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Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
The structures of the hematologic or hematopoietic system include the blood, blood vessels, and bloodforming organs (bone marrow, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and thymus gland). The hematologic system also pays an important role in hormone transport, the inflammatory and immune responses, temperature regulation, fluid-electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance.
A. Contained inside all bones, occupies interior of spongy bones and center of long bones; collectively one of the largest organs of the body (4%-5% of total body weight) B. Primary function is hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells) C. Two kinds of bone marrow, red and yellow 1. Red (functioning) marrow a. Carries out hematopoiesis; production site of erythroid, myeloid, and thrombocytic components of blood; one source of lymphocytes and macrophages b. Found in ribs, vertebral column, other flat bones 2. Yellow marrow a. red marrow that has changed to fat; found in long bones; does not contribute to hematopoiesis. All blood cells start as stem cells in the bone marrow; these mature into the different, specific types of cells, collectively referred to as formed elements of blood or blood components: erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes.
A. Composed of plasma (55%) and cellular components (45%) B. Hematocrit 1. Reflects portion of blood composed of red blood cells 2. Centrifugation of blood results in separation into top layer of plasma, middle layer of leukocytes and platelets and bottom layer of erythrocytes.
higher (14-18 g) in men than in women (12-14 g) . Distribution 1. RBCs are responsible for oxygen transport via hemoglobin (Hgb) *Normal blood contains 12-18g Hgb/100 ml blood. which are responsible for oxygen transport.Erythrocytes 1. 2150 ml venous Plasma A. leukocytes (white blood cells [WBCs]). serum globulins. which function in hemostasis. Bioconcave disc shape. 3000 ml in systematic circulation a. prothrombin. no nucleus. 300 ml capillary c. volume of leukocytes and platelets is negligible C. Cell membrane is highly diffusible to Oxygen and carbondioxide 3. fibrinogen. and thrombocytes (platelets). Contains plasma proteins such as albumin. 840 ml venous 2.plasminogen Cellular Components Cellular components or formed elements of blood are erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]). Fibrinogen. 1300 ml in pulmonary circulation a. chiefly sacs of hemoglobin 2. which play a major role in defense against microorganisms. Liquid part of blood. Albumin: largest of plasma proteins.3. 550 ml arterial b. 1. Consists of serum (liquid portion of plasma) and fibrinogen C.prothrombin. Serum globulins: 3. involved in regulation of intravascular plasma volume and maintenance of osmotic pressure 2. 400 ml arterial b. 60 ml capillary c. yellow in color because of pigments B. Majority of formed elements is erythrocytes. A.
Normal age RBCs may be destroyed by gross damage as in trauma or extravascular hemolysis (in spleen. liver. Hemolysis (destruction) a. vitamin B12. mature into erythrocytes b.Neutrophils: involved in short-term phagocytosis 1. produced by kidneys and stimulated by hypoxia c. bone marrow) B. basophils and Neutrophils a. Immature RBCs destroyed in either bone marrow or other reticuloendothelial organs (blood. release as reticulocytes (immature cells). Average life span 120 days b. Start in bone marrow as stem cells. pyridoxine (vitamin B6). spleen.4. excreted in bile e. Production a. Erythropoietin stimulates differentiation.Bilirubin: byproduct of Hgb released when RBCs destroyed.Eosinophils: involved in phagocytosis and allergic reactions b.Leukocytes granulocytes and mononuclear cells: involved in protection from bacteria and other foreign substances 1.Basophils: involved in prevention of clotting in microcirculation and allergic reactions *Eosinophils and basophils are reservoirs of histamine. liver. connective tissue. and other factors required for erythropoiesis. Mature cells removed chiefly by liver and spleen d. Iron. mature neutrophils: polymorphonuclear leukocytes 2. immature neutrophils: band cells (bacterial infection usually produces increased numbers of band cells) . 5. Granulocytes: eosinophils. serotonin and heparin c. folic acid. lungs and lymph nodes c.
macrophages and other components of reticuloendothelial system b.Monocytes: involved in long-term phagocytosis. Presence of both antigens is type AB d. produce substances against foreign cells. Antibodies are automatically formed against the ABO antigens not on person s own RBC S. the universal donor f. Anti-Rh antibodies not automatically formed in Rh-negative person. Thrombocytes (platelets) 1. 4. Blood-typing systems are based on the many possible antigens. Absence of both antigens results in type O blood c.2. Rh typing a. 1. B. 3.positive baby. play a role in immune response 1. but in a subsequent pregnancy with an Rh-positive positive baby. Identifies presence or absence of Rh antigen (Rh positive or Rh negative). transfusion with mismatched or incompatible blood results in a transfusion reaction 2. Nearly half the population is type O. antibody formation starts and a second exposure to Rh antigen will trigger a transfusion reaction c. Antigens of system are labelled A and B b. b. largest leukocyte 2. 2. but the most important are antigens of the ABO and Rh blood groups because they are most likely to be involved I transfusion reactions. Important for Rh-negative woman carrying Rh. first pregnancy not affected. Mononuclear cells: monocytes and lymphocytes: large nucleated cells a. . aggregation and plug formation Release substances involved in coagulation Blood Groups A. produced by bone marrow: give rise to histiocytes (Kupffer cells of liver). ABO typing a. Fragments of megakaryocytes formed in bone marrow Production regulated by thrombopoietin Essential factor in coagulation via adhesion. Presence of either A or B results in type A and type B respectively e.Lymphocytes: immune cells. Erythrocytes carry antigens. mother s antibodies attack baby s RBCs. which determine the different blood groups. but if Rh-positive blood is given. produced primarily in lymph tissue(B cells) and thymus (T cells) C.
composed of fibrous tissue capsule surrounding a network of fiber. Important hematopoietic site in fetus. and finally to the splenic vein to the liver. Vascular. lies beneath the diaphragm. Spleen A. then passes into splenic venules that are lined with phagocytic cells. Largest lymphatic organ: functions as blood filtration system and reservoir. Important in phagocytosis. Important in phagocytosis. White pulp: scattered throughout the red pulp. removes misshapen erythrocytes. bean shaped. C. produces lymphocytes and sequesters lymphocytes. G. 1%-2% of red cell mass or 200 ml blood/minute stored in spleen. C. composed of RBCs. Also involved in antibody production by plasma cells and iron metabolism (iron released from Hgb portion of destroyed erythrocytes returned to bone marrow I. postnatally produces lymphocytes and monocytes. removes misshapen erythrocytes. behind and to the left of the stomach. WBCs. E. and antigens D. Contains two types of pulp 1. B. Red pulp: located between the fibrous strands. and macrophages. synthesis of antithrombins . Kupffer cells of the liver have reticuloendothelial function as histiocytes. macrophages. phagocytic activity and iron storage.conversion of fluid blood into a solid clot to reduce blood loss when blood vessels are ruptured. blood comes via the splenic artery to the pulp for cleansing. In the adult. Involved in bile production (via erythrocyte destruction and bilirubin production) and erythropoiesis (during fetal life and when bone marrow production is insufficient B. functions of the spleen can be taken over by the reticuloendothelial system Liver A. 2.Blood Coagulation . unwanted parts of erythrocytes. unwanted parts of erythrocytes. Liver also involved in synthesis of clotting factors. F. H.
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