Sample Research Proposal on The Influence and Impact of Advertising to Consumer Purchase Motive

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Introduction Today's market is characterised by highly competitive organisations which are all vying for consumer's loyalty. Firms are faced with the challenge to maintain their own competitive edge to be able to survive and be successful. Strategies are carefully planned and executed to gain the ultimate goal of all: company growth. However, external factors are not the only elements which influence growth. There are also internal factors, components working within the organisation which shape the direction of the company. Along with the changing business world, customers change as well, becoming more demanding and knowledgeable than before. In turn, company management had shifted their focus on their clients or customers so as to stay successfully in business. This transition meant that organisations have to completely reformulate their conventional business aims and purposes from being process-focused to customer-centred. Hence, in order to bring out exceptional customer services within the company operations, the management should employ fine-tuned organisational restructuring. Moreover, employing proactive customer commitment involves the consideration on culture and infrastructure (Lowenstein, 1997). Despite the economic and technological conditions that make it possible now to promote products and services in a larger consumer market, there are other factors that still need to be considered for a business organisation reach out easier to their target market. Looking into the characteristics and thought processes of the people still holds as the most significant factor to be looked into

so too a tribe relies on rituals to pronounce its existence and sustain its membership. back-up and support is as important as the product itself. In many product categories the service. P & Armstrong. The large scope of market can pose a hindrance to a successful marketing strategy in terms of over generalised definition of the target or niche market.by the individuals in the field of sales and marketing. than how to deliver the offer to the consumer. In a marketplace where there is often little differentiation between brands. its people. Customers need to have confidence in the organisation. The major objective of marketing is to regard the product as a service from the viewpoint of its connecting value rather than its use value It is more imperative for the company to know how its product can provide service and support the tribe in its very being. Review of Related Literature According to Perner (2003) the use of a two-sided appeal strategy by companies can be uncertain. 2003).. In some cases. the organisation. B. Like every social relationship requires some kin of ritual to establish and sustain it self. where the consumer may merely notice that something negative is being said while not taking the time to discover the significance of this predicament and compensating factors. Consumer crises such as product recalls usually relate to one . According to Kotler. This appears to be especially the case for low involvement products. rituals provide a social reality with permanence. 2002) Here the belief of ritual is significantly essential to depict the way companies marketed to the in-line roller tribe ("intensive tribal marketing"). G (2001). (Cova. its policies and its attitude can often be the point of difference. the strategy backfires and the consumer forms a more negative opinion of the product (Perner. & Cova V.

product but they will put other products. Accordingly. advertising claims whose credibility has been challenged by . Companies are finding it increasingly difficult to remain anonymous behind their brands. As a result. budgets and ROI (return on investment) criteria. Good reputation is vital to support marketing. the current research explores consumers' response tendencies to advertising claims when the source of such claims is identified as tailored to a specific personality profile or not tailored to a specific personality profile. It is an asset with a value as important as any other within an organisation. Consumers are more aware than ever before. This can be accomplished by examining whether consumers' beliefs'. For many companies the brand is the company which means that it's necessary to invest in the brand and the corporate reputation. brands and even the whole company under the spotlight. Some researchers have hypothesised that consumer's personality profiles affect decision making in their assessments of credibility in advertising content. consumers are more responsive to advertising claims tailored to a specific personality profile in product ads than to advertising claims not tailored to a specific personality profile. competency. they have access to more information. But reputation has to be earned. And it can help recruit better people and attract the best business partners. and with the proliferation of media titles and access to new media. In bad times it can minimise problems. In good times it provides that extra bonus. or perceived goodwill are affected by credibility information when advertisements are tailored to a specific personality profile versus advertisements not tailored to a specific personality profile. And like all assets it has to be managed with its own disciplines. Therefore. The study also examines the relative impact of tailoring the advertisement to a specific personality profile on consumers' assessments of credibility in advertising content.

Joachimsthaler. 2000). Accordingly. believability. (Lastovicka. 1997. demonstrated and analysed brand personality to the extent that effective designs can aid in their influence (Aaker. In the field of advertising research. empirical personality work has tended to be weak because trait measures often have questionable reliability. Neal and Wurst. and trustworthiness of the spokesperson in the fields of psychology. 2002. Greengrove. 2000).. and the traits investigated lacked the conceptual relevance to the behaviour being studied (Lastovicka. Accordingly. Accordingly. there has been ample research on source effects that concentrated on the impact of the competence. there is no dearth of literature and we have a long history surrounding the myriad of topics associated with this concept (Plummer. Erich A. Moncrief.. advertising. Erich A. 2001). However. validity. as it applies to exploratory correlation between personality and advertising message response. The findings have implications for understanding the role of personality profiles in shaping visual imagery and message content of advertising claims. 1988). there have been weak empirical relationships found between prediction of product use or choice with personality behaviour. JL. & Joachimsthaler. and communication literature (Bush. and Ziethaml 1987). there is an absence of consensus in both theories and frameworks that address much of the often conflicting reasons of advertising's interaction in consumer decision-making. There is. The main reason for disappointing results is that research efforts have primarily focused on profiling exercises rather than putting their endeavours into theories based on consumer personalities (Plummer. 1988) Some researchers have. John L. ..governmental or by consumer groups are more likely to affect consumers' action than are unchallenged advertising claims.. however. Attempts at segmenting markets on the basis of personality similarities and differences have not achieved researchers' desired results. given the vast literature present.

The major objective of this study is to observe and determine the impact of advertising to the purchasing motive. this study would assess relevant literature review on the same topic. little research on relative impact of personality profiles on consumers' assessments of credibility in advertising content. Furthermore. To examine the awareness of the consumers about advertised products. loyalty and preferences of consumers. The research will perform surveys in order to obtain needed information to attain the objectives of the study. Objectives This study will examine and evaluate the impact of advertising on the consumer buying behaviour and loyalty in regards to the product/service promotion of different businesses in India. These individuals are the consumers or customers of different products and services offered by different business organisations in India.however. To examine if these advertisements of different businesses in . 2. Aim of the Study This research will conduct an experimental study to examine the effect of advertising on consumer purchase motive or preferences and loyalty in Australian setting. Moreover. this study will focus on the following objectives: 1. Survey will be used in this study to study the topic area and also by getting the This research aspires to study the topic through reviewing related articles and also by getting the insight of knowledgeable or informed individuals regarding the topic.

the first research question is: 1.Australian affect the purchasing motive. to address this issue. it attempts to evaluate if advertising affects the purchasing motive. i. Do consumers' beliefs about advertised products differ when the ad content of an advertising claim to which consumers are exposed is specifically tailored to their buying preferences or purchase motives? . competent. This study will be beneficial to the consumers and business industries in Australia particularly in product/service promotion. if consumers are more responsive to advertising claims when the source is identified as credible. this research will provide recommendations on how to evaluate the performance of a certain institution in accordance to their advertisement or promotion of product/services.e. By understanding the needs of the consumers and the benefits of effective advertisement. preferences and loyalty of their consumers. Moreover. believable or has some good will component in product advertisements tailored to a specific personality profile? For clarity. loyalty and preferences of consumers Thus. they have not compared the relative impact of presenting the same information in advertisements tailored to personality profiles. Research Questions While researchers have examined varying formats for presenting credibility information. Significance of the Research This study will be a significant endeavour in promoting advertising awareness among the citizen of Australia. these business industries will be assured of a competitive advantage. The current study was designed to determine.

specifically tailored to their personality profile or are exposed to advertising claims. through ad content. 2.) Believability of ad content Predictor (Independent) Criterion (Dependent) H1: Individuals will believe advertisements tailored to their specific response tendencies more (less) than advertisements tailored contrary to their response tendencies. steadiness and conscientiousness individuals. conscientiousness type messages or visuals are more believable by those corresponding personality behaviour consumers as compared to advertisements that contain incongruous type messages or visuals. On the other hand. The basic hypothesis is that advertisements containing ad content that is consistent with subjects' perceiving/type behaviour preferences will be viewed as believable compared to advertisements that contain ad content that is inconsistent with their perceiving-type preferences.While advertisements often include information that cross cut all personality profiles. Response tendencies associated with the advertisement will also transfer . some consumers ignore some of this information and rely primarily on advertising claims and on personal experience in forming judgments about advertised products. through ad content. influencing. The first question explores whether advertisements containing dominant. some consumers defer decisions until the advertising claims have some credibility behind them before making product purchase decisions. steadiness. Therefore. There are distinct processing differences between dominant. Therefore: 1. not specifically tailored to their personality profile. These differences should affect how consumers perceive and evaluate information provided by advertising message and imagery. influencing. the current studies compares consumers' beliefs about advertised products either when consumers are exposed to advertising claims.) Response tendencies.

Do consumers' beliefs about advertised products differ when consumers are exposed to advertising claims specifically tailored by their preferences that include credibility information versus when consumers are exposed to advertising claims that are specifically tailored by their preferences that do not include credibility information? Therefore: 1. H2: Individuals will believe advertisements tailored to their specific response tendency more (less) than advertisements tailored contrary to their response tendencies. While consumers' processing of credibility information and advertising claims specifically tailored to personality profiles will be examined previously.) Credibility of ad content Predictor (Independent) Criterion (Dependent) H1: Individuals will find advertisements more credible where belief supporting information is included in the ad that is tailored to their specific response tendencies more (less) than advertisements where belief supporting information is included in the ad that is tailored contrary to their response tendencies.to the product being advertised (MacKenzie. Thus. Lutz. This will result in a direct effect on the response tendencies toward the brand being advertised and have an indirect effect on future predicted behaviour. the second research question is: 2. and Belch. H2: Individuals will believe advertisements tailored to their specific response tendency more (less) than advertisements tailored contrary to their response tendencies.) Response tendencies. the credibility information may be consistent with the advertising claims presented to consumers. these studies do not shed much light on the problem of advertising claims that are perceived as potentially misleading. 1986). However. the . 2. Therefore.

Descriptive analyses will also study the methods used by business organisations to ensure that the advertisements reach out to the correct group of people. Methodology The research method that will be used for this study will be qualitative method combined with descriptive method. and couple it through the use of the descriptive research method will be highly competent in depicting the behaviours of the consumers. 2004). With the subject of the study focusing on the characteristics and consumer behaviour of those who purchase a certain product. as well as helps with the possibility in isolating several factors. Moreover. As such. Gathered information will lend to the credibility of the study and is important to isolate factors that may have affected the success of an advertised product. 1991: 210) as well as continuity that occurs within the community despite the possible biases that this may bring to the study (Yow. Ely. Friedman et al. which makes it the ideal method to be used for the study of their causes and effects. the information-gathering will then be based on the method of the research being done and will also be utilising a . it is then understood that the study will be focusing on information gathered from both respondents and from the researcher's account and notes concerning the advertisements. qualitative coupled with descriptive methods are more likely to be used for the analysis and the study of the culture and their effect on society.current study examines the impact on consumer beliefs of including credibility information along with advertising claims that have been contested by the Government or consumer groups. With this. it also helps to provide closure with regard to the outcome of the study that focuses on qualitative analyses backed by the statistical evidence (Anzul. it will be better to gain the analysis of the respondents to the advertisement.

The questionnaire is prepared based on the research questions that were presented. the questionnaire will contain the following: the first part is for knowing the basic characteristics of the respondents for their identification. Aside from Australian respondents. Design For the research design. the second part focuses on the perceived methods that the product uses for addressing the needs of their target consumers. or Hispanic respondents. Along with a letter to the respondents. half of the respondents selected will be between the ages of 21 and 35 years old and half of the respondents will be 35 years of age and older. Sample One hundred and eighty adults who are their households' primary shoppers will be recruited at two large regional shopping malls in a major metropolitan area on the West Coast. Asian. A quota sample will be used so that for each of the three treatments.combination of both information gathered from the respondents as with the information taken from the literatures. the fourth is on the effects of the product's advertisements to the consumers. the third focuses on the consumers' preferences and loyalty with regards to information on the product. approximately there would be 10 percent of African-American. finally. This procedure will be used to ensure that there is sufficient representation of both younger and older respondents. the use of survey and interview questionnaires will be initiated. This is to ensure that the questions that will be asked from the respondents will be able to yield the necessary information for the formulation of the conclusion. . A lottery ticket will be offered as an incentive to participate.

One of the problems that the researcher must deal with is to ensure that biases will not be given to the study. this may be a problem that the researcher may face. automobiles. As such. the researcher will then strive to ensure that the method of information analysis will be conducted in a very objective manner. Careful assessment must be done on the literatures themselves and notes were taken that helped in finding information that related primarily to the consumer behaviour and how culture affects the choices that the customers make. Since the products are being advertised using several medias that will be included in this study. For each category.Together. one of the brands will make an advertising claim that has been contested by a consumer group or the Government. which are secondary sources. clothing. A combination of the information will be helpful for the study. and will not in any way affect the outcome of the study. however. as the information will be based primarily on the information gathered from the literatures. soup. and one of the brands will make an . these will be used to evaluate how products will impact the different classes. As discussed. Products and Advertising Claims Two brands from each of the following product categories will be selected: computers. and beverage. limited however to television and magazine advertisements. these questions will be used for the gathering of information from the respondents and will assist in putting together an assessment of the consumers' perception of product advertising methods. the method of analysis that this study will be using is based on the gathered information that provide methods of assessing the characteristics and the consumer behaviours especially based on the media that presents the product. will be focused on the information gathered from the respondents. The primary method of analysis that will be used for this study.

This will flush out any problems encountered with the subjects' understanding or completion of the survey. Once the participant is finished looking at the stimulus. Each subject will be brought into an office and an explanation and purpose of the study and the procedure will be given as follows. certainty. reliability. Each respondent will be timed to complete the survey. Five subjects will be recruited and each subject will be taken to an office in the mall where the questionnaire can be administered. "Based on the information in the advertisement. persuasion. A control brand with similar product characteristics and credibility information as the brand with the contested advertising claim will be selected for each of the products. trustworthiness. Procedures Before data collection will begin. the respondent will be asked. competence. We will be showing you these advertisements and asking you a number of questions about them. "This study involves your reaction to information taken from a number of advertisements. sureness. For example. a pilot test will be conducted at one of the mall intercepts where the surveys will be administered. and good will towards others." Then.advertising claim that is uncontested. the information will be removed and a series of questions will be asked to measure their beliefs about the brand on nine credibility-related attributes: believability. Please take as long as is necessary to become familiar with the information in these advertisements. acceptability. tell me . each participant will be given a copy of each stimulus and told to look at the material for as long as desired.

the researcher is solely responsible for conducting the whole research process and shall abide all the policies regarding the organisation as well as the university. The research is being done according to the guidelines and rules and regulations of the university. Each respondent would be shown a card with the scale points listed from one (strongly disagree) to five (strongly agree). This procedure could be repeated for each of the nine attributes. Furthermore. etc. Demographic data would be collected at the end of the questionnaire. The four stages of ethics in doing research are followed by . The process would continue for the five product categories.the number between one and five that indicates how strongly you agree or disagree that the product in the ad is believable." Next. reliability. each respondent would answer a series of questions about their shopping habits. Accordingly. the respondent could be shown a second stimulus (ad) and asked to rate the product on the same nine credibility-related attributes." Accordingly. using the same five-point scale. For example. such as the importance and use of credibility information. the same question for trustworthiness. the statement could be reworded according to the attribute in question. participants could be told to give a number between one and five that indicated how strongly they agreed or disagreed that the advertisement. However. After exposure to ten stimuli and after all belief ratings were obtained. Ethical Consideration The data generated will be used solely to understand the impact of advertising to product consumers in Australia. using soup as an example. "is low in fat" or "reduces the risk of heart disease. The data will not be transferable for any means in person or organisation. The researcher does not belong to any professional bodies to share the outcome of the research results. a count would be done.

There shall be no misrepresentation or misuse of the data collected from the organisation. . Both confidentiality and anonymity will be maintained of the informants who have participated or shared information in the research. modes of data collection. analysis of data and for proper dissemination. Full voluntary guarantee will be taken from the informants. the University for dissemination of academic purposes might take the interview results. Finally. Due consideration and approval will be taken from the organisation which is being studied. Strict confidentiality shall be maintained.the way of a good design. Prior objectives and motive of the research will be intimated. There will be no Coercion or force to take advantage from the informants.

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