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Manuel Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 4-5: Nozzle Design: Method of Characteristics The Method of Characteristics (Ideal Gas) (Ref. Phillip Thompson Compressive Fluid Dynamics, McGraw Hill, 1972, Ch. 9) 2-D or axisymmetric Homentropic as well as isentropic

→ ∇×u = o

plus ∇

u r

(ρ u ) = 0

u r

0 u r u 1 r r r ⎛ u2 ⎞ u u 1 and u ∇u + ∇p = o ⇒ ∇ ⎜ ⎟ + ω × u + ∇p = 0 ρ ρ ⎝ 2 ⎠

**Use intrinsic co-ordinates
**

r Eq. of motion along s :

∂u 1 ∂p + =o ∂s ρ ∂s

u

(1)

r Eq. of motion along n :

u2 1 ∂p ∂u2 2 = =− R ∂n ρ ∂n

Now

1 ∂ϑ ≡ R ∂s

u2

∂ϑ ∂u = −u ∂s ∂n

∂u ∂ϑ +u =o ∂n ∂s (good no p in it)

(2)

u r (can also get this from ∇ × u = o )

Continuity:

∂ ( ρ u 2πr δn ) = o ∂s

16.512, Rocket Propulsion Prof. M. Martinez-Sanchez

Lecture 8 Page 1 of 20

1 ∂ρ 1 ∂u 1 ∂r 1 ∂δn + + + =o ρ ∂s u ∂s r ∂s ∂n ∂s

( δs ) sin ϑ =

∂r 1 ∂ϑ ( ∂s ) sin ϑ ∂s r ∂n

∂δn ⎛ ∂ϑ ⎞ δn ⎟ δs ds = ⎜ − ∂s ⎝ ∂n ⎠

1 ∂ρ 1 ∂u ∂ϑ sin ϑ + − =− r ρ ∂s u ∂s ∂n

Homentropic: dp = c 2 d ρ

⎛ 2 ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ⎞ ⎜c = ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∂ρ ⎠s ⎠ ⎝

16.512, Rocket Propulsion Prof. M. Martinez-Sanchez

Lecture 8 Page 2 of 20

M. from s eq. ∂p 1 ∂p ∂u : so you can eliminate = −u ∂s ρ ∂s ∂s − u ∂u 1 ∂u ∂ϑ sin ϑ + − =− r c 2 ∂s u ∂s ∂n 1⎛ u2 ⎞ ∂u ∂ϑ sin ϑ −1 + 2 ⎟ + = ⎜ r u⎝ c ⎠ ∂s ∂n 2 M -1 M 2 − 1 ∂u ∂ϑ sin ϑ + = u ∂s ∂n r (4) Introduce the Mach angle μ = sin−1 1 = tan−1 M 1 M −1 2 tan μ = 1 M2 − 1 Then (2) tan μ M 2 − 1 ∂u ∂ϑ + =o u ∂n ∂s And (4) M 2 − 1 ∂u ∂ϑ tan μ sin ϑ + tan μ = u ∂s ∂n r Introduce the Prandtl-Meyer function ω (M) by dω = M2 − 1 du u (to be integrated later) 16.512. Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 3 of 20 . Rocket Propulsion Prof. of motion.so 1 ∂p 1 ∂u ∂ϑ sin ϑ + − =− 2 r ρ c ∂s u ∂s ∂n and.

M. r → ∞ ⇒ ϑ + ω =const.are lengths along characteristics) ⎛ m− inclined ϑ + μ ⎞ ⎜ + ⎜ m inclined ϑ − μ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ sin μ sin ϑ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂m+ ( ϑ + ω) = + ⎪ r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ ∂ sin μ sin ϑ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ϑ − ω) = − − ( ⎪ ⎪ r ⎩ ∂m ⎭ For 2-D.≡ I.512. n) coordinates. along m+ ≡ I+ (inclined ϑ − μ ) ϑ − ω =const. 1 = ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ sin μ ⎭ r − ⎧ cos μ ⎫ 1 =⎨ ⎬ ⎩− sin μ ⎭ cos μ r+ ∂ ∂ ∂ + sin μ =1 ∇ = ∂s ∂n ∂m+ r− ∂ ∂ ∂ − sin μ =1 ∇ = ∂s ∂n ∂m− so cos μ (m+. m. along m. Rocket Propulsion Prof.tan μ ∂ω ∂ϑ + =o ∂n ∂s then ∂ω ∂ϑ tan μ sin ϑ + tan μ = ∂s ∂n r add and subtract to obtain the “Characteristics form” (single differential operator per equation) ∂ ⎞ tan μ sin ϑ ⎛ ∂ ⎜ ∂s + tan μ ∂n ⎟ ( ω + ϑ ) = r ⎝ ⎠ ∂ ⎞ tan μ sin ϑ ⎛ ∂ ⎜ ∂s − tan μ ∂n ⎟ ( ϑ − ω) r ⎝ ⎠ ⇒ ∂ ∂ ⎞ sin μ sin ϑ ⎛ ⎜ cos μ ∂s + sin μ ∂n ⎟ ( ω + ϑ ) = r ⎝ ⎠ ∂ ∂ ⎞ sin μ sin ϑ ⎛ ⎜ cos μ ∂s − sin μ ∂n ⎟ ( ϑ − ω) = − r ⎝ ⎠ r + ⎧cos μ ⎫ In (s.(inclined ϑ + μ ) 16. Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 4 of 20 .

and these m. so ϑ decreases (increase negatively) at the same rate. the flow from it enters some disturbed region. ϑ + ω = ϑo + ωo everywhere downstream.g. One of the m families originate in the uniform region (m+ in example) and carries a constant invariant. we carry a constant (which varies from ch. The turning of the flow is dictated by how ϑ changes on a m+ line. Since on a m+ we have ϑ + ω = ϑo + ωo . To ch. i.2-D Simple Regions Consider a uniform region. e. M. as different m. μ) are constant along each m-.. This is a Simple Region (one of the invariants is constant).) So. of that family).lines are crossed. Along one of the other characteristics (m. ϑ + μ ). we can interpret ω as the magnitude of the isentropic flow turning in a simple region.512. for instance ϑ − ω = ϑw − ωw along each m. changes of ϑ are equal and opposite to those in ω (ω increases as M does in the expansion. Rocket Propulsion Prof. we can evaluate it at the wall. like a wall turning.here). Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 5 of 20 .lines are straight (const. when nothing varies along one characteristic family.line and ωw = ϑo + ωo − ϑw so ϑ − ω = 2ϑw − ( ϑo + ωo ) then 2ϑ = ϑo + ωo + ϑw − ωw = 2ϑw along each m− → 2ω = ϑo + ωo − ( ϑw − ωw ) along each m − ϑ = ϑw ω = ϑo + ωo − ϑw = ωw → so ϑ and ω (and hence M. Calculation of ω (M) dω = M2 − 1 du = u ⎛ dM 1 dT ⎞ M2 − 1 ⎜ + 2 T ⎟ ⎝ M ⎠ but 16.e.

Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 6 of 20 .dω = γ −1 2 ⎛ M M2 − 1 ⎜ 2 ⎜1 − γ −1 2 M ⎜ M 1+ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ dM = ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ M2 − 1 M dM γ −1 2 M 1+ 2 Integrates (with ω =0 at M=1) to ω = K tan−1 M2 − 1 − tan−1 M 2 − 1 K ⎛ ⎜K = ⎜ ⎝ γ +1⎞ ⎟ γ −1⎟ ⎠ For M → ∞ ω→K ⎞ π π π π⎛ γ +1 − = ( K − 1) = ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎜ γ −1 ⎟ 2 2 2 2⎝ ⎠ γ ω (M → ∞ ) 1. not ω∞ .512. M. so continuum approach fails at some point in the expansion. long mfp.2 − 1. even in a vacuum: 16. one starts from some high Me>1.3 ) can turn backwards at a sonic nozzle exit to (but very long density. turning from M=1) 1. molecules then continue in straight line).4 130.25 180o (Max. Rocket Propulsion Prof. Actually.2 208o 1. so the actual turning is through ω∞ − ω (Me ) .5o 5/3 90o So rocket exhaust ( γ vacuum) 1.

M. so ϑthroat = −ωa tan μ = r dϕ = dr 1 M2 − 1 From geometry. μ − ϑ + ϕ = π ϑt 2 Sub. at inlet M=1. ϑ = ω − ωa μ − ω + ωa + ϕ = ϕ= π +ω−μ 2 π + ωa 2 ϑt = −ωa ϕ= π + K tan−1 2 M2 − 1 − tan−1 M 2 − 1 − tan−1 K − π 2 1 M −1 2 ⎛ ⎜K = ⎜ ⎝ γ +1⎞ ⎟ ⎟ γ −1⎠ 16.Example of Application: Ideal 2-D plug Nozzle at Design Condition Along m− .512. Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 7 of 20 . ϑ − ω = ϑa − ωa Simple region (Prandtl-Meyer fan centered at lip L) In particular. Rocket Propulsion Prof.

r = ht (throat height) r = ht ϕ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ cos K ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ K2 In particular. ϕ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ cos K ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ K2 r = For ϕ = 0.ϕ = K tan−1 M2 − 1 K tan ϕ = K M2 − 1 1 = K K tan μ ⇒ r dϕ = dr 1 K tan ϕ K dr =K r ϕ⎞ ⎛ ϕ d ⎜ cos ⎟ K⎠ K dϕ = −K 2 ⎝ ϕ ϕ cos cos K K sin const.512. Rocket Propulsion Prof. Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 8 of 20 . M. at end of expansion M = Ma → ϕa = K tan−1 2 Ma − 1 K . then ra = ht ϕa ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ cos K ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ K2 and ha = ra sin μa = ra Ma 1 2 Ma xa = ra cos μa = ra 1 − 16.

41 ht From the geometry. ha=ra sin μa = ra Ma ha 1 = 34.769 ⎟ ⎜ cos K ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ra = 34.684 ht 16. Rocket Propulsion Prof.3 ⎣ ⎦ Then ⎛ M2 − 1 ⎞ −1 M2 − 1 ωa = K tan−1 ⎜ ⎟ − tan K ⎠ ⎝ K= γ +1 = γ −1 2.3 ωa = 67.769 0.3 ⎤ 2 ⎡ 1.554 0.41 ht 3.512.554 ha =9. M.3 = 2.3 .35o ⎛ M2 − 1 ⎞ o Also ρa = K tan−1 ⎜ ⎟ = 141.35o ⇒ ϑt = −67. Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 9 of 20 .3 ⎢100 − 1⎥ = 3.Numerical Application Po γ − 1 2 ⎞ γ −1 ⎛ = 100 = ⎜ 1 + ⇒ Ma = Ma ⎟ Pa 2 ⎝ ⎠ γ γ −1 ⎡ ⎤ 2 ⎢⎛ Po ⎞ γ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ γ − 1 ⎢⎝ Pa ⎠ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Take γ = 1.01 ⎝ K ⎠ and so ra 1 1 = = K2 2.01 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜ cos 2. Ma = 0.7692 ht ρa ⎞ 141.

so we can extend the grid as we go.02 ht Very long and pointy. After this is done. carrying to each point the two invariants I+. γ =1. and no longer carry constant flow properties (except for their own invariant) 0-1-4 is a simple region 0-4-41 is uniform 1-4-10 is non-simple 4-41--11 is a simple region Then we need to calculate in a step-by-step manner. Use only 4 characteristics.41 1 − ⎜ ⎟ ht ⎝ 3. and characteristics are no longer straight.1) to Me = 3. Notice the flowfield properties can be found first everywhere and only then we need to come back and place the points geometrically. When the characteristics of both families intersect some upstream disturbance. Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 10 of 20 .554 ⎠ 2 xa =33. m. Non-Simple Regions. should be truncated. Example: Design a 2-D ideal nozzle to expand from near sonic conditions (M0 = 1. we know the new segments of m+. Use a corner expansion as a starter.lines from them to us. I. ϑ − μ ).from neighboring upstream points. along the m+.512.from our point (slopes ϑ + μ . they affect each other’s invariant.25 16. Rocket Propulsion Prof. m. M.and xa ⎛ 1 ⎞ = ra cos μa = 34.

424o At 4.21 − 1 = 1. ϑo = 0 3 9 −1 − tan−1 9 − 1 = 59.435o .413 = 57. ϑe = 0 3 At inlet: I − = ϑ − ω = ϑo − ωo = −1.413o 7. M.21 − 1 − tan−1 1.413 + 1.K = 2. 2ϑ4 = −1.435 + 59.25 ωo = 3 tan−1 ωe = 3 tan−1 1.25 =3 0.435o (also at 4) At exit: I + = ϑ + ω = ϑe + ωe = 59. 2ω4 = 59.989o ω4 = 30. 10) (also at 4.848 16.512.978 ϑ4 = 28. 9.413o . Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 11 of 20 . Rocket Propulsion Prof. then.435 = 60.

41 39.76 -20. 9.09 Point 9: same ϑ − ω Point 10: Here ϑ = 0 and ϑ − ω = 59.44 -1.41 40.41 59.47 Notes Points 1-4: same ϑ − ω Point 5: Here ϑ = 0 (a boundary condition) and ϑ + ω = 20.59 -12.3 I+ = ϑ + ω () o I.44 -20.726 2.315 2.36 -16.09 59.439 1.09 59.43 20.68 54.02 35.38 44. 10) which will put point 10 far to the right.75 59.67 19.08 -0.013 1.76 -20.47 -65.512. and point 11 (at slope (m+) of 19.1 1.76 -40.59 31.76 30.41 29.41 -1.33 28. Rocket Propulsion Prof.66 0 65.38o -34.44 -1.66 19. 7.41 0 9.44o + I2 = 20.09 40.78 35.726 2.26 -25.38 53.44 -1.41 1.41 20.09 -59.09 59.013 2.79 35.10 20.99 0 9.09 49.91 19.47o even farther.25 19.= ϑ − ω () o ω () o ϑ () o μ () o ϑ+μ () o ϑ−μ () o +1.33 0 9.41 Note the very shallow angles of the m+ lines (from 4.80 -35.44 20.41 -20. Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 12 of 20 .315 2.641 .76 40.41o Point 1 2 3 4 (and 4w) 5 6 7 (and 7w) 8 9 (and 9w) 10 (and 11) M 1.76 Point 6-7: same ϑ − ω Point 8: Here ϑ = 0 and ϑ + ω = 40.59 -19.76 40.47 65.46 44.41 29.92 25.12 6.79 25.76o + I3 = 40.59 22.Select: + I1 = 1.43 40.59 25.74 58.77 30.09 -40.09o + I4 = 59. Locating the points geometrically (xc − x a ) tan α + ( x c − x b ) tan β = y a − y b xc = ya − yb + xa tan α + xb tan β tan α + tan β 16.44 11. M.

M. Accuracy can be increased by averaging together the angles at the ends of each segment. β = b . 2 tan α into 3 xb. angles come from the first pass. Rocket Propulsion Prof. which can be done because those α + αc β + βc . α = a 2 2 16.yc − yb = ( xc − xb ) tan β = tan β ( ya − yb ) + ( xa − xb ) tan α tan α + tan β yc = yb tan α + ya tan β + ( xa − xb ) tan α tan β tan α + tan β put xa.y)’s is very laborious.5 tan β into 6 Run 2 → Run 3 → xc (st. ya into 1. yb into 4. For instance. in 7) yc (st.512. in 7) Finding the (x. Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 8 Page 13 of 20 .

512. we must solve on both sides of the contact surface. so P = P ( w ) or w = w (P ) So. Rocket Propulsion Prof.Boundary with Prescribed Pressure Pc r −1 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + 2 M ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ r r −1 P= . and M = M ( w ) . Manuel Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 4-5 Page 14 of 20 . and that of the “reflected” m+ θ + w = 2w (P ) + θa − wa More General Contact Surface Condition If the outside fluid is also supersonic. θ − w = θa − wa So θ = w (P ) + θa − wa and this determines the slope of the boundary. making sure P and θ are common at each boundary point 16. if P is fixed on a boundary (contact surface). we can assign w there (just as we assign θ on a solid boundary) (given Po ) From known point a.

I1 − I2 = w1 (P ) + w2 (P ) ⇒ Solve for P ⇒ w1 . Manuel Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 4-5 Page 15 of 20 . Rocket Propulsion Prof. w2 and + I1 + 2 − I2 =θ+ + − w1 (P ) + w2 (P ) known now 2 Modifications for Axisymmetric Conditions sin μ sin θ ⎫ ⎪ r ⎪ ∂m ⎬ ∂ sin μ sin θ ⎪ ( θ − w) = − ⎪ r ∂m− ⎭ + ∂ ( θ + w) = 16.512.P1 ( w1 ) = P2 ( w2 ) θ1 = θ2 + + + From m1 know I1 = θ + w1 (P ) − − − From m2 know I2 = θ − w2 (P ) + − + − So.

Rocket Propulsion Prof. β averaged between (a.(1) Calculate ( x. θ − w based on μ. r )c from the angle ( μ − θ )a . μ = μ (M) (5) Iterate from (1) with α. θ at a.512. computed in (1)) (4) M = M ( w ) . Manuel Martinez-Sanchez . b) and c: α→ ( μ − θ )a + ( μ − θ )c 2 β→ ( μ + θ )b + ( μ + θ )c 2 Lecture 4-5 Page 16 of 20 16. ( μ + θ )b ( x − xa ) tan α + ( x − xb ) tan β = ra − rb and r − rb = ( x − xb ) tan β (2) Δm+ = x − xa cos α x − xb cos β ⇒x− x a tan α + xb tan β + ra − rb tan α + tan β Δm− = (3) Advance invariants θ + w . b: θ + w = ( θ + w )a + θ − w = ( θ − w )b sin μa sin θa ⎫ Δm+ ⎪ ra ⎪ ⎬ sin μb sin θb − Δm− ⎪ ⎪ rb ⎭ (r at c.

Continue Extension to Cases with Weak Shocks Since the entropy jump in a shock increases only as the cube of ΔPshock ρu2 0 .M) is now coupled to that of ( x. x = xa + ra tan α 2. This allows us to calculate off-design nozzle performance. On the axis. But the actual amount of computation is not much more (only the iteration stops). like an overexpanded plug nozzle. computation of ( θ. θc = 0. so 1. but not cross.M) can be found first. because they carry conflicting information). Rocket Propulsion Prof. r ) . for weak convergence the ones of our family will converge. Of course. the isentropic assumption can be approximately extended when characteristics of our family show some mild convergence (in principle. with finer resolution they will cross. it should be OK. 16. Δm+ = ra sin α sin μa sin θa ra ra . but θ = 0 . 3. θa .r→ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ μa + μb ⎪ ⎪ μ→ ⎬ better 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ θ + θb ⎪ θ→ a ⎪ 2 ⎭ ra + rb 2 (6) Continue to new point. When is the convergence too strong? Since characteristics are discretized. wc = ( θ + w )a + 4. r → 0 . and as long as they don’t. Manuel Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 4-5 Page 17 of 20 . go to (1) (once) 6. whereas in 2-D ( θ. but the loss of accuracy in ignoring that is of the same order as that increased by the coarse discretization in the first place. that is always indicative of shock formation. α → ( μ − θ )a + μ c 2 . Mc = M ( wc ) .512. μc = μ (Mc ) 5. So.

so small thrust contribution. (1) Design wall contour for desired Pe Pc (2) If longer than desired L truncate it to some intermediate area ratio. (b) Ad-hoc method (widely used) is to truncate contract an ideal nozzle. computationally high. ask for contour that gives highest thrust/given L. Manuel Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 4-5 Page 18 of 20 . + Pades. Exit flow non-parallel. last portion has small wall angle. Rocket Propulsion Prof. So. 16. A e “Practical” Nozzle Designs (just as for a bell) Ideal nozzle are too long. Jet Propulsion 28 (June 1958): 377-382.512. (3) Contract this truncated nozzle to desired length ' x ' L x'a = xb c = xb desired xd L ideal (4) Translate profile to right metal kink at P smoothes out. Net thrust is increased because the Pa contribution PaA e is reduced: F = Fdes. With small ?. + Pades. maybe negative contribution.2-D Spike Nozzle with Pa < Padesign Pressure forces from hot-gas bathed surfaces are the same as at design. Methods of calculus of variations (Raw nozzle. − Pa A e ( ) and so Fvac = Fdes. Ref : “ Exhaust Nozzle Contour from Optimum Thrust”. non-uniform. options: (a) Constrain length.

J.512. of Propulsion 3 (March-April 1987): 150156. Manuel Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 4-5 Page 19 of 20 . (Hoffman. Not really justified. D. J. Rocket Propulsion Prof.Gives “adequate” performance but less than ? nozzle. 16.

206. psia Cycle Area Ratio Throttling. H2 5. Manuel Martinez-Sanchez Lecture 4-5 Page 20 of 20 . sec.000 At Sea Level In Vacuum Propellants Mixture Ratio (O/F) Chamber Pressure. Percent Thrust Differential Throttling Dimensions.XRS-2200 Engine Data Thrust.5 857 Gas Generator 58 40-119 +/.512.500 268.15% Forward End Aft End Forward to Aft 133 high x 88 wide 46 high x 88 wide 79 16. Inches 339 439 O2. lbf At Sea Level In Vacuum Specific Impulse. Rocket Propulsion Prof.

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