Chapter – 1 Fundamental of Data Communications
1. Introduction Data Communication is a system consisting of carries and related devices used to transport data from one point to another. Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speech that is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is conveyed. Ancient Methods of Communication and Their Demerits – Message were sent in olden times either through horse riders or by using pigeons. There was no surety that the messenger will be able to convey the message exactly in the same form as told to him verbally. Electronic Methods of Communication – With the invention of telephone instrument and the communication satellites, the means of electronic communication has become very popular in India even though the cost of installation and maintenance of telephones is still very high and beyond the means of a common man. Limitations of Telephonic Communication: (a) Both the sender and the receiver of the message should be available at the same time and should speak the same language to understand. (b) Telephone communication is not a secured means of communication because anyone can overhear the message. (c) It is not suitable to send picture or any other type of message except a spoken message. (d) It is affected by the electrical interference or by the people digging roads etc. (e) It is still quite costly to make a telephone call outside the city or the country. Computerized Communication – Since the time computers have started playing an important role in the field of communications. The main reason for this is that computers can send data extremely fast. They can even transmit pictures and sound in a much secured manner. Further, PCs can send information on the existing telephone line. Advantage of Computerized Communication – (a) Telephonic calls, using Internet, can be made to any part of the world with the same expenses as a local telephone call made within the city. (b) Pictures, sound and written matter can be sent within minutes and a confirmation about it reaching at the destination can be obtained immediately. (c) Message can be sent in coded form so that they are not understood by anybody else except the person who is sending and the person who is receiving them. (d) Message can be sent in any language from any place of world to any place. (e) Users need not take highly specialized training for sending or receiving message. 2. Communication Systems A Communication system is the combination of hardware, software and data transfer links that make up a communication facility for transferring data in a cost effective and efficient manner. A communication system itself can be either analog or digital. The technique by which a digital signal is converted to its analog form is known as Modulation. The reverse process i.e. conversion of analog signal to digital signal is known as Demodulation. These processes of conversions carried out by a special device called Modem. Advantage of Digital Transmission over Analog Transmission:– (a) The voice data, music and images can be interspersed to make more efficient use of the same circuits and equipment. (b) Much higher transmission rates are possible using telephone lines. (c) Digital transmission is much cheaper than analog transmission. (d) Maintenance of a digital system is easier than maintenance of analog system. (e) A digital signal can pass through an arbitrary number of regenerators in with no loss in signal and thus travel long distances with no information loss. In contrast, analog signal always suffer some information loss when amplified, and this loss is cumulative. 3. Signal And Data Data in a communication system can be either digital data or analog data. Digital Data – On the hockey playground, the referee blows a whistle and all the players in the field understand the message instantaneously. The whistle blown in short bursts of high pitched sound like PEE, PE or it may have a long burst PEEEEEEE. The first one is indication to the players to start the game and the second long whistle is to stop the match immediately. The message conveyed by the sound energy in short pulses is very clear to all the players. This is an example of Digital Data Transmission. Analog Data – When we sit in a concert hall where many musical instrument being played by different players. For example say one player to playing sitar and other is playing tabla. This is an analog data communication. Both sitar and tabla are sending sound waves in the same sequence and there is a rhythm and harmony between the two. Any music system conveys the songs in the analog form. Different Characteristics of Analog and Digital Data Communication: -



Item Form Cost of transmission Efficiency Maintenance cost of equipment Effect of noise Attenuation Example Analog Transmission It is in the form of continuous variable of physical quantities Low Low High High High TV transmission from DoorDarshan Digital Transmission It is in the form of discrete quantities and has binary digits High high Low Low Low Data transmission disk to memory



4. Channel Characteristics A communication channel provides the medium to move electromagnetic energy from a source to one or more destination points. It is a pathway over which data are transferred between remote devices. Characteristics: (a) It should be able to deliver maximum amount of electromagnetic energy from the transmitter to the receiver with minimum cost. (b) It should not add much noise on the way so that the receiver is able to understand the message correctly. (c) There should not be any restriction on the distances between the transmitter where the sender is located and the receiver where the signal is received. Types of Communication Channels: There are two types of communication channel used in data communication. These are: (a) A public telephone system (b) A commercial radio station Both these channels are used for transfer of voice in analog form. The other type of channel is used for the transmission of the data between a PC and a printer. This carries digital data and transmits square waves. The digital signal between a PC and printer also gets attenuated if the distance of the printer is long. Digital Channel Capacity: The capacity of a digital channel is the number of data bits a channel conveys in one second. The measurement is in bits per second (bps). It is also known as bit rate of channel. The bit rate of networking ranges from kilobits per second or Kbps to millions of bits per second. The duration of a binary digit determines the bit rate. The shorter duration of bit is the cause of the greater the bps rating of the signal. Relationship between bit time and bit rate per second: Bit time (milli Bit rate per Bit time (milli Bit rate per sec) second(bps) sec) second(bps) 3.3 300 .833 1200 .416 2400 .104 9600 .052 19200 Baud and Bit Rate: - Baud is a measure of the digital signaling rate in a channel. Bit rate is a measure of the digital bit values the channel conveys with each baud. The only way to increase the digital bit rate is to decrease the bit time of the signal. But electrical characteristics of the material used for conveying the bits limit the reduction in the size of the bit time and thus fixing the maximum bit rate per second. Maximum Data Rate of a Channel: - The maximum data rate of a noisy channel whose bandwidth is in Hertz (Hz), and whose signal-to-noise ratio, shown as S/N in decibels, is given by: Maximum number of bits/sec = H1092 (1 + S/N) 5. Transmission Modes There are three modes of data transmission. These are: (a) Simplex – Simplex communication imply a simple method of communication. In simplex communications mode, there is a one way communication transmission. Television transmission is a very good example of this type of communication. (b) Half-duplex - In half-duplex mode, both units communicate over the same medium, but only one unit can send at a time. While one is in send mode, the other unit is in receiving mode. It is like two polite people talking to each other—one talks, the other listens, but neither one talks at the same time. (c) Full-duplex - In a half-duplex system, the line must be "turned around" each time the direction is reversed. This involves a special switching circuit and requires a small amount of time (approximately 150 milliseconds). With high speed capabilities of the computer, this turn-around



time is unacceptable in many instances. Also, some applications require simultaneous transmission in both directions. In such cases, a full-duplex system is used that allows information to flow simultaneously in both directions on the transmission path. Use of a fullduplex line improves efficiency as the line turn-around time required in a half-duplex arrangement is eliminated. It requires four wires. 6. Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission Asynchronous Mode: - Asynchronous mode refers to a series of events that take place which are not synchronized one after the other. Asynchronous Transmission: - Asynchronous transmission is often referred to as start-stop transmission because of its nature, that is the sender can send a character at any time convenient and the receiver will accept it. Asynchronous communication lines remain in an idle state until the hardware on the line is ready to transmit. Since the line is idle, a series of bits have to be sent to the receiving node to notify it that there is more data coming. When data is finished, the node has to be notified that the transmission is complete and to go back to an idle state, hence the STOP bits are to be sent. This pattern continues for the duration of the time the link is operative. This is the characteristic of many terminals when on a terminal, the time spent between successive keystrokes would vary. Thus, in asynchronous transmission, data is transmitted character by character at irregular intervals. Synchronous Transmission: - Synchronous devices need not use Start and Stop bits; so coordination between the two nodes, i.e. the sender and the receiver, is handled differently. In synchronous communications, there are two "channels" - one for data and another for link Synchronization. The channel for synchronization uses the integral clock in the hardware for link synchronization between the two nodes when one of the nodes is ready to transmit data, a unique combination of bits called a Sync Character is sent to the receiver. Since the first character will probably get trashed, a second one usually follows to ensure that synchronization is complete. Comparison between Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission:  Synchronous communications tend to be more expensive than asynchronous ones as the hardware involved is more costly due to integral clocking mechanism that have to be used as well as more sophisticated engineering efforts.  Synchronous transmission is well suited to remote communication between a computer and such devices as buffered card readers and printers. It is also used for computer to computer communications.  The primary advantage of synchronous transmission is its efficiency. Not only does it eliminate the need for individual start-stop bits on each character, but much higher data rates can be used than with asynchronous transmission.  Asynchronous transmission is well suited to many keyboard type terminals. The advantage of this method is that it does not require any local storage at the terminal or the computer as transmission takes place character by character. Hence it is cheaper to implement. Efficiency of Data Transmission in Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes: - Asynchronous data incorporates the use of extra framing bits to establish the start and ending (stop) of a data character word. A receiver responds to the data stream when it detects a start bit. A data character is decoded and defined after the stop bit is received and confirmed. Asynchronous data are easier to detect and synchronize, but the efficiency of data transmission is reduced by the addition of framing bits as overhead (no message data) bits. A comparison of a single character using the two data types is as follows. For this purpose, the ASCII code of the letter E (1000101) is used. The order of transmission is to send the Least Significant Bit (LSB) first. The number of framing bits used for asynchronous data varies depending on the stations in the communication link. For example, suppose we use 1 start and 2 stop bits. This adds 3 more bits to the character 'word. Hence total 10 bits are required to send the letter E using asynchronous data. However, in' the case of synchronous transmission, only 7 bits are required for transmission of the character E. The efficiency of transmission is defined as the ratio of the number of message bits to the total number of transmitted bits: or % efficiency =


d ata bits x 100 to ta lbits

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC): - In synchronous communications, CRC is used to verify the integrity of the entire packet or block of data. Integrity of the packet means whether the complete packet of data is received in its correct form as it was sent at the sending end. In synchronous communications, parity checking is sufficient to ensure data integrity. In high-speed asynchronous communications, single bit corrections are not enough. As each packet is created, a CRC check is placed somewhere in the packet and is verified at the receiving end. CRC is a calculation method used to check the accuracy of a digital transmission over a communication link. The sending computer uses one of several formulas to calculate a value from the



information contained in the data, and this value is appended to the message block before it is sent. The receiving computer performs the same calculation on the same data and should derive the same number. If the two CRCs do not match, indicating that a transmission error has occurred, the receiving computer asks the sending computer to retransmit the data. This procedure is known as a redundancy check because each transmission includes extra or redundant error-checking values as well as the data itself. A CRC is generated by dividing the total number of bits in the block of data being sent by a predetermined binary number. The remainder is then added to the packet and the packet is transmitted. On the receiving end, the reverse mathematical operation is performed to verify the packet contents. If the computation is successful, the packet is passed to the next step. If it fails, the issuing node is notified and the entire packet is retransmitted. Common CRC patterns are 12-bit (CRC 12), 16-bit (CRC-16 and CRC-CCITT), and 32-bit (CRC-32)


Chapter – 2 Transmission Media
Introduction – Transmission media is the general term used to describe the data path that forms the physical channel between sender and the receiver 1. Guided Media – The Guided Media refer to the media in which the signals are guided through a solid medium, such as copper wire, optical fiber etc. Examples of guided media are the following: (a) Twisted-pair Wire – A twisted-pair cable consists of two insulated copper wires, typically about 1 mm thick, here the wire are twisted together in a helical manner. Characteristics:  Twisted pair consists of two insulated copper wires.  The thickness of coils is about 1 mm.  The wires are twisted together.  Twisted pair is commonly used in local telephone communication.  For digital transmission over short distances up to 1 km. Advantage:  Trained men power is available to repair and service the media.  In a telephone system signals can travel several kilometers without amplification, when twisted pair wires are used.  It is used for both i.e. analog transmission as well as digital transmission.  It is least expensive.  If a portion of a twisted pair cable is damaged the network is not effected very badly. Disadvantage:  This cable has poor protection layer that’s why easily pick up noise.  It is likely to break easily. (b) Co-axial Cable – A Co-axial cable consists of a stiff copper wire as the core, surrounded by an insulating material. Characteristics:  Co-axial cable consists of a copper wire as the core surrounded by an insulating material.  It is available in two forms i.e. 50-ohm and 75-ohm.  50-ohm cable is used for digital transmission.  75-ohm cable is used for analog transmission. Advantage:  Co-axial cable is used to span the network to long distance at higher data rate (bit/s).  It is used for both digital and analog transmission.  It has higher Band-width.  It is in-expensive as compare to fiber optics. Disadvantage:  In respect to twisted pair, it is expensive.  Failure of portion, may affect the whole network.  Network cannot be extended above 1 km.  Bandwidth is not constant, varies according to length (Distance covers). (c) Fiber Optics – Fiber optics is the newest form of guided media. This media is superior in data handling and security characteristics. The Fiber Optic transmits light signals rather than electrical signal. Each Fiber has an inner core of glass or plastic and additional resources



Application of radio waves:  Due to omni-directional characteristics of radio wave. Inside the jacket.  This media is lighter than any other media.  Radio waves are omni directional.  Installation: . In Optical fiber the outer jacket is made up of either polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or teblon. Advantage:  This media is superior than any other media use to connect network resources physically. When an antenna transmits radio waves.  Bandwidth: . Advantage:  Due to low and medium frequency it can penetrates walls. Characteristics:  Cost: .  It doesn’t support two ways communication at a time. Below the Kevlar another plastic coating to protect the fiber is at the centre of the cable and it consists of cladding and core. Unguided Media – The media in which signal are not guided through a solid medium is called Unguided Media.Through fiber optics light signal is passed that’s why chances of attenuation will be lesser.Installation of this cable is difficult than any other cables. Disadvantage:  Fiber Optics required high skilled people to use. Codeless phone and paging.  Radio waves are easy to generate. (b) Microwaves – Electromagnetic waves having frequency between 1 GHz to 3 GHz are called microwaves. Omni-directional properly has a disadvantage that radio waves transmitted by one antenna are susceptible interference by another antenna that may send signal using the same frequency or band. transmission is possible in both direction. means AM radio can receive a signals inside a building.2. In half duplex mode of transmission. Characteristics:  Have frequency between 10 KHz to 1 GHz. required at both side i.If fiber optic is used as communication channel with Ethernet then up to 75 nodes can be easily connected/installed.  Fiber Optics cable provides higher Bandwidth than any other cables.  Signal cannot be leakage. Maritime radio.  They can travel long distances. TV.  This cable cannot be easily getting noisy. Kevlar which is a strong material used in the fabrication of bullet proof vests.  Installation and maintenance is typical. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . but only one direction at a time.  They can penetrate buildings easily. it is use in AM and FM radio.Fiber Optic cable is more expensive than any other cables.  Greater immunity to tapping.e. hey are propagated in all directional. This means that the sending and receiving antenna do not have to be aligned. source and destination to convert electrical signal into light signal and vice versa.Fiber Optic supports half duplex mode of transmission. Disadvantage:  Due to low & medium frequency these can’t isolate a communication to just inside or outside a building.  Cost of this cable is much higher than any other cable. There are several methods which are used to send electromagnetic energy through air: (a) Radio Waves – Electromagnetic waves ranging in frequency between 3 KHz and 1 GHz are called radio waves.  Maximum connecting points/node capacity: . Radio waves are those wave that propagate in the sky mode can travel long distance broadcasting. Radio waves are omni-directional.  Mode of Transmission: .  Unidirectional light propagation. For example Air is the media through which electromagnetic energy ca flow easily.  The Bandwidth of this media is higher than any other media.

2. Terrestrial:  Such system used directional parabolic antennas to send and receives signals.  Microwaves are in expansive as compare to fiber optics system.  The signal reaches the satellite and it become weak due to the distance of 36. Application:  Microwaves are used for uni-cast communication such as cellular telephones satellite networks and wireless LANs.In Terrestrial microwave system line of sight maintain line of sight requirement can make installation difficult.Microwaves are unidirectional when an antenna transmits microwaves. The transponder in a satellite amplifies the weak signal and sends them back to the earth at a frequency of 4 GHz. The parabolic dish works as a funnel.  One antenna is on a satellite in geo-synchronous orbit (The orbit where the speed of the satellite matches the earth’s rotation speed).  Uses of certain portions of band in microwaves require permission from authorities. Received transmission is collected by the scooped shape of the horn and is deflected down into the same. more of the signal is recovered than would be possible with a single-point receiver.Data rates are from 1 to 10 m bit/sec.  Microwaves communication is widely used for telephones. There are two types of antenna used for microwave communication: (i) Parabolic dish antenna – It is based on the geometry of parabolic in which every line is parallel to the line of symmetry or line of sight and reflects off the curve at angles such that on the lines intersect at a common point called the focus. they can be narrowly focused. if receivers are inside the building.  Bandwidth – High and it also depends on the frequency use.  Microwaves travel in straight line.  Bandwidth capacity: .  The signals are highly focused and the physical part must be line to sight. Advantage:  A pair of antennas can be aligned without interfering with another pair of aligned antennas. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . Microwave propagation is line of sight propagation. about 36000 kms above the equator. catching a wide range of waves and directing them to a common point. Characteristics:  Frequencies above 100 MHz. Because antennas must be carefully aligned. Characteristics:  Frequency – Range: 4 GHz – 6 GHz and 11 GHz – 14 GHz  Cost – Building and launching such system is extremely expensive.000 km traveled.  Frequency range between 21 to 23 GHz and 4 to 6 GHz. television redistribution etc.  This allows a ground station to aim its antenna at a fixed point in the sky. These signals are received at a receiving station on the earth.  Relay towards are used to extend the signals.  Installation: .  Such as also maintain line of sight.  Microwave system permit data transmission rate above about 16 GHz /sec. This means that the sending and receiving antenna need to be aligned.  Cost: . Types of Microwave communication system: There are two types of microwave communication system: 1.  Repeaters are used to extend the coverage area.  Installation – Extremely difficult and technical. (ii) Horn antenna – It looks like a gigantic scoop.  In satellite communication microwave communication at 6 GHz are transmitted from a transmitter on earth to a satellite position in space.Short distance system can be inexpensive but long distance systems can be expensive. Outgoing transmissions are broadcast up a stem and deflected outward in a series of narrow parallel beams by the curved head. In this way. Disadvantage:  Very high frequency microwaves can’t penetrate walls. Satellite:  Satellite microwave system transmits signals between directional parabolic antennas.

DVDS use infrared communication.  It makes high quality communication.  Portable computers with infrared capability can be on the local LAN without having too physically connected to it. so each building needs its own laser and its own photo detector. Characteristics:  Used for short range communication. mousse.  Transmission and receiving costs are independent from the distance between these stations. Disadvantage:  Laser beams cannot penetrate rain or thick fog. Fiber Optics Communication: .  They are relatively directional. Period = C(distance)3/2 Where ‘C’ is a constant approximately equal to 1/100. and easy to build but do not pass through solid object. it prevents interference between one system and another.  No government license is needed to operate on infrared system like radio system. Coherent optical signaling using lasers is inherently unidirectional. Disadvantage:  Initial setup cost is very high. ‘Period’ has a unit second. Optical fibers are used to connect work-stations with central processor in a LAN. Kepler’s Law: . Infrared waves are those waves that propagate in the line of sight mode. The recent standard defines a data rate of 4 MB/sec. The infrared data association (IRDA) an association of sponsoring the use of infrared waves has established standards for communication between devices such as keyboards.  It does not require any license. (c) Infrared and Millimetre Wave – In electromagnetic waves ranging in frequency between 3 GHz to 400 THz are called infrared.  It can’t be used outside the building because the sun’s ray contains infrared waves that can be interfering with communication. Main purposes of using optical fibers are to provide safe mechanism with high data rate.  The remote controls used on television and VCRS. PCs and printers.  Heat from the sun during the daytime causes convection currents to rise up from the roof of the building. Advantage:  Due to high frequency and short range communication. cheap.e. Application:  It can be used for short range communication in a closed area using line of sight propagation. Disadvantage:  High frequency infrared can’t penetrate walls. Components: .Advantage:  Satellite communication is a single broadcast or relay station visible from any point of a very large area on the earth. (d) Light Wave: .  Satellites used for national transmission are visible from all ports of the country.A modern application is to connect the LANs in two buildings via lasers mounted on their roof tops.It defines the period as a function of the distance of the satellite from the centre of the earth i.  It is relatively easy to install.  Infrared communication is used fro indoor wireless LAN. According to Kepler’s Law.  Maintenance cost is less.The huge capacity and digital efficiency of optical fibers have made them most appropriate for computer communication.A fiber optics system has three components:  Light source  Transmission medium (channel)  Detector DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . Advantage:  The bandwidth is very high at very low cost. but they normally work well on sunny days. if receivers are inside the building.

UHF is used in UHF TV. By attaching a light source to one end of an optical fiber and a detector to the other. Categorization into bands of electromagnetic spectrum of Radio wave & Microwave: (i) Very Low Frequency (VLF) – VLF have range between 3 to 30 Hz and we ground propagation method. paging. (iv) High Frequency (HF) – HF has range between 3 MHz to 30 MHz and use ground sky propagation method. BAM = 2B Where B – Bandwidth of Audio signal BAM – Bandwidth of AM The federal communication commission (FCC) allows 10 KHz for each amplitude modulation station (AM). VHF is used in VHF TV and FM radio. Categorization of Modulation: 1. SHF is used in satellite communication. the carrier signal is modulated so that its amplitude varies with the changing amplitude of modulating signal. That may add up with the information signal. the twice the bandwidth of modulating signal and covers a range centered in a carrier frequency. However the signal components above and below the carrier frequency carry the exactly the same information. Application of VLF is called long range radio navigation. satellite. two different voltage levels are used i. converts and transmits it as light pulses. Modulation creates a band width i. MF is used in AM (Amplitude Modulator). LF is used in radio beacons and navigational locators. Amplitude Modulation – In Amplitude Modulation transmission. ship/aircraft communication. The laser diodes emit light at -6 dbm. (viii) Extremely High Frequency (EHF) – EHF has range between 30 GHz to 300 GHz and use line of sight propagation method. Advantage:  Easy to implement  Used for both digital and analog  In the case of digital signal. The LEDs emit a lower level of light (-15 dbm power level) but concentrate it into a tighter cone pattern. cellular phones. Before signal strength goes down.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Light source – The two commonly use optical sources are Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Injection Laser Diodes. The frequency and phase of the carrier remains the same.  Detector – The detector generates an electrical pulse when light falls on it.e. For this reason some implementation discarded one half of the signal and cut the bandwidth in half. AM stations allowed carrier frequency between 530 KHz to 1700 KHz. we have a unidirectional data transmission system that accepts an electrical signal. The pattern of light is shown below:  Transmission medium (channel) – The transmission medium is an ultra-thin fiber of glass. (iii) Middle Frequency (MF) – MF has range between 300 KHz to 3 MHz and use sky propagation method. The total bandwidth required for amplitude modulation can be determined from the bandwidth of audio signal.e.Modification of one or more characteristic of a carrier wave by an information bearing signal is called ‘Modulation’. HF is used in citizens band (CB).  Chapter – 3 DATA MODEMS Modulation: . it must be amplified. (vii) Super High Frequency (SHF) – SHF has range between 3 GHz to 30 GHz and use line of sight propagation method. and then reconverts the output to electrical signals art the receiving end.  As the strength of the signal decreases in a channel with distance traveled it reaches a minimum level. (ii) Low Frequency (LF) – LF has range between 30 Hz to 300 KHz and use ground propagation method. Only the amplitude changes to follow the variation in information. (vi) Ultra High Frequency (UHF) – UHF has range between 300 MHz to 3 GHz and use line of sight propagation method. It is used in satellite and radar. (v) Very High Frequency (VHF) – It has range between 30 MHz to 300 MHz and used both sky and line of sight propagation. 0 or 1. NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . Disadvantage:  It is affected by the noise signal.

A PCM encoder has three procedures: (a) Analog signal is sampled (b) Sampled signal is quantized (c) Quantized values are encountered as streams of bits. The peak of amplitude and frequency of carrier signal remains constant but the amplitude of information signal changes the phase of carrier signal. The peak amplitude and phase of carrier signal remains constant but as the amplitude of information system changes. The inverse of the sampling interval is called the sampling rate or sampling frequency and denoted by fs. In frequency modulation the instantaneous change in carrier frequency is proportional to the amplitude of modulating signal while in phase modulation. The value of ‘β’ is lower in the case of phase modulation around 1 narrow band and 3 for wide band. Advantage:  Frequency modulated is least affected by the noise. 3. FM stations are allowed carrier frequency anywhere between 88 MHz to 108 MHz. Advantage:  It provides the signal modulation that allows computers to communicate at higher data rates through telephone system. According to the Nyquist NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . (a) Sampling – The analog signal sampled every Ts second where Ts second is the sample interval or period. Frequency Modulation – In Frequency Modulation transmission. the frequency of carrier signal is modulated to follow the changing voltage level of modulating signal. Analog to Digital Conversion: 1.The common technique in which analog signal changes to digital data (Digitization) is called PCM. The Fcc allows 200 KHz for each station. Phase Modulation – In phase modulation transmission the phase of carrier signal is modulated to follow the changing voltage level of modulating signal. Disadvantage:  Needs much higher bandwidth than amplitude modulation. The actual bandwidth is difficult to determine exactly but it can be shown empirically that it is several times that of analog or modulating signal. The actual bandwidth is difficult to determine exactly but it can be solved shown that it is several lines that of analog signal. Disadvantage:  Phase modulation requires two signals with a phase difference between them. Use:  FM technique is used to convert digital signal into FM signals.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING 2. the instantaneous change in carrier frequency is proportional to the derivative of amplitude of modulating signal. where fs = 1/Ts. The bandwidth of an audio signal broadcast in stereo is almost 15 KHz. Although the formula of same bandwidth for frequency modulation and phase modulation. BFM = 2(1 + β)B Here β is a factor depends upon modulation technique.  This technique is used to convert digital signals into phase modulated (PM) signal. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM): . the frequency of carrier changes corresponding. Use:  This technique is used to convert colour information in colour television broadcast.

e. NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . each of height ∆(delta) i. not the bandwidth. each sample can be changed to an n-bit codeword i.theorem. it passes through a low-pass filter to smooth the staircase signal into an analog signal. If the analog signal is low-pass.  We divide the range into 1 zones.e. The filter has the same cut off frequency as the original signal at the sender. Steps in Quantization:  We assume that the original analog signal has instantaneous amplitude between Vmin & Vmax. the sampling rate must be at least 2 times the higher frequency contained in the signal. (b) Quantization . DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING If the analog signal is band pass. For elaborating Nyquist theorem we remember some points:  Sample a signal only & signal is band-limited. of bits nn = log2L. the bandwidth value is lower than the value of the maximum frequency. After the staircase signal is completed. For quantization & encoding. of bits per sample is decided. the original signal will be recreated. The maximum and minimum values of the original signal can be achieved by using amplification. the bandwidth & the highest frequency are the same value. If the signal has been sampled at or greater than the Nyquist sampling rate & if there are enough quantization levels. of bits per sample = fs x nn In PCM decoder. where L = Quantization level & Bit rate = Sampling rate x no. we first use circuitry to convert the code words into a pulse that holds the amplitude. we take a sampled signal and the sample amplitude are between -20 v and + 20 v. ∆= Vmax . The set of amplitude can be infinite with nonintegral values b/w the two limits. We approximate the value of the sample amplitude to the quantized values. We decided to have eight levels. These values can’t be used in the encoding process. This means that ∆ = SV  (c) Encoding – After each sample is quantized & no.  Sampling rate must be at least 2 times the highest frequency. no.The result of sampling is a series of pulse with amplitude values between the maximum to minimum amplitudes of the signal.Vmin 2  We assign quantized values of 0 to 1-10 to the mid-point of each zone.

B = (1 + d) X 3 + 2 ∆f (b) Multilevel FSK (MFSK) – Multilevel FSK is that in which more than two frequencies used. We can use 4. the frequency of the carrier signal is varied to represent data. B = (1 + d) X S Where d = value between 0 & 1 S = Signal rate The formula shows that the required bandwidth has a minimum value of s & a maximum value of 25. creates the analog signal.  Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) – In FSK. so the difference between the two frequencies is 2 ∆f. Levels of ASK: (d) Level o – This is also called Binary ASK or on-off keying & peak amplitude of one signal level is 0 & the other is the same as the amplitude of the carrier frequency. The middle of one bandwidth is f1 & the other is f2. 8. (e) Multilevel ASK (MASK) – Multilevel ASK is that in which more than two levels. There are no code words. Bandwidth for ASK. In the analog transmission of digital data. Both peak amplitude & phase remain constant for all signal elements. The process records the small positive or negative changes. we use the second if the data element is 1. Relationship between Data rate & signal rate – Data or bit rate is the no. Bandwidth for FSK for multilevel. The created analog signal needs to pass through a low-pass filter for smoothing. Both frequency & phase remain constant while the amplitude changes. where S = signal rate. the baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate. of data elements carried in one signal = log2l where l is the type of signal element. 16 or more different amplitude for the signal & modulate the data using 2. However the process needs a base against which the analog signal is compared. Delta Modulation (DM) – DM finds the change from previous sample. Both f1 & f2 are ∆f apart from the midpoint between the two bands. Finding the change I then reduced to comparing the input signal with the gradually made staircase signal. S = N x 1/r baud. Signal or baud rate is the no. of bits per second. Bandwidth for FSK. Modulator – The Modulator is used at the sender site to create a stream of bits from an analog signal. Both peak element if the data element changes. if it is negative the process records a 0. Demodulator – The Demodulator takes the digital data & using the staircase maker & the delay unit. r = no. This is also called Shift Keying. but changes for the next signal element if the data element changes. If the delta is positive. the process records a 1. called Delta. 3. (a) Binary FSK (BFSK) – Binary FSK is considering two frequencies f1 & f2. 4 or more bits at a time. NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . Digital to analog Conversion: . To send 2 bits at a time. N = data rate. We use the first carrier if the data element is 0.Digital to analog conversion is the process of changing one of the characteristics of an analog signal based on the information in digital data. bits are sent one after another. Shift Keying:  Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) – In amplitude shift keying the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied to create signal elements.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING 3. we can use four frequencies and so on. The frequency of the modulated signal is constant for the duration of one signal element. The modulator builds a second signal that resembles a staircase. of signal elements per second.

PCMCIA stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. a signal modulator and signal demodulator. A modulator converts digital signals into analog and demodulator converts analog signal into digital signal. 2. in which we have only two signal elements.for no dial tone. To connect to PSTN. Today. The modem then replies with an ok response i. (a) Binary PSK (BPSK) – The simplest PSK is binary PSK. sending and receiving faxes and voice mail using associated software.  Converts received signal back into bits.  Converts bits into the form suitable for the LAN. the phase of the carrier is varied to represent two or more different signal elements. There are very few manufacturers of wireless modem. Landline modem can be of following types: (a) Internal Modems – Internal modems are installed within the computer as interface cards. They are more expensive than the internal modems.  DPSK – Encoding Technique and CODEC: MODEMS: . memory requirements. If it gets connected then it returns a connect code as it sends +++ and then wait for a command from host computer. This means that the bit to each BPSK signal has one half the frequency of the signal. A modem derives its meaning from modulation and demodulation i. Modems are classified into many categories.  Transfer data reliable. It is also the device converts the analog signals received over a telephone line into digital signal usable by the computer. LAN modems are of various types.It is a device converts digital signal generated by computer into an analog signal to be carried by public access telephone line. The modem will then return an OK message when it has successfully created a connection. Like Landline Modems wireless modems do not plug into jack. Both peak amplitude & frequency remain constant as the phase changes.e. etc. outside the computer. it tries to make connection with remote modem if it is not able to make connection it sends message in the form of code. (d) Voice/data/fax Modems – Voice/data/fax Modems which are use for transferring files. (c) PCMCIA Modems – PCMCIA Modems are credit-card sized modems used in laptop computers. (b) External Modems – External Modems are installed as a separate hardware device.  Auto answer. Using wireless modem. etc. network architecture. The scheme is called quadrature PSK because it uses two separate means out of phase. Depending upon the number of parts. 3 – for no carrier 7 – for busy 6 . one can connect to a network while being mobile. 3.  Automatically speed negotiation between two modems.e. Modem Standard – There are two modem standards: 1. PSK is more common than ASK & FSK. The incoming bits are first passed through a serial to parallel conversion that sends bit to one modulator and the next bit to the other modulator. Classification of Modems – Modem can be of the following types: 1. Wireless Modems – Wireless modem are based on webs. B = (l+ d) S (b) Quadrature PSK (QPSK) – The simplicity of BPSK enticed designers to use 2 bits at a time in each signal element. thereby decreasing the baud rate & eventually the required bandwidth. the duration of each bit sent to the corresponding BPSK signal is 2T. as parameter using tone dialing. If the duration of each bit in the incoming signal is T. security. Modem Commands – When a computer wants to make a connection using telephone no. this modem has a jack known as RJ-11 jack or regular phone jack. Landline Modems – Landline modems are those modems which connect to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modem speed range from 300bps to 56kbps.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING B = (1 + d) x S + (L – 1) 2 ∆f  Phase Shift Keying (PSK) – In PSK.  Disconnect a telephone connection when data transfer has completed. Bell Modems – The first commercially available modems were developed by Bell Telephone Company. In the early 70’s they defined the development of the technology and provided the NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . Bandwidth of PSK. LAN Modems – LAN Modems allows share remote access to LAN resources. The tasks which modem can perform are:  Automatically dial another modem using touch tone or pulse dialing. In this case command is hang up the connection (ATH). one with a phase of 00 and the other with a phase of 1800.

• It is a half-duplex protocol. X.25 is an end to end protocol.e. ITU-T Modems – Many of today’s modems are based on the standard published by ITU-T. 2. 202 series.32bis.25 is a packet-switching protocol that defines the interface between a synchronous packetswitching host computer and analog dedicated circuits or dial-up switched virtual circuits in the voice-grade public data network.3. Some major Bell modems include the 103/113 series.23.e. V.21. V. Protocol Used by Modem for Transferring Files – Some of the protocols used by modem for transferring files are described in the following sub-sections:  XMODEM – XMODEM is a file transfer protocol used in telephone-line communication between PCs. V.22. XMODEM protocol requires that one terminal or computer be set up as the sender and other be set up as the receiver. many to one method. V.28 and X. It acts as an interface between data terminal equipment (DTE) and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE).25 protocol.29 protocols are collectively known as Triple-X protocols.33 and V. X.3 defines a packet assembler/disassembler (PAD).standards. Modems at both ends of the connection talk to one another. which is noise burst that can last of the order of 10 milliseconds.25 network.  Connection to an on-line service – On-line service consist of one or more central computers linked by telephone lines to other small computers spread across the country or world. but with some differences. V. 208 series and 209 series.29 defines relationship between a PAD and a remote terminal. 212 series. 2. 201 series. X. oneto-many method & directs them to their corresponding lines. • Two CANs are sent to abort a transmission. Establishing a Connection – Connection can be of the following three types:  Direct Connection between PCs – One PC can call another PC. Triple-X Protocol – X.25 allows a variety of devices that are designated as data terminal equipment (DTE) to talk to the public data network (PDN). X. It allows the transmission of control characters as text.32.28 defines the rules for communication between a dumb terminal and a PAD. These differences are the following: • A data unit is of 1024 bytes.Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link. Triple-X protocols are used to connect a dumb terminal to an X.  YMODEM – It is similar to XMODEM. NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 .  Connection to a Mainframe Computer – A PC connects a mainframe computer. A dumb terminal is any terminal that does not understand X.22bis. Format of multiplexed system:Multiplexer is that which combines transmission stream into a single stream i. • ITU-T CRC-16 is used for error checking. Modem Protocols – 1. X. • Multiple files can be sent simultaneously. V. • It requires manual setup for each file to be transferred. X. One link can have many channels.34 modems are ITU-T modems. V.  Kermit – It is an also a file transfer protocol like XMODEM. • The error detection technique is unsophisticated and unable to detect reliably the most common type of transmission error.  ZMODEM – It combines the features of both XMODEM and YMODEM. A block of data sent under XMODEM protocol will have the following format: Start of Header Block Number 1’s Complement of 128 Data Checksum Block Number Characters bits Characteristics: • It is easy to implement with a small computer.25 Protocol – X. X. Demultiplexer is that which separates the stream back into its component transmission i. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Chapter – 4 Multichannel Data communication Multiplexing: . Link refers to the physical path channel refers to the portion of a link that carries a transmission between a given pair of lines.

If an input time slot is Ts. A unit can be 1 bit. Using this technique.  FDM is used in television broadcasting  FDM is used in first generation cellular telephones.TDM is a digital multiplexing technique for combining several low rate channels into one high-rate one. Wavelength division multiplexing: . Application of WDM:  WDM is used in SONET network in which multiple optical fiber lines are multiplexed & demultiplexed. In other wards. These modulated signals are then combined into a single composite signal that can be transported by the link. it travels faster. channels can be separated by strips of unused bandwidth. Time–division multiplexing: . Different carrier frequencies. a multiplexer can be made to combine several input beams of light. Using a fiver-optic cable fox one single line wastes the available bandwidth.In synchronous TDM. Two schemes for TDM: 1. Dense WDM can multiplex a very large number of channels by spacing channels very close to one another. Each input unit becomes one output unit & occupies one output time slot. It achieves even greater efficiency. In WDM technology. 1charecter of 1 block of data. we want to combine multiple sources light into one single light at the multiplexer & do the reverse at the demultiplexer. In WDM. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING (b) (c) NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . Multiplexing allows us to combine several lines into one. each containing a narrow band of frequencies into one output beam of a wider band of frequencies. The combining & splitting of light source are easily handled by a prism. the output time slot is T/n & where n is the no.WDM is an analog technique that is designed to use the high data-rate capability of fiber-optic cable. A demultiplexer can also be made to reverse the process. The optical-fiber data rate is higher than the data rate of metallic transmission cable.Categories / techniques of multiplexing: (a) Frequency-division multiplexing: FDM is an analog technique that can be applied when the band-width of a link is greater than the combined band-widths of the signals to be transmitted. the multiplexing & demultiplexing involve optical signals transmitted through fiber-optic channels. guard bands to prevent signals from overlapping. Application of FDM: FDM is used in AM & FM radio broadcasting with band from 530 to 1700 KHz & 88 to 108 MHz respectively. A prism bends a beam of light based on the angle of incidence & the frequency. a unit in the output connection has a shorter duration. These bandwidth ranges are the channels through which the various signals travel. In FDM. Carrier frequencies are separated by sufficient bandwidth to accommodate the modulated signal. signals generated by each sending device modulate. of connections. Synchronous TDM: . Than the duration of an input time slot. However the duration of an output time slot is n times shorter. where each input occupies one input time slot. the data flow of each input connection is divided into units.

Access technique is basically divided into three groups. No station permits of does not permit. Access technique: . (a) Random Access: . The signals created at each station are automatically band pass filtered. Only when a input line has a slot’s worth of data to send is it given a slot in the output frame. In statistical TDM. FDMA is an access method in the data link layer. Each station is allocated to a time slot during which it can send data. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . Each station transmits its data. Statistical TDM: . Each station is allocated a band to send its data in other wards. with one slot dedicated to each sending device. the no. Method of channelization: (a) Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA): . another station to send. the data rate of the link is n times slots are grouped into frames. In each station tells its physical layer to make a band pall signal from the data passed to it. there is no such situation.In TDMA.In FDMA. of slots in each frame is less than the no of input lines.In random access of contention methods. with each slot allocated to carrying data from a specific input line. each band is reserved for a specific station. in is assigned time slot. the allocated bands are separated from one another by small guare bands. Method of controlled access technique:  reservation  polling  token passing (c) Channelization: . & it belongs to the station all the time. the stations consult one another to find which station has the right to send. 2. slot are dynamically allocated to improve bandwidth efficiency. (b) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA): . no station is superior to another station & name is assigned the control over the another. In a system with n input lines each flame has n slot. frequency. between different stations. The multiplexer checks each input line in round robin fashion: it allocates a slot for an input line if the line has data to send otherwise it skips the line & checks the next line. The signals must be created in the allocated band there is no physical multiplexer at the physical layer.In controlled access. The means that stream data can easily be used with FDMA. a slot need to carry data as well as address of the destination.  The frame in statistical TDM need not be synchronized means there is no need of synchronization bits where as in synchronous TDM must be synchronized. the capacity of the link is equal to the sum of the capacity of channel. Each station also uses a band pass filter to confine the transmitter frequencies to prevent station interferences. Method of random access technique:  ALHO  CSMA (carrier sense multiple access)  CSMA/CD (Carrier sense multiple Access with collision detection)  CSMA/CA ( Carrier sense multiple access with collision Avoidance ) (b) Controlled Access: . FDMA specifies a predetermined frequency band for the enter period of communication.  In statistical TDM. the available bandwidth is divided into frequency bands.In synchronous TDM.In statistical TDM.  In statistical TDM. the station share the bandwidth of the channel in time. A frame consists of one complete cycle of time slots.Channelization is a multiple access method in which the available bandwidth of a link is shared in time. or through code. A station can’t send unless it has been authorized by other stations. Difference between synchronous &statistical TDM:  An output slot in synchronous TDM is totally occupied by data where as in statistical TDM. no solt is left empty as long as there are data to be sent by any input line. In statistical TDM. the capacity of the link is normally less than the sum of the capacity of cache channel where as in synchronous TDM. a block of data is usually many bytes while the address is just a few bytes where as in synchronous TDM. They are mixed when they are sent to the common channel.

The expanded bandwidth allows the source to corp. . the signal modulates one carrier. By for larger than what is needed.: . frequency.  If we multiply a sequence by a no. CDMA simply means communication with different codes. If the required bandwidth for each station is B.TDMA lies in achieving synchronization between the different stations.  The expanding of the original bandwidth B to the bandwidth Bss must be done by a process that is independent of the original signal. they spread the original spectrum needed for each station.Spread spectrum combines signals from different sources to bit into a latger bandwidth. In other worked. . in a protective envelope for a mare secure transmission. i. This is called multiplication of a sequence by a scalar. i. its message. inserting guard times synchronization is accomplished by having some synchronization bits at the beginning of each slot.In CDMA. The bandwidth occupied by a source after spreading is BFHSS >> B. To compensate for the delays. spread spectrum techniques add redundancy.  If we multiply two different sequence. This allows redundancy. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . at the next moment. Properties of orthogonal sequence:  Each sequence is made of N elements. although the modulation is done using one carrier frequency at a time. (c) Code Division Multiple Access (COMA): . The frequency synthesizer creates a carrier signal of that frequency & the source signal modulates the carrier signal. spread spectrum expands it to Bss. [+1+1-1-1] = 1+1+1+1 = 4. it encodes it as -1 . such that Bss>>B. Cache station needs to know the beginning of its slot & the location of its slot this may be difficult because of propagation delays introduced in the system if the station are spread over a large area. if it needs to send a 1 bit. called Pseudo random noise (PN). Two principles for achieving goals of spread spectrum:  The bandwidth allocated to each station needs to be.[ +1+1-1-1 ] = [ +2+2-2-2 ]  If we multiply two equal sequence element by element add the results. The spreading process occurs after the signal is created by the source. The data link layer in each station tells its physical layer to user the allocated time slot there is no physical multiplexer at the physical layer. M frequencies are used in the long sun. At one moment.i. We get 0. of elements in the each sequence. To achieve bandwidth efficiency. it encodes it as +1 & when a station is idles.[+1+1-1-1] .[+1+1-1-1] + [+1+1+1+1] = [+2+200]. where N is the no. every element in the sequence is multiplied by that element. The result is another sequence.The FHSS technique uses M different carrier frequencies that are modulated by the source signal. we get N. It is designed to be used in wireless communication (LANs & WANs). Layout for FHSS: Pseudorandom code generator.e. Two techniques to spread the bandwidth: (a) Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS): .e. element by element & add the results. Spread Spectrum: . TDMA is an access method in the data link.e.[+1+1-1-1] . This is called the inner product of two equal sequences. .e. one channel carries all transmission simultaneously but having no timesharing. where N is the no. of stations. creates a K-bit pattern for every happing period Th. i. If a station needs to send a 0 bit. it senda no signal which is interpreted as a ‘0’. [+1+1+1+1] = 1+1-1-1 = 0  Adding two sequences means adding the corresponding elements. He frequency table uses the pattern to find the frequency to be used for this hopping period & passes it to the frequency synthesizes. This is called inner product of two different sequences. the signal modulates another carrier frequency.

ANSI standard & Europe IIU-I standard is called the synchronous optical network (SONET) & Synchronous. the corresponding optical signals are called optical carriers (OCS). We replace each data. A regenerator is a repeater that takes a received optical signal. A SONET regenerator replaces some of the existing information with new information. (ii) Regenerator: . (iii) Path: .It extends the length of the links. Layout of DSSS: Digital Hierarchy: .The DSSS technique expands the bandwidth of the original signal in DSSS. regenerates the electric signal & finally modulates the electric signal into its correspondent optical signal. STM is intended to be compatible with existing European hierarchies such as E-lines & with STS levels. multiplexer to regenerator or regenerator to regenerator. Bit with n bits is assigned a code of n bits.SONET defines a hierarchy of electrical signaling levels called synchronous transport signals (STSD) each STS levels (STS-1 to STS-192) supports a certain data rate. An STS Demultiplexer demultiplexes an optical signal into corresponding electrical signals. Network using SONET equipment: - NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . demodulates it into the corresponding electrical signal. They provide the interface between an electrical tributary network & the optical network. (ii) Lines: . Digital Hierarchy (SDH) respectively. (i) Sections: .192 9983.520 STM – 1 STS – 9 OC – 9 466.080 STM – 4 STS – 18 OC – 18 933.192 OC .The devices are connected using section lines & paths.A path is the end to end portion of the network between STS Multiplexers. called chips.120 STM – 6 STS – 24 OC – 24 1244. SONET/SDH rates: STS OC Rate (Mbps) STM STS – 1 OC – 1 S1 – 840 STS – 3 OC – 3 155.640 STM – 32 STS . specified in megabits per sec. SOH Specifies a similar system called a synchronous transport module (STM).A section is the optical link connecting two neighbour devices like Multiplexer to Multiplexer.64 (b) Devices: .160 STM – 8 STS – 36 OC – 36 1866.280 STM .560 STM – 3 STS – 12 OC – 12 622.It is a device that uses the services of a SONET network. (iv) Terminals: . All clocks in the system are locked to a master clock.Telephone companies implement TDM through a hierarchy of digital signal.230 STM – 12 STS – 48 OC – 48 2488. United States.320 STM – 16 STS – 96 OC – 96 4976. (iii) Add/Drop Multiplexer: .It allows insertion and extraction of signal. called digital signal service of Digital Hierarchy. (c) Connections: . SONET/ SDH are a synchronous n/w using synchronous TDM multiplexing.They mark the beginning points & end points of a SONET link. or two STS Multiplexer.A line is the portion of the network between two Multiplexer like STS Multiplexer to Add/Drop Multiplexer. where the chip sale is n times that of the data bit. An STS Multiplexer multiplexes signals from multiple electrical sources & creates the corresponding OC signal.Basic devices for SONET transmission: (i) STS Multiplexer/Demultiplexer: . two add/drop Multiplexer. Architecture of SONET/STD: (a) Signals: .DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING (b) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS): .

Software packages have been developed for group working in Data Base Management (DBMS) and graphical artworks. Circuit Switching involves three steps: (a) Circuit Establishment (b) Signal Transfer (c) Circuit Transfer Circuit Switching is mainly used for voice based network.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Chapter – 5 Network fundamentals AN OVERVIEW OF NETWORKING A network is a group of computers connected in some fashion in order to share resources. The process of transferring data block from one node to another is called data switching. data are continuous flow sent by the source station & received by the destination station. A circuit switched network is made of a set of switches connected by physical links in which each link is divided into n-channels. Circuit switching takes place at the physical layer. computers of different make can be connected together and users can work together in a group. In a network. there is a dedicated communication path between the sending and receiving devices. Workstation – It is a basically a PC or printer or other sharable resources. By using computer networks. inventory) stored in the central computer. Communication Switching Techniques: . The dedicated path is a sequence of links between switching nodes. This prevents any bottlenecks in the smooth functioning of the organization because all the users will get the latest information (for example. There is no addressing involved during data transfer. Also. although there may be periods of silence. computers enable us to reduce both cost and time in transferring data. In addition to computers. Workstation is also called a terminal or data access point of a network. the cost of data transfer can be made cheaper than other conventional means like telegrams etc. The data at the central computer is updated and accessed by all users. a network also consists of peripheral devices with carriers and data communication devices used for the purpose of exchanging data and information. In this.In a WAN two devices are not connected directly but a network of switching nodes provides a transfer path between the two devices. There are following types of switching techniques:  Circuit Switching – In Circuit Switching. It is not effective for data communication. Switching at the physical layer in the traditional telephone network uses the circuit switching approach. A group of computers in a network provide greater storage capacity and processing power than that by standalone independent machines. Thus. as computers can send data at a very fast speed. NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . This data can then be accessed by the computers located in different departments. data from different departments located at distant places can be transferred to and stored on a central computer.

It guarantees error free delivery of messages without loss or duplication. and their acknowledgements from the receiving device are also received in that same order.  The sender then returns an acknowledgement of this confirmation packet. and all the switches (that is routers) along the way make table they can route any packets on that virtual circuit. In data communication. They also have the opportunity to reserve resource for the new circuit. The workstations are connected with the node. CONNECTIONLESS AND CONNECTION ORIENTED COMMUNICATION In a connection oriented service. Also no connection establishment and termination are required. if available. [Node – Node is a service provides of a network to particular region. as in connection establishment. the former must determine the availability of the latter and a network pathway must be discovered on which the data can be sent. The packets are received in the same serial order in which they were sent. Even if a packet is part of multi-packet transmission. when a circuit is established. returns a confirmation packet (acknowledgement) to the sender. the switch inspects the packet's header to find out which virtual circuit it belongs to. Resources are allocated on demand. Each switching nodes receives the message stored it and then transmit it to the next node. In packet switched network. each packet is treated independently of all others. This means that there is no reserved bandwidth on the links & there is no schedule processing time for each packet. the packets are sent in order. i. Then it looks up that virtual circuit in its table to determine which communication line to send. there is no resource allocation for a packet. In a virtual circuit network.  Packet Switching – Packet Switching combines the advantage of message and circuit switching but it is functionally similar to message switching. you will learn that a protocol called User Datagram Protocol (UDP) handles such connectionless services. Examples of message are email etc.] DATAGRAM A datagram is a packet that is sent over a network using a connectionless service. VIRTUAL CIRCUIT In a circuit-switching network. Each data packet (preferably called as 'datagram) takes its own path and reaches the destination. the network treats it as though it existed alone. the message is going to pass through a packet switched network & it needs to be divided into packets of fixed or variable size.e.  The receiver. without duplication or loss and in the same serial order in which they were sent. The connection is established by a threeway handshake: In this method. making a connection actually means a physical path is established from the source to the destination through the network. NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . The allocation is done one a first come. there is no maintenance of connection between the two devices. a logical connection is established between the two communicating computers. the sending device spends destination address to the message and passes to the network. it is not necessary to establish a dedicated path between a sending and receiving devices. These services do not guarantee that the datagrams will be delivered without error. There are two approaches to packet switching. Connection termination also involves full confirmation between both the communicating devices. In the next Chapter. After the communicating computers finish off with the sending and receiving. Packet switching is normally done at the network layer.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING  Message Switching – In message switching. In a connectionless communication. There is also no guarantee that datagrams will be received error-free and in the same order in which they are being sent. a network where the delivery of data does not depend on the maintenance of connections between the communicating computers. They only guarantee a "best effort" delivery of datagram. first served basis. When a packet comes along. Once the connection is established. what really happens is that the route is chosen from source to destination. The TCP protocol (discussed in a later Chapter) is used in such a communication. the connection is terminated. In message switching. They are also known as switched virtual circuit. This is known as connection establishment. before the sending device can send data to the receiving device. It normally involves the following steps:  The sender sends a connection request packet to the receiver. In packet switching. The message is then passes through the network from one node to another until reaches to its destination.

The cells are then multiplexed (given in Figure) with other cells and routed through the cell network. Segmentation and Reassembly of Cells . The resulting encapsulated packet is then fragmented into cells. Examples of Bus Topology are Ethernet.It contains a value equal to the value in the Btag field. This layer is known as ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL).  16 bit Buffer Allocation Size (BASize) . The AAL header contains the necessary information to reassemble the cells into the original packet. along with the 8 bit 0-filled field.  16 bit Len – It contains the length of the packet. 2. It normally uses the following types of switches:  VP switch . It prevents the situation in which the loss of the last cell of one packet and the first cell of another packet causes the two packets to be joined into a single packet. Packet header consists of the following fields:  8 bit Common Part Indicator (CPI) . In linear bus topology.Pad field is used to pad the user data to a multiple of 3 bytes. The packet that passes down to the AAL is encapsulated by adding a header and a trailer.CELL SWITCHING (ATM) Many of the problems associated with packet switching are solved by adopting a concept called Cell Switching.  8 bit Beginning tag (Btag) .  VPC switch .A virtual path (VP) switch routes the cell using only the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) for identification. Packet trailer consists of the following fields:  Pad field . There are three type of topology is used: (i) Bus Topology: . This ensures that the trailer.ATM uses switches to route cells from source to destination. all computers are connected by a single length of cable with a terminator at each end.It determines which version of the packet format is being used.  8 bit End tag (Etag) .It represents as to how much space to allocate for the reassembly. Cell Switching .Bus topology is a network geometric arrangement in which a single connecting line is shared by a number of nodes. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES Topology is the method in which networks are physically connected together. the strategy for physically expanding the network. Cell Network . Currently only value 0 is defined. Each node is connected to two others except the machines at either end of the cable. Advantage of Bus Topology: DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . When packets of different sizes and formats reach a cell network.A network that uses a cell as the basic unit of data exchange is called a cell network. a protocol layer was added in between the ATM and packet protocols such as IP (Internet Protocol). they are split into small data units of equal length and loaded into cells. Topology determines the complexity of connecting computer.In order to address the issue of segmentation and reassembly. is aligned on a 32-bit boundary (4 byte).The Beginning tag must match with the End tag (Etag) of the trailer for a given packet. which are connected only to one other node. 3. Local Talk etc.A VPC switch routes the cell using both VPI and VCI. in future. This helps in the reassembly of the cells into packet. making it of constant size for efficient processing. A cell is a small data unit of fixed size unlike packets which have variable sizes. 1.

either clockwise or anticlockwise. Means that each workstation is connected with it neighbors. but with its high bandwidth. It was based on IEEE (Institute of Electronic and Electric Engineers) standard called 802.5.Ethernet CSMA/CD networks provide a relatively simple way of passing data.FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is another ringbased network.5 is more commonly known as Token Ring network topology. Disadvantage of Bus Topology: (a) There is possibility of collision. 802.e. and it provided for ways to manage the crazy situation that occurred when many computers tried to transmit on one wire thus in this case data packets may be lost. It uses fiberoptic cables to implement very fast. FDDI is a high performance fiber optic token ring LAN running at 100 Mbps over distances up to 200 km with up to 1000 stations connected. (b) This topology requires least amount of cable to connect the computers together. Token is nothing but a small program. Once token becomes available to the node. (b) It is difficult to troubleshoot a ring network. (ii) Ring Topology: . (c) Adding or removing computers disrupts the network. another common use is as a backbone to connect copper LANs. Appletalk is a suite of networking protocols that work together to provide file and print sharing services to Macintosh networks. Disadvantage of Ring Topology: (a) Failure of a node may interrupt the system. Advantage of Ring Topology: (a) Installation cost of Ring Topology may cheaper. When network is on.(a) This topology is simple. it has to release the token. Example of Ring Topology:  IBM Token Ring .uses the 802. (c) The fair sharing of the network allows the network to degrade gracefully as more users can added. and easy to use and understand in small sized LANs. In order to overcome this problem.Ethernet. (c) This type of topology is easy to extend. CSMA/CD breaks down under the pressure exerted by many computers on a network segment. was a way to circumvent the limitations of earlier net. it grabs the token make its transmission /work. Transmission can be done in only one direction. IBM and the IEEE created another networking standard called IEEE 802. then it has to wait for token. invented in 1973 by Bob Metcalfe (who later formed a new company called 3 Com. a token is passed around the ring.It is a mechanism i. a FDDI network may have several frames DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . reliable. It is decided at the time of network design. (d) This topology is less expensive than other cabling arrangements. and the possessor of the token is allowed to transmit FDDI frames. AppleTalk enables users to share folders and printers for access by other network users. (b) Heavy network traffic can slow down a bus considerably. Unlike Token Ring.5 method of operation. this program starts moving from one node to another in specific direction. It can be used in the same way as any of the other LANs. Examples of Bus Topology:  Ethernet .  LocalTalk . used with Ring Topology based LAN to make transmission possible between two or more work stations. If a work station has to access the service of network. Like Token Ring. It forms a part of the AppleTalk protocol suite. But. However. Token Passing: . unlike Token Ring. reliable networks. several FDDI devices can transmit data simultaneously.  FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) . FDDI networks run on optical fiber cables instead of copper cabling. FDDI also. one of the most successful networking companies).3 CSMA/CD. (c) It is difficult to troubleshoot a bus.LocalTalk is a data link protocol built into the Macintosh RS-449/RS-422 serial interface.Physical layout of Ring Topology based LAN is circular. How FDDI Works? FDDI (like Token Ring) uses token-passing schemes to control network access. after completion of transmission. (b) No one computer can monopolize the network.

the addresses are read to determine where the cell will go next. and nondelay-sensitive traffics as shown in Figure. network designers can integrate LANs and WANs to support emerging applications with economy in the enterprise. However. (b) It is easy to troubleshoot.ATM networking is the newest topology available at this time. Disadvantage of Star Topology: (a) Failure of central hub interrupts the whole network.e. At the lowest. (c) Failure of a single terminal doesn’t interrupt the whole network. ATM is capable of extremely highspeed routing. On an ATM network. (c) Additional resources are required in case of broadcast implementation. Example of Star Network is ATM (Asynchronous transmission Mode). easy to add new terminal and easy to remove a particular terminal from a network. Small cells all of the same size is used to make it easy for devices to process a cell. delay-sensitive traffic. an ATM cell indicates the path the data will flow through. At the fastest. Network designers are deploying ATM technology to migrate from Time Division Multiplexing 1TDM) networks for the following reasons:  To increase WAN bandwidth  To improve performance  To reduce down time DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Chapter – 6 Osi model and tcp/ip suite NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . from LAN to private branch exchange (PBX). (d) To install this network several types of cables can be used. every station is always transmitting.The active hub regenerates the electrical signal and sends it to all connected computers. There are two types of Hub: (a) Active Hub: . Presently.simultaneously circulating on the network. Role of ATM in Internetworks ATM has emerged as one of the technologies for integrating LANs and WANs.Star Topology based LAN based on an electronic device namely Hub. (b) Passive Hub: . it can run up to 622 megabits per second. (iii) Star Topology: . A Hub receives the signal from source and sends it to the destination. Example of Star Network – ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode) . This is possible because the possessor of the token may send multiple frames. Instead of specifying the source and destination addresses of the stations communicating. according to the type of cell it is. (b) It is considered as expensive network. it runs at 25 megabits per seconds. that have a variety of identifiers on them to determine such things as Quality of Service. With ATM. ATM can also scale from low to high speeds. so intermediate devices (called switches) can maintain a very high data rate. they use ATM to link servers and workstations and are banking on the need for multimedia networks over the next several years. it can carry both voice and data over network wire or fiber. How ATM Works? ATM communicates with cells rather than transmitting frames. That means. ATM is more complex than either Ethernet or Token Ring. ATM can support any traffic type in separate or mixed streams. ATM transmits all packets as 53-byte cells. most of the cells transmitted are empty cells that can be discarded at the switch. without waiting for the first frame to circulate all the way around the ring before sending the next frame. In addition to its speed. Unlike others. Fore Systems and IBM have both invested very heavy amount in ATM-to-the-desktop technology. It has been adopted by all the industry's equipment vendors. All terminals including server are connected with central Hub. It doesn’t disturb/affect the network.Passive hub doesn’t generate electrical signal but acts as a connecting point. The cell is then sent out in the next available slot. Advantage of Star Topology: (a) It is easier to modify i. When a cell that is not empty enters the switch.

Physical Layer: . There are two sliding window techniques: (a) Go Back N – This is a sliding window technique. In case of datagram subnet.All electrical and mechanical devices. These are involved in interconnecting two points of a network as well as carry bit stream. without affecting other Application Layer layers. Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model: . checksum etc. Network Layer: . it is permitted to send to the receiving station and the receiving station (Receiver) maintains a receiving window that performs some necessary check up. This enables software developer to develop a software component for a particular layer. the only message retransmitted is those for which NAK is received. Retransmission Strategies (ix) Stop and Wait – the sender allows one message to be transmitted checked for errors and an appropriate (ack-positive or Nak – negative acknowledgement) returned to the sending station. In case of virtual circuit subnet.The Data Link Layer is the second layer of OSI Model. access methods and connection protocols. Transport Layer  Each layer performs a well-defined function. a routing decision is made when virtual circuit is setup. The bits are associated with start and end frames. if needed. Some popular methods are parity bit. Need for Layered Solutions: . Selective Repeat Mechanism produces greater through put than the Go Back N. Services provide by Data Link Layer:  Flow Control – Flow Control deals with how to keep the fast sender from over flowing a slow receiver by buffer at the receiver sides and acknowledgement.Network Architecture deals with the physical connection. medium etc. i. It can be based on ether virtual circuits or data grams.Layered approach provides the following advantages:  Each layer needs to know and worry only about the functions in its domain.  Each layer performs a function independent of the other layers.  Framing – Some control bits are added to the data packets these are received from network layer.  A layer can be modified.The Network Layer provides services to the transport layer. Some examples of network architectures are:  Ethernet  Token ring  AppleTalk  ARCNET  ATM etc. routing decision is made on every incoming package. 3.  Software packages confirming to the standards of a particular Presentation Layer layer are able to use the softwares at other layer to communicate with each other.  Each lower level protocol provides its services to higher-level protocol. topologies.Main objectives of Session Layer OSI Models are:  Allow to interconnected two systems through standard interface. It allows data and control message to be transmitted continuously without for its acknowledgement from the receiver. two nodes. (b) Selective Repeat – this approach is considered as refined approach in contrast to the Go back N. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . 2. In other words mostly hardware is categorized into physical OSI STACK layer. (ii) Sliding Window – The sender (sending station) maintains a sending window that maintains number of frames (packages). In the case of error detection at the receiving slide. considered Physical Layer as the devices of physical layer. the message with error retransmitted. No other message can be transmitted by the sender until receiving station sends back a reply.  Error Detection and Correction Course – Various methods are use for such purpose.e. In both cases its main job is routing packets from source to destination. The Data Link Layer together with physical layer and the interconnectivity medium provide a data link connection between source station and destination station for reliable transfer of database. Functioning of other layers is hidden from it. Data Link Layer: . as well as all other frames were transmitted after the erroneous message. Data Link Layer  The seven layers of OSI reference Model are: 1.  The function of each layer should be chosen according to Network Layer international standard protocols. these are used to connect two terminals.Network Architecture: .

TCP U A P R E F Header R C S S Y I Window Size Length G K H T N N Checksum DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . where as congestion is a potential problem with datagrams. – Sequence no. where as with datagram such process is not required. called TCP header.  Low bandwidth lines can also cause congestion. If the routers are slow at performing routing decision. Acknowledgement No. streams of packets begin arriving from three for four lines and all need the same output line. (b) ACK (Acknowledgement Flag) – Value of this field associated with acknowledgement of the packet. packets will be lost. If there is insufficient memory to hold of them. Transport Layer also provides some additional services associated with data transportation. Subnet can be become congested increasing the delay and lowering the through put for packets. where as such type of problem will not arise with datagrams. Sequence No.This Layer is responsible provide reliable cost effective data transport from source machine to destination machine.  Slow processor can also caused congestion.  Virtual circuits have a problem.TCP Segment Source and Destination Port – Values of this field identifies the local port no. queue is build up. if a router crashes and loses its memory. where as datagram allow packets to content full destination address.  Virtual circuits have some advantages in avoiding congestion with the subnet because resources can be reserved in advance at the time of connection establishment. (d) RST (Reset Flag) – SpaceFree Many Routing algorithms are used in computer Network. To control congestion several algorithms are provided. The function of Network Layer is routing packets from source machine to destination machine. These are:  TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – This protocol provides a highly reliable connection oriented end to end transport service associated with the layer no four of OSI-Model. It is considered as Urgent Flag. all the virtual circuits passing through it will have to aborted. During transportation TCP adds some additional information to the data packet i. When too-many packets are present in the subnet the performance degrades. Comparison of virtual circuit and Datagram Subnet:  Virtual circuits allow packets to contents circuit numbers only. Flags – Shows individual status: (a) URG (Urgent Flag) – Value of this field identifies the urgent pointer. 4. All algorithms are categorized into two categories: (i) Static Routing Algorithm – Static Routing algorithm dies not decide there routing decision on measurement of current traffic and topology. Two protocols are used with transport layer to provide such services. In most subnets packets will require multiple hops to reach the destination.e.  Using virtual circuits requires a setup phase. (c) PSH (Push Flag) – Push Flag performs push function. Network Layer also manages congestion. Sequence no.  Virtual circuits and datagrams both allow the router to balance the traffic. of data segment. which takes time. Where as dynamic routing algorithm changes their routing decisions on current traffic and topology. Network designers attempt to avoid congestion by proper design. Data Offset – Values of this field identifies the start of data. If congestion occurs it must be dealt. Source Port no. Transport Layer: . associated with transportation service. identifies the current sequence no. This situation is called Congestion. Destination Port no. Congestion can be bought about by several factors:  If all of a sudden.Urgent pointer Data Fig: .

. It functions like checksum of TCP header.  Considered as navigational system based on hyperlink. Email is popular because it provides fast.Main functionality of this layer is to establish and release the session. FTP provides several commands to transfer differents formats of files from one host to It is basically a program which enables us to send and receive message to and from world wide. UDP Segment (the packet i. Characteristics of WWW:  Fastest growing discovery and retrieval system. are also available like TCP header. which contains address of source machine and address of destination machine.(e) SYN (Sequence Synchronization Flag) – The value of this field associated with sequence synchronization. The session layer allows users on different machines to establish session between them. helpful in checking the errors at destination station. Large number of terminals are connected with the system and requires verify of services. This mechanism is implemented with TCP/IP internets. UDP length field contains the value which includes header length + data length. (f) FIN (Final Flag) – End of Transmission Flag. The major characteristics of Email are:  Store and forward  Delivery time ranging from few sec.  UDP (User Data Protocol) – The protocol supports connectionless transportation with internet protocol. etc. A browser can display the page by establish a TCP connection to its server. Checksum – Checksum for data end header. . (iv) World Wide Web (WWW) – Basically WWW is a system for linking hypertext document. FTP transfer files to and from a remote network sites. Urgent Pointer – The value of this field identifies specific type of data area. Browser asking for document to the server and closing the connection. . The Protocol encapsulates all the necessary information with data packet to transport them from source to destination. without having to establish a segmented by UDP) consist of header followed by the data in UDP header source code no. For this we must have its internet address or host name of computer. Session can allow going both directions. and destination port no.  State-less interaction between client and server confirming to http (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol). In easily days gopher is used in place of Application Layer: . 5. How many byte (data block) the receiving host can accept at a time. Some options fields are also available with UDP protocols are available under this layer. . The UDP Checksum field contains the value i. Session Layer: . to hours  Supports multimedia service  Secure mailing  Auto processing (iii) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – This protocol provides method of transferring files over internet. 6. .us (b) Non-Geographic – Example of this is . (v) Telnet – Telnet is a program that allows us to establish a virtual terminal connection between two machines using TCP/IP. So user has to access the service using such menu items. Each document is a web page written in Hypertext Markup language and link between documents is called hyperlink. Domain Name categorized into mainly two categorized: (a) Geographic – Example of this is . Window Size – This field contains the values associated with strength of destination station. convenient method of transferring information. TCP/IP DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 .com. (i) DNS – Domain Name System is a mechanism which high level name and converts it into machine understandable Layer mainly manages the formats of information. TCP/IP Suite (TCP/IP Protocol): . Domain Name System maintains the domains in hierarchical order.e. Domain Name System is helpful in assigning the high level name for several It also supports transferring of compressed files.e. Presentation Layer: . .Gopher provides all the implementation in the form of menus. One of the services of the session layer is to manage dialog control. (ii) Email – Email is a popular service provided by the largest network internet.TCP reference model is implemented with or suitable form those computer network architecture that allow communication across multiple divers network. 7.

SNMP provides a means to monitor and control network devices. The TCP/IP Model doesn’t require strict layering. TCP/IP Services and Application Protocols:  Client Server Model – In this model.  Telnet – Previously Described. It works post office protocol. Internet Layer: .  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) – This protocol is a TCP/IP protocol that specifies how computers exchange electronic mail.  Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) – This is an integral part of the IP that handles error and control message.The Application Layer provides services that can be used by other applications for example protocols have been developed for remote login. The application layer program run directly over the transport layer. unauthenticated protocol used to transfer files. It allows all network users to access shared files stored on computers of different types. performance. For this packets are also called data grams. It must deal with port of network layer and data link layer. back to the original source that sends to the datagram. for file transfer etc. and security. if failures occur in the network the packets are routed around the point of failure.  Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) – This protocol is used as a device driver which accepts packets from internet layer and converts the packet into Ethernet format. and is one of the reasons that Internet E-mail functions so well.e. Transport Layer: . A key aspect of the Internet layer is the definition of global unique address for the machines that are attached with the Internet. It has similar function as network layer of OSI Model. Specially routers and hosts use ICMP to send reports of problem about datagram. The Internet layer provides a single service namely best effort connectionless packet transfer. which is provided by TCP. The connectionless approach makes the system robust i. This model improves performances. transaction responsibilities are divided into two parts: client and server. The network interface layer is particularly concern with the protocols that access the intermediate networks.Two basic services are provided by this layer: The first service consists of reliable connection oriented transfer of byte stream. and to manage configurations. for e-mail. TFTP depends on UDP and often is used to boot diskless workstations. Clients rely on servers for services such as file storage.  File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – Previously described.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING network architecture consists of four layers:- Application Layer: . UDP is used for applications that require quick but reliable delivers. In other words the application layer has the option of by passing intermediate layer. Client is a PC running front-end software that knows how to communicate with the server. NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . It specifies how nodes are managed on a network.  Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) – This protocol is mainly used with multicast network to group the members.e. provided by UDP.  Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) – This is a network management protocol for TCP/IP networks.  Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) – This protocol is nofrills. There is no need to setup the connection.The Internet layer handles the transfer of information access multiple networks through the use of gateways or routers. The second service consists of connectionless transfer of individual package i. using agents to monitor network traffic and maintain a management information base. printing. used by host.  Domain Name System (DNS) .Network Interface Layer is concern with the network specific aspects of the transfer of packets. and processing power. statistics collection. Network Interface Layer: .Previously described.  Network File System (NFS) – This is a distributed file system protocol suite developed by Sun Microsystems that allow to remote file access across a network.

as a LAN. TCP receives the stream of bytes from the upper -Application layer and assembles them into TCP segments. This means that the data in a TCP segment is the data from the application program. Data Routing: . the receiving TCP software reassembles the message using the sequence numbers contained in each segment's TCP header. Ethernet provides the physical cabling (layers 1 and 2 of OSI model) and TCP/IP the communications protocol (layers 3 and 4 of OSI model). The address resolution protocol (ARP) associates an IP address with the physical address. or packets. That is. encapsulated in the Ethernet frame (or any other LAN frame). header information is attached at the front of data. A connection is thus established between the two machines. TCP/IP uses 32-bit IP addresses to identify a node and the network to which it is attached to. it determines the corresponding physical address. In direct delivery. The sending TCP software issues a request for a TCP connection with the receiving machine. If a segment is missing or corrupt (which can be determined from the checksum). If a match is found. On a typical physical network.than one TCP segment long. Thus. 4 byte addresses that must be assigned to every addressable device or node on the internetwork. The originating TCP software can then resend the bad segment. The receiving TCP software adds its own unique socket number to the request message and sends it back to the original machine. IP datagram is transported as the data of the frame. the delivery is direct. the delivery is indirect. The IP datagram is sent along the physical wire. This is known as data decapsulation. This process is known as data encapsulation. the sender can compare the destination address with the addresses of the computers to which it is connected to.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING  Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) – This protocol performs the same function as ARP does but in reverse. In indirect delivery. The same process gets reversed at the receiver side. ARP maintains tables of name-toaddress mappings.Ethernet and TCP/IP works together well.The IP protocol in the TCP/IP suite is responsible for routing the data packets to its destination. the sender uses the IP address of the destination computer and a routing NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) performs the same function as ARP does but in reverse. In the process of assembling. TCP returns a message with the faulty sequence number in the body. that is given an IP address. If the destination host is not in the same network as the sender.The data from the application program is encapsulated into the TCP segment. such. that is given an IP address. Routing means finding the route (next hop) for a data-gram. IP addresses are unique. it determines the corresponding physical address. In the indirect delivery. A connection (Virtual circuit) is established between the sending and receiving machines. If the destination node is on the same network as the source node. Header information includes a checksum as well as a packet sequence number (if there is more than one segment in the entire message). If the message is more. the packet goes from router to router until it reaches the network of the destination host. Data Transmission By TCP and Ethernet: . means the TCP segment forms the data part of the IP datagram. each device on a link is identified by a physical or station address usually imprinted on the network interface card (NIC). the packet is delivered to the same. Data Encapsulation: . The IP datagram encapsulates this TCP segment.

back to the original source that sends to the datagram. While internet means network of networks. Five types of errors are reported by ICMP. This is the layer that runs the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and other protocols. The coordination of half-duplex transmission is part of a procedure called line discipline. remote sites. All internetworks. including the Internet.Synchronous protocols take the whole bit stream and chop it into characters of equal size. NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 .This layer is responsible for the overall end-to-end communications of the network.This layer supports the interfaces to the user applications. This can be divided into two subgroups. interpret a transmission frame or packet as a succession of characters. These are as follows: (a) Subnetwork Layer .  Character-oriented protocols . The routing table is used to find the IP address of the router to which the packet should be sent to.All the machines connected together in a local area network (LAN) reside in this layer. communication requires at least two devices working together. in half-duplex transmission.Bit-oriented protocols interpret a transmission frame or packet as a succession of individual bits. made meaningful by their placement in the frame and by their neighboring bits. Internet is the term used to refer to a specific worldwide network. other communications networks. These are: (a) Destination Unreachable (b) Source Quench (Destination overwhelmed with datagrams) (c) Timeout exceeded (d) Parameter problems (e) Redirection Internet Architecture: . It permits data to move freely 'among large numbers of networks and populations. Error Reporting Mechanism – Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP): . ICMP are encapsulated inside IP datagram before they are sent over the network. It handles the data traffic flow itself and ensures reliability for the message transfer. they collide. one to send and one to receive. Control information is in the form of one or more bits. (b) Internetwork Layer . DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Chapter – 7 Data link protocol PROTOCOL In sending data from one place to other place. and remote access.This layer provides the functionality for communications between networks through gateways. Protocols governing synchronous transmission can be divided into two classes. Specially routers and hosts use ICMP to send reports of problem about datagram. All control information is in the form of an existing character encoding system such as ASCII coding method. The internetwork layer is where data gets transferred from gateway to gateway until it reaches its destination and then passes into the sub network layer.table. WWW (World Wide Web). For example. This layer interfaces to electronic mail. remote file transfers. Besides line discipline. namely: (i) Synchronous Protocols .Internet is an interconnection of multiple networks.This is an integral part of the IP that handles error and control message. individual stations— and -Wide Area Networks (WANs). the other important functions in the data link layer are flow control and error control. The internetwork layer runs the Internet Protocol (IP). Internet has four layers.Character-oriented protocols. The word internet (lowercase i) is different from Internet (uppercase I). it is essential that only one device transmits at a time. each composed of one byte (eight bits). (d) Application Services Layer . also called byte-oriented protocols. have a layered architecture. ICMP does not correct errors but simply reports them. These three functions together are known as data link control. Such a basic arrangement requires coordination for an intelligible exchange to occur. Internetwork (internet) consists of multiple networks in which LANs are attached to other LANs. This line discipline is one of the functions included in the data link layer of OSI model.  Bit-oriented protocols . Each sub network uses gateways to connect to the other sub networks in the internetwork. Character-oriented protocols are not as efficient as bit-oriented protocols and therefore are now seldom used. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROCEDURE Transmission control is a set of procedures used to control transmission and reception of data between two communicating devices. If both devices at the two ends of the link put signals on the line simultaneously. (c) Service Provider Protocol Layer . ICMP detects error conditions such as internet work congestion and downed links and notifies IP and upper-layer protocols so packets can be routed avoiding problem areas.

• ITU-T. BSC stands for Binary Synchronous Communication protocol.There are several points to consider about the XMODEM protocol. the transmitter sends an End Of Text character. information is sent. If not.(ii) Asynchronous Protocol . This is followed by a block number character in ASCII. the transmitter waits for the receiver to send a Negative Acknowledge (NAK) character. It allows the transfer of data and binary files.. It supports NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . When the transmitter detects the first NAK.  It requires manual setup for each file to be transferred.  BLAST (Blocked asynchronous transmission) . followed by a checksum that is the remainder of the sum of all the 128 bytes in the message divided by 255.XMODEM protocol has an error checking technique that can be used between microcomputers. followed by the same block number with each bit inverted. it is inefficient in use of the transmission facility. and then the sender waits for a reply before sending the next message. The receiver meanwhile is set to send NAKs every 10 seconds.  ZMODEM . Today. The bit inversion. • Multiple files can be sent simultaneously. the XMODEM checksum can be represented as: CHECKSUM = R[ DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING ∑ ASCIIValueofCharacter 1 128 ] 255 in which R is the remainder of the division process. Support for XMODEM Protocol .-rams designed for operation on PCs. several derivatives of the XMODEM protocol gained acceptance due to the increased level of functionality they provided. the XMODEM protocol and several derivatives are supported by most asynchronous communication pro-. The receiver replies with an ACK.  It is easy to implement with a small computer. with the following differences: • The data unit is 1024 bytes. Limitations of XMODEM Protocol . Other versions provided a full-duplex transmission capability with CRC error detection. Some new versions of the XMODEM protocol added CRC error checking. CRC-16 is used for error checking. results in the block number being followed by the same block number with each bit inverted. It requires that one terminal or computer be set up as the sender and other be set up as the receiver. Today. and the transmitter sends the next block. thus increasing the efficiency of the protocol.  Because operation of the XMODEM protocol generally assumes a full duplex line. Mathematically. The beginning of each block is signaled by a Start Of Header (SOH) character. At the end of the data. and the transmitter resents the block found in error.  The error detection technique (ordinary sum of the data characters) is unsophisticated and unable to detect reliably the most common type of transmission error. it sends an Acknowledge (ACK) back to the transmitter. but it does require a computer at each end. In the late 1980s.BLAST (Blocked asynchronous transmission) is more powerful than XMODEM. A variety of asynchronous protocols developed are:  XMODEM . It is a full-duplex operation with sliding window flow control. It was developed by IBM in the year 1964. surrounded by some protocol control characters. an NAK is sent. CHARACTER ORIENTED PROTOCOLS (COP) There is one type of COP called Binary Synchronous Protocol (Bisync or BSC). The receiver checks each part of the received block to confirm the following:  Was first character a Start Of Header (SOH)?  Was the block number exactly one more than the previous block received?  Were exactly 128 characters of data received?  Was the locally computed checksum identical to the last character received in the block? If the receiver is satisfied. these protocols are employed mainly in modems.Asynchronous protocol treats each character in a bit stream independently. almost all communication programs designed for use on PCs support XMODEM and several of its derivatives. it begins sending messages as blocks of 128 data characters.  It is a half-duplex protocol. A 128-character piece of the file is sent. After the protocol is started.  YMODEM . which is a noise burst that can last of the order of 10 milliseconds (the duration of about 12 bits at 1200 bps). until the entire file is sent and verified. Most of the asynchronous communications programs developed during the early 1980s eventually included XMODEM support. The rationale for the widespread support of these protocols is dated to the initial placement of the XMODEM protocol into the public domain. This process is continued. and the session is terminated.In spite of the previously mentioned limitations. known as the 1's complement.YMODEM Protocol is similar to XMODEM. block by block.ZMODEM is a newer protocol combining features of both XMODEM and YMODEM. that is.

It determines where a true message block begins and ends and what part of the message is to be included in the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). the computer is inviting the term send data. and polls each secondary station in a specific order to determine whether any secondary station wants to transmit data. These fields are:  A beginning Flag (F1) field.  A final flag (F2) field. It uses bitstuffing for data transparency. The P/F bits stand for Poll/Final. All the frames sent by the terminal. BIT ORIENTED PROTOCOLS (BOP) SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control Protocol) and HDLG (High Level Data Link Control Protocol) is the two bit-oriented protocols. It is primarily used in wide area networks (WANs) that use leased lines to connect Mainframe SNA hosts and remote terminals. It is used for sequence numbers and acknowledgements. SDLC can be used in a variety of connection topologies such as the following:  Direct point-to-point connections between a primary and a secondary station  Multipoint connections between a primary and a group of secondary stations. When used as P.  Basic procedure . The contents are shown in Figure.  An information field (I) or data field contain information. data is sent as a synchronous bit stream divided into frames that contain addressing and control information in addition to the pay. It is used when a computer is polling a group of terminals. HDLC is one of the ISO designed protocols and has become the basis for all bit-oriented protocols in use. have the P/F bit set to P. Balanced). It is situ to CRC. or unnumbered command/ responses (Uframes).  A frame check sequence (FCS) field. SDLC was developed by IBM. There are three kinds of controls. S-frames and Uframes have the same fields except that the I field is left out. In HDLC. all information is carried by frames that can be of the following types:  Information Frames (1-frames)  Supervisory control sequences (Sframes). manages these connections. except the final one. FDDI etc. It is used to identify ME the terminals. It is of 8 bits.load of data. High Level Data Link Control Protocol (HDLC) This is a protocol to prevent aliasing error. The final one is set to F. Examples include Ethernet. Figure shows one information frame as a angular block divided into six fields. Control field Information (I-Frame).half-duplex transmission.Basic Control Procedure protocols include LAPB (Link Access Procedure. Token bus. In a serial SDLC link. The primary station establishes and tears down SDLC connections. It does not support full-duplex or sliding window protocol transmission. SDLC uses a master/slave architecture in which one station is designated as primary (master) and the remaining stations are secondary (slaves).The following are the different transmission control procedure types:  Non-procedure – Non-procedure protocols are those which do not have any laid down procedure for connecting two PCs together.  An address (A) field. Transmission Control Procedure Types: . using stop and wait/ARQ (Acknowledgement Request) flow control and error detection. Control field for Supervisory (SFrame) and control field for Unnumbered frame). DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . Token ring.  A control (C) field. LAPD (Link Access Procedure for D channel) and LAPM (Link Access Procedure for Modems). Synchronous Data Link Control Protocol (SDLC) SDLC is a data-link layer protocol developed in the 1970s by IBM for its Systems Network Architecture (SNA) networking environment. It is of 8 bits.

where both devices are of combined type. Local area networks (LANs) allow users to share storage devices.LAPB is used in balanced configuration of two devices.  Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM).  HDLC Procedure .  Local area networking software requires memory space in each of the computers used on the network.  Users may have difficulty in learning the network commands. The installation and management of a LAN requires far more technical and administrative skills than installing and managing several computers that are not networked. It was designed to apply HDLC features to modems. where secondary station does not need permission to transmit.  LANs operate at relatively high speed when compared to the typical wide area networks currently in use.  Local area networks allow for high-speed exchange of essential information between key people in an organization. Systems that use HDLC can be characterized by their station types. A LAN installation should be studied closely in the context of its proposed contribution to the long-range interests of the organization.  Some control on the part of the user is lost. You may have to share a printer with other users. and other network resources. It is used in ISDN for D channels. Communication in LAPB is always in asynchronous balanced mode.HDLC supports both half duplex and full duplex communication systems. Characteristics of LANs –  LANs work in a restricted geographical area. or slightly less than 10 million characters per second (10 Mcps). HDLC supports the following three modes of communication:  Normal Response Mode (NRM).  LANs provide the catalyst to increase the range of potential applications for the IBM PCs. They are limited to a specific geographical area.A secondary station sends responses.e. all are combined stations) and any station can initiate transmission. Disadvantage of LAN –  The financial cost of local area networking is still high in comparison with many other alternatives. LAN data transfer speeds may be as high as 80 million bits per second (80 Mbps). LAPM is designed to do both synchronous and asynchronous conversion. LAPD is used for control signaling and it also uses asynchronous balanced mode. LAPB is used today in ISDN on B channels.A primary station sends commands. where secondary station needs permission to transmit. error-detection and retransmission. printers. on the same floor.Local area network (LAN) is a group of computers located in the same room. applications.  LANs contribute to increased productivity. or in the same building that are connected to form a single network. usually less than 2 kilometres in diameter. data. You may face a situation like. Compare this to the maximum data transfer speed of NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Chapter – 8 Local area network (lan) Introduction: .  Combined Station . their configuration and by their response modes.A combined station sends both commands and responses.  Secondary Station . Advantage of LAN –  Local area networks allow sharing of expensive resources such as laser printers and highcapacity. where all stations are equal (i.  Some type of security system must be implemented if it is important to protect confidential data.  Many current application programs will not run in a network environment.  Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM). high-speed mass storage devices among a number of users. The program may require too much memory or have other technical constraints. Stations in HDLC are of the following three types:  Primary Station .

 Data storage technologies such as RAID. BASEBAND Vs BROADBAND Bandwidth use refers to the ways of allocating the capacity of transmission media. such as repeaters. switches and multistation access units (MAUs) are also used. Twisted-pair Cabling and Fiber-optic cabling. If two computers simultaneously place signals on the wire. The main function of MAC layer is to determine which computer on the network is allowed to use the media (transmission medium) at any given moment. Media Access Control methods are ways to allow computers to transmit signals over network cabling. Jobs done by LAN Operating System - DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . Examples of media in local area networks include Co-axial cabling. patch panels. concentrators. network-attached storage (NAS). wireless cellular networking. proxy servers. and their associated equipment such as connectors.  LAN devices. Some main media access control methods used in networking are:  Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD): used in Ethernet networking. etc. Baseband is commonly used for digital signaling.  A transmission medium such as coaxial cabling. and troubleshooting LAN hardware such as racks. Most Local Area Networks use base band signaling. and the technologies used to connect them. The two ways of allocating the capacity of bounded transmission media are the following: 1. their associated hardware is also required for establishing the LAN. includes he following:  One or more powerful. LAN HARDWARE: Hardware required to implement a LAN. LAN OPERATING SYSTEMS: LAN operating systems are network aware operating systems that support networking.These transmissions use the entire media bandwidth for a single channel. This is sometimes also known as Media Access Control (MAC) card. MAC (Media Access Control) layer is one of the two sub-layers of data link layer of the OSI model. not subject to tariffs or other regulatory controls. or the 1200/2500 bps (120/250 Cps) transmission speed used by most personal computer communications systems. hubs. KVM switches and cable testers. The other sub-layer is the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs).  LANs are private networks. are needed. broadband networks support multiple simultaneous conversations over a single transmission medium. The MAC card is installed in the computer just like a Video Graphics Adapter (VGA) card or a CD-ROM controller card is installed. bridges and repeaters are explained in a later Section. MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL: The term Media refers to the cabling used for transmitting data from one node to another. and storage area networks (SANS). Broadband . preferably multiprocessor LAN servers and dumb and/or intelligent terminals.  Equipment for organizing. 2.  The physical connection of a computer to the LAN is made through a Network Interface Card (NIC). A laptop computer can access a LAN with a PCMCIA LAN card. switches. fiber-optic cabling. such as firewalls.These transmissions provide the ability to divide the entire media bandwidth into multiple channels. Hubs. and packet-filtering routers. although it can also be used for analog signals.  Technologies for securely interfacing private corporate networks with unsecured public ones. line conditioners.  Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA): used in AppleTalk networking. are very much in use. bridges. RAID is a technology used to implement fault tolerant storage systems by using data redundancy. Since each channel can carry a different analog signal or digital signal. a collision can occur and data might be corrupted unless a method is used to resolve the collision gracefully. Baseband . wall plates and splitters.56 Kbps (7000 Cps) for high-grade telephone company digital trunk lines. A channel is simply a portion of the bandwidth that can be used for transmitting data. cabinets. twisted-pair cabling. such as Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) and Fibre Channel. satellite networking etc. Such an operating system provides support for multi-user operations as well as administrative.  Token passing: used in Token Ring and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) networking. The total media capacity or bandwidth can be divided into channels. surge protectors. protecting. security and network management functions. while ensuring that only one computer transmits at a time. In such cases. The MAC layer interfaces with the physical layer below it and provides access to the network interface card (NIC). These days unguided transmission media technologies such as infrared communication.

must be capped using a resistor plug. called fiber line drivers. it is more expensive to buy. FAST LANs: Fast LANs are LANs that are capable of carrying voice.Another alternative for LAN implementation is through wireless technology. but less durable. Twisted-pair wires use connectors called RJ-11 connectors. Implementation of LAN using Twisted Pair . However. in these two workstations. Whatever connection you choose to establish. It also requires special equipments. A local area network whose nodes reside within a reasonable distance of each other that is on the same floor of a building or in adjacent floors may be implemented using coaxial cables or twisted pair wires. It is ideal for both medium and large sized LANs. 100BaseFX is often used for wiring campus backbones. Ethernet. These standards can be implemented using either copper twisted-pair wires or fiber optics. phone lines or wireless media.NetWare is a LAN operating system designed by Novell Inc. which is 10 times faster than traditional LANs. NetWare can be run over Token Ring. database and application sharing. A wireless network can make use of existing cellular telephony. as may be the case with coaxial cable. It may be necessary to implement the LAN using wireless technology in areas where cabling is extremely difficult or impossible..Fiber optic cables are becoming popular as a networking cable because of its high transmission speed.7 illustrates the relationship of the Ethernet hardware components required to connect a workstation to a bus-based coaxial cable. IMPLEMENTING LAN: Computers in a LAN can be connected in a number of ways. since light signal is not subject to electrical disturbances. It can transmit reliable signals as far as 10 km. UNIX etc.  It is less expensive. Macintosh. The disadvantage of NetWare is that it is slightly difficult for both the LAN administrators and users to become proficient in using all its functionality. it is more reliable in the sense that if a portion of a twisted-pair cable is damaged. It can support many different types of operating systems such as DOS/Windows. 2.  It provides for printer. Windows NT . It can be used to connect different offices across a building or across a country. resource allocation and sharing. file-system. Implementation of LAN using Coaxial Cables . Fiber optic cable is tailor-made and comes equipped with its own connectors. the entire network is not shut down. satellite communication system and paging systems. In bus topology networks. This eliminates the need for cables all together. to form a chain. The Tconnector is attached to the NIC of each workstation. 1.Twisted-pair cable is less expensive than coaxial cable. If you wish to connect a workstation with equipment that is not compatible with fiber optic cable. attach the workstation to fiber-line driver.Coaxial cable is the most common network cable. It provides connectivity like NetWare. Also.The most popular LAN operating system to appear on the market is the Microsoft's Windows NT. it is free from transmission errors. Implementation of LAN using Wireless Technology . 4. Implementation of LAN using Fiber Optic Cables . The open end of the T-connector. The resistor plug absorbs the signal and prevents distortion. data and video at 100 Mbps. They can be implemented using IEEE 100BaseFX or 100BaseT specifications. 3. NetWare . to convert electrical signal into light signals. ARCnet and FDDI LANs. a cable is connected to each NIC and extended to the shared cable. Figure 8. when offices are located across the river or hill side. For example. install and maintain fiber optic cables. The technology consists of hardware that manages the connection using radio or infrared signaling devices. Cables are attached to the open ends of the Tconnectors.  It has to manage network access. data protection as well as error control. The workstations at each end of the chain will have only one cable attached. 100BaseFX networks are wired together in a star topology using fiber-optic cabling and fiber-optic hubs or Ethernet switches. The RJ connector is inserted into a socket on the NIC. Fiber-optic cabling  NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . A special connector called T-connector is used to join work stations in a ring topology. Advantages of Windows NT are the the following:  It is very easy to learn. a Network Interface Card (NIC) must be installed in each computer in the network. One major advantage of Novell NetWare is the capability to support many users and services. Different types of connections are suitable for different types of businesses and budgets. However. They can be connected via cables.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING A Network Operating System has to acknowledge and respond to requests from many workstations.

EXTENDING LAN: Using some specialized devices one can increase the operating range of a LAN. 1. So if you are using an Ethernet LAN but need to go farther than you are usually able to. For example.Local bridges are used where the network is being locally segmented means that the two networks of segments physically close together. Signals get attenuated with distance. 3.Signal regenerating repeaters create an exact duplicate of the incoming digital data by identifying it amidst the noise. one can extend the LAN to several buildings in a campus by using devices such as bridges and switches. A repeater is a networking component that extends a network by boosting the signal so that it can travel farther along the cabling. [ c medium access control (MAC)]  Manages network traffic by filtering packets. In this manner. Fiber Optic Extension . regenerated and passed on to the next section of cable. Bridges: . Devices that amplify signals in this way are called repeaters. Why Repeaters? Repeaters extend the distance of a single network. it creates a physical break in the cable. you can then install a repeater to achieve the added distance. Advantages of latest bridges:  Suitable for CSMA/CD and token bus. Generally null modem cable is based on the RS232 serial transmission interface specifications.10. if one is connecting computers that are more than 100 metres apart using Ethernet cable. With multi-mode fiber-optic . Repeaters . NONSTANDARD LANS: Nonstandard LANs are LANs implemented without following any LAN standards. The signal is received on one side of the repeater. or Laplink software for Microsoft. the maximum allowable distance (using repeaters) is 2 kilometres and with singlemode fiber-optic cabling.  Self learning:. reconstructing it and passing only the desired information. The segments are physically far apart is different building.Repeaters can be used in extending fiber-optic cables in a LAN or Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). Fast Ethernet uses CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) mechanism like other Ethernet technologies. Protocol. The other IEEE standard. Purpose of bridges: Bridges work under data link layer of OSI model. Local bridges: . One such implementation is the direct connection of two computers using a serial cable known.Bridges are mainly used to connect two similar local area network. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 .Remote bridges are mainly used where the network is remotely segmented.2.  Signal-regenerating devices (Repeaters) .Amplifiers simply amplify the entire incoming signal.  No hardware changes required. These are able to improve upon the analog type of signal only. as null modem cable. maximum distance is 10 kilometres. This can be overcome by arranging for a repeater in the path. one will need a device that amplifies signals to ensure data transmission. Adding a device that amplifies the signal can allow it to travel farther. It is also considered are an device which connect two similar segments in a network.uses either two-strand multimode or three-strand single-mode optical fiber. 2. provides data transmission speeds of 100 Mbps. boosted to its original strength and then sent.All transmission media attenuate (weaken) the electromagnetic waves that travel through the media. 100BaseT. Remote bridges: .e both signal and the noise. such bridges required several transmission medium to connect two points. Repeaters fall into the following two categories:  Amplifiers .requires low manual configuration. Repeaters are explained in Section 8.  Works on MAC address. When a repeater is installed. i. the original signal is duplicated.  Translator from one protocol to another. with each strand carrying data in opposite directions. so connected. Repeaters can be used to extend the length of cabling. Attenuation therefore limits the distance any medium can carry data. Commonly known as Fast Ethernet. Repeaters are used in fiber-optic networks to amplify and regenerate light signals for long-distance cable runs. cabling. Similarly. No software changes required. Computers. Type of bridges:1. 2. It is generally wired in a star topology using two pairs of wires in category 5 cabling or four pairs of wires in category 3 cabling or a duplex multimode fiber-optic cable. it is used as departmental backbones and in establishing connections to highspeed servers and workstations running bandwidth-intensive applications such as CAD or multimedia programs. can trasfer files by using some supporting software such as Direct Cable Connection accessory of Microsoft Windows 95 and 98. increasing the size of the network. etc.

But an intelligent decision is being made.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING  Ready to install. Router is represented as and each of the line is represented communication line. the decision may be a little more complex because a gateway can perform more functions. Switches operate of data link layer of OSI model. According to that algorithm a graph is build of the subnet. Each station is assigned a VLAN identification number (ID).25 has been adopted by public data networks and became especially popular in Europe. transmitting packet between two different systems. However. the hubs must be rewired to reflect the new topology of the network. A PC on the remote sites LAN function as a gateway and runs gateway software. Disadvantages of transparent / latest bridges: Transparent bridges don’t support loop path. Gateways changing protocol. each department in a building used to have its own local area network (LAN). Some of there are: (i) Routing Information Protocol (RIP) – This routing protocol is use by several network operating systems for routing the packets from source to destination.25 was established as a recommendation of the ITU (International Telecommunication Union). These LANs were created using hubs. HUBs are multi port repeaters. To overcome these problems. Router uses address i. In the X. (iii) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) – It might be possible that there are several path exist between one router to another but main responsibility of this protocol is to select shortest path they use DISKSTRA’S Algorithm.e. X. Hubs: . In a gateway. even if all of the hosts do not need to receive them. if the organization of the departments changes. Traditionally.Routers are both hardware and software. There are several protocols available to use with routers.It multiple incoming connections need to be connected with multiple outgoing connections then a HUB is required. HUBs are used to provide a physical star topology. and stations with the same VLAN ID can act and function as though they are all on the same physical network segment. 6. Routers work under network layer of OSI model. The assignment of VLAN IDs is done at the port level on the switches themselves and can be managed remotely using NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 .25 network is assumed to consist of complex packet switches that contain the intelligence needed to route packets. A router contains routing table as well as routing protocols.switch is a device. 7. 4. In the case of a router. Each router maintains a table of each destination and the file table is frequently updated by routing information protocol broadcast message. All hubs are replaced by VLAN switches. Comparison between Routers and Gateways: Routers and Gateways can manipulate the packets being transmitted. They also maintain the total number of hop in routing table to select the shortest path to the destination. the combination of network numbers and node address. Routers: . 5. Also. The purpose of a router is to connect nodes across and inter network. functionality is similar to bridges means that switches are used to connect two devices of networks.Gateways is used to connect totally dissimilar networks. Switches: . an organization that recommends standards for international telephone services. There are frequently arising with RIP. that manipulation may be simply some determination of where the packet comes from and where the packets are to go. They have capability to perform protocol conversion for all seven layers of the OSI model. Broadcasts sent by one host are received only by hosts with the same VLAN ID. The network administrator creates virtual network segments whose logical topology is independent of the physical topology of the wiring. It uses up to five conditions to select the best route.25 Gateways – These gateways are becoming popular because of thee evolution of enterprise networks and WAN. The common use of this device is to connect a LAN and mainframe computer. Remote LAN can also communicate with mainframe. It works like default routing protocol across the internet. and these hubs were connected to a main Ethernet switch in the main room of the building. (ii) Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol (ERGP) – This is the enhance form of RIP. Virtual LANs: Virtual LAN (VLAN) is a networking technology that allows networks to be segmented logically without having to be physically rewired. broadcasts sent by any host were received by all hosts on the network. It also manages there problems. Gateways: .25 view a network operates much like a telephone system. It only not perform the router’s function but also converts the message from one packet format to another. X. many Ethernet switches nowadays support Virtual LAN (VLAN) technologies. Is data communication a HUB is used as a central point where data arrives from one or more directions and is forwarded out one or more other directions. Switches filter the request as will as control floating of frames. X. X. Shortest path is selected according to path length. They operate at the physical layer of OSI model.

 Packet-switched services . DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Chapter – 9 Wide area network (wan) Introduction: . VLAN techniques are also typically used in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks to partition the network into smaller segments. Hosts can be connected to the different terminals through local area network connections or through remote dial-up connections. This information is transmitted to a host computer (generally Mainframe computer) over an Ethernet or Token Ring local area network connection. Moving a host from one department to another department only requires the assignment of a different VLAN ID to the port on the switch to which the host is connected. WAN links can be grouped into the following three main categories:  Circuit-switched services . microwave and satellite links. Users are demanding Wide area network accesses that offer support for transmission of data.These are dedicated or dial-up connections to a public packetswitching network such as X. consisting of a keyboard and a monitor and the host is a back-end processing computer. Leased lines are very expensive because then are dedicated to the customer even when they are not in use. The main advantage of using VLAN technologies is that users can be grouped together according to their need for network communication.WAN (Wide Area Network) is a digital communication system which interconnects different sites. Hosts and terminals may be located in different locations. (iii) Remote LAN connection .network management software. This type of network may be developed to operate nationwide or worldwide. No rewiring is needed. The only disadvantage is that additional configuration is required to set up and establish the VLANs.A terminal is an I/O device.25. (ii) LAN to LAN connection .  Leased lines .A temporary switched circuit established through the telecommunications system for the duration of the communication session. video. WAN is used to interconnect LANs which may be at opposite sides of a country or located around the globe. a public frame-relay network.These are dedicated connections that establish permanent switched circuit that is always ready to carry network traffic. computer installations and user terminals. imaging. A gateway is any device that is capable of interconnecting networks with dissimilar routing protocols.Remote access to a LAN can be either through dial-up connection using a modem or through a leased line. or even a virtual private network (VPN). Remote access to the office LAN gives the employees and/or customers access to the following services:  File and print services  Client/Server applications such as database applications NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . For the communication to take place. When two dissimilar LANs are to be connected. User's commands are typically entered through a terminal. which is contained in the packet header. Wide area networks (WANs) combine the continuous error detection and correction techniques included in synchronous communications with robust network problem determination and data routing to form powerful backbones that ensure high-quality. Terminals can be of two types:  Local Terminals: directly connected to the host via a serial or LAN connection. regardless of their actual physical locations. fax and voice. the carrier's switches are freed up for other uses. Routers can be used to connect LANs that employ similar protocols.Wide area networking may be used for communicating with devices that reside beyond one's local LAN. The primary driving forces of increased capacity and sophistication for wide area network services are: (i) Host to terminal connection .  Remote Terminals: connected to the host via a phone line with a modem at both the ends. Intermediary switches send data packets along the best route possible by using the logical address of the destination node. Examples are modems and dial-up Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) connections. The transmission media used in WANs are normally public systems such as telephone lines. tunnels and gateways are made use of. application runs in the host and the terminal does user interfacing function. and may also enable LANs to communicate with each other. Network Using Wan and Network Services: Many wide area network services are emerging these days due to the increasing demand of corporate business houses and public and private sectors for these services at the lowest possible cost. reliable service for end users. When the connection is terminated. the two LANs must be in the same WAN. Thus. The mainfram processes the input and sends the output over the network to the terminal monitor.

Each static router must be configured and maintained separately because static routers do not exchange routing information with each other.  Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU): The largest packet size that the router can forward without needing to fragment the packet.  Dynamic Routing . and is simple to implement on a network. Router has to read the header of each packet that arrives and extract the destination address of the packet. Packet filtering can be implemented in the following two ways:  Static Filtering . dynamically open the two ports to allow a session to be started. since remote connection is mainly made using a slow modem. One can configure rules in the router to read the incoming packets. they are forwarded to a router that is connected to that particular local network. These ports are opened at the start of a legitimate session and then closed at the end of the session to secure the port against unauthorized attempts.In Dynamic Filtering. Routing Method: . type route print at the command prompt. Filtering Function . Routing means finding route or the next hop for a packet.  Congestion: The length of the packet queue at the incoming port of the router. It is more immune to any hampering by hackers since the network administrator controls the configuration of the routing table. routing tables are manually configured by the network administrator. To view the internal routing table of a computer running Microsoft Windows XP.In Static Filtering.  Latency: The time delay in processing a packet through the router or over a given route. A packet that satisfies all the rules is allowed to be transmitted.In static routing method. Routers that use static routing are called static routers. print and other services of the company from remote locations. But it provides high security. ports are configured as either permanently open or permanently closed.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING  Applications for remote network administration Programs such as PcAnywhere control the network-access remotely. The router then sends the packet out on the appropriate transmission path based on a calculation of the optimum route to that destination.  Load: The processor use at the router or the number of packets per second that it is currently processing  Bandwidth: The available capacity of a route to support network traffic. Router Concepts: Routing is the function of the network layer of the OSI model. Routing tables contain information about the potential paths that a data packet should take to travel through the internet work and reach its destination. 2. Remote LAN connection allows users to access file. to deny outside packets access the company's intranet server on port 80. A device called router does the routing function. decreases as network traffic increases  M Reliability: The relative amount of downtime that a particular router might experience because of malfunctions. one can configure the router to block all incoming packets directed towards port 80. Packets are usually sent along the path with the lowest cost value or metric. However. monitor the flow of packets to ensure that no attempt is made to hijack the session by an unauthorized user and close the randomly assigned ports when the session ends.There are two routing method:  Static Routing . saves on hardware and licensing costs. selected ports can be opened for authorized access and closed for others. network-access control is often slow and jerky.When packets need to be sent to a host or hosts on another network.  Dynamic Filtering .Filtering is the process of controlling the flow of packets based on attributes such as source Filtering is done to protect the network from unauthorized traffic. The routing table must contain a route for every network in the internet work. It uses a table called routing table to find the route to the packet's final destination. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . For example. Routing involves two main functions. The router to which the packet is forwarded will then check its routing tables to determine the path the packet should take. such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP). The routing metric mainly includes the following:  Hop Count: The number of intermediate routers between a given network and the local router. Windows 2000 or Windows NT. Forwarding Function . Network administrators can create rules for filtering out unwanted packets. Static routing is generally used in smaller networks that contain only a smaller number of routers or where security is a major concern.Dynamic Routing is a routing mechanism which is handled by a routing protocol. while a packet that violates any of the rules is dropped. These are: 1.

Any time a host. For example. Distributed Routing . Routing protocols also create additional network traffic. By performing similar calculation for all the routing tables that arrive. OSPF-enabled routers. 3. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Table .RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) performs the same function as ARP does but in reverse. the router sends an ARP message to find out the physical address of the destination node. An example of a protocol that uses Link-State algorithm is the OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) protocol. bandwidth available.etc. 4. a node can find out the best estimate and correspondingly modify its routing table. The IP addresses. 2. which broadcast routing information every 30 seconds. Once every T milli seconds. ARP is used to find the physical address to the node when its Internet address is known. The routers periodically exchange their routing information so that if the internet work is reconfigured or a router goes down. each router periodically exchanges its routing information with each of its neighbors. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) . Hierarchical Routing . The process is explained in the following Section. on the other hand. needs to find the physical address of another host on its network. Distance-Vector Protocol . Routing tables are calculated on the basis of the number of hops required to reach the destination network. For example. A routing protocol is installed on each Dynamic Router. If node A knows that the hop count to reach node B is m. The link state database includes cost information in addition to hop information. or a router. Other routing metrics such as traffic load. compute the shortest path between nodes on an internet work. latency or Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) are not used in calculating routing tables. enormous CPU time and huge bandwidth. such as a LAN. the physical address changes. Also. Division of the complete network into network areas has the advantage that each router need maintain only link state information about its own area and other areas connected to it. Routers that use this method are called dynamic routers. required large memory. which improves the scalability of OSPF. a router A sends to its neighbors a list of hop counts (to each destination). have universal jurisdiction and cannot be changed.A distance vector protocol periodically broadcasts the complete routing tables across the internet work. This frees the routers from keeping information about all the nodes in a network. 5. Dynamic routers are less secure because routing tables can be hampered by hackers. On a typical physical network. as networks grow in size. the routing tables of each router are modified accordingly. It matches logical and physical device addresses. and can send out packets for searching the address if a desired name or address is not currently in its table. Link-State Protocol . ARP maintains tables of name to-address mappings. They create a map (or tree) called the link state database describing the topology or structure of the specific network area. a network is divided into sub-networks. OSPF broadcasts changes only when they occur. it determines the IP address.Link-State Protocol is more efficient in terms of network overhead than the Distance-Vector Protocol. if the NIC on a particular machine fails. that is given a physical address. Local Routing: Local routing is the routing of a packet within a particular network. it formats an ARP query packet that includes the IP address and broadcasts it over the network. Only the updations are exchanged over the network. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . These protocols dynamically exchange routing information among routers on an internet work. known as ARP table. If the network is reconfigured or a router goes down. Network areas are groups of networks connected using OSPFenabled routers that all have router interfaces for any of the networks included in the area. 1. with the router in a sub-network knowing only about the nodes within its subnetwork and being ignorant about the nodes in other sub-networks. Suppose a neighbor B has sent a routing table with Bi as the hop count required to reach node i. using any algorithm.ARP is a network layer protocol concerned with mapping node names to IP addresses.In Distributed routing. It also receives a similar list from its neighbors. each device on a link is identified by a physical or station address usually imprinted on the network interface card (NIC). which would have. The link state database is updated if a router goes down or if the structure of the network is reconfigured. let us assume that the hop count is taken as a metric-for-routing in a certain network. When a packet arrives at a router and the IP address indicates that the packet belongs to this network. it takes time for this information to propagate between the various routers on the network.In Hierarchical routing. Physical addresses have local jurisdiction and can be changed easily. This is unlike distance-vector protocol which involved transmission of the complete routing tables. it knows that it can reach node i via B in m + Bi hop counts. unlike RIP-enabled routers.

DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Chapter – 10 Data transmission networks Telephone Networks: . ATM connections are predictable and can be easily managed. ATM connects devices over a WAN using virtual channels (VCs) and virtual paths (VPs). which sets up dedicated switches to connect it to the destination LAN. For example. LAPB is derived from the High-level Data Link Control (HDLG) protocol.ATM is a connection-oriented protocol that can work with either permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) or switched virtual circuits (SVCs).  Packet-switched services. This layer is responsible for call-setup and call-termination and for managing transfer of packets. T1 lines and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL).25 standard corresponds in functionality to the first three layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. routers. In a leased-line network. X. while maintaining guaranteed quality of service (QoS). A Virtual Path (VP) is a collection of VCs having the same source and destination points.  Physical Layer: The physical layer interface of X. Dial-up Telephone Networks . used primarily for voice communication. the customer's LAN is connected by bridges.21bis and it is used to connect computers and terminals (DTE) with data communications equipment (DCE) such as switches. It defines how to address and deliver X. ATM cells are of size 53 bytes (48 bytes of data payload and 5 bytes of control and routing information). when an ATM link is idle.A Dial-up Telephone Network is a network established using a modem over ordinary phone lines.25 packets using permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) or switched virtual circuits (SVCs). 1. Virtual channels consist of one or more physical ATM links connected in a series for transmitting data between remote stations. This connection can then be used to support the following:  Dial-up remote access solutions using modems or ISDN. ATM technology works primarily at data-link layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model. The phone lines (also known as dial-up lines). modems and terminal adapters to the telephone company's central office. It defines framing and error-correction methods. 2. high-speed data transmission services such as Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). ATM (Asynchronous Transmission Mode) .25. Frame Relay.25 is known as Packet Layer Protocol (PLP). are less expensive to use but they have less available bandwidth. The two main benefits of ATM are:  high transmission speed  flexible bandwidth-on-demand capability ATM uses fixed-size cells for packaging information. which in turn results in considerable cost savings. low-bandwidth usage (such as remote access networking) or as a backup for the more costly dedicated or leased lines. One can also use a leased line to connect to the Internet. Leased lines are dedicated circuits that the telephone company reserves for the exclusive use of the customer. NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . The X.Telephone networks provide in addition to the Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) connection. such as X. for point-to-point or multipoint wide area network (WAN) connections with other branches of the telephone company. Due to the fixed size of cells. ATM dynamically allocates bandwidth. The telephone networks connect the customer premises equipment (CPE) with a similar equipment at the telephone company's central office. it utilizes no bandwidth. Companies often use dial-up networking only for occasional.X. images voice or video.  High-speed dedicated leased-line access to the Internet for corporate users. All cells in a given ATM transmission follow the same VC to ensure reliable data transmission. A Virtual Channel exists only as long as data is being transmitted on it. ATM networks use maximum bandwidth. The payload field contains the data which can be either plain text. VP can be used to group all the traffic to a given destination and send it over the VP.25 is a packet-switching protocol for wide area network (WAN).25 services.These features substantially reduce inter-router network traffic compared to RIP and make OSPF a more efficient protocol than RIP for large internet works. Bandwidth is allocated only in required amounts.Leased line is a permanent direct connection usually bought by corporate business houses for connecting two geographically separate local area networks (LANs). 1.  Data-link Layer: Data-link layer protocol of X. Leased Line .25 provides the following specifications:  Network Layer: The network layer protocol of X. Communication Protocols Over Wan : The two commonly used communication protocols over WAN are ATM and X.25 Protocol .25 is called X. Dial-up networks are shared with all subscribers in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) domain. X.25 is known as Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB). 2.

These switches provide packet-switching services.  It supports both low and high speed at reasonable cost. Users can use their digital connections to telephone company for transmitting both voice and data over the some medium. Maximum packet sizes range from 64 to 4096 bytes.25 switches that are called packet switching exchanges (PSEs). This ID number is also known as the Logical Channel Identifier (LCI). 3.25 . The fee for a leased line is dependent on bandwidth and distance.  Highly reliable. In return.25 Public Data Network (PDN). depending on the system.  Provides quality of connections. Messages are transmitted in the form of packets. It was originally designed to connect remote terminals with mainframe hosts. To access a customer should have within 5. Public Switched Data Network (PSDN) –  Several technologies are used with PSDN. It is most appropriate of individual error and small business. X. X. Telephones.25 backbone network by using the ID number (a 12-bit number) of the virtual circuit established for this particular communication session. Advantage of ISDN:  Speed – Before ISDN modem was used to make computer communications through public telephone network but it has limited bandwidth to transmit data. Some important Networks and its characteristics: 1. This system allows data to be transmitted simultaneously across the world using end to end digital connectivity.25 was designed as a global standard for a packet-switching network. Although newer WAN technologies such as Frame Relay. X.  Available at every place. PSEs connect DCEs at the local facilities of X. The higher capacity service is central site solution for extending application to large no. It is the fact that ISDN services is provided by the some companies DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . video and data services using digital transmission medium and combining both circuit and packet switching technique. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and T-carrier services are preferred these days. (ii) Primary Rate Interface (PRI) – PRI is intended for users with greater capacity requirements. carried on the network.25 carriers to the X. invoices etc Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): .21 address and establishing either permanent virtual circuit or switched virtual circuit. One DTE (computer terminal) can initiate a communication session with another by dialing its X. The technique can be used in specific type of business electronic data interchange is one area for value added services in which two trading partners exchange trading documents such as purchase orders. it has a large overhead of errorcorrection information.  Modems are required when it is used for data communication.e. Actually ISDN is replacement for old telephone services. of remote users. video and data over digital telephone line.  It is very popular for connecting public and private systems to implement electronic mail services.5 km repeaters are required. resulting in inefficient use of bandwidth.X.25 carrier facilities by using a device called a packet assembler/disassembles (PAD). automatic teller machine transactions and other dedicated business and financial uses. Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) –  Analog nature of transmission. DTEs at customer premises connect to DCEs at X. An X. Typically the channel structure is 23 B-channel + one 64kbps channel.Leased lines are very expensive as compared to dial-up lines.25 network consists of a backbone of X. 2.  Transmission rate is low.ISDN is enhanced digital Network which integrates voice. There are two basic types of ISDN Servers: (i) Basic Rate Interface (BRI) – BRI consists of two 64 kbps B-channels and one 16 kbps D-channel.  It has restricted bandwidth.25 networks are widely used in credit card verification. If distance is extended from 5.  It is voice based communication i. Value Added Network (VAN) – In value added services the provider of such services must process store and manipulate the data i.e. It is an international communications standard for sending voice. 3.25 was designed when analog telephone transmissions were done on copper wire. Packets are routed through the X. With its BRI and PRI servers ISDN has the flexibility to meet the bandwidth needs of home office or company head quarter small office can use ISDN BRI to support al of its voice and data communication requirement and users in a very large office can benefits from ISN PRI’s capacity. The fee is usually charged monthly or quarterly. they are always available.5 km of the service provider central office. Therefore. active and secure.

It can then pass this information to higher-level protocols for processing.The functional groupings of equipment in the Broadband ISDN model are the same as those for Narrowband ISDN. almost 400 times faster than the PRI rate. ATM Technology:  ATM is used in many networks including both public and private. this range of data rate was sufficient to handle all existing transmission needs. Application of ISDN:  Internet access  Telephoning  Video conferencing (Synchronization)  Education NARROWBAND ISDN (N-ISDN): . Sometimes the service is called cell relay. is under study. When the network becomes congested.Broadband ISDN also uses the reference points similar to Narrowband ISDN (R. B-NT2.DCE devices (such as switches) set the value of the BECN bit in those frames that are travelling in the opposite direction of frames with their FECN bit set. Physical Specifications of Broadband ISDN . DCE devices will discard frames with the DE bit set.Interactive services are those services which need two-way transfers between either two subscribers or between a subscriber and a service provider. Frame Relay: . BROADBAND ISDN (B-ISDN): .520 Mbps) Asymmetrical (155. in case of congestion. the physical aspects of B-ISDN that are not related to ATM include:  Access methods . fixed size packets called cell. an extension of ISDN. these equipments are called BNT1. B-TE1. the set FECN bit indicates that the frame experienced congestion in its path from source to destination. Frame relay uses two congestion-notification mechanisms. The subscriber does not have to transmit a request each time a service is desired. Congestion Control: . The destination device will pass this information to higher-level protocols for processing. these unimportant frames can be identified and dropped. This informs the DTE that the particular path is congested.The FECN mechanism is initiated when a sender device (DTE) sends frames into the network.  Reference points .  Signaling – The signaling mechanism is also different form telephone. called Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN).Broadband ISDN provides two types of services:  Interactive . These are: (i) FECN (Forward-Explicit Congestion Notification) . Since frame relay is implemented on a reliable network media flow control-function is left to higher-layer protocols. Frame relay can be used with virtual leased line.  Multiple Device – Before ISDN.Distributive services are of simplex communication form which are sent from a service provider to subscribers.The original ISDN providing data rates of 64 Kbps to 1.080 Mbps)  Functional equipment groupings .520 Mbps/622.but the difference that we can get much faster connection for voice data and video through a single line. When ISDN was originally designed. The fixed size cell reduces overhead. switches (DCE) will set the value of the FECN bit to 1. B-ISDN provides subscribers to the network with data rates in the range of 600 Mbps. these rates proved inadequate to support many applications. It sends a digital packet through a separate channel so connection establishment and called setup time is very fast. it was necessary to have a separate line for each device that has to be used simultaneously but by the use of ISDN it became possible to combine several digital data sources over a single line. The basic idea behind ATM is to transmit all information in small. (ii) BECN (Backward-Explicit Congestion Notification) .544 Mbps is known as Narrowband ISDN (NISDN). DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . ATM is both a technology and potentially a service. As applications using the telecommunications networks advanced.Cell relay uses fix sized packets called cell relay.Broadband ISDN has the following three access methods: Symmetrical (155. S. Broadband ISDN Services . This reduces the chance of critical data getting deleted during congestion periods. T and U). The customer leases a permanent virtual circuit between two points and can then send frames between them. However. Thus. This bit is set to 1 in lessimportant frames. However.Frame relay is a service for people who want connection oriented way to move bits from one station to another at regionable speed and low cost. Frame Relay header also contains a Discard Eligibility (DE) bit.The Broadband ISDN model is divided into layers which are closely tied to the design of Asynchronous Transmission Mode. These services can be without or with user control. When the frames reach the destination device.  Distributive .To provide for the needs of the next generation technology. If the network is congested. B-TE2 and B-TA.Frame relay employs congestion-notification mechanisms rather than flow control. Cell Relay: .

mobile. co-axial cable. which streams the cell and an appropriate place. (iii) ATM Adaptation Layer – ATM Adaptation Layer is divided in two sub layers: (a) Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) – This is the lower part of ATM Adaptation Layer.  Meets the requirement of the telephone.  It is extremely fast and provides dynamic bandwidth. Functionality of this layer is same as the network layer of OSI Model. In other words such technology is compatible with existing network. delay and other problems with multiplexing different sized packets are avoided. are now available at affordable prices. Because each cell is the same size and small. These devices.DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING ATM technology can be used in existing twisted pair. and fiber optics network for local area network as well as WAN communication. full motion multimedia e-mail. Through NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . The higher level data unit is passed down to the CS. The SAR sub layer breaks packets into cell on the transmission side and put them back together again at the destination. ATM Layered Structure: -The new wide area service is called B-ISDN.  Chapter – 11 Wireless communication Introduction: . palmtop.  ATM switches capable of transmitting 20 gigabits of data/second and a shared switch can transmit up to 662 Gbits/sec. which divides the data into appropriately sized segment. (b) CS – This layer is responsible for accepting messages from the application and breaking them into 48 bytes for transmission. The underline technology that makes B-ISDN possible is called ATM.  Ability to transmit video without creating a glittering or loosing the synchronization of sound and picture. (ii) ATM Layer – ATM Layer mainly deals with cell and cell transport. based on the wireless communication techniques. help us to achieve mobility. The size of a cell is 53 bytes (5 bytes of header and 48 bytes of data/payload). radio and data industries. These segments are then passed on to the ATM layer.Mobile devices such as laptop.  How ATM Protocol works? When a user sends data over the ATM network. Benefits of ATM: –  High bandwidth medium with low delay. cable television. It will offer video on demand. which prepares the data for the ATM layers.  ATM technology is also compatible with wireless and satellite communication. The cells are then passed down to the physical layer. Congestion control is also located here. The data is then passed down the SAR sub layer. which defines and appropriate cell header for each segment and encapsulate the header and payload into 53 byte cell. CD quality music. phones etc. high speed data transport and many other services. Live television from many sources. Following are the different layers of ATM: (i) Physical Layer – The physical layers deals with physical devices and medium. It defines the layout of a cell and tells what the header fields mean.  ATM is designed for high performance multimedia networking. Mobility is the ability to access information and services any-me and anywhere.

This led to several incompatibility problems. This is done without interrupting or alerting the user. the call must be either dropped or transferred from one radio channel to another when a user crosses the line between adjacent cells. Infact. Frequency channels are allocated to these radio stations in such a way that the channels (frequencies) used in one cell can be reused in another cell some distance away. many low-power transmitters are placed throughout a coverage area. he is moving out of range of one radio base station and entering into the range of another base station. To overcome such problems. on traffic. The splitting of cell into smaller cells is known as cell splitting. Since adjacent cells do not use the same frequency channel. The user does not notice the handoff at all. each having a limited coverage area. mobiles must remain within a frequency range to be able to communicate. Cells are assigned a group of channels that is completely different from that of the neighboring cells. all the cells in a cluster use different frequencies. It provides the specifications. service profile and activity status. Handoff occurs when a call is transferred from one radio channel to another as a mobile equipment leaves one cell and enters another one. The second option must be adopted and it is known as handoff. GSM is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. infrared. called cells. The solution adopted was frequency reuse through the cellular concept. The cellular radio equipment (base station) can communicate with mobiles as long as they are within range. The term cellular comes from the honeycomb shape of the areas into which a coverage area is divided. Radio energy weakens over distance. A group of cells is called a cluster.  Authentication Centre (AUC): It provides authentication services like identifying authorized users and also ensures the confidentiality of each call. cafeteria. one can access information.Since only a small number of radio channel frequencies are available. provided that they are far enough from each other. that is the function and interface requirements. The same group of channels can be used in cells in some other cluster. Cells . Wireless communication makes use of spread. ticket booking.  Equipment Identity Register (EIR): It is a database storing information about the identity of mobile equipments.  Visitor Location Register" (VLR): It is another database that stores temporary information about subscribers This information is needed by MSC (Mobile services Switching Centre) to service the visiting subscribers. while he is attending a call. It includes the following functional units:  Home Location Register (HLR): It is a database storing permanent information about subscribers such as the subscriber's address. For example. check account balance. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 .When a mobile user travels from one cell to another. TELEPHONY (GSM): . network interfacing. but does not address the hardware. Cellular Radio: . No frequency is reused within a cluster. cellular radio and satellite communication technologies. spectrum radio.Switching System is responsible for call processing and subscriber related functions.GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communication. there has to be a way to reuse the available channels. This is done to allow buying equipments from different vendors. At this point. email from one's home. When a mobile user leaves a cell. Handoff . GSM standard was adopted in 1982 for cellular communication. An area is divided into a number of smaller areas. Often EIR is integrated with the AUC (Authentication Centre). but there was no standardization. the cell site in use requests a handoff. hence. This prevents calls from stolen. common channel signaling etc. or even from a grocery store.wireless computing.  Mobile Services Switching Centre (MSC): It controls calls to and from other telephone systems or data systems. unauthorized or defective mobile stations. Cells can be sized according to the population density in a given area. the reception becomes weak. with each other. The Mobile Telephone Network switches the call to a stronger frequency channel in the new cell. GSM network is divided into the following three systems: (i) Switching System (SS) . Principle of Operation . Various systems had been developed for cellular communication. a high power transmitter in a region can have twelve conversations (channels).Cellular Radio means using a large number of low-power base stations for transmission.The principle behind cellular radio is this: Instead of using one powerful transmitter. so that their frequencies do not interfere. only the Cellular radio and Satellite communication technologies are discussed in the following subsections. It performs such functions as toll ticketing. Each of these smaller areas is served by its own low-power radio base station. Dropping the call is not a desirable solution. Since discussing each of them is out of the scope of this book.A cell is the basic geographic unit of a cellular system. Frequency Reuse .

5 per cent. for a VSAT system with a hub).To prevent the use of information through outsiders. To overcome such problem Firewall is built. the hub.(ii) Base Switching System (BSS) . Terrestrial based communication links available in India are notoriously unreliable due to various reasons like lack of foreign investment in infrastructure sector. Instead. Firewall: . GSM Specifications .There are two types of ATTACK: (i) Passive ATTACK – This is considered as monitoring of transmission. with a large high gain antenna is needed to relay traffic between VSATs as shown in Figure 11.  Access Method: GSM utilizes the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) concept.850 to 1. They control handoffs. VSAT networks have proved to be the most reliable and cost-effective for a small-sized network. (iii) Operation and Support System (OSS) . obtaining permissions associated with information etc. A group of BTSs is controlled by a single BSC (Base Station Controller).  Modulation: Modulation in GSM is done through Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK). power levels in base transceiver stations (BTS) etc. the micro-stations do not have enough power to communicate directly with one another. capturing authentification. separation between---adjacent carrier frequencies is 200 KHz. thus leading to  greater reliability  high throughput and low bit error rate (BER) for data applications and  integration of data and voice in one communication medium DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING Chapter – 12 Security and privacy Network Security: . It is the functional entity through which the network operator monitors and controls the system. IC consists of Base Station Controllers (BSC) and Base Transceiver Stations (BTS). Main purpose of such types of attack is to obtain the information which is being transmitted. radio frequency (RF). Speech is encoded at 13 kbps. The trade-off is a longer delay in return for having cheaper end-user stations.All radio related functions are performed by BSS. The uplink is generally good for 19.  Unauthorized users should not be able to insert unnecessary information. 512 kbps.  Channel Separation: For GSM.BTS is the radio equipment (transceiver + antenna) needed to service a cell.Following is the list of GSM specifications:  Frequency Range: 1. The delay time or end-to-end transit time is between 250 to 300 cosec (540 m.  Base Station Controllers (BSC) . Duplex distance specified for GSM is 80 MHz. They handle the radio interface to the mobile stations.When a small network (LAN) connects with internet. VSAT (VERY SMALL APERTURE TERMINAL): Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs) are tiny terminals that have 1-meter antennas and can put out about 1 watt of power. It offers cost-effective support for centralized.They provide all the control functions and physical links between the BTS (Base Transceiver Stations) and MSC (Mobile Services Switching Centre). The major benefits of VSAT network are:  very simple and easy to install  channel availability to the tune of 99. regional and local operational and maintenance activities required for a GSM network. but it requires protection of all facilities all the time. legal users are assigned an identification in the form of User ID with Password. creation of false messages. Active attack cannot beeasily prevented.  Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) .OSS is connected to all the elements of Switching System (SS) and to the Base Station Controller (BSC).  Unauthorized users should not be able to access the information of the system. In many VSAT systems. In this mode of operation. Types of ATTACK: . it faces several dangerous security threads. absence of proper planning.  Sharable resources should be available for only authorized members.2 kbps. often.  Coding: GSM uses Linear Predictive Coding (LPC). non-availability of resources.990 MHz.  Duplex Distance: Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. (ii) Active ATTACK – It includes modification of messages. Among the options available in the country. Firewalls are basically combination of hardwares & NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . delay in implementation of liberalization policy etc. but the downlink is more.  Transmission rate: GSM has a data rate of 270 kbps. either the sender or the receiver has a large antenna and a powerful amplifier.In a network several users are working together and access for share the common resource that’s why security must be maintained among network users. Such types of ATTACK are difficult to detect but possible to prevent. Following are the major consideration to maintain network security:  Information that is stored in the system only accessed through authorized users. sec.7. a special ground station. Protection against Unauthorized use: .

but it is so built that it would function as a private corporate network. Benefits of using Firewall –  Protection against services  Access to host  To implement authentification procedure efficiency  Policy inforcement  Proper use of login Characteristics of good Firewall system – Firewall is mainly built to protect our network.softwares that are built using routers.  The Firewall should be flexible. (ii) Packet Filtering Firewall – Such types of firewalls checks/examines all the incoming packets. Virtual Private Network (VPN): . protocols and services used in VPN are those of public networks. Such system provides functionality or awareness to application layer without using any proxy.  The Firewall system most contains advance authentification measures. Tunneling solutions are typically based on the Microsoft’s Point-to-Point Tunneling protocol (PPTP). VPNs use tunneling technologies to allow users to access private network resources through the Internet or any other public network. Firewall Types – There are three types of Firewall: (i) Proxy Firewall – Such types of Firewall which is working as intermediate between users request and a particular layer (application layer or session layer or transport layer).  The Firewall system should implement filtering mechanism. users enjoy the same security and privacy features as available in a real private network. It gives secure remote access to the corporate network over the Internet. A Firewall system has following characteristics to maintain security:  A Firewall system should be able to deny authorized accession of network services. (iii) Stageful Inspection Firewall – Such Firewalls system is considered as a new technology based firewall system. then the system forwards or drops its according to predefined rules. servers and a variety of software.VPN is a private network of an organization built over public connections. Firewall reduce the speed of a network but protect against several security threads. DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR 43 . In VPNs.