' ..... gol'-f M 10J 5.5 ~ 0.11
s-dAg _ ."all<ttt. " Hl5 U _ O.IS
s-dAIII .... _ Wooc:t ....... , 10J - - 11.40
V."...,.. AI ••• ate All _ 0.59 _
lOWING ,AJ.b ... C • ..-- ""V'II1I 120 - - 0.21
A..phalt Roll .... ',0 - - 0.15
I N,_It~ ... 10 - _ Q.M
10M ..... , ..... ~ 70 :u - o.n
:SkB \Ii 2(11 , ... - 0.0"
~""-_j - - N.-gi -
W .. ShlBtin &0 _ - O.,A
II'" $hlnglti
MAnl.tAU WDII!d, I.,. ,.~ ... ...,_... - - - '0.117
" ..... hrf_J Woad .• Dciuble, .6". 12· .JI~ - _, - ... ,
W~.1IIuI ............ 111. +II.' ~ - - '.AC
sw..
~ ..... V.·lopp.d - - - 0.11
Ar,oh.wadlntl - _, - o.U
AlplHiIt .......... " .. 100"" - - - 1 ... 5
W9IMI. DnI:P. 1" •• - - _, _ 079
W'ICIOII ...... H·.'·:, "ppM ~ - - '0.11
'WOOII. ' .......... ~OI' • ..,.... - _ _ 1.1115
Wood, Pfywood. 'MI", I~ , 0,5,
~ - -
I StnocIural Ola. - _ 0.10'
FLOG •• ", Atphqltn .. Mi 120 1;2~ - 'O.OA
MAnI:JAl!1 Carp., and' I'IbIrClUl "atlll _ - . - 1.0',
Carp" 0"" !lQw '~ul - - - 1.23
C~CJIIIk 11!- I - - - 0..011
CortE: IS - U2 -
CartTh l4I 2$ M6 _ 0.21
"It, fiIoorIng ~ - - 0.06,
ftoorl1le K - _ - 0.05
lJnoIiu,., "' 10 0.13 - 0.01
..,.,.,,_. Sub"_' K H 1.11 ~ 0.11-
Lb .... or ~.'Th, }i lUI 1 .. 1' - 0.02'
T_ ~ I~ 117 I' - 0 ..
W~ Sl!llfIocw lHt 12 UI - 0."
W 1IiDdI. H:aril';;;ac;d FH.h t'4 .(;5 1.1.1 - 0"" 1-80

PAR.T I. LOAD ESTIMATiNG

TABU 34-TH,IEIlMAL IESISTANCES R-BUILDING AND INSULATING MATEI:.liALS (Conld) (deg f per Btu) I (hr) (sq ft)

MATERIAL

WeiGHt lib p •• sqfl)

.... I .. cl'!:

Thick .... , ~

k

USISTAHCI.

f.ClI'Llsl.d Th.ldu ....

I

.93: 1.4

:us
3,70
4100
:3.70
'.00
1.19
1..78
1.116
1.43
2.63
1.32
2.06
2.50
370
3,00
US
1',82
U7
3.33
3.33
::.22
2.08
1.39
2.78
4.17
.5.2i>
6.6"1
11.33 COltoo Fibef

DENSiTY (Ib plr E~ fl)

fNSULAlilNG MATERIALS

TH!CKNESS (In .. )

0'.11 2.0

1ILIINK:lT AND lAM'·

II MliIIl!f!ll Wool, fllm'ln FDI',!I!

I l'roc!l"1ed From Iliad!, 5Ico!!., o. GIG ..

, .

1.5 ".0

w.ood! Fiber

Wood! Fiber, Mulft.,lmyer 5li1do.,d bpa!'lded

3.::1 M UI·2.0

L.a OSl!flLL

wOO<! .,.. Con~ Fib". ~Q".flca I me Mou.~1 Til ..

""Ie ,i.,. Fi!'l'd. !1I1 .. , La"'. PI,;mld l!'IhHlor IF]n"!! ITlle, Lol"; 1'10"1<)

9.S

22.4 22..4 15.0 1:5.0

0.6:1

Roof Deck Sllib

Sh"athing U ... prell o. COtne") Sheathing (1m pre!!! or Caat.dr 5hjllthl"Q Umpi'C'iI Of COlI',,"1

20.(1 20.0 20.0

o.n 1.3 I

Ccllllluf 0101'

C .... k Board! (Witho~i Add"d Blndll~1 Hog Ha'f [With A.,pnQ!t Bind"d 'Pla~liI: (Foa"'l'dl

Wood Silreddedl (Cemented {" P.efar", .. cI 51111>11

M.Dteraled "Dp~r or Pulp P,'Ddllcb Wo.::.d fiber> R .. d .... ood. :!-1 .• ""I~k. Ot Fir MIIl"",,,,1 W_I (Glan, Slo1;l, ,Of Rocirl

Sa .... d .... 1 or' st.o ¥lnG;

V.,nnki;lite IEilpa'Med)

All Type.

Pre'-d, fD ...... ",bo.- .. d~.

AplPro .. i ... afeiV Apprlllllll'lllotel, App.o.lmately ApplO;<im"t.d,. Apprv~.I"'Drely Appl'Oo.lfI'IaMe;;

"'.0 6.S - 8.0 11'.5 1.62 21.0

2.5 - 3..5 :iI.O - 3:.5 2.0 • '.0 1.0 - 15".0

7.0

IOQf INSULATION

!-i I I~ '2 2~ :3

\5.6 15.6 11l.1I 15.6 U.1i 1.5.6

','/ 1.3 1.9' 2.$ 3.2 l.1I

All.

AIR S,ACES

I POSITION

~ Hor.!:!'C!lta I H.ot'lJ.oootol Ht>ri~",,'al Horil;Q!'ifol Mo.IEOOloi Ho.iloniu,1 HOflz.Otltol HOfil'OfITal H ori1.Otllo I SJopinQ "5" Sloplllll "," V,,"~al

V •• flu,1

H~"T ROW Up !Wlnl e ,l

Up ISummer) Ii)OWfii -[Winte!' ) Do .... " !Wlnler) Down (WI"t.,,) Do.nm IWI .. terl Do"'n I.SI!m!fled

Do " [Summed

Pa iSllmm~rl

Up (Wlnl .. r) 1)"""" ISumoneri Hom. 1\IYintlOr' H <>ri:r.. (SII!I!Imtif I

0.8.'l 0,]1 1.02 1.15 1.1:3 1.l3 0,85 0.93 0.9'1 0.90 0.89 0.97 D.llb

All FILM

$till Air

fOSiHQ:N !fo.i'lO<llal Sk,pl'HI "5'· Vertfc,,1 Siaplo;g. ,.5" H"";1'O<I1ol

!'iE"r FLOW Up

Up ~o.l"z.on'<;fl Oa ... " OQwli

¥.. • 4 "% • ,

lJ.

l'h

• " ¥~

l'h

>4

"14 - t 0/ ••• :y. .• ¥. ~ ~

0.6i 0.62 0.68 0.76 0,92

... n)l Di ..... ion

0.17

15 Mph Wh.d 1\12 Mpli WillG

o.:u

CHAPT[R 5. HEAT ;\ND WATER VAPOR FLOW THRU STRUCTUR.ES

l~l

HEAT LOSS, THRU B.tSEMENT WALLS AND fLOORS BELOW THE GROUND LEVEl

The loss lhro"gh th- :fi;ool" i~ norman,. small arad relatively COQilU,nt y~lU' round because the ground temperature lUldi!T the floor varies only a. little throughout 'the year. The grQund is a ... ry good, he~t link. a nd can absorb or l,oAe a large amount of heDlt wilbourn :pprcciablt change in temperatu'l"(l at

bout the 8 (t level. Above the 8 (tlevel. the. gro~lIId temperature vanes wit.b the outdoor temperature with the ,greatc:tl ~'Uia 10 at the surface and a d crea:sin,g variation dO'wn 10 the 8 n depUl. The heal tou thru a banncmwaH may be appreciable and i ~ difticult to calrulate because tbe ground rempera[un: var:ies with depth. 'fablu Jj thf'U 37 have been ,empiricaJly calculated. to' lIimplif)' the evaluation of heat loss thru hlJemut walb and Roon.

The heat lOIS, thru ~ &1 b Roor ill large around. the perimeter and small in tltt Genter. This is b cawe the gT6und tftDpennurearound me perimeter "ariel whh the! outdoor temperaeare, whereas lhr ground temperlLutt!" in the middle l"emains relauvel oorutamt. :u wilh hueD. ht Hoon.

Basis of T obt. 35 thN 37

- Heat lOll Jhrv MalGnry IPtOOlS Clll'ld Woll. in Ground

Teb'", l5 tltru J7 arc ba:&~ on cmpidw data.

The perimeter f CtOl"S liSleu in "able 36 were developed by calculating the heat u;nlsmint<i (or am fooE or wa]1 to an 8 h depth, The wound was assumed to decrease the transmission coef6ciitJ1t, tb us adding l1esbtamct' berwccn the wall and the' onrdoor ail'. The ttanSIQIMIDn ffiients were then iidlkd to arrive at the per meter (acton.

Ute of Til - 35 tf,,1!'U '37

~ HeQf 11.011 'ibN ,Masonry floonClnd Wan. in GrQul'ld

The tra.nsmission coefficie_n~ listed in Table J may be used lor any lhijdn--_: of urunsulated somy floors where th~ i_ good contact between the Hoor and the ground.

The peri meier facto I'ts'too ill Ta'bl4! 16 are used for estimating he:3JlIOS$l thru basement walb and the Outside strip of basement Ooors. Thi (a ·tOT can be: used 0111, when r.h spate j~ heated conltinuously. 1£ Lhece IS only occasional heating. calculate the hea'l 105$ u.ing the 'Wall or floor U'lUISlllis&iOn coeffi:cienl5 ~ lilited I,n Toblt!s 2J t,n", JJ and the temperature dIfference between the b emenr nd outdoor air or ground Ilil listed in Tablt' 37'.

'The heal, loss in a balelDenll is, determined by ad· ing the heat transferred rhru th lloor, tbe walls and the ou ide strip o( the floor and the (Xl Lion of tht wall abeve the Rround led.

f>:ompl. 7 - HeQt Lop in a BOlem.tI' GI"'C_III~

&iUClUt U - ~OO' x W x 9'

.l\aaenlm1n temp - 65 F db. ncaled !,.llnlirnwlJsi ~ OUldoof temp -0' F db

Gl'lIIdc Hne ~ 6 ft 1lbolre h1xml!o.t Roor

Wall •• 00 IJoon - I~ m. conerete (80 Ib/en ft)

find:

HQt J'QU from buemem

Solution:

1. Heir loss alJOY" ground ft: - rMl ('. - t~

::: 0.1.8 X (~JO + 80) 11 X (Sf" -Q);:; 98211 Btu/h.r

2. ",~I Ims Ihru wall. lute! oUll1de ItTip Clf !loor below ground,

H:' L, Q (I. - 'oJ

= (200" '80) x L05 :Ii( (65 ~O) = ]9,JOO Bluthr

!c He'll i.ftI t.hIN floor

H = UA _ ('II 'II)

;;: IU)5 X (100 )( to) lC (65 - 55)

= 2000 8m I br - 5O.W8 'BIU/hr

wll 1l' U ... ltat lIanlmi lioo ~mcien't or 'Wall abo ... ~ g:rou.nd (Tabll! Zl) lind floor (Tablfl 3') in Rh'J(h~) (.q ft) (dq F)

"'" =~ of",aJ,l "bqvegrvund.:sq It • ,;:: Entire floor .. ~, 5Cj It

I., :;:;:: 1'c:r1mt.lu (ill Willi, ft

Q :::PefUn.l.'ler &(llO~ (Tabllll ~ti) ' .. = DU!!Ulent dry-bulb temp, po

• = Gnllmd 'liemp. f. crabill J7)

I, .. = (hn.door design dry-bulb l'emp. r

fA LE 35 ..... ftANSM11510N COEFFICIE .. UMA50 .,' FLOORS A D WALL IN GItOU

(lise only in cDnJunction 'Vi th Table 36)

•••• r

.08

11' _0.11

C. •• ",,,I.,, U "./'(ltI' t ... "I .... ,.

.05

'ortion 01 Wal

.I11I, !:iI(ng I , •• ,

b trGund le¥tll

-Some addlIIonol fIooI' 10 .. I. inckid. d in p .. r m ... r ,_ •• _ .. tablot .'10. Iqwtlom.

Hu' IauthtouV" tloor, Ifill"" - (",r.1> of I~ •• q ftJ

X IU wall.lel X tbOMtll:efti - o_d I-

M.aT bl ~avo" woll belOw Ii foor Ilno, IN/h,

., lar.a llif wall below 8 ff lint, 1<11 ttl X IV "'aliil,1

)( (bcuem.nt - 111......:1 1.lIip I.

HOTEl 'I'h. 'adog III robIW • .,,: am Hi IJll,Ql' b" I;IMd for 0"11 ltIl~u. of III'IIn.llla,.1I InCJII>IYY waU iIij' ~.bu' l'Iler. ",yol b. CI ,ClOd C>iliriIiQ"f (!WI alt 'p<iCI which .mal' CO'II'I~. to the ovtdoor.1 betw • .,11 Ibe gro!NId and! the ,1_ Uf ' .... aIL Whe" ,*,,11 oraund It dry and •• nd,.. '" _her, 1h.,. is ~tI r f[ .1CIn; woU .., .... _ 1MI Wil 1110 a '" rat If_ IIIIt;.ian _eflkl ..... th .. ~' .. tfmef.r 'odor mo" b. lrecS_4 .lahHy.

I 2

PART II. LOAD ESTIMATING

TABLE 36-PIRIMflER FACTORS

em £S1'IIMATING HI.l.r LOSS TtiROUGH IIAIIMENT WALLS AND OUTSIDE STAIP OF BASEMENT fLOO.

(Use only in conjunction with Table 3S)

DllIllftU or "00' fntlft GMIt". h!nl

.to .60 .7S .f(l

1.05 1.2Q

l 1i'6"el ab",,'I! AI groon.d I" .. el '2 f&et belo ...

4 r.·.1 below

/I r="ef bolow

£I F""t below

EI1l.1l1lfol'l,

HeOI 10 .. OM ... ' P'" ".'.'. lilli/iv = Iper , ... " ... of ",all, Itl v. I" .. rim r , to~o" X (bo •• _nl -outdOO( mpl1.

TABLE 37 -GROUlftiD T'EMPtRATURIS

FOR EstIMATIN'O HliA1 LOn THROUGH IAUMlHT J!IOO'll

O.,lIloQr O .. llIn T,em" (') -30 -20 -11(1 0 +10 ... 20
~;.I/ftd Temp (F) "0 A5 SO 55 60 65 TRANSMISSION COEfFICIENTSPIPES IN WA'I'ER OR BRINE

Heat ttansmilision coefficients for copper and stet] pipes are listed ill Tables J8 (mel )9, These c~m· cients Il1aY be useful ill! applications SUI(.h as cold water or brine :;;lorage sYSlerm and i e skating rinn.

ikuls of TabllM38 and 39

~ Transmission Coefficients, ~pe, in Water or Brine

Tabl, 38 is [or ice coated pipes io water, based on a heat transfer film coefficiem, inside (be pipe, of 150 Bttl/(hr)(sq fl internal pipe 5urCace) (deg F).

Tablt 39 is lor pipo in \Y. ter or brine based on a heal ,IU r of 18 Bt:u/(hr)(sq [t external pipe surfaoe) (d -, f) tn water,I4llEu in brine. It is alsobased on a ~ow rate of circulation OR the outside of the pipe and 10 F to 15 F 'temperauare difference between water or brine and refrigerant. High ratta of circulation will increase the heat transfer rate, For special problems, consult heal transfer reference books.

TABLI 3Ii-1RANSMISSIO COEffICIENT U-I' COI.TlD PIPES IN Wit. -.

Btu/(hr) (linool ft pipe) (de; F between 32 F db and refrig temp) IMid. "I", _ffid.." .". ISO B","""I I.~ , .. (d .. " PI

e.,.,., I ,. WIth
'1 ... e.IIOP. 11'1,. Willi "eel PI,. I II..!,
SI .. II lu Ihlen ... ( .c .... ) Stili. [IElI 'hlC:~iii.lt (lnclUJrt!
!rl!i~".J lit_In I
0.0 .• K 1 114 1 u.e •• JI)' ~ I 11'\ 2; . ,
~ 6,1 A.s .'I.S ::U '6 1.2 5.2 ·U U U
Y. '1.1 f.I '.2 :31.1 Jj 8;! &.1 ,U 4." 1.1
,. I~O 5." .. ." 4.1 1 10.6 7.2 5,B 1.1 ,U
• !oil 9'.11 u , ... A:T I 1~ IlU u; U U 4:,1 1.All'E 3'9- _ A.NSMIS$ION (OI".CIENI U-'PIP!S IMM 151D IN WATU OR IRINE

Btu/(lhr) (lineal fl pi} (deg f betweelll 32 f db and re.frig t~mpl O!ot.Id. ,",Pit. II ([<>e'ff'ki,mt .. la II'w/UvI (aq fi'l 'jd.u fI

'O.mld. tlrli .. Nm _ffident=14 bI/(I!Ir) (tq ft~ (II." P)

W 0_ ... frill.~ont I.<np~ 10 flO' S ,

-
C."p""'plt .. , .... " .. 1'1 .. - P!ptll PI" ..
II: .. In N_h ... 1 IIii" In liii
IIn« .... O.D.1 ·W ... n'n~h .. ' Wal. Irt"l1
y. 2 . ./j 'VI ",I) 1.1
~ 2..f .,. $.0 :1.9
Y. :U 1 6.2' U
IYo :U ,v.. i .• '-I
-- CHAP 'ER 5. ",Et\T ANn WATER VAPOR FLOW THln) STRU :-rUJ{l~S

1-83

WATER VA~QR flOW THRU: BUILDING STRUCTURES

Water \'apor ,tlow~ Ibm building structures, re-

ulting in a Iat nr load whenev T a vapor pressur diler,cnce exists a 0&5 3 rru ture, The late'ul load (rom this ouree i usunUy insignificant in eomfort app1i,caliOflS and need b con idered only in low -r high dewpoin't app ication .

Water v apor HOW8 from high to lower vapor' pf .

SUN! r a ie d tel'f:nirlw b the permeability f the struerure. This proeeas is. quite ~imila.1 to heal Bow, xct'pt that !here ,lj trans(el' of mass 'WIth water vapor flow. ru heat flow call be reduced by adding insulation, vapor Row can be , duced by vap 1:' bat rim. The vapor b:l:rriv mil)' b paint (aJumillum or asphalt}, aluminum f011 or g-a1vnnized iron. It thoula always bE laced mt thlt s.d,. () ,i'l trurtlll't! halli,~g r,h~ lugh~ vapor P I!J.SIlTel to prclIr:nt the wa't't vapOr {tom {iowiflg up Co lhe barrier MU:! ,condensing 1II'i~hi:n,I~t WIlli.

&1111 of Table 40

- WQter Vapor lmniimis.'sjon ,~rv VQn~s Ntat(i'rlal~

The values for walls, floors. ciU,ng5 and partitiorn have been estimated from the souree erenres List ( in dl bibliography, The )esj lance of a hOlflogene ous material to WlIeI" poi tran...:smi!;~jQn ha be I

&sum d to be dir~f-l)' propemonal eo the lh[clme - and it also has ~, assumed tIT ,I the1i'(' is no surf e resistance 1'0 war v:apor flow" The v)llue:; :to per mreability of mtscellaneous marerials ur e based 01'1 te5,t resuJ'rs.

1NOTE: Some DE the values for walls, roofs, ere.,

have been increased by a sarf'I' {, tur b cause conclusive data i~ not avajl~lhl"

Ute of Table 40

- Water Vapor Transmission tnru VarIous Materials

Tabtt' 4'0 i~ used 10 determine latent heat g nl from water vapor transmission thru building truelures in the hi.gh and I w dewpoint applications where the air meisrure Lam O't must be llIIaio[3Ii'l d.

bompl'l! 9- WgrJer Vapor Tlg,nJm;~t'jl)n Civet!:

A 'l{J. ft )( 4ll. F~ l'C 8 1'1 I 1'!IOfatlJlf} on ~("'tlnd Ji!'l'Itir n-qulnlilg in~Ldc daign C:O!ldiljon~ of "Ill F db, r.O% rh, with Iii,. ul~1 door tlaign eundiricns at !:Ill 'p db. 7~' .' wh, The outdoor ~'aJl U 12 il1l It lariel - 'til n window" Th~ paniti(ln 311'1:

III I;)) b.Lh and plaster 01\ both $id.e f1f SUtcb. FI~~ ilIind t'c.ili~ll! Ull 4 inch eencreee

F1nd':

be lnrent he:;1 gain from the "'iHe( vapor rtan~mjSiiioll,

1Ij.olu ,ion.

.rflll !II 95 .F ~Ii, 71\ Jo' wb = gg {fl8ych dUlIt, Grllh ilL 10 •• ,II~, 5{1'1" rl.1 = III (p~yr.h rh~,TtI MobLU ft" ,mill e IIII' II iff~,C' 1'1 tt = H I gf fl h

1\:I.mnll' thllr 1111': rle~pOilli in 11'11' areas surrounding i.h Ia,h.

Oo.lJ' b un r rm ll.1l equal 10 the onldOOlr dewpoinl.

i..aU:11r h -:all p.n.

:::: 10.'" FlIU!hf 40 '40

Fli)(11' .and I 'Wll~ == II )( ----00- X III X .10

~ 259 ,m/hr

1'::lrIhiolls -= x x 4(1 II X S" IK 10

100

= 71'1 6UJ/J1II

= U146A Bttl/hr

1-84

PART I. LOAD ESTIMATING

TAIU 40-WA1II: VAPOR 'RANStttISSION' 'HRU VARIOUS MaTla.AU

'IIIM.ANCI ttu/lbrt (100 'let Itl Igr/lb dlHI' I.d""" '-a'

No VopOl' hal UftI.. Nvt.d UncI.,

D_lp"-

,.

WIIII:2 Coem

Va~1

'oW- 5!IIO!IIh

....

SurfGc.-

.W'" ...._.._

Fall MDWWd II1II 0... SId. of ..... C~ II) Wglf-

WAW

8rlclr:- 4 1ndI .. .12 II .ms .024
- • indl.s ,06 .6411 ,020
-llIlnch.J .01 I .033 .017
~p""I...mof""'!!& AII' -_ --
Canent.- 6 ....... .067 .050 .o~n
-12 lndt .. .oU .029 ,016
-p.r IndI !If lIIId!nuI 040 _-- --
'N"4II-!O\'iIfI pi..,., ~ ftnIIh :19 .16 .0211'
'-lam. with olPhalt IZICIt.cI .... at!nt boa", lath ..42 .1. .02'
TII.-hollow dilly IfGe.. IIIIoz.dt~ .... .013 .012 .G091
-hollll'W dllY 1 __ )-" ...... .:Z • .11 .otJ
-hollow day, • I'III:tI fac. ancI ..... __ I . 012 .OU .0016 CllLINCR AND Roon

IOOFS

I .10
.0!l1
,10
.50
.,(0
'.0
1.0
.02
.02
1.5
.0:2
.02 Canocrlll_2 ~ plgI: :I layer felt ~n. -6 Inch"" plul 3 IoYlI!r felt rooftn,

Shln,I •• , .h •• tliln .... "'''''''-pln ,Ialt .. on _... GO' ...tullalh WII..--I lndI. plus :I layer hit lroofl'nl

-2 jnd;o .... pili .. :3 lay.r 'elt I'OOIfInIll

:061 .G2J
.0.40 .019
,II .030
.14 .021
.13 .CI28
.1'9 .lQO
.17 .M9
.011 .on
.01. .012
.11 .29
.01. .012
.01' .012 C.ncrlll_A Inch..,

-8 klcha

Pia .... lin ••• d ., rn ..... lat" II. ~lIhI~ne fIoofIno PI ••• ., II" w .. "d or rn .. al ....... ,.I __ fIooring

"Iii_ iii" ........... llliiital lath .. ·' .... h-cloubl. "-In,

PAlI.nnONI

Inl.I.,I ... l.ttrtI % ...a 00 both sid .. ·tri studding

Wood or -" .. 110111 and ph, ... , Of! both sid., of .tuddlng

MISCIUANIOU5

Air lpace, .tI~ air :J ~ Inch 3.6
1 Indl 13.0
lulldlnll M.,.,loll
MOlooiite-1 Ihklcn"" •• ~ IndI 1., .11 .071
-S 1hIdineHf<1 .:12
I'1Qlfllr 0!1 'Il'ooQ h;'" 1.1
-pillt 2 cooh oll ... lnu", point -- .17
Pla.tlr or! 'II),P'- lath 1.95 --
-drtkl pi .... prilRar IiInd 2" _h ,lead ami a;l1 PGlInt -- .13
Plywood-V<! kI€h QouOIm IIr 13 p'I'I'1 . .63
-dltta pin :I coah a.phah p .. l.,. -- .0111
-,dllla plin :I g;ala olumlftulR paint -- .13
-¥o! Imd! DouOkll fir [5 pll,1 .27
-dilto pi ... :I a>ah aspl)t:>lt P!:I1nt -- ,QAI
~dlifo pllll 2 _Ia aluminum pain' ~- .12
Wood-Pille .508 lfolh .33
-,o{llfO p .... 2 CD .. " alllmlnlo!lII poml -- .0(6
-SPruell, .~8 inIh I ..20
In' ......... M ....... '.
COftcbaani. 1 1"!Wd< .~
Interior fiN'" intuIalinQ boord. \4' J.O • 7.0
-d",,,, plut ;Z _II, watll~ en,uhion poini :U ••• 0
- dina plUi 2, COGII 't'lImlth boo. pololl .1 • 1.0 I
-ditto plu. 2' _k "ad am'" Gn pal", .17
-ditto p ..... wall AnOIa"", .031 •• 06 CHI\PTER5. HEAT A.ND WATER VAI)OR FLOW THRU STllU('1'U~E.S

1-65

T .. aLE .O-WAna V'APOI TRANSMISSION 'MITU VAllOUS MATlIIAL-5(Cofttd)

,rIM.ANCI .1II/(kr:11100 Iq'1I} Ilir/ib Ill'" 1iat.!t ,'_'

Me. '11'0.1>« $",1 UnI. .. Notlid Unit.,

O_'pl'ien

1 A:~~

I, ~I "DIii'I,,-d

CIfI 0" .. Side at Pop.,

( .. "'- ... to Waitt

WIflI,2 CO<IIti YClJKI'-al Plli~'o;, ~ I;;oJd""

,50,-0

MI5Cill!LL,ANIOIJi5

~ .... ltltll'!' M .... ls, •• IIIt:. ~ bottfd IGlIt! -dllhlpM yj'" plalm'

-ditto phi. Io!i" p .... Mr. _1'.,.,·aM lIIor ,=011'" JJC!~

~~~:.IMt·

-111110 p,," ....... " _fiIIg bofIt Iid.1 MIn_ .. 1 'Wool (3" 1h.M. Ihkk). WipI'Uf.tllifl

1~1II."'WI.a, Celophan., _ ....... proof

010"'"", II ply wax*<l or a ,,1)1' plal."

Kn:Ifi ptlp.et __ bd .11+0 I"a~ ........ .u Un".. 100 t'q (i ,.,.

h"llt ,n ••

::I CQgb !I~!!!! lKIiIt. ,.~ 1 «l!OI'I o~1f !>OWl, Ql!Mfr ....

2: _" I.o;d alld 011 pCl~, mi. a"" 2 _h .,.,11"'" _Ltion" utllI!1It.d

'.~

Du" .. ,. 01" a.pha" ICI1!Iin.n. rlll'llNQtedl 3l).3o.3-D. :1.1 it:. PM 100 t'1 "

-ditto 3Q.6O.::IO,A.2 tb p..- 100 .q fI

hilt pop.-I ,.,. .. -2,Ihe.h

-olp".lo!lJ .. foil con on. ald. 0' .. ."

-~.foIl OIl bolli, .lid,.. of ... ""

u' . 1.2

1.5 .HI· .31, U·U .04' • 1.0 . 3 . .5

.01 ·O.U .001$ • ,006 1.4. ::1.1 ;01 •• O:U

.05 - .2 .,05 •• 1

.1 •. 6

$.0 - 11.0

.IS •. 27 .O!n •• 0·9"

•••

5 .• 1

.OH, .0112'

.015 .011 .11

~.2

11rn4_w, ,.,,11"

.... pMI)1 1"",,'.glK!'eci andl COIrf .... '1 It. p.r' 100 Iq ft stQ'- hlt,6 U. p., 100, .q fI, ~. ~IIIH ""~ f<!II"

•• .rI .......... Il!llWQr ...... 01 _,"wi'll; ~It

illS 11:1. ,P'" Iq fit -

:JQ lb. P., UI It

."" iIwtf ."'-' IMilft W. .......

Cred 121too1M. len!! by lia Indi .. Wlel .. (appro.I .... t.d·,,_ 0""")

.02 •• 10 lA

·~"io;t.d ... 1ffQ{_, 1.", ~ of C!I ;-.iI _pot ,_IIPOW .,." a~ .MII"f .... ;:'" " f ... lr ... po- ..... 01, .... Mo. .. wrlf...,IJ "'_"".!!III " 1ecqlill • .d 'Of!Q fOlrIl,h Wf'f1liCli '!tiD<! ... " .-... .... rf_ DClfOlll>dkQr", filol .jlto.r aophalt 'C!If ol\ltl!~'" point ar., 'gaod for ''''''por .eal ...

Alumino,," foil on '"pe .. TM. ",,,t.rlallhould 01"", toe (IIpplie<i 0 ,eo .... 00' .. surf .. < .... "cI fcI!toh I"pp!pd and I.al~d willi '''phoil.

Th .. "QPOf bonie. Ihwld Qtwa/)" ... 'placed , i'le del_ of fiot ' all """'1". 1ti"""III." va.pQ!! p~en"".. If cct>cd .... 'a;1l4M o.f ""vi~1ute If" "'1111 .. pWl1l>1 ••

Applim'tlon, Th. 1'1_ 1Ii!,,1,; d".to -tl p'C)f tnln_'uion" mfOCl'9h 'ItO'II~ '"01 b.. ~e,glor€i, .. d r!!lf III, !!grlnDI olr r.!!!ld!fiDI'!III'II PI Il!fnG,fatlon iab.

'Tilil lat.nt (lain ..... uld 0. ",,,,id •• ..., fa.r air (!I"ditl""lng. j .. b.. wiler. ther. I" d ,f,,,,1 'l'Qp!)r p".lIl1r" dIR.r.nclil b-.tw ... a' 'he room. Ill'ld tb!!! ovlJid •• p>riiclll, .. I'I' wb. .. lh. ,de"'l'Olni !mid'. ",wi b. 1 .. ",,_ 'N6'!! fliacd MoliduN illP, 01. 'I. ·"AItHltioolJ ... -a~ it .1' ""vcih I""'" !'ftttI:!Iit"- lherll _hhtft h'lMii"'lJ'- .. til ... &.iWI.g dnod'vrH.

C"""en.lon Fadol'll if:., _.rt abtl'oie fl:lbl, yolu," to, gram/III,) r.q fill (I,;d, mllftuf)"."'Op« pl'e"uur. dlff"'''''lWI, "'''IIIr..';r by 9.B. ~roilln/'hf)1 ('.ell fII} '!p_"b p.f ull...:h va,p« p •• u",a dlHe,e_ ...... biply \>)' 20.,0. 10.,.,"" ..... (ltu Ia .. ", '-01 m 0''';101".'''';'''), by 7if*1 1'0611)= 0.6.

1-86

PART t. LOAD ESTIM.O\TING

CONDENSATION Of WATER VAPOR

Whenever there is a. difference of temperature and pressure of water vapor across a structure, conditions ma:y develop that lead to a condensacion of moisture. This condensation occurs 3'[ the point of saturation temperalure and pressure,

All water vapor flows thru the structure. its ternperature deereases and, if at any point it reaches the dewpeint or saturation temperature, condensaLion begins. As c{mdensatkloll occurs, the vapor pres-sure decreases, thereby lowering the dewpoint or saturation temperature until it corresponds to the actual temperature. The rate at which condensation occurs is determined by the rate at which heat is removed fro rn the poi flt of condensa {in n. Ali: the va por continnes to condense; latent heat of condensation \5 released, causing the dry. bulb tempe.ratu.re of the material to rise.

To illustrate this .. assume a fram.e wall with wood sheathing and shingles on the outside, plasterboard On the inside and fibrous insulation between the two. Also. assume that the inside conditions are 75 F db and 50% th and the outdoor condltiees are (lQF db and 80% rh, Refer to Fig. 28.

The t-emperature and vapor pressure gradient decreases approximately as shown by the solid and dashed lines unril condensation begins (saturation point), At millpoint, the latent heal of condensation decreases the rate of temperature drop thru the insulation. This il; approximately indicated by the dotted line.

A.nother cause of concealed eonaensanon may be evaporation of water '{rom the ground or damp locations. Thill water vapoT may condense on the under!lid!! of the floor joints (usually neat the edge!! wher{:

yjiPQ!! ~"EIIS.!U!fl fIn-lilU 'i!iflA CQliD.

rn!TDoGfl O'~D" ~Q" Fill

it is coldest). or may Row up thtu 'the outdoor &id.e of the walls because of sta,CK effect and/or vapor pressure differences.

Concealed I;ondensation may cause wood, iron and brickwork to dderiorate and insulatien to lose its insulating value. These elfeiCts may be corrected by the following methods;

l , Provide vapoT barriers on the high 'UtlpDr pr~$· !lUTt: side.

2. til winter, ventilate the building to reduce the vlJp6r pressure within. No great volli:I:l:le of air chaflSt' is ncttssary, and normal infiltration alone js freque.nUy all that is required.

.3. In winter, ventilate the strueture cavities to remove vapor that has entered. Outdoor air ihru vents shielded from earrance of rain and insects O'I::ly be used.

Condensation may aJl!JQ form om, the surface 'Of a building srructure. Visible condensation occurs when the surface of any material is colder tha.n the dewpoiot temper:atur-e of the surrounding wir. In winter. the condc:n;adon may collect on (;Old closee walls and '!uk roofs and is commonly observed as frost on window panes. Fig. 29 illu51'.rates the condensation on a window with inside winter design coedirions ,Ql 70 F db aud {O%rh. Point A represents the room conditions; point B. the dewpoim temperature of the thin fi1m of water vapor adjacent to the window surface; and poi~t C, the: pojm at which fronor ice

appt:M.!i on the window. .

Once the: temperature drops below- the dewpoint, the vapor pressure at the window surface is also reduced, thereby establishing a gradient ot Vlt.pol' pressure from the mom air to the; wi.ndow surface .. This: gradient operates, in cenjutrctian. with the convec-

.n

'''~Igl!: ,20

~I. ;.1" ! .11 ::i .10 :I! .01 ;

.0' L "'.0 ...

. 01

o

III 10 100

(I 10 lO '!o0 .. c. se ID rll

OIilY-IIJL. TI!_"A'Il1)IIQ! llil

CHAP""rER 5_ HEAT AN[) WATER VAPOR FLOW THRU STRUCTUR s

1-87

~
iO", '(1 ..
(I ;
i::'
.,~ !
il~- ... -- ....
..
..
..
~ " !
"
fl·
,,,....,'&
..
III ~n~ .. t~.
C;UitVl
,III
- 1il II) U ~oo
iro 3U 00 b" 050
D. ¥-I ..... 'f'UP! •• TUI'f' ! • Oil j tive action within [J)e room, to 1IIu\l(': water \llipor eonrinueuslv iI.O the winJow surlace to beccndensed, as, long the mnrl!ntl1lltOn of the WIlIe.r Y.ilpor is

mainlilinc- in ill , c.

Vi ible eondensauon is objectionOlbl1" 33 i( causes Staining or surfaoes, dripping nn maChinery and furnishings, and danlage to ID!Herial!l ill Pl'Ilct!IIS of manulalClure. Cof1.den'$atiOI] or thi,. type ma), be rorreered by the IoUow~ne: methods:

I. Increase the thermal resistance of wan" roofs and Boors by adding insula ion with vapor barriers to prevent eonden don wilhin the UII un .

2. In ease the thermal resistance ef glass by in:italling two or three panes wilh air space(s) between. In otT me ca es, controlled heat, elr:~lric or other, may be applied between ule Glw or double glazed windows.

J. M Jntain a room dewpoint low or than the lowtat expected stirrate temperature in the room.

4. D crease surra e r sistanoe by increasing [he veloti ty of air l)3.!5i8ing over me ~urfaa_ c easin ~ he surface re istance increases the window ~urfact' lemperrlllUl"e and hrin81l it closer co the room dll'y-bulb temperature.

leula ,of ChiiJli1 2

- AAaldmum Room RliJ No Wall, Roof' or GIQU CondOllllQflon

Chart 2 has been calculated from the c!,)ulItiQn used LO determine the maximum room dewpuillt temperature that (an exiu with cndensation,

I - I _ U(t, ..... - 'M)

"'-''''' f.

When t",,::: dew point temp of room air, F db t,.. == room temp. F

U := lr.i:n§ulis!l.iol'll coefficient, Btll/(ht)(sq £t)(d 'g f} t(j4 '::;; outdoor temp. F

fi == inside' air film or surface oouuur t.mee. l'1l!!/ (hr)( (1 ft.) (deg F)

111 .. ,.1 2 ~ bared upon a mom dry-bul 1:-1111 {'J ! cur' nl' 70 F dl and an insid film conductance of 1.'16 Htuj(hr}(S(1 fl)(deg F).

USCI' of Chart 2

- McuJmum ltoomRH; No Woll, Roof or GIQs'~ Coodensotl:on

Chart 2 gives a rapid m ans of determilling thl ma irnum room rclauv humidity which (;m he maintained and . et avoid ondensauon wltb. 'in}t ,room.

£xflrnpfe 9 - Moisture Cond,ensofic)tl (,iv('n:

1:2 In. tlOne 'illAU wIll'! % in, ~lIl1d :aLC81'~g'.ttc: IJlul(,T Iloornlemp -ill f db

ItHloor temp - Il'· F c1b

Find;

",., ximllm roml) rtl 1\'1111\0111 WQIl amd~nsatl.ofi

SolutIon,;

1'.I'ammLssioD (~_ffiri nl t' = 0.5 btu I(hf)(~ f (!!kg FI (TtI./IIt'Z1.ptlll,66)

MrutLmum mom rh "" 40.05%. (Clum 2)

r.nrreclio~ ill room rehllh'e humidiry WI' room temperalurnl other th;tn 70 F db arc Usled in l11c; Iii Me t,lndet r.1£!IlFl 2. "aJu~ tidIer thllli Lhm.t ,lined may be IlliCfpo,l;uc(I.

E~omp/e 10 - Moisture Co"deflJofiol'l (;i\lel"1':

!tame 115 EX(Jmpt~ 9, c!x cpt room temp is 75 F db

f'ind:

M-xuli\um room rh whllout all «)ndcft'5aliOii

Solution:

Tliammi~ion coefficient U = 0.52 l.ltuJ(hr)(sq ft)(!lcg F)

( :'itrilfl/,le I}) M;ur.imtlm room rh. ror 70 F dh room u:ftlp = 40.0!'l'Y.,

(6<I1""plc 9) RII rerrecrien tor TOO.tn temp 01 15 F dh wIth " r"'lIO( of ll.tr2;: -1.57% (llOUOffi Chari 2).

MIIXlmllm room rh = 10.05 - un = 88.480/" or 38;1,~'

1-88

PART L LOAD ESTIMATING

CHARt 2-MAXIMUM ROOM RELATIVE HUMIDITY WITHOUT CONDENSA,TION

NO WALL, IIOOF OR GLASS CONDENSATION

COIlll.ECfION IN ROOM 11M C%)

h, Walt IQQ' Ot Gloll Tranallll .. h,,,, C:o.rft~l .. nt U

Ouldoor U ... 1.1 U"'" .65 u= .35
Temp ROOIII T .... p IF dbl .
'" db)
, 60 BO t.O DO bO 10
-30 +-'1.0% ~I.O% +1.5% -.2.0% +2.3% -2.0%
. -2~ . +1.0, -1.5 +2.5 -Z.S +3,(1 -2.0
-'0 +2.0' -2.0 +3.5 -:1..0 +3.0 -2.0
0 3,5 -2..5 +".0 - .. ~O +'.5 ~l • .s
10 +5.0 -3.5 +5.0 - .... 5 +4.0 -l.O
20 +7.0 -4.0 +6,$ -S.O +4..5 ~3.5
30 t-<}.(I -7.5 +11.5 -6.0 +5.0 -"'0
40 +12.0 - .. us +9'.5 ~7.S +6.0 -4...'J 1--89

CHAPTER 6. INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION

The data in ehis chapter is based 'On ASHAE tests evalu:ating the infihraticnand veruilaaionquaruities of outdoor air, These outdoor air quantities normaJly have a dHfere,IlL bea,tcontenl than tile air within the conditiened space iUIId. therefore, impose 3, load on the air cundilionin,g equjpm,e:liU.

In the case of' infl1lTilillon.me load manl Lens i'lSelf di:rectlly wDthin the conditioned space. The ventilation air. Uiken thru the conditioning apparalL.ls" imposes a load both on the space thru apparatus bypass ellett. and directly on the oonditioning equipmem,

The dana inthh chapter is based 'On ASHAE cests and years of practieal expeeienee,

,INFilTRATION

Infiltration of air and particularly moisture i,n,tlll a conditioned space is frequently a source of sizable heal gain or loss. The qualltity of infilmuion air ... aries according co tightness of doors and. windows. ,porosity of the building !iheU. lu:igbt or the buildillg. stairweUs. ,eJevators" direotJ,on and vdodty or wind. and Ithe ameum of vemllatien and exhaust air. Many of these cannot be accurately evaluated and must be based on lhe judgment o:f the estim.ator.

Generally. irrfilrraden may be caused by wind velocity, or sted. eEf'ort. or both:

l. Wind VdoC£t1- The winG 'Velocity billilds up Iii pressure on the wind.ward side of (he building and a. slight vacuum on the leeward side, Tbe outdoor pressure build·up causes aitl9infilirate diru crevices in 'the OODSO"UC'tiOfj. and 'cracks around the windo ...... s and doors. 'This, in lllJrn,caUll{!S a. slight bulld-up of pressure imide the building. rClIuld.ng in am equal amount 0.£ ex61l:ration on the leeward side.

2. DiDe'lence i" Demily or SUlek EUut - The variarloes ~n temperatures and humldlries pro· duce differenoes .in d.ensity of air between inside and outside ,O'l the building. In tall buildings this density difference ell uses summer and winter inlUtratioo and exfiltration as follows:

Summer - InlfiJtration at the top andcxfiI· U"atiQD at thebouom.

Winter -lnfihJ'attoB at the bottom. and exfiltration at the top ..

This epposiie direction now balances at. some neutral peiru near the mid-height of the building. Ail' BOlA' thru the huBding openings ill" creases prnpof"l.ionately betwe '11 the neutral poin! and the 'lOp and rhe neutral point and bottom of ~he building. The infiltration from snu:keiIccl is greatly infiluentced by the height of Ihe bui,lding and the presence of open stair. waYIi and elevators.

The cemliined infiltration from wind velocity and stack etlect is proportional LO the h'luare root of the sum ollne heads aeungon it.

'11u~ Increased aiil' infiltration flow mused by nark ellee( is evaluated by convening the stack effe L force to: an equivalenr wind 1Jc!OdlY. and then calcuIaung the How (room Lhe ..... ind n:luc.ilY data in the tables.

In buildin~!i uvel '100 [1" tall, ihe equivalent wind velocity nlfly be calculated lrorn . the following Iormula, 35Suming a tempc:r:lture dif(cTf"nCI!' of 70 iF db (winter) and a neuual' point at the mid-height of the building:

lCor upper section oC lal!

hlugs - winter] (I)

(Cor lowersection of tall

bldgs - winter) (2)

where Y.::: equivalent wind velocity, mph

II = '~'ind Ve1OCit}l normally calculated for locaricn. mph

a = di.sull1[ewjlldow is above midheight. h

IJ :::: distance wHlllow is below midhciglll, Ft

NOTE: The total crarkagc i~ considered when cakularing infiltralion from stack effect.

IIN.FllTlATIOM TFlIW WINOOW§ ANI) DOORS, SU~R

Infiltration during the summer is caused primarily by the wind \·elocil.ycrealillga pressure on the wj1l'ldward side'. Stack effect is not normally II s,ign:ificant factor because the density difference is. slight" (0.073 Ib/cu [l at 75 F db. 50% rh and 0.07.0 lb/cu It at 95 F db, 75 F' wb): This small stack effect in tall buildings (over 100 fl) causes air to flow in the top and OU'I the bottom. Therefore, the air innkr3.til1lg: in the top of the building, because or the 'win.d

PART 1. LOAD ESTIMATING

pressure. tends to flow down thru the building ~nd out the dcors on the street level, thereby offsetnng some of the infiltration thru them.

In low buildings, air infiltrates thru ope fl. doors 011 the windward side unless sufficieJ\t outdoor air is introduced thru the air conditioning equipment to offset it; refer (0 "Offutttr"rag Infiltration with Out· door Air"

With afJOr,f em opposite walls, the infiltration can be considerable if the two are open at the same time.

Bosis of Table 41

-Infiltrotion thrl.l Windows and DOd'rSJ SUmmer

The data in Tables 4la, band c is based on a wind velocity of 7.5 mph blowing directly at the window or door, and .on observ d O':lC~ widths around typical windows and. doors. This data is derived frorn Tnble 'If which, lists infilerarion rhru crac.ks around windows and doors as established by ASHAE tests.

Tcbt« .J1d shows values to be used for door's on opposire walls for various perremages of time. that each door is open-

The data in Table -tIe' is based on actual tests or typical applications.

Use of Table 41

-Infiltration thfij Windows and Doors, Summer

The data in TtJble 41 is used to determine the infiltration thru windows and doors on the wind. ward side with the wind blowing directly at them, When the ~ind direction is oblique LO the windows or doors, multiply the values in Tables 41(1;, b, c, d, by 0.60 and apply to total areas. For specific locations, adjust the values in Table 41 to the design wind velocity; refer to Table 1, page 10.

During the summer, infiltration iii calculated for the windward side(s) only. because stack eHect is small and, therefore, causes the infiltration air to now in a downward direction in tall buildings (over 100 rt). Some of the air infiltrating thru the windows will exfiltrate thru lhe windows on the leeward side(iJ), while the remaining infiltraeion air flows out, the doors, thus offsetting some of the infiltration thru the doors, To determine the net in,fil· tration thru the doors, determine the infiltration thru the windows on the windward side. multiply I his by .80" and subtract from the' door infiltration. For low buildingt the doer infiltration on the windward side should be. included in the estimate;

TAIlLE 41.-IlIOUIUI HUNG WINDowst

TAILE 41-INFILTRATION THRU W'INDOWS AND DOORS-SUMMIR·

7.S tnpk Wind Velod1y1

Cf'M rU so P'r 5ASH AIlE"
DESC!i:lpnON SIll"dl,-30" III n:" L •• · ... _S4s II: 'I'"
-
,.. W·Slrlp W-Sl'i'I, 51DrPl! Sill'" Na W.St,lp W-Slrlp Storm 5111'h
.-.Yl!rlllll! W4U,lII Sluh .04l _26 .'22 .l7 _U· .1"
'01$4'1, Fli"d Wood SQ.11 1.20 .37 .eo .76 .2~ .38
fIA,,,, .. 1 s.uk, .ao .35 .410 _.51 .22 .25 TAIIU 4lb-C~SfiMENf '!i"J'. WINDowst

CPM 'I. SOFT SASH AR'A
DISCIII'TIO~ 'UC8111 O,uaili .......
0% 2!% 33% 40% 45% 50'% 60% 66% 7.5% 100%
1t.II_d '.~tl.".-St •• 1 Sa.h
Inclu.lrl" I f'i\iatii a .33 ,n - .n - - - 1.ot5 - ,:1,.6.
A I'thllectll'ol P rol-v D d ~ ,39 - - - • .5.5 .,.~ . - - -
,
R •• lde.,iH~1 - - .:oR - - .019 - - - .63
He<l¥\, P'OiMted - - - - .n - - .31 .J' -
MoUe.., M" .. I-v'.I"II~olll' polYold .27 .sa - .82 1 - 1.2 2.2 tUX.LOW

jjjibLt;l! K.C,TION 1T111. 1&110 WI ND""'. 111m:;

lal~1

1lIoic-u1'r"'1.... 1l1ll;.ItI'U'ljJfll'IIIl~ '.-.n:Itl"I.I.I!- ~rUVf YIill:MALL.'I'I'

I'If'IIOUI) Ip;IIIO.JolUIIII i)UWlI!I'f ~-:';:~'f ".,..onl1

"fllIiOl.lI!DUD

IlEPR£sEIoIT.\TI".t TYI'!i.!I CFWi"'DOW:I

~"'I f'li'ID ~I'Q" OLfUII'.:I!f~

CHAPTER 6. INFILTRA ION ,"'ND VENTILATION

1-91

TAaLE 41-IN'II!.,TRA1'ION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-SUMMER· (Co ntG') 7,5 mph Wind \!,~IQCityt

IAMI ,fll-DOOU ON ON DI ADJIACon WAllS, .0. C'OINIl, QfTllkJ(Cl5,

e,,,, PI. SQ Ff Alii ... •• C"..-
DlSC"'lION " •• ililil '01"'"
N.,U.,. 4,..- •• II ••
N. "' •• ,1"1111'. V.,tllolll.
IIw •• !PI'1OI 'h'IIR-N ..... 0 ......... .111 5.2 - -
' •• ",.0 .... , _ - 1;00 900
.1." D,,_Ml· CNclil' 4.5 10.0 700 500'
WH4 g.. 13')1; 7'1 1.0 6,,;5 700 5CIO •
,
s...I!l'_",o.w J5 6..~ _, _,
0.... & S~III!I._ D .... 1.0' 41..5 - ! -
... ,....,.D •• l.O 6.15 - ,_ % n •• C'M nR ."11 Of POOlS
211110 •• % T1. .... lit D ... II 0, ...
1.0 .... IQ 2J 30 " 100
10 100 2050 see 7~ 1.000
210 625 12.50 11115 2.,500
B 500 1'50 2\jOO 3'1", '.000
'5 75U 1,I!1l 3750 S625 7,500
100 1000 :!~ 5000 7500' 10,000 C'M pft rl!lSONI IN 100M "II DOOIt
,AHUCA'I'ION 36'" 1 .. 1,,'.h •• D •• r
,," ......... ' .. '1 iii • ., N.II .......... 'V;tiL"~III •
".k 6.5 1.0 • .0
.... 111 ... 4.0 .11.0 U
e."" 8!111 lid. "u ('I) 5.3
eliiii' , ..... 20.0 30,0 22.5
1I.,"'_lIt If .... Iliiliiilm. u '1.0 6.0
Drhi .111., 2-D .u 1.9
Drug St_ U 1.0 S.3
He_plt.t _._ _ :u u
L. ftC" IJ.M!!! -4.10 5.0 U
M,,,·.I!!., 2::1 37 2'.11
1'''hI.''~1 210 2.5 '1.9
Sh.,St_ U U U "All .. olu •• lllra!lol. AJ !l!r. benld on iii, wlM! blowing diredlr at til. wlndaw QI "oor. WHl'i'I1>. wind ,dlNCllGn II abll.qu. 10 !h. window or Ii_. multiply m. ab_ ¥tIlu •• by' 0.60 and !fII,!N! totol "'in dow IIlId dO1M' ar.~o III'! !hI wln.d ... ~I:trd ida_I.I,

lta .. 1111 011 a wirld velocity 0' 1.5 ilipll. ~ dltlgll IiWllnd ... Iodll •• dINI,.m' frtm, til. liIIa .. , ... ulll"l., the abOYI' "ohM. by lb. ratio 0" .... locIfl ... flnd.du Ira ... !.a!!'!llJlI 'Will ,. app "bl\ll.

·"V .. II.,.,,.. 811Cy d_ ... !h. Ir<1I1tr ... 1bI G' MUCh OJ 30% will" ,*" ~ ~all." 119 .... W""" ,,_ u.oll8 I. "10'1"1 •• ",.dibul. b of 1ltt'I. _1 ... _

I'.dudlov 11111 atbI. ~

E1t.C2m'p/e J ~ 'nfiltraHon in Tall BuU:rli"g~1 Slfmmer Given.:

A 20.11ory bu.t1dlDg in New !ark 'City oriented trI.l~ nom. BuildIng is 100 fl fOIlj ,Uld lOOP wid!!! 1Ii'ith 1I.lI:oor'lo·HlJo!lr heigh{ ol 12 II.. Wall area b 50% t=ridmlial cuemem ",indo baving!iiO% hedh. hl'!J'e::lft! tai. '1 fl x ) rt li"'lngi g glass CIoon on !lIie ... «t. d flIdog sooth.

Find:

In.fiJ,tratiiofi ill,fO tile blJildlnf thtu doon aDd windo·n. dbreganling ouu.ide alJi,tImJ the eq'u.lpm~ft( IlIl1d [be elthaust air q LU.I1tJ tl.

Solution:

The pn-v,alli.ng 'wind in New Y(J['k Cll)' during the SlDnma is IOUth. 15 mpb (Table I, page 10).

1-92

J' R r I. LOAD ESTl!lA I. NG

orn:ctlon to TtJbI" 1 values [or- windvdocily .: 13)7,5 = 1.73

Chl.!llI 1'1 r~:I on south .side

= 20x .12 )I lOOK .5.0 = 12.000 ~q f(

IntilUlIll(1n rnru wilul ws

= •• .(JOt) e , 49 x 1.7~.;= 10,200 cfm r fabld/b)

.lntl.h lhm I hru doo"

'= 1<1 1 ! x H.l X 1.7~ = 5~~ I rnillt (]c)

Sinet, thiJ bUlfdir,I' it ever IIX! (c taR net Iflfill Il[i~m thru doun - '640 - (lO.zoo .80) = - 4510 ilfl.

TIIRefIJfC. rher e is tit) infiltn;tion thm [Ii doon In Ihe ~lrl'~' 1.",.llltI d~Hifrl rlll'l/S, only exfiltrauun,

OFfSETTING INFILTRATION WITH OIUTDOOR AIR, SUMMER

orr piN ly Qfrs tling infiltration U til muoduclion (Jf outdoor air rhru the air eondirl lll'flJ.; appar - IUS ,i:o; nerrnatly uneconomical except in. building wilh f·w 'wm lows and doors. Th oUldOf.l'f. ir )0 Antradl.ired mUM develop II pI 'III'(; 'qu.l 0 th wind vdol'itv to olEset infiltration. This P t'S.!It1Te caus f. fihration thru the leeward wall OlIt a nne equal to wind velocity. 'Therefore, in a £rJWf sided ll'uilliLng with equal crack areas nn c. ell ~ide and the wind blowing against one side. Ull" amount of

utdoor ail' introduced thru the app~jf;llhi mnst be a: littk more (han three times the: amount th;lt i 1111· trates, Where the wind is !blowing agalust I'wo iI.i'lles, lllt! outdoor air IHUst he a Hnk rum' thua {!tlu' I to th 1 ""hi I. infilrraees.

. f£,~ tt'"~ swililging door infil r. ~i n 1\ n l qu.u.' as diU! lit htaus air takes the path 01 Iii'!,!' 1'1 _il\l' ance, rlonn;wlly an open door. Mast of Ihe I)II(ooor air Inlr,otlnC"~d thru the apparatus A!aw ()IH rl e foor wh '11 i I.~ Ol-l 'ned. Also, in tall bllli1diIlK' IIIl . wlnu w infiltration lends ID flow out the door.

The inflltrunr 11 thru revolving doors is caus d by displacement of the m,il!' in the door quadrants. is almost independent Clf wind velocity and. therefore, cannot be of[ I lIy ()U tdoor air.

Basis of Table 42

- OffHftin9 Swinging Door Infiltration with Outdeor Air, Suml1'ler

SOme of lh eutdoor air introduced dlTIJi the :apparatus exfilrrates thru the qacks around th WJn· dow and in 1.11 .,l)' trucrion on the leeward side. The eutdocr ai • \I Iucr> have been increased by this amount for typial .ppliC'.ation as a result ot ex"" perience.

Use of Table 42

- Ofhe1ting SWingling Door It'lfihrcdiofl with Outdoor Air, Sumilll&r

Table 4'2 is used to d'ctennine the 3'Ulount or outdoor air till" air (Qnd~lioning apparalU5 requ~red to offset .nfih:rali< n ihru ~winging doors.

EJlamp'e 2'~ OffseHing ,Swinging Door Infihratiofti Given:

.A Jl'6t;'Il:~n. WILh :~ (htl c>UI dI!IIOIU" a'ir bei:ng l.l'lllt)(l·tll'C" [;bm thii' :llf Clonr:llt lin "III app:lr,llIJ5.. E.xhau~L [an ilil the ki l'l..h~tl remeve )(i t bu. 1"'",n 7 fl x 11 ft gl~ lrWinglng doo fUel' .he prcv.!IIn wind diTt'cLion. At peak. load ('QndIdon, thtr :IT" 300 people in Ih~ resrauranr.

Find:

The hel nlhlH~ltiOll thru the (1lIl1lide doon.

Solution.

:Inl'ilinr -n fllnl doo = ~OO 11: 2.5 :: 750 dim ('TlIlblt ,i}t) :'\le-L oUldoor- ~jr - lOOO - 2000 = IIDJ) din

Onl), 971.5 fiji of tmldoO) ,," h fequired [(II olls.!! ,SO dm of door infilu.ulOIl (t'/J/lJ", f?,.

TIu .. ril'ol'C, IJI 1'.. III h(' nn n .. 1 Anfiltntiol'l rhru til OIllU rll! doors unl~ Ib.n· 11ft" wl"IJ .. w 011 du~ lecy.wd Ildt". 11 there k wlndow5 III ibc hj:llding. c:llculalt iI5 •• Ill'ned in ExtJmp/~ I.

TAIU 42-0FFSmING SWINGING DOOR: INfiLTRATION WITH OUTDOOR AIR-SUMMER

..... 0,., •• ., AIt" let.,.1 D.or In.n ..... ' ... [dlll'l Md Qyr ...... y AI',· [dlil') D • ., liiiflIlrCill." (11M I
114() . laO u10 1100
17<1 :100 14'0' 1'200
10 00 illIG noo
s. .ell! ,616 hoc
61. SO!!, 1760 15011
Jto 600 I"" 1600
m 700 :2t10 llC.'O
111»0 800 'ruG! 2000
IUD 900 ~ 14.50 UOO
1260 1000 26511 2400 CHAPTER G. lNFDLTR TJON ,",NU VEI'TIl_\l ION

1-93

I FL TR ATION THRU WINDOWS AND DOORS, WINTER

11ldltntion thru windows and doors during the winter is caused by the wind velocity and also 1I1t3ck el"ecL h temperature differences during lh winw: are (on idcrably great r than in summer and, iherelore. the density differ nee is greater; at 75 F db and 30'70 rh, density is .0138: at oor db, 10'0 rh, density is .0,86/), Stack effect causes air to Row ill at the bottom and out at the 'LOp. and in many cases requires pol heaung at the door on the street 1 vel 10 maintain condition. In ppltcaticns where h re is considerable infihration enthe street level, much of the lnfiltrauon thru the windows in the: IJL pper levels will b offset.

8o'Sis of Table 43

- IliInltrotlon thru Windows and Doon, Winter

The ditla in Table 4J iii bas d on a wind velociry of 15 mph blowing dire t'lyat the window or door and on observed crack widths a'round typi at windows and doers, The infiltrarier thru these cracks is calculated from Tabl« .f1 which is bas d on ASHAE tesu.

U~ of Table 43

- Infilfrotiom thru Wind'oVls and Doors, Winter

Tab'le' fJ i used to determine the infiltration of air rhru win.dows and doors on the windward side during the winter. The stack efI:ect in tall buildings increases tile infiltratian ihru the doors and window on the lower levels and decreases Et on the upper levels, Th relore, whenever the door infiltrotio,1'I is increased, the infiltration thru the upper levels must be decrea ed by 80'% or the net increas in door _in6Irration. The infikration from stack ell 1 on the leeward sides of the building j determined by using the difference berween the equivalent vdocity (V.) and the actual velocity (V) 115 outlined:"in Example 3. The data In Table 4) is based on the wind blowing directl at Ithe windows and doors. When the wind direction i oblique' to the windows and doors, multip] the alues by 0.00 and u e the lOW window and door area o,n me windward sides"

Example 3' - 'nmtr,ril,ion In Tall Build'inys, Win fer Given:

The buildl", described in E.;compt.r 1.

Find:

The inlillJ'2Iio.n thru (be 000111 and w'i'nd(JW5, Soilltion:

The prevailing wind in N w 'York City during thel winter iJ NW at 1,6,,8 mph (TablO! J. fJ'IIgti Hi)

Correetlon on Tahir fJ <(Qr wind velocity I, !6.8/15 == 1.12, Sin I!! the ",dud is coming from the Northwest, the cnck<lgc 011 lbe north and west sides will allow In!iIU';uloI1 hut the wind iB only 00% effe llv!:. Correction [or wind direction Ili .6.

:Hn~ Ihis building ilS ov Ii" 100 ft tall, la II. eRect causes infiltl1l[lion all all sidC1 al! '11'111:: IQwe~ level! and t'lLJi.llr.nioli ;Ie the' t~p'per 1c:"~15. The 101.11 imfilnation on lhe windward sicil'1 remains the 51:1.11'11: hCCtluSf the Im:rcflsc ill the bouom is exactly eqlla~ L'1l the dccn:alle at ibe (01)' (Fur II floor·byHoor anal[ ~i5. use equiv lem willd 'l'cloehy formulas.) Infilmllion thru windows 01) the windward, xida, uf the lower It' ell

= 12.000 X 2: X 1.1!! .Ii .9 == 15,810 dl"!il.

Th<! luU.1 h:Jfilirnlil)n thru the wint'low~ em. Ihe leeward ~,it!e5 of the building' ill equal to the difference between I he equivalent velocicy at the fint floor and the design velocity at the midpGint 01 Ihe I)!dldlng.

Sf :0 ,

1.7!itb

~) = 22.2 mph 'f. - JI = 22.2 - 16.B = 5.4 mph

T (:1[1 InJ1ILt.uion IllII'll[ windows in Il)we'f ha.Jr of bt1ilding flipper hill t.!l 6'lillr.lllon) on lee_rd .ide

= 12.000 x 2 Ih X (MJI5) X ~ X .r8 = 2'lIio cfm (Tahiti o,

N 'n:: Thi!o is Ih total infiltration rhru the windows on the leeward slde. " tloor-bll-Hooranalyds should be made to h~li!fi(.C 1.11 cSYSlcm I(l maintain properr QonditiOh$ on , .. ~th noor.

The infj'l ti n dlru the doors on LJl~ SI!ittl h:lIel (OIl leeward sid )

~ 10 X 7 11 X (5.4/1!:i) !O

='2310 Iru (Tabrc nc. a'l'emge lI5C, 1 and 2 'Story bu.lJdjng).

.fxoffl[pie 4 - Ofbefting 'nRlfTation wilh Oul,door Air An; omdoor airmrol;micall introduced tnlo Lh building 01J1(''UI, me of I'U: intH! r:l lion. In Ex.omplt an g[ the ourdoor !lir j~ effective: in ~cd,ucirlg the window iDLllI tratlnn, lnfiltt:atlon is reduced en two l/o'jnClwarl'l ~idd!. and the niT lmrodueed rhru the IIpparauJJ exliltl1lles Lhrll the other lWO aides.

ht~:

e building descrllx'd in E.xample ~ wlll1 .25 dOll"! f1 ~'lIppl_lcd thw ihe ~PPIlt:aUl! and «1,000 c(m, beillllg exha,lIAtcd fro!" LIH! building.

Find:

The net inllltr.lt1(11J into lhis building,

Solution: ..

Ne[ outdoor air ~ (.25' X 10.000 X 20) - 'W,OOO = 110,000 dm Net inRltr.llio·1II thru windows

=15.800 + 2160- 10.<10<1 = 7970 dm NeL nfilu'aliofl thru doo1'5 = 2310 dm (E"1iIm:pt~ J >

Net inlilltra.tloll into building = 7910 + 2lUO .., 10,280 dm

1-94

PAR.T I,. LOAD ESTIMAT:ING

I,A'.IiE 4a,-INFIL'fRATI:ON fHRU WINDOWS AND DOORS-WINTER"' 15 mph Wind Yel10cityt

UII!,~ Qe-,DOUBU HUNG WiNDOWS ON 'WINDWAlo $'l)11

"' ' •• ' W ••• s4uII

,' , filtH W •• ' h.'

M.-'! s:. ...

W-IIri,p

W.'llrlp

,.:$I 1,52 1.01

.33 ,,0 .44

(I.SCIIPTION

II.U ... S.,~th'I'I~5'I.'! •• ,'" "dll'ltrlal ,1'1'fO'Ied Ardol~nd I'.QjOd.d a:.,I'd ... tio'

l"'O"f't 1'1'01~d

C"M I'EI SD FT .... IA
III.C.lH~I"'" ........
Q'; 1,5% :I," "'''' ~ IO~ ,~ ... ~ liS .. "
.65' bU 1.9' 2.9 .u
.71 1.1 1.41
.S6 .98 1.:26
.,(5 .63 I .11
..s.I LIt IS ~ ,u DfSCllPTION

Cl'M ,.1 SCI ff ... 11 ... "·

l"*'-r .... ' 'U ..

I. :2 StHr' ....

50, 1",

1: I)fi"1I lI •• ,

01 O._IH." &.d:1

1.6 9.0

I,U 'IoU

36.0' "'-'

w •• " D .... a·. r Stn.1I' fHlH'li' 0_

__ .. '" $!MIi'~1I11 1,110_,,0.. a_p'G_ •• ,D_

lUI 13.0

15\.15i

2.0 I~

21.5

·'AII TO ..... In rw., #3' ,O;!~. tJo_d en. !he ",1M, ,-""diftdly;u 1M 'w'om:k>w 01" d9cw. WhRo !hot ~ 'Wind d~ iII,.""~ h ~ (Ii' ._.., _!Ply"-III~I "IIIIuM by O,_M '!III'\d ,_ !he ~ w~ oncl .._ '0,,",0 ,011 "- wWw.ordlld.bJ:.

te~MiI Of! ,jJ wind nlodly ,;;of I !l iii"'" ,ford.eolgt> ... Jnd~"" ,.111$1' .... ,.._ Ihtbo;t .... ~ .. 1<11>" to" 1M faftg of ~

~ ,Hid ", ... U b~ldl"II''''OY 11100 CtiiiU InfIllnifion on ttl. '!QwGTd lid .. , To _"'1m Ihk. II .... "'*'- ' ..... qut..at.m nll!X!ly {V.I OIMI ~1nKt 1M

d,lIgll ~1odIy I'll. Th •• q..,r",al,rrI .elodty IN

V.-;JV1'-'1.75a (1111'11'" ~I'

Y .. -;JV'+1.75b ( __ ~,I

Wkn a 11M b QQ'" ~ .o;j~ crMlli.!iow t!lHllIII~·of 1M ~. "lpllll!l • ..,.!!!! ft.

Mliltlply 'IIM. taI::.I. lllat .... 1.,' iIM .J"Oik> (II • ...: '1)/15 'til' doon .",d _ ,IooM""·1'M. >Ol,"_' Oft lb· --..d ..... !If II. 'bw11dil'l!ll!' tu.. "_"M. "1: iiII'd :2 Stooylldlll·· for o:r;_" on I .. .,_rd ird. of hili bui[d'l"" .. )

.. ~ Or! O!ppmli~ old", '_'"a~" !he abon yoi" •• 2:5%- V ... Ii)"I •• lftoyd!OQ'_.' 'the I'nfittrldlon 1111, mudI 111,30% """en ,d_ "":I!I"I! II lighl. ,If d_ ;';10111 II .... QY)'. 'lhe "OI4t1b .. I. b, of little .. ",Ill. In r.ducto.o lnfIirroll4n. H,."t"dd.d 10 'lb .... dib"l.wllllF.,lp ",Q'IntuIn, _ ' ... .ro1llN _r .... cI_.

CHAPTER 6. INJo'tLTRf\TION ANU VJ:.NTIL,·\TION

1-9S

INFILTRATION - CRACK METHOD (Summer or Winter)

The crack method of evaluating infiltration is more accurate than the area, methods. It is, difficult to establish the exact crack dimensiens but, in certain dose tolerance applications, it may be necessary to evaluate the load aecura rely. The crack. method is applicable both summer and winter.

IkIsis of Table 44

-lnfiltlta1ion thrlJ Window.s and Docm" Crock Method

The dara on windows in Table "4 are balled on ASHAE tests. Tbese lest results have been reduced 2{)% because, as infiltration occurs on one side, a, certain amount of pressure builds up in the building, thereby reducing the Infiltration. The data on glass and fiIJt.:tory doors has been calculated [rom observed typical crac'k. widths.

'Use of Table 44

~ Infiltration tkru WIndow,s ond 000", Crack Method

Table 44 is used to determi ne the infilrration t.hru the doors and windows listed. This table does not take into account winter stac\ effect which must be 'f!valu3ledseparately, using the equivalent wind \teJacity formulas previously presented.

Fxornpre 5 - Inllfrrafion rhru Windows, Crack Met,hod Gi\len:

A ,j ,. l( 1 ft Jl!siul:nti:ll C3!Oe1T11l111 window facing BOU th,

Find;

·fhl! Intil mU'iolt thru I hIs wind.uw

Solution:

Assume thO! era II. willlhs are meastlTcd as foll!Jws,~ Window ,I'llme - Done. well scaled

Win(jo\\' openabte area - 1/."12 ill Cl"lIci:;; length, 2£1 [t

A~BUm!! the wind 'veldt)' i~ 30 mph c11>e !UU!!i

In fill lioR ihru "'Ulllnw = 20 A::1.1 ;; 'i2 c.fJII (Ttl/lit' of" )

tABLE 44-~NFILTRA'ION THRU WINDOWS Af/II'D 'poaRS-CRACK MEtHOD-SUM~Efl-WINTER*

TA8LE ~-DOI:IBlE HUNG WINDOWS-UNl'QCKfiD ON WINDW41l1! SIDE

CFM PU "INEAR FOOl OF CII. .. elle
---
Wind V.h.dly-Nlph
TYPE Of ,
DOU,IILE HUNG WINDOW 5 1O U 20 2.!i 30
No W. W. Na W. W- N .... w- w- N .. W. W- N .. >N- w- ND W- w-
Sirip Sirip Ship Sirlp Strip ~Irlp Ship Sfl'ip S;trh. St.l", Strip Strip
Wood Sa,1I
Avera'll'=' W!n4Q'" . 12 .07 .3':; .1:1 ,65 .4Q s • .60 1.33 .B2 , 1.73 1.0'
Poorly "'!'led Window ,~,s .10 1.'~ .l:! 1.0.5 .!i7 2.60 _85 3.30 1.11l 04;20 1.5l
Poorly f'itt"d- .. Ht. 510,.", ·S.,d. .23 ,OJ .51 .16 .93 .29 1.30 .43 1.60 .59 :1:.10 ,76
"'''III Salll .33 .10 .78 .32 1.:23 ,51 1.73 .TI 7.3 '.00 2'.8 1.27 TAIlIE 4"b-CASENIENT TYPE WINDOWS ON WINDWARD SIDE

~ ~
CFM "Ell LINE". FOOT OF CRACK
tYl'E OF CASEMEJi4IT WINDOW AMa Wind V .... dij-Mph
TY'ICAL C!tACK SIZE
S 10 IS 20 25 3D
II"U.d S.clliltn-SIIliiiI S.t.h I
Ind".!:flul "iV<>T"tI ~. pad< .B7 1.80 2.9 4.1 ~.I 6.2
A~~edOr .. 1 "~Dd6d ~ .. crack .205 .60' 1.03 I. .. l 1.86 2.3
.... l"Chitect~rlll ,Projected ~N <fade .33 .87 1. .. 7 1.93 2,,5 3.0
lIe.idltnliol C.""ement ',4.l truck .10 .to .ss .78 \'00 1,13
1t.,dd"I'I,lel C'asenll!!M' '1&:" c.ael; ,'23 ..53· .87 1.rJ' 1.67 :t.le
H(lo"1 Ca ... mMl' Sed;"'; !'«>jede" l$.n <rack , .005 .17 .30 .43 . .5a .80
.11"0"'1' Co.em"nIS"aion Proiecl"d M,. crocI< , 1.20 'I "S3
.13 .AO .63 .?O
Hollow ""-'IIII-Vertically 'h,lIl.d .50 1."6 '2,.<10 :3.111 ].1'0 ',00 ·1nr,h .... tiQn caused by sloe!< "ff"~ "'!.1st b~ cClk;ula'ed J"parately duriflg 1ft" w'n'er. tNo ollowa ... " "a. b .. ,," mad" N. uod'll": S" .. robl .. 43 fo. infHtrarion d;l .. '0 0.011''''

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