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Personality Psychology

Personality Psychology

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Personality psychology

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Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences. Its areas of focus include:
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Constructing a coherent picture of a person and his or her major psychological processes [1] Investigating individual differences, that is, how people can differ from one another. Investigating human nature, that is, how all people's behaviour is similar.

Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, andbehaviors in various situations [2]. The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask. Significantly, in the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character, but rather was a convention employed to represent or typify that character. The pioneering American psychologist, Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality, the nomothetic and the idiographic. Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization, or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychologyis an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual. The study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology, with an abundance of theoretical traditions. The major theories include dispositional (trait) perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist and social learning perspective. There is no consensus on the definition of "personality" in psychology. Most researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and often take an eclectic approach. Some research is empirically driven such as the "Big 5" personality model whereas other research emphasizes theory development such as psychodynamics. There is also a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing. In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is usually reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal or clinical psychology.

Contents
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1 Philosophical assumptions 2 Personality theories o 2.1 Trait theories o 2.2 Type theories o 2.3 Psychoanalytic theories o 2.4 Behaviorist theories o 2.5 Social cognitive theories o 2.6 Humanistic theories o 2.7 Biopsychological theories 3 Personality tests 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links 8 Further reading

[edit] Philosophical assumptions
Many of the ideas developed by historical and modern personality theorists stem from the basic philosophical assumptions they hold. The study of personality is not a purely empirical discipline, as it brings in elements of art, science, and philosophy to draw general conclusions. The following five categories are some of the most fundamental philosophical assumptions on which theorists disagree: 1. Freedom versus Determinism See also: Free will This is the debate over whether we have control over our own behavior and understand the motives behind it (Freedom), or if our behavior is causally determined by forces beyond our control (Determinism). Determinism has been considered unconscious, environmental, or biological by various theories. 2. Heredity versus Environment Main article: Nature versus nurture Personality is thought to be determined largely by genetics and biology, by environment and experiences, or by some combination resulting thereof. There is evidence for all possibilities. Contemporary research suggests that most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment. One of the

4." Theorists generally assume a) traits are relatively stable over . relating to.forerunners in this arena is C. personality traits are "enduring patterns of perceiving. emphasized the importance of universal principles such as reinforcement and self-efficacy. or if they are doomed to remain the same throughout their lives (Pessimism). or react to outside stimuli (Reactive)? Behavioral theorists typically believe that humans are passively shaped by their environments. most personality theories emphasize stability over fluctuation. in contrast. places. medical effects. but not always. Uniqueness versus Universality The argument over whether we are all unique individuals (Uniqueness) or if humans are basically similar in their nature (Universality). Optimistic versus Pessimistic Personality theories differ on whether people can change their personalities (Optimism). and therefore engage in certain patterns of behaviour". and situations. Active versus Reactive Do we primarily act through our own initiative (Active). [edit] Trait theories According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. whereas humanistic and cognitive theorists believe that humans are more active. significant events. and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts. He stated personality to be "an individual's predisposition to think certain patterns of thought. 5. 3. more optimistic than theories that do not emphasize learning. Theories that place a great deal of emphasis on learning are often. Changes in personality may indeed result from diet (or lack thereof). The definition of personality that is most widely supported to date is attributed to the neurologist Paul Roe. and Carl Rogers were all advocates of the uniqueness of individuals. However. Abraham Maslow. moods. Gordon Allport. Robert Cloninger with the Temperament and Character model. or learning. Behaviorists and cognitive theorists. [edit] Personality theories Critics of personality theory claim personality is "plastic" across time.

and self-pitying [3] The Big Five contain important dimensions of personality. 3. and interested in variety vs.time. Cardinal traits are those by which an individual may be strongly recognized. However. careful. Raymond Cattell's research propagated a two-tiered personality structure with sixteen "primary factors" (16 Personality Factors) and five "secondary factors. disorganized. which he also called dispositions. independent. Lewis Goldberg proposed a five-dimension personality model. 2. while secondary traits are more peripheral. observed as far back as the ancient Greeks. quiet and physical-stimulation-averse). with Cattell using oblique. careless. and disciplined vs. The most common models of traits incorporate three to five broad dimensions or factors. The least controversial dimension. Neuroticism: the tendency to be calm. Central traits are basic to an individual's personality. and impulsive. 4. secure. Extraversion: the tendency to be sociable. Today. rotation to analyse the factors that emerged when personality questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis. Conscientiousness: the tendency to be organized. trusting. y Gordon Allport delineated different kinds of traits." Hans Eysenck believed just three traits² extraversion. anxious. and interested in routine. Differences between Cattell and Eysenck emerged due to preferences for different forms of factor analysis. retiring.g. is simply extraversion and introversion(outgoing and physical-stimulation-oriented vs. neuroticism and psychoticism²were sufficient to describe human personality. and helpful vs. conforming. b) traits differ among individuals (e. Eysenck orthogonal. some personality researchers argue that this list of major traits is not exhaustive. the Big Five factors have the weight of a considerable amount of empirical research behind them. . and affectionate vs. ruthless. practical. and c) traits influence behavior. Common traitsare those recognized within a culture and thus may vary from culture to culture. and self-satisfied vs. insecure. somber. Openness to Experience: the tendency to be imaginative. Agreeableness: the tendency to be softhearted. 5. suspicious. some people are outgoing while others are reserved). and uncooperative. fun-loving. nicknamed the "Big Five": y y y 1. building on the work of Cattell and others. and reserved.

Travis Bradberry's The Personality Code. the six types are represented as a hexagon. According to trait theories. The model is an older and more theoretical approach to personality. does propose biological mechanisms as driving traits. stipulates that six personality traits lead people to choose their career paths. Katharine C. there are two types of people. and modern behavior genetics researchers have shown a clear genetic substrate to them.[5] In the former Soviet Union. However. Trait models have been criticized as being purely descriptive and offering little explanation of the underlying causes of personality. Eysenck's theory. accepting extraversion and introversion as basic psychological orientations in connection with two pairs of psychological functions: . whose work is reviewed in Dr. according to type theories. Briggs. The model is widely used in vocational counseling. however. no definitive conclusions have been established. Jung's seminal 1921 book on the subject is available in English as Psychological Types. For example. introversion and extraversion are part of a continuous dimension. with adjacent types more closely related than those more distant. Briggs and Myers. Personality types are distinguished from personality traits.[4] This model was later used by David Keirsey with a different understanding from Jung. introverts and extraverts. which come in different levels or degrees. trait models often underestimate the effect of specific situations on people's behavior. [edit] Type theories Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of people. with many people in the middle. It is important to remember that traits are statistical generalizations that do not always correspond to an individual's behavior. commonly referred to as the Holland Codes. Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother. based on a superficial analysis of their personality. Building on the writings and observations of Jung. or worse offer advice. Holland's RIASEC vocational model.Some support has been found for two additional factors: excellent/ordinary and evil/decent. The idea of psychological types originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung[citation needed] and William Marston.[vague] Another potential weakness of trait theories is that they lead people to accept oversimplified classifications. Lithuanian Au ra Augustinavi i t independently derived a model of personality type from Jung's called Socionics. Finally. In this circumplex model.[3] y John L. during World War II. delineated personality types by constructing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

(It should be noted. Type A/B theory has been extensively criticized by ."[7]) Some critics have argued for more or fewer dimensions while others have proposed entirely different theories (often assuming different definitions of "personality"). humanitarian) temperament. Therefore they included questions designed to indicate whether someone wishes to come to conclusions (judgment) or to keep options open (perception). however. engineer) or "NF" (author. on the other hand." Type B people. Dr. and lower in risk." but rather what Myers and McCaulley called the "shoes-off self. refuted Friedman¶s theory that Type A personalities have a higher risk of coronary heart disease. and divided into the "NT" (scientist. An "N" is further assumed to be guided either by thinking or feeling. current research indicates that only the hostility component of Type A may have health implications. dividing people into "N" (intuitive) or "S" (sensing) personality types. Meyer Friedman and his co-workers defined what they called Type A and Type B behavior patterns.[4] This personality typology has some aspects of a trait theory: it explains people's behaviour in terms of opposite fixed characteristics. that the MBTI is not designed to measure the "work self. the sensing/intuition preference is considered the most basic. is assumed to be guided more by the judgment/perception axis. tended to be relaxed. traditionalist) or "SP" (performer. There was also a Type AB mixed profile. trust in abstract concepts and imagined possibilities) Judging functions: thinking and feeling (basing decisions primarily on logic vs. with the other two factors in each case (including always extraversion/introversion) less important. less competitive. Critics of this traditional view have observed that the types can be quite strongly stereotyped by professions (although neither Myers nor Keirsey engaged in such stereotyping in their type descriptions[4][5]). Type A and Type B personality theory: During the 1950s. artisan) temperament. however. Redford Williams. Briggs and Myers also added another personality dimension to their type indicator to measure whether a person prefers to use a judging or perceiving function when interacting with the external world. In these more traditional models.y y Perceiving functions: sensing and intuition (trust in concrete.[5] These four are considered basic.[6] This among other objections led to the emergence of the five-factor view. sensory-oriented facts vs. They theorized that intense. and thus divided into the "SJ" (guardian. considering the effect on people). hard-driving Type A personalities had a higher risk of coronary disease because they are "stress junkies. which is less concerned with behavior under work conditions and more concerned with behavior in personal and emotional circumstances. by contrast. cardiologist at Duke University. and thus may arise more from the need to categorize people for purposes of guiding their career choice. An "S".

The id acts according to the pleasure principle. and believed birth order may influence personality development.[8] Fixations that develop during the Infantile stage contribute to adult personality and behavior. and is the embodiment of parental/social ideals established during childhood. demanding immediate gratification of its needs regardless of external environment. which ensues from the "Eros" (sex. are major components of his theory. instinctual self-preservation) and "Thanatos" (death. Sigmund Freud was the founder of this school. he proposed psychic energy could be converted into behavior. but were not as much concerned about the glory. Adler believed the oldest was the one that set high goals to achieve to get the attention they lost back when the younger siblings were born.psychologists because it tends to oversimplify the many dimensions of an individual's personality. adhering to the reality principle. thesuperego(conscience) inculcates moral judgment and societal rules upon the ego. Alfred Adler. Freud's theory places central importance on dynamic. Based on the idea of converting heat into mechanical energy. the ego then must emerge in order to realistically meet the wishes and demands of the id in accordance with the outside world. Finally. The channeling and release of sexual (libidal) and aggressive energies. did agree with Freud early childhood experiences are important to development. Freud divides human personality into three significant components: the id. Freud drew on the physics of his day (thermodynamics) to coin the term psychodynamics.[8] It is important to note that Freud's broad understanding of sexuality included all kinds of pleasurable feelings experienced by the human body. instinctual self-annihilation) drives respectively. One of Sigmund Freud's earlier associates. and super-ego. He believed the middle children were competitive and ambitious possibly so they are able to surpass the first-born¶s achievements. ego. thus forcing the demands of the id to be met not only realistically but morally. He believed adult personality is dependent upon early childhood experiences and largely determined by age five. According to Freud. Also he believed the last born would be more dependent and sociable . The superego is the last function of the personality to develop. [edit] Psychoanalytic theories Psychoanalytic theories explain human behaviour in terms of the interaction of various components of personality. unconscious psychological conflicts. Freud proposed five psychosexual stages of personality development. personality is based on the dynamic interactions of these three components[8].

She is credited with the development of the "real self" and the "ideal self".but be the baby. values. people's behavior is formed by processes such as operant conditioning. For example: a child cries because the child's crying in the past has led to attention. Skinner put forward a "three term contingency model" which helped promote analysis of behavior based on the "Stimulus . with not much chance of high promotion". According to this theory. These are the response. I am CEO material". The "real self" is how you really are with regards to personality. and consequences. Another important figure in the world of personality theory was Karen Horney. Heinz Kohut thought similarly to Freud¶s idea of transference. She believes all people have these two views of their own self. He used narcissism as a model of how we develop our sense of self. and morals. and real self would be "I just work in the mail room. [edit] Behaviorist theories Behaviorists explain personality in terms of the effects external stimuli have on behavior. It was a radical shift away from Freudian philosophy. but the "ideal self" is a construct you apply to yourself to conform to social and personal norms and goals. children need to idealize and emotionally "sink into" and identify with the idealized competence of admired figures such as parents or older siblings. Ideal self would be "I can be successful. Skinner who put forth a model which emphasized the mutual interaction of the person or "the organism" with its environment. They also need to have their self-worth mirrored by these people. and the attention that child gets is the reinforcing consequence. An attitude develops as the response strength (the tendency to respond) in the presences . Skinner believed children do bad things because the behavior obtains attention that serves as a reinforcer. F. This school of thought was developed by B. He also believed that the only child loves being the center of attention and matures quickly. These experiences allow them to thereby learn the selfsoothing and other skills that are necessary for the development of a healthy sense of self. which in turn produces a particular 'consequence'?" Richard Herrnstein extended this theory by accounting for attitudes and traits. Narcissism is the exaggerated sense of one self in which is believed to exist in order to protect one's low self esteem and sense of worthlessness. In other words. but in the end fails to become independent. The response is the child crying. Kohut had a significant impact on the field by extending Freud's theory of narcissism and introducing what he called the 'self-object transferences' of mirroring and idealization.Consequence Model" in which the critical question is: "Under which circumstances or antecedent 'stimuli' does the organism engage in a particular behavior or 'response'.Response .

During these experiments.of a group of stimuli become stable. More central to this field have been: y Self-efficacy work. Attributional style theory [11] dealing with different ways in which people explain events in their lives. y y . Cognitive theories are theories of personality that emphasize cognitive processes such as thinking and judging. a social learning theorist suggested the forces of memory and emotions worked in conjunction with environmental influences. Herrstein also saw traits as having a large genetic or biological component as do most modern behaviorists. These physiological studies led him to discover the foundation of behaviorism as well asclassical conditioning. This approach builds upon locus of control. [edit] Social cognitive theories In cognitivism. and Block and Petersen's (1955) work on confidence in line discrimination judgments. He called this study and his findings observational learning. but extends it by stating we also need to consider whether people attribute to stable causes or variable causes. Rather than describing conditionable traits in non-behavioral language. Baron relates early development of cognitive approaches of personality to ego psychology. Early examples of approaches to cognitive style are listed by Baron (1982). Locus of control theory [10] dealing with different beliefs people have about whether their worlds are controlled by themselves or external factors.g. He then showed this video to a class of kindergarten children who were getting ready to go out to play. especially those about other people. they saw bobo dolls. These include Witkin's (1965) work on field dependency. The people observing these children at play saw a group of children beating the doll. Bandura was known mostly for his "Bobo Doll experiment". expectations) about the world. or modeling. Ivan Pavlov is another notable influence. Gardner's (1953) discovering people had consistent preference for the number of categories they used to categorise heterogeneous objects. and to global causes or specific causes. behavior is explained as guided by cognitions (e. He is well known for his classical conditioning experiments involving dogs. Albert Bandura. response strength in a given situation accounts for the environmental portion. Bandura video taped a college student kicking and verbally abusing a bobo doll. and some hammers. dealing with confidence people have in abilities to do tasks [9]. When they entered the play room.

Individuality Corollary: People differ from one another in their construction of events. . Choice Corollary: People choose for themselves the particular alternative in a dichotomized construct through which they anticipate the greater possibility for extension and definition of their system. the Attributions Questionnaire [15]. pp. most famously that of Kenneth Wallston and his colleagues. Kelly derived a psychotherapy approach and also a technique called The Repertory Grid Interview that helped his patients to uncover their own "constructs" (defined later) with minimal intervention or interpretation by the therapist. including decision-making and interpretation of other people's world-views. affect. a construction system embracing ordinal relationships between constructs. Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) is a theory of personality developed by the American psychologist George Kelly in the 1950s. and considers factors such as encoding of stimuli. the Real Events Attributional Style Questionnaire [16] and the Attributional Style Assessment Test [17]. Dichotomy Corollary: A person's construction system is composed of a finite number of dichotomous constructs.Various scales have been developed to assess both attributional style and locus of control. From the theory. the Expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire [14]. Organization Corollary: Each person characteristically evolves. Attributional style has been assessed by the Attributional Style Questionnaire [13]. for convenience in anticipating events. The term "Cognitive Affective Units" shows how his approach considers affect as well as cognition. A Theory of Personality. and self-regulatory beliefs. the Nowicki and Strickland (1973) Locus of Control Scale for Children and various locus of control scales specifically in the health domain. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale [12]. Locus of control scales include those used by Rotter and later by Duttweiler. From his 1963 book. Walter Mischel (1999) has also defended a cognitive approach to personality. Experience Corollary: A person's construction system varies as the person successively construes the replication of events. 103±104: y y y y y y y y Fundamental Postulate: A person's processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which the person anticipates events. Construction Corollary: A person anticipates events by construing their replications. goal-setting. His work refers to "Cognitive Affective Units". The Repertory Grid was later adapted for various uses within organizations. Range Corollary: A construct is convenient for the anticipation of a finite range of events only.

Acceptance/Spontaneity .they accept their surroundings and what cannot be changed. Characteristics of self-actualizers according to Maslow include the four key dimensions: 1. Maslow spent much of his time studying what he called "self-actualizing persons". such as running a marathon. the psychological processes of the two individuals are similar to each other. Commonality Corollary: To the extent that one person employs a construction of experience which is similar to that employed by another. Maslow believes all who are interested in growth move towards self-actualizing (growth. may invoke a peak experience. Reality and problem centered . those who are "fulfilling themselves and doing the best they are capable of doing". 3.they have tendency to be concerned with "problems" in their surroundings. definitive factors that determine behavior. These individuals often experienced a "peak experience". Intense concentration on an activity one is involved in. Many of these people demonstrate a trend in dimensions of their personalities.they do not like joking about others.maintaining constant enjoyment and awe of life. . [edit] Humanistic theories In humanistic psychology it is emphasized people have free will and they play an active role in determining how they behave. 4. He defined a peak experience as an "intensification of any experience to the degree there is a loss or transcendence of self". satisfaction) views. which is based on the "phenomenal field" theory of Combs and Snygg (1949)[18]. Awareness . They have friends of all backgrounds and religions and hold very close friendships. Unhostile sense of humor/democratic . A peak experience is one in which an individual perceives an expansion of his or herself. Sociality Corollary: To the extent that one person construes another's construction processes. humanistic psychology focuses on subjective experiences of persons as opposed to forced. happiness. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers were proponents of this view. which can be viewed as offensive. 2.y y y y Modulation Corollary: The variation in a person's construction system is limited by the permeability of the constructs within whose ranges of conveniences the variants lie. that person may play a role in a social process involving the other person. Fragmentation Corollary: A person may successively employ a variety of construction subsystems which are inferentially incompatible with each other. Accordingly. and detects a unity and meaningfulness in life.

and encounters. This response type seeks to clarify the therapist's understanding while also encouraging the client to think more deeply and seek to fully understand the feelings they have expressed. experiencing human being who lives in the present and subjectively responds to current perceptions. a large iron rod was driven through Gage's head. This progressing self will remain the center of its constantly changing world. Rogers tried to model a particular approach to therapy. In an 1848 accident. This allows for an individualized approach to therapy. and his personality apparently changed as a result (although descriptions[19] of these psychological changes are usually exaggerated.[20]. Rather. . They disagree with the dark. Humanistic therapy typically relies on the client for information of the past and its effect on the present. therefore the client dictates the type of guidance the therapist may initiate.Maslow and Rogers emphasized a view of the person as an active. An example of a reflective response would be.he stressed the reflective or empathetic response. "It seems you are feeling anxious about your upcoming marriage". relationships. [edit] Biopsychological theories Some of the earliest thinking about possible biological bases of personality grew out of the case of Phineas Gage. the self has opportunity for maturation based on its encounters with this world. creative.[21]²see the article on Gage). but rather view humanistic theories as positive and optimistic proposals which stress the tendency of the human personality toward growth and self-actualization. Rogers found patients differ in how they respond to other people. a world that will help mold the self but not necessarily confine it. pessimistic outlook of those in the Freudian psychoanalysis ranks. This response type takes the client's viewpoint and reflects back his or her feeling and the context for it. This understanding attempts to reduce the acceptance of hopeless redundancy.

inability to organize visual-spatial relations. biopsychosocial approach to personality and psychopathology. (A 2004 study by Ratiu and colleagues suggests the damage was more limited. Progress will arise in the areas of gross motor skills. One integrative. Neuropsychological experiments have suggested that hemispheric asymmetry can affect an individual's personality (particularly in social settings) for individuals with NLD (non-verbal learning disorder). linking brain and environmental factors to specific types of activity. researchers began to use Electroencephalography (EEG). In the 1990s. and therefore experiences difficulty interacting with peers in socially normative ways.)[22] In general. which is now the most widely used imaging technique to help localize personality traits in the brain.[19]showing how the tamping iron may have damaged both frontal lobes. In particular.Graphic by Damasio et al. or adapt to novel social situations. a person with NLD is unable to interpret nonverbal cues.[clarification needed] Frequently. patients with brain damage have been difficult to find and study. created by Codrin Stefan Tapu[23]. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and more recentlyfunctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). this research has looked at hemispheric asymmetry of activity in these regions. is the hypostatic model of personality. which is marked by the impairment of nonverbal information controlled by the right hemisphere of the brain. . Davidson's research lab has focused on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala in manifesting human personality. One of the founders of this area of brain research is Richard Davidson of the University of Wisconsin±Madison.

Projective tests assume personality is primarily unconscious and assess an individual by how he or she responds to an ambiguous stimulus. Objective tests assume personality is consciously accessible and measure it by self-report questionnaires. an aggressive person may see images of destruction.g. Research on psychological assessment has generally found objective tests are more valid and reliable than projective tests. The idea is unconscious needs will come out in the person's response. e. [edit] See also Wikiversity has learning materials about Personality y y y y y y y y y y Big Five personality traits Career Career development Clinical psychology Dissociative identity disorder Educational psychology Enneagram of Personality Holland Codes Individual differences Myers-Briggs Type Indicator . like an ink blot.[edit] Personality tests There are two major types of personality tests. Examples of personality tests include: y y y y y y y y y y Holland Codes Keirsey Temperament Sorter Kelly's Repertory Grid Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Morrisby Profile Myers-Briggs Type Indicator NEO PI-R ProScan Survey by PDP Rorschach test Thematic Apperception Test Critics have pointed to the Forer effect to suggest some of these appear to be more accurate and discriminating than they really are.

developed a theory of psychological types ascribing each person with one of two fundamental attitude types: introversion and extroversion. Carl Jung y Jung also postulated that people further differed from one another depending on the degree to which they developed the conscious use of four functions: thinking. sensation provides us with perception. and intuition. Thinking enables us to recognize meaning. a contemporary of Freud. .y y y y y y y y y y Person Personality disorder ProScan Survey Psychotherapy Self-concept Self-esteem Trait theory Leader Attribute Patterns Type A personality Will (philosophy) Personality Compatibility Analysis y y y What is Personality? Personality is defined as the totality of character attributes and behavioral traits of a person. sensation. Introverts are hesitant. Personality Analysis is a methodology for categorizing the character and behavior of a person. easily adaptable. feeling helps us to evaluate. and not socially outgoing. Extroverts are outgoing. Carl Jung (1875-1961). feeling. somewhat mistrustful. reflective. and confident about unknown situations.

Laura Schlessinger. Jung considered feeling and thinking to be "rational" functions. The Intuitive/Sensing. Individual characteristics such as alertness. or good-looking. or shyness for example. "Games People Play" by Eric Berne. and 5) Openness to experience. contentment. 3) Agreeableness.) demonstrates that successful relationships require a deep understanding of social interactions and emphasis on compatible characteristics. 4) Conscientiousness. Envy. Intuitive/Sensing. mature. A more comprehensive test is the 16PF (Personality Factors) developed by psychologist Raymond B. honest. Katharine Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers extended Jung's types by adding a Judging/Perceiving function to the personality classifications thus doubling the number of personality types to sixteen.g. The test was developed by creating an inventory of characteristics that people wanted in their ideal mate from an extensive compilation of personal advertisements in newspapers. and optimism can be displayed in isolation from other people.y y and intuition points to possibilities available to us. Even a cursory examination of literature dealing with interpersonal relationships (e. Judging/Perceiving characterizations provide information about how information from the senses is processed. Cattell (1905-1998) who defined personality as "that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation". "Ten Stupid Things Women Do to Mess up Their Lives" by Dr. Social characteristics manifest themselves only in the company of other people.. cannot exist unless there are two people. etc. Jung's typology of the Extrovert/Introvert. The characteristics that people wanted . 2) Neuroticism. The Zamora Personality Test provides a characterization of ten Individual Attributes and ten Social Attributes that incorporate the five central factors in personality: 1) Extroversion versus Introversion. In Jung's typology an introverted/intuitive/thinking individual could be characterized as an analytical person who delves deeply into problems forgetting about the world around him. Feeling/Thinking model is able to describe eight personality types. Feeling/Thinking. The application of Jungian personality classifications to everyday situations is limited because only the Extrovert/Introvert attribute provides information about social interaction.. such as whether a person is responsible. whereas sensation and intuition were considered "non-rational" in that they give rise to knowledge that cannot be reduced to any other mode of understanding. These psychological tests still do not answer some of the questions that are essential for a successful relationship. Such persons are frequently loners who like puzzles and practical results. loyalty and betrayal require three people.D. M. rudeness. Jung believed that people tend to develop one rational and one non-rational function in addition to the introverted or extroverted attitude. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test is used widely today to identify Jungian personality types.

health. The biological urge to procreate or just the physical relief provided by the act of mating plays a very strong role in cementing or breaking a relationship. Although relationships are founded on the compatibility of Social Attributes. the Individual Attributes determine whether we feel comfortable with another person. A unique feature about this personality categorization system is that each attribute is a spectrum from positive to negative or from sociable to dangerous. The Zamora Personality Test tries to determine the degree of intensity of personality traits by analyzing scores for a set of statements that explore various aspects of internal feelings and past or future behavior. most people will choose and will be happier with a healthy. honesty. Personality traits consist of Individual Attributes which are displayed in isolation from other people and Social Attributes which become evident in interpersonal relationships. The following Personality Compatibility Analysis is based on the personality analysis provided by the Zamora Personality Test. Sexual incompatibilities and mismatched degrees of sexual desire are the most common reasons for divorces and marital infidelities. The Personality Compatibility Analysis requires comparing the Individual and Social Attributes of two persons. Conservatives and liberals cannot be as happy together as people with similar political philosophies. and compatible personality traits. but they are factors that influence relationships. Strictly speaking. Consequently. A list of antonyms was then developed to create a list of "undesirable" traits. Similarly.y y y y y were judged "desirable". Soul mates would have matching . Thrifty persons seldom feel comfortable with gamblers. poor. rich and goodlooking partner than with a sick. the Zamora Personality Test includes these socially-validated characteristics. incompatible political views can increase tensions which undermine personal relationships. and the value judgements implied by them. Some aspects of personal relationships such as sexuality and political compatibility are not covered by this test. Given the choice. and ugly person. Compatibility Analysis Compatibility Analysis is the study of personality traits for the purpose of determining whether two people can have a successful relationship. as an acknowledgement that the attributes that people want in their partners are at least as important as traits postulated by medical models of psychology. Cluster analysis of the traits yielded the individual and social categories and their attributes. and it is possible to analyze the consequences that one specific individual personality feature can have in a relationship. and active persons do not have patience for sedentary persons. beauty or wealth are not personality attributes. We can never fully understand or be at ease with persons who are very different from us. Successful relationships are founded on good communication.

If a person is slow (i3-) and the other one energetic (i3+). patient NEGATIVE easy-going. are that part of our personality that cannot be altered much. Emotional temperament emotions that rule our lives. Strokes and head injuries can also cause personality changes. ambitious.degree of motivation. POSITIVE + persistent. the greater the level of compatibility. dissatisfied. In some cases it is not possible to know the characteristics of an individual for a particular category. but we can become more educated. moderate. ersonality Compatibility Analysis y y y Individual Attributes An old proverb states that a tiger cannot change its stripes. angry. can affect our brain chemistry and our personality. tobacco. unmotivated insecure. the more characteristics that match in each category. they represent the degree of particular traits. Individual attributes. We cannot become more attentive. It is not necessarily bad to be moderate. but as will be seen later. caffeine. but others are permanent and may result in addiction. The following table lists ten Individual Attributes and some characteristics of the attributes. if one is mature (i6+) and the other one inexperienced (i6-). calm. stable. impatient . Some changes are reversible. this does not guarantee a successful relationship. Drugs such as alcohol. they will not be very compatible. These are physical characteristics that are determined by our brain structure and our body chemistry. or passive. The characteristics are divided into positive and negative columns. impatient. or less impatient. but sometimes a relationship is more stimulating when two people have characteristics from opposite columns. In general. One person will always want to go and the other one will want to rest. Compatible persons will generally share a substantial number of characteristics from the same column for each attribute. it is better not to assume compatibility. However. erratic.characteristics in all twenty categories. We cannot become more intelligent. obsessive confident. CHARACTERISTICS y INDIVIDUAL ATTRIBUTES i1. specially with regard to Social Attributes. flashbacks. the relationship may work if the mature person has the patience to teach the inexperienced person and the inexperienced person is willing to learn. or more optimistic. i2. When not enough is known about a person. Achievement attitudes . etc. for the most part. relaxed. and other abnormal conditions. hallucinations. The labels "positive" and "negative" do not mean that the characteristics are desirable or undesirable.

i7. i8. A persistent person matched with a moderate or easy-going person will tend to nag. The ambitious person feels that he cannot waste time on trivial things. and the moderate individual will be more contemplative and not make as much effort to achieve goals. calculating organized. wasteful.how we regard our environment. sane conservative. knowledgeable. energetic. i4. dull-witted spendthrift. further your professional career. mentally sick adventurous. flexible youthful.our level of experience and wisdom. Physical attributes . How motivated are you to reach your goal? Are you indifferent or are you obsessive? Sometimes personal goals do not become evident until age 25 or 30. thrifty.degree of concern for oneself. daring. Risk attitudes . accurate. Whereas you may have been indifferent before. Once you decide to have a family. strong. i10. inquisitive. skillful. i5. inexperienced. Material attitudes . negative. sick. How patient are you? Do you get restless when you have to wait? How do you react to frustration? Does your temper explode when your car is not delivered on time from the auto shop or do you try to look .i3. In some cases. i2. materialistic mature. Energy level . Philosophical attitudes . drug user error-prone. slow inattentive. Maturity . wise optimistic. lethargic. i6. positive. intelligent frugal. disorganized. spiritual immature. Task performance . methodical passive. inflexible old. your new perspective of life motivates to reach your goals. Nobody likes to hear "Why don't you do this? Why don't you do that?" over and over again.our ways of thinking. fast alert. Achievement attitudes. i9. impulsive. it may be more important to relax and enjoy life. your zest for accomplishment may diminish. ignorant pessimistic.pace of our daily life. Emotional temperament. cautious. Ambitious and moderate people are often incompatible because they have different perceptions of what is important. In this case. if you have already achieved some of your goals. you have a different degree of motivation than before you made this decision. Intellectual factors characteristics of our minds.how we regard our body.attitudes toward problem solving. Or. healthy. or establish a business. y active. it is possible to anticipate how these characteristics affect relationships. careless y y y The following paragraphs discuss details of ten Individual Attributes of personality. weak. blunderer. i1.

A habitually angry person and a calm person cannot have a very good relationship even if the calm person tries to adapt to the angry person. we need someone who can understand us. Are you economical or extravagant? Do you prefer to save for the future or would you rather spend what you have now? Do material possessions matter to you. but this may not be enough for an alert. Relationships between people with different intellectual levels generally end up like a parent/child relationship. Can such opposites manage to make good partners? Yes. Some people get up early and have already done many things before breakfast while others would rather stay in bed and sleep late. A dull-witted person may be very kind and loving. intelligent person.y y y y for alternatives calmly? Your emotional temperament is a measure of the degree and duration of your outbursts of frustration and of your ability to remain calm under pressure. why do we have to split the expenses . they will not feel dumb or intimidated. Partners with similar levels of energy can have more satisfying relationships. When we have a personal problem. Many relationships end with the phrase "If that is what you think. The slow individual will be miserable and exhausted with an active life style. Relationships endure better when the reaction to an unpleasant surprise is more logical and less emotional. You will end up in second place. an extreme disappointment or an unfortunate accident can cause great emotional grief that cannot be controlled. Human dynamos and slow. Do you like physical activities and sports. Not very likely! Successful relationships require similar levels of intellect. Persons with lower intellect will feel more at ease with a person of their own caliber. i4. Your decisions will always be subjected to analysis by a greater intellect that will make you feel inferior. Material attitudes. Intelligent gentleman seeks dumb blonde for a serious relationship. i3. Intellectual factors. but only if they do things separately. passive people can only frustrate each other. If you are of average intelligence. or would you rather sit down in a theater? Do you like to spend an hour at the gym or is it enough for you to walk around the block? Your energy level determines the rhythm of your life. i5. Intelligent persons understand each other better. However. This can be completely unacceptable to a person with great libido because it demands mutual participation. If you are irascible. or are you more interested in spiritual pursuits? Many relationships fail because of conflicts about money and possessions. you should not be looking for a genius. Two angry and impatient people are more likely to get into a fight than an angry and a patient person. "You make twice as much money as I do. then it is over!". Energy level. you are likely to do and say things that will ruin a relationship. The energetic individual needs to be active to be happy.

Maturity is the ability to judge whether something is safe or dangerous. and revocable trusts. Marriage makes you legally responsible for your partner's debts. Are you uncomfortable talking about divorce and finances before getting married? You don't need to do it. or do you think that man was put on earth by a Divine Creator? Are you willing to consider changing your point of view? To what degree are you willing to fight to defend your point of view? Why do you think that you are right? The philosophical attitude of our personality develops from our education and our internal conception of how the world works. These are typical teacher/student relationships. i7. these relationships have the risk of failing when the inexperienced person matures and demands an equal relationship with the partner. A positive philosophical attitude gives you hope when life is hard. Philosophical attitudes. . good or evil. whereas fools learn from their own mistakes. Maturity. The average marriage in the United States lasts an average of 7 years (it is not "till death do us part"). You should also agree on how to handle expenses when both people work. life insurance. At this point the person who had previously been superior may resent the change of status.y y y y half and half?". It is said that wise people learn from the mistakes of others. whereas a negative attitude may even lead you to suicide. Do you do something without thinking about the consequences? Are your actions well thought out and premeditated? Maturity cannot be equated to education. but education provides maturity. but be prepared for unpleasant surprises. "Why do you give so much money to your mother when I don't have anything to wear?" Financial advisors and marriage counselors suggest that you discuss financial matters and obligations before you get married. This is particularly important for second marriages when there are substantial assets or children from previous marriages. when one loses a job. You also need to discuss about savings goals. or prudent or foolish. Maturity is a personality attribute that describes good judgement. the relationships may be successful. Are you optimistic or pessimistic? Is the glass half full or half empty? Do you think that we are animals that have evolved on the earth as an accident of nature. Agree on how previous debts will be handled. "I am the wife and you are supposed to support me. The inexperienced person may initially feel inferior to the mature person. or when the woman becomes pregnant and cannot work. but as long as the level of intelligence is compatible. In the long term.". the relationship may work if the mature person has the patience to teach the inexperienced person and the inexperienced person is willing and able to learn. Can two people of different maturity levels have a successful relationship? As stated earlier. i6. wills. Your plans should include a prenuptial agreement that describes what each will take in case of a divorce.

"Should we raise the children as Jews. it is seldom possible to have successful relationship. If there are no health problems. When one of the persons is healthy and the other one is sick. If you are thinking of raising a family. unless the age difference is very great. You are as young as you feel. so you take the risk every day. You try to minimize your risk of injury by using seat belts and driving carefully. You are a cautious person. Successful relationships require similar philosophical attitudes. age is not a deterrent to a good relationship. optimists and pessimists face similar problems. This will give you time to raise the children and put them through school until they are independent. they will fight about money. The sane partner will always have doubts about whether offensive behavior or actions from the other person are intentional or a result of the illness. What about the person who goes mountain climbing or diving for the weekend? Is he or she more adventurous or daring? How about the hang glider or amateur pilot? . Some people at age 50 are ready for the grave. This is not an obligation that should be taken lightly and it can stress the relationship. but the tensions surface in different ways. Hundreds of automobile accidents happen every day. Physical attributes The physical attributes of your personality are a combination of your age and your physical fitness. i8. whereas some in their 80's may be getting ready for a party. it is better that you and your partner are both young. An optimist may feel that he has a new business opportunity that will be financially rewarding. Christians. i9. The average life expectancy in the United States is 84. whereas a pessimist is sure that the investment money will be wasted without any results. Risk attitudes. You will not be a whole family. etc. the healthy person has to understand the level of effort that will be needed to take care of the sick person. Can an older person have a successful relationship with a younger person? The answer is yes.?". Even if your partner supports you. but because for you it is a necessity. his or her family may object to your beliefs. Most relationships between people of different religions reach a crisis when it is time to educate their children. You need to pay for your house and your food. You are taking a risk when you drive to work. If a person has a mental illness. In the end." So many people have been killed in the name of religion over the centuries that it is very evident that successful relationships cannot exist between people of different creeds. As partners. "Should the children go with me to church with me and to the mosque with you?". "Will you change your religion for me? If you love me enough you will convert to my religion. Muslims.y y y y y How likely is it that two people with different philosophical attitudes are compatible? The chances are very small. You do this not because you lack maturity.

If you know that the casino always makes a profit and you gamble anyway. Methodical people organize and schedule their work to know which things will be done when. Many marriages fail because the people involved think that they can adjust to incompatible characteristics of the other person or that they can change the other person.y y y The level of risk of an activity can be assessed by asking your life insurance agent how much the insurance will cost for a diver. By the time we are adults. a pilot. If we are punished or suffer bad consequences from our aggression. An Individual Attribute. This seldom happens. People who are cautious do not like the stress of taking risks. It is possible for a disorganized person to become more organized. you are a risk taker even if you think that you will not be harmed by your actions. most of our Social Attributes are well established and are not easily changed. on the other hand. we may change our social behavior in the future. might be displayed as aggression in a social context. Task performance. Personality Compatibility Analysis y y y Social Attributes The Social Attributes of our personality are formed by our interaction with other people over our lifetime. we obtain what we want through aggression. The left column is the "sociable" column and the right column is the "dangerous" . Error-prone and disorganized people do not have much in common with accurate. such as anger. A person who thinks that another person can be changed does not have a good chance of success. etc. Disorganized persons are not neat and this is irritating to methodical persons. but this requires great effort and changing established habits. drink alcohol excessively. insurmountable problem that erodes the foundation of the relationship. methodical people. Disorganized people do not have systematic ways of approaching problems and may not be able to solve some problems. If. Task performance describes the accuracy and organization with which we solve problems. The statistics are not in your favor. What seems like a little problem before marriage often becomes an irritating. The Social Attributes table classifies characteristics in two columns. whereas the risk-takers find it boring to do something less exciting. If you smoke. i10. or take drugs. you are a risk taker. Can two people with different risk attitudes have a successful relationship? Not always. Relationships between these individuals are subject to stress because the disorganized person cannot meet the expectations of the methodical person. The death rates associated with each activity are a real measure of the risk. If you do something knowing that it is dangerous. you are a risk taker. threats and violent behavior may become a way of life for us.

yielding dependable. trusting. Dependability . funny. humble.how we judge others. Two dishonest people are not likely to get along any better than an honest and a dishonest person. proud s5. SOCIABLE + friendly. Emotional expression . y CHARACTERISTICS SOCIAL ATTRIBUTES s1. honest.our demeanor toward people. law-abiding the laws of society. inhibited. s2. serious. courteous. appreciative. resentful. forceful. forgiving.how we interact in a group. modest DANGEROUS aggressive. s4. impartial. s10. independent attractive. y social. talkative introverted s6. Control attitudes . dependent ugly. Physical appearance . Aggressiveness . loner. If we are typically friendly and courteous. dishonest. honest. Two persons are more likely to be compatible if most of their attributes are in the left hand column. The range of interaction ranges from friendliness and thoughtfulness through tactlessness and impoliteness. dishonest. intolerant fearful. Fairness .our degree of selfishness. s8. impolite. a relationship is doomed to fail when one of the persons has only a single attribute in the "dangerous" column. the relationship will become intolerable for the battered or abused partner.how we view ourselves physically. of expressing feelings. our aggressiveness attribute will be in the "sociable" column. Aggressiveness. If a partner (s2-) feels that he or she has to beat or punish the other partner for something. liar greedy. untidy unethical. Team Spirit . s7. Egocentrism . s3. gentle. tactless domineering.mechanisms by which we influence others. leader. stubborn unreliable. Regard for Rules . punitive. suspicious. thoughtful persuasive. If we . disheveled. biased. tidy ungrateful. extroverted.how we fit in society. Sometimes. shy.column. conciliatory. follower.our ways congenial. patriotic s1. tolerant brave. truthful generous.factors that affect trust in others. submissive. stylish. Persons who have many attributes in the right column will generally be incompatible even with partners with similar characteristics. criminal antisocial. Leadership . arrogant. The aggressiveness attribute reflects our typical behavior within this broad range of interactions.obedience for ethical. People interact using words and actions. family-oriented. anarchist s9.

and willing to sacrifice for others is sociable. Egocentric persons are seldom generous or kind to others and cannot have good relationships. When persons do not talk enough. Once you break it. People who are frequently tactless and aggressive do not make good partners for anybody. How do you get other people to do what you want? You can try to convince them or you can force them. Greedy. A person who is modest. A good relationship requires both partners to be generous so that their needs can be satisfied without causing either one to feel that they sacrifice too much or that they put more effort into the relationship than their partner. That is a true statement. Concealment is a form of lie. s2. and we could be mistaken. resentful. truthful. forgiving. You either lie or tell the truth. it is not possible to know what they are thinking. how can you ever trust again? If someone is not there when you need them. s3. If a wife meets a lover in the sofa. they only think about themselves. The "dangerous" column includes behaviors that can cause physical or mental harm. Control attitudes. how do we know that they are telling the . and arrogant persons are dangerous for a relationship. Dependability. although many people consider that not volunteering information that they are not asked is not lying. you are either unreliable or dependable. We are limited to reading their body language. Good communication is essential for a good relationship.y y y y y y are typically impolite and tactless. Trust is like a piece of fine china. or reliable why do you need them? Once you discover a lie. Selfishness and generosity are the two extremes of egocentrism. s5. There is no such thing as a "little lie" or "sometimes unreliable". and physical abuse are examples of these dangerous behaviors. People tend to lie about things with which they are uncomfortable. If someone is not honest. our aggressiveness attribute will be in the "dangerous" column. she can say that she did not go to bed with anybody. no amount of glue can restore it to its original condition. We may think that a person is giving us romantic glances. s4. Deceit is sometimes used to control some else without resorting to physical violence. Control attitudes may range from gentle persuasion to downright physical domination or psychological brainwashing. Emotional expression. Dependability is the foundation of all relationships. why would you want to be with that person? Dependability does not have a gradual range like other attributes. blackmail. intimidation. What do their actions suggest? Unfortunately. Most confidence games use deceit to take advantage of greed or innocence. Bullying. Even when a person talks. No stable relationships can be built without mutual respect and agreement. A successful relationship requires complete honesty. Egocentrism. reading body language is prone to error. but far from truthful.

but it is now possible to routinely change unsightly noses and crooked teeth with cosmetic . A good relationship requires shared values. or do you wait for someone else to make the first move? Sometimes insecure people are afraid to make the first move because it may prove embarrassing. Racial biases. s6. you should not hope to be able to change a person's prejudices. there are introverts who cannot express what they feel verbally and whose feelings must be deduced from their actions. although at times the relationship may suffer from lack of communication. An impartial person should be able to see the goodness in people who are different and tolerate their culture without trying to change them. learning a new language. religious intolerance. Leaders may also have to assume responsibility for the actions of those whom they influence. Introverts and extroverts can make good couples. and there are extroverts who are communicative. Two extroverts can also have a good relationship as long as their need for interaction with other people does not take them too far away from each other. Successful relationships may be established between leaders and followers. and other ethnic prejudices may be overcome over time by foreign travel. and exposure to cosmopolitan cultural activities. A tolerant person perceives a biased person as being narrow minded. but whose words have to be scrutinized for truth. This is one personality attribute where characteristics from different columns may be better for a relationship. we meet different people and different cultures that we may not fully understand. as long as the extrovert does not force the introvert into social situations that are uncomfortable. In establishing a new relationship. Can you make objective judgements or do you make decisions based on what will benefit your interests? Can you understand someone else's point of view or is your opinion all that matters? We develop in a cultural background that establishes our opinions and way of thinking. They cannot have a good relationship. Leadership. We cannot change our physical framework very easily. In the range of emotional expression. s7. Two introverts can also make a good couple. really? Their actions need to be consistent with their words. As we expand our horizons. Those who take the initiative may do it more out of impulse than out of careful consideration.y y y y y y truth? "I love you very much. It takes a combination of confidence and knowledge to consistently be a leader. s8. It is not easy to lose weight or build shapely muscles." Oh. and two leaders may disagree on the course to be taken. Two followers may flounder during crucial decisions. A racist cannot have a good relationship with a liberal person. How do you interact in a group? Are you an initiator and leader. Physical appearance. Fairness. This is the dilemma that has to be solved to understand another person.

may promote infectious diseases that can cause physical harm. The person who thinks that his or her partner is ugly will not commit fully to the relationship and the ugly partner will sense this and become dejected. "Regard for rules" is the degree to which we obey the rules of society. The laws of a society are made to safeguard the rights of the citizens. Team Spirit.y y y y y surgery and orthodontics. s10. Does the person often fight with others? If so. However. Under dependability (s3) we discussed the personal concept of right and wrong. beauty is in the eye of the beholder.for a lazy person. Do we feel isolated or are we active members of our community? Can a person be patriotic and cosmopolitan? In these days of massive immigration. but what else do we know? A thorough evaluation requires a systematic approach. Team spirit is a measure of how we fit in society. Personality Compatibility Analysis Personality Profile A common mistake that we make in judging people is not evaluating all aspects of their personality. beyond being unsightly. we need to print a chart such as the following and put check marks in the squares corresponding to the attributes that we know about a person. smells. loyalties are often questioned and tested. A successful relationship requires both persons to be satisfied with the way each other looks. it is a civil obligation. we have to mark box s1-. There will always be regrets and temptations. and fine clothing to improve our self-image and our confidence. and all our efforts may not change the way in which others perceive us. Regard for Rules. Untidiness. and dresses. we may put the numbers 1 to 3 in the boxes depending on the strength of the characteristics. or resentful. the law-abiding person may be accused of complicity in an embezzlement or a more serious crime. Intelligence would be marked in box i4+ and stupidity in box i4-. An ethical. Instead of check marks. Successful relationships can only be forged when both partners share positive social values. s9. By reviewing . The characteristic "ugly" is listed in the "dangerous" column because a person cannot have a successful relationship with someone that he or she considers ugly. A social misfit in the dangerous column could end up becoming a terrorist or mass murderer. Box i10+ would be checked for a hard-working person and box i10. When least expected. jealous. cosmetics. We may know that a person is intelligent and hard working. The grass will always be greener on the other side of the fence. We can modify our appearance with corsets. Obeying the rules is not a matter of personal judgement. For this. law-abiding person cannot have a successful relationship with one who scoffs at rules and regulations.

i6) Maturity .all 10 categories of the individual and social attributes we will have better perspective about what we know about the person. i9) Risk attitudes .mechanisms by which we influence others. i7) Philosophical attitudes . s6) Fairness .degree of concern for oneself. i2) Emotional temperament . s5) Emotional expression .how we regard our environment.characteristics of our minds. i5) Material attitudes . s9) Regard for Rules .obedience for the laws of society.measure of camaraderie between people.approaches toward problem solving. s7) Leadership attributes . s4) Egocentrism .our preferred ways of thinking.factors that affect trust in others.features that make us stand out in a group.the degree of effort that we use in our daily life. Social Attributes: y y y y y y y y y y s1) Aggressiveness . i3) Energy level .attitudes toward working with people. i4) Intellectual factors .selfishness and selfish attitudes. Zamora Personality Profile Individual Attributes i1 i2 i3 i4 i5 i6 i7 i8 i9 i10 Positive + Unknown Negative Social Attributes Sociable + s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7 s8 s9 s10 Click here for a printer-friendly profile worksheet . i8) Physical attributes . s3) Dependability . s2) Control attitudes .emotions that rule our lives.degree of motivation toward goals.our level of experience and wisdom. The chart will also help us to focus on what we do not know about the person.ways of expressing inner feelings toward others.how we view ourselves physically. s10) Team Spirit .how we judge others. i10) Task performance attitudes .how we regard our body. Individual Attributes y y y y y y y y y y i1) Achievement attitudes . s8) Physical appearance .

it is better to have some doubts and not assume that a person is not aggressive. Generally. Another possibility is that there is an error in the characterization of a person. many different definitions have been proposed for personality. A systematic trait-by-trait analysis. Suppose that you can determine that a person is not normally aggressive. Over the years. How Is Personality Defined? Personality concerns the most important." (Mayer." (Warren & Carmichael.) "Personality is the essence of a human being. thoughts. Here are some definitions: "Personality is the entire mental organization of a human being at any stage of his development. Personality is expressed through its influences on the body. 2005) . we are not able to conduct a full personality analysis. Personality analysis is a complex and challenging subject. skill. emotions. p. and thoughts. 1930. temperament. 333) (In an acknowledged overstatement. Certain aspects of a personality always remain hidden from us. Is this bad or not? When you don't know. most noticeable parts of an individual's psychological life. Alcoholics and drug users almost never make good partners because their habits control them and distort their senses. feelings. 9. in conscious mental life.. What you may not know is that the person gets paranoid and aggressive when drunk. It embraces every phase of human character: intellect. energetic or apathetic. can help us to understand the people around us better. 1957. Suppose that we don't know the level of aggressiveness of a person. and other major areas of psychological function. characterizing statements by Gordon Allport) "An individual's pattern of psychological processes arising from motives. morality. but they come down to the idea that personality involves a pattern or global operation of mental systems. and every attitude that has beeen built up in the course of one's life. smart or dull.Unknown Dangerous - What you don't know may hurt you. p. Personality concerns whether a person is happy or sad. Most of the definitions refer to a mental system -. such as the one discussed here." (Hall & Lindzey..a collection of psychological parts including motives. and through the individual's social behavior. The definitions vary a bit as to what those parts might be.

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