# DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD

           DES features It is a block cipher algorithm. DES is a symmetric key algorithm. Key length of 64 bit. Block size of 64 bit.(plaintext) DES encryption algorithm. (steps) Initial permutation. Iteration (16 round). Key transformation . 32 bit swap. Inverse permutation.

 The left part of the output is equal to the right part of the input.  The output generates two 32 bits block L and R.  The right part of the output is derived from the bitwise XOR of the left part of the input and the function of the right part of the input and the key at the given iteration. .Iteration  The 64 bit input is divided into two equal portion denoted by L and R.

.

 Before the DES process starts every eight bit of the key discarded to produce a 56 bit key.  Thus discarding of every eight bit of the key produces a 56 bit key from the original 64 bit key.56 and 64. Actually the initial key consist of 64 bit key.  DES based on 16 rounds.Key generation  DES uses a 56 bit key.40.  DES based on confusion and diffusion.  Such a round perform the steps of substitution and transposition.  That is bit position 8.16. .24.48.are discarded.32.

 Each LPT and RPT goes through 16 rounds of encryption process each with its own key.  IP produces two permuted block LPT and RPT.Steps in DES  In the first step initial permutation (IP) on 64 bit plain text. The result produces  64 bit ciphertext. .  At the end LPT and RPT are rejoined and final permutation (FP) is performed on the combined block.

. The second bit with 50th bit of the original plaintext block and so on.  This is nothing but the jugglery of bit position of the original plaintext block. It suggest how the transposition is obtained in IP Ex. IP replaces the first bit of the plaintext block with the 58th bit of the original palintext block.Initial permutation      IP happens only once and it happens before the first round.

 IP 58 60 62 64 57 59 61 63 50 52 54 56 49 51 53 55 42 44 46 48 41 43 45 47 34 36 38 40 33 35 37 39 26 28 30 32 25 27 29 31 18 20 22 24 17 19 21 23 10 12 14 16 9 11 13 15 2 4 6 8 1 3 5 7 .

 Each half block consist of 32 bit i.  Now 16 rounds performed on this block.e LPT and RPT. . After IP the resulting 64 bit permuted block is divided into two half block.

 For this 56 bit key is divided in to two parts 28 bit each.  key transformation  Expansion permutation  S-box substitution  P-box permutation  XOR and swap.  Key transformation : from the 56 bit key 48 bit key is generated in each round using a process called key transformation. .Round in DES  Each of the 16 rounds consist of the following steps.

 round 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 No of key bit shift ed 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 . depending on the round . This two parts circularly shifted by one or two position.9.16 the shift is done by one position. For other round the circular shift is done by two position . For ex. If the round number is 1.2.

bit no. like 7 others to reduce 56 bit key to 48 bit. bit no.  Because of this compression permutation technique a different subset of key is used in each round. . 17 moves into second position and so on .  After the shift bit number 14moves into the first position . After an appropriate shift 48 of the 56 bits are selected .  The table contains only 48 bit . 18 is discarded .  The key transformation involves permutation as well as selection of 48 bit subset of the original 56 bit key is called compression permutation. That makes DES not so easy to crack.

Compression permutation 14 3 23 16 41 30 44 46 17 28 19 7 52 40 49 42 11 15 12 27 31 51 39 50 24 6 4 20 37 45 56 36 1 21 26 13 47 33 34 29 5 10 8 2 55 48 53 32 .

 Besides increasing the bit size from 32 to 48.Expansion permutation  After IP the 32 bit LPT and RPT.  The 32 bit RPT is divided into eight blocks.  .with each block consisting of eight bits. Then EP expands the 32 bit RPT to 48 bits.  During EP the RPT is expanded from 32 bits to 48 bits.  As the key transformation process compress the 56 bit key to 48 bit key. Now the 48 bit key is XOR with 48 bit RPT and the resulting output is given to the next step S-box substitution. the bits are also permuted as well hence the name expansion permutation.4bit block is then expanded into 6 bit block.

Step3 S-box substitution. .

 The 48 bit input block is divided into 8. The substitution is performed by eight substitution boxes.  .sub-block (6 bit each) and given to the s-box.  Each of the 8 s-boxes has 6 bit input and 4 bit output. The sub-block transform 6bit input into 4 bit output.

 0 1 2 3 S1 0 14 1 2 3 1 4 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 6 12 5 9 9 5 0 3 5 7 8 0 4 13 7 2 15 11 2 13 6 9 3 10 0 15 4 4 14 8 13 2 4 1 10 6 12 11 9 7 1 14 8 2 11 15 12 1 7 5 11 3 10 0 15 12 3 14 10 6 13  For example. that is column 13. and the column is determined by 1101. for input 011011 the row is 01. that is row 1. the output of each S-box is combined to form a 32 bit block which is given to P-box. . In row 1 column 13 appears 5 so that the output is 0101.

eg. A 16 in the first block that the bit at position 16 of the original input movs to the bit at position 1 in the output.  P 16 29 1 5 2 32 19 22 7 12 15 18 8 27 13 11 20 28 23 31 24 3 30 4 21 17 26 10 14 9 6 25 . The permutation function P yields a 32-bit output from a 32-bit input by permuting the bits of the input block.

DES key schedule calculation -the original key is 64 bit PC-1 permuted choice1 57 49 41 33 25 17 9 1 58 50 42 34 26 18 10 2 59 51 43 35 27 19 11 3 60 52 44 36 63 7 14 21 55 62 6 13 47 54 61 5 39 46 53 28 31 38 45 20 23 30 37 12 15 22 29 4 .

 PC-2 permuted choice 2 14 17 11 24 1 3 23 16 41 30 44 46 28 19 7 52 40 49 42 15 12 27 31 51 39 50 6 4 20 37 45 56 36 21 26 13 47 33 34 29 5 10 8 2 55 48 53 32 .

 Iteration corresponds to left shifts: 1 1 2 1 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 .

.

At this stage the LPT is XORed with  the output produced by p-box permutation.XOR and swap  We have been performing all these operations only on 32 RPT of original 64-bit plaintext. This is simple transposition.  Final permutation: at the end of 16 rounds the final permutation performed only once.  The LPT was untouched so far.  The result of this XOR operation becomes new right half. The result of this is become the new RPT.  The output of the final permutation is th 64 bit encrypted block. As shown in the diagram.(RPT)  The old RPT becomes new LPT in a process of swapping. .

««k16 for the 16 encryption round . K1.k15.k2. The original key K is divided into k1.«.k3. The only difference between the encryption and decryption is the reversal of key portions. for decryption the key should be used as k16.k13. .DES Decryption Same algorithm used for decryption process.k14..

Avalanche Effect  key desirable property of an encryption algorithm  where a change of one input or key bit results in changing approx half output bits  making attempts to ³home-in´ by guessing keys impossible  DES exhibits strong avalanche .

 As DES uses 56 bit key.  Therefore the strength of DES lies only its key which must be secret.Analyzing of DES or strength of DES  Use of s boxes : S boxes in DES kept secret .  . Thus it seems that the brute force attack is impractical.  Key length: any cryptographic system two important aspect :   cryptographic algorithm key  The working of DES is completely known to the general public.

Analyzing of DES or strength of DES  now have several analytic attacks on DES  these utilize some deep structure of the cipher ± by gathering information about encryptions ± can eventually recover some/all of the sub-key bits ± if necessary then exhaustively search for the rest  generally these are statistical attacks  include ± differential cryptanalysis ± linear cryptanalysis ± related key attacks .

.e K1 and K2 .e K2.k1.k2.e k1. i.  triple DES with two keys.  Triple DES: triple DES with three keys. K1.e k1.reverse process for decryption i. i.Varations of DES  Double DES : uses two keys for encryption i.k3.k2.

 The End .