You are on page 1of 105

DOE/TIC--11223 DE82 002045

DOE!TIC-', 1223 (DE82002045)



HandlJook on /\_TMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

Steven R. Hanna Gary A. Briggs Rayford P. Hosker, Jr.

Atrno-plu-ri .. Turhuh-nce anti Diffusion l.aboratorv :\ational Oel-ani,. and Atmo-plu-ric .\.Iministration

Prt'"art,"1 for tl ...

Orrin' of 1I1·alll. an.1 Emironnwntal R"""areh f )ffi.,,· .. r EIIt-r~ !t"",·art·"

t'.:-:. (>'-"arlm,·nl of En"r~

J~an S. Smith. I·ut.li"alioll Editor

E,lilin)!, .• ·.)fnp ..... ition. proofr .. adinz, !"wk dl·,;i!!". illu-tratiore- . ..Ind pa~ .. makeup for this I'lJbiieatioll .... n- p--rfllnnl·,1 ,,~ -taff m-ml ... r,; of th .. T .. chnical Inf .. rmatiou C'·flt.-r.

Puhlillhf'd by

TECH:\ICAL l:'irOR\I.-\TIO\ (E:'iTER r. S. DEP.\RT'tIE\T or E\ERG ....

Oy = Czw"t

!:j Zj

(i.l~)

'and find that this formula IS ind ... ·d valid, wi th C1 = 0.:i6, for times I .. ,.; than tl ... 1..a~'1'anl-';an tim .. scale. Th .. Lagrangian tim .. seal .. (I'b) is ~"'n h~ anoth .. r similarity formuia:

7.' Tlv=O.i:i..2..

. o.

(7.I:i)

wh .. re 0. is a function of zj/L anti w •. In I-,,·n,·ral. w .. find that am distanc .. variabl .. (I) and sp ... ·d variabl .. (,) in the 'daytime plan .. tary boundary la~ .. r an described b~ th e similarity formulas

(7.16)

(7.17)

wh e re f and g are ulli1l.-rsal functions.

Lamb (1979) haa ~d the turbulene .. fields frum D .. ardorff's (1974) num .. rical model "f the da~ time planetary boundary la~ .. r to ealculat .. tb.- maximum concentration expected frum df .. ctiv» release heights (z,) greater than about O.0:!5lj. Th, "alculated maximum j!:I'Ound·le\d concentration (C"ux) and the distance ('max) at which it occurs art- ~\ .. n b~ the formulas

(7.18)

(7.19)

SI .. IIL-\RITY \lODELS Of D1ffLSIO;'ll 49

lh .. result in E".7.18 implies that Cmn <X 7.,-1 which is in disaltf .... m .. nt with the predicti"n .. f tIlt' I;auseian mod .. 1 (~rn by Eq. ~.9) that em", <X z~·l. Oho;.-natiun of fumigation in (la~ tinn- ...... Iiti .. n~ i~ 1I0t detail .. d e nuugh to I ... rmit ,,·I .... -tion of on,· 1II0,1..! over another.

Problems

l. With the use uf th .. same codfi"i"nt 1:1 a~ that d-rived UII Earth. ~oul.1 ~ ou "'p"d th,· plullh··ri.-.·

Mluation ~ = 1:1 Fot.s-'" to I "did on \lar.·' \\ h~ ':

2. What is tlw i-'I'otllld·I ·1 eroSilwilul·intt·)!I'at,·.1

eoncentration during neutral conditions at a distan ... • uf 200 m f[1'II. ~~,: .>l'U' c .. for roughness (zo) "'1ual ttl I ern, friction v.-lucity (u.) -qual to 0.:; 111/""". and surfa,·., SOU",'e st""n!!th (I) .. qual ttl I 0 .pSt·.··~ Calculate the concentratio« on the plum .. avis a,..urrUn!! 06 = 0.1 .. "dian.

3 .. \:;sum .. that th.· rou~ln"ss It'ngth -quals O.;~ em. There is a continuous sourc» of str .. nglh of :i ,/sec. What is the ratio of th., ground.leHI cr~wil1'l. integrated concent ra tion for L "'lila; to 10 m to the growld.levd crosswind-integrated concentration ior 1. equal to -10 m at a downwind distance of 300 m? How d.) plume axis concentrations compare with tho .... · made by u,;ing the standard Gau-sian formula? (.,,"sume same Oy for both methods.)

t. The mean h .. ight (Z) can be calculated fur th .. otandard Pa,;quill-Gifford- Turner Gau. ..... ian plume modd (half of area of Gaus..ian curv e is within 0.670) for a surface-level source with full reflection. Calculate the variation with x of z for neutral conditions for the Gaussian model and compare it with Fig. 7.1 for Zo = I em. Bow far apart ar .. the twu i .. sumat ....

... at x = 100 iii!

Gradient' Transport (K). Models

8-1 THE BASIC GRADIENT TRANSPORT MODEL

Chapter I, Sec. 1-4, give- .. a derivation of t~ continuity equation for a substance (C). wh"re turbulent fluxes of C are assumed to be proportional to the mean gradient of C:

(8.1)

The basic gradient transport model can be wr.tten:

ac ec ac ac a . ac

-+u-tv-+w-="+-K - at ax ay az: ~ ax It ax

+.l.. s, ac + aa x, aaC (8.:!)

ay ay z: z

So-called cross-diagonal terms, such as a/3x (K1i 3C/ay), at .. not included here, because they ~ usually insignificant.

It ill important to point out that certain time and space SCaJeIO are implicit in the diffusion equation, The mean wind component» (u, v; and w) and mean concentration (q represent alieragH (}'let a time aaJe (T.) and ,;pace scale (1&). Vdocity tluctuatioru ..... ,,;th time and spiic.: ,;cal" lese than these value!! a~ coasidered turbulence and are implicitly included Lot the K codflcienu. Howe-nt, u shown in Chap. 5, the rate of di!Cuaion of a plume <kpenda on the plume liiu. Th •• tatement contradict» the diCfWiion equation. wl-.ieh UiiCS coestant Ie,. We can conclude that the .liCCu..oo equation iI nJid or.ly if the ..ue of tbe JAumr. • gruttt than the iiz:e of the dominant t"rhule-nt eddies IiO that all of the turbulence in:plic,t n ~ i.. w.ing ~ ~ the diffwioo.

i'vmt iOUI'Ct» and the ditfu.ion .. quauon ~ d>d .. fl>n.- wmpatibk foe vrrtical dif{u,;iou when the ">u,, .. '" IM'U the ~und, whe~ turbulent e ddies are

sure to have scales less than the thickness of the plume. FOI" greater point release heighu (".g., tall stacks), the diffusion equation should not be used until the pollutant of interest is spread out over several hundred meters.

8-2 ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

Equation 8.::! is impoNiible to ,;01\' .. ana.1~ ti,:all~' Ioe completely general functional forms foc the diffusivities K and ",ind sprt'iis u, lI ... nd "'. B .. furt' the d.oa~s of computers. it lOb a popular n ... ,,:iSf' to solve this equation foe l!p«iflC forms fur K and u, Can;Uw and Jae~ (1<)59). PLilJuill (197~. l'p. lOS. 116). and Sutton (1953) give further details. \hll~' of these cases are highly instructive.

8-2.1 One·Dimmaionai Equation. TimeDependent, Conatmt K. No Wind. lruiantmem. Area Source

Consider a sim;JliCied form of Eq. 8 o.

(8.3)

That concentration (q \aM only with time and distance (1) and that diffu.;i\ih (K) ill "constant an! aa;;;umed. BoundJn .:onditiollllue

t: C .11: ,,'

.a ,

... ~ ./ ill the !.IJDtantarleolU .art' .. sourer >tr .. r~ (moL'-O pr.r unit ~ .. ). Th .. thi. proU e m :oimulatt-f an

so

reached that the particles no longer remember their

l_

instantaneou.: emission from a v .. ry· lar;!:.. plan .. surfac e, Th- solution is

(IU)

which has (;au~sian form with th .. standard .1 •. v i. tiun of the distribution (a) ~\'t''! h~ th .... quation

a = (:!Kt)"

This t~P" of diffusion (constant K) is call .. d Fickian diffusion. TIlt' implied relation b-tw-en a and K is often u,,·d hy rt . ." .. archers to estirn .. t.- th .. diffu,.i\·il) (K) from th e obs .. rv-d diffusion paralllt'h'r (a). Ilow e-ve- r. a qui •. k look at the assumptions lila d.· to d .. rive tlei., rr-sult tells us that it is likd:. to btquestionabl .. because diffusi\it~ (K) is seldom a constant 10 ~pac .. and tim-.

\ot .. that the a 0: t'" d"p"nJ..nc .. in Eq. 8.'-' is th.· same as the functional dependence given by Eq.5.6. the solution to Taylor's statistical diffusion equation at large times. An assumption important for both solutions is that the cloud of pollutants is larger than the spac .. scales of th .. turbul .. nt eddies. Th e follow. in!! eelation can be obtained by equating Eqs . .3.6 and 8.5

K=~T

(8.6)

where T is the Lag,nngi<III time scale. This equation, like ['I' 8.'-', has ')lkn ht-a. used to estimate the Lagrangian time scale .. ~":II, caution is advisab! .. in appl~ing any of these formulas which are derived under highl~ restrictive assumptions.

8'l?

- ... -

Three Dimensions. Time-Dependent, Cocstant K. No Wind. Instantaneous Point Source

The solution in ~ec. 8-2..1 is simple to eXpilnd to thoee dimensions, ",hich implies d!!fusj(m of a puff from an instantaneous point .000rcdQip(m ...... )] in an environment with no m .. an ,.ind. Tne iliffu,nity is ",",um"d constant in ,m~ ,,;""n uirec tion but can btdifferent fof' different ,1Jn:tioru;. The k~ic .-quation and Loundarv conditions ar e

c - u •• t - "" . ..it v. ~ . l

C - 0 .. s t - l),.Li1 , .. v , l ~:I.l:t'pt< z !}., = I). l = i)

I:

- -- ------- -- .... __ c'__.

GRADlE:'<IT TRA:-iSPORT (1\) "ODEI.S SI

Th .. solution is

(H.B)

This solution. like Eq. MA. j" (;ans"ian with standan] deviations

(8.Y)

This type of diffusion is also known as Fi~kian diffusion.

8-2.3 Two-Dimensional, Time-Independent, Variabie u and K. Continuous GroundLevel Line Source

Diffusion from an infinite cru,. .. ind rontinuousline source is described b~' th .. f"lIuwing simplification of Eq. 8.2:

(8.10)

... ith boundary conditions

C -+ 0 as x. I - 00

... here QI (in mass per unit 1<'r.l(1h dj,idt'd u\ unit time) is the t:on.lIIuuu.....!ine eource str .. nj!th. The third boundarv condition ensures t.~t th,·r .. i,; (1) 'iu:\ Ijf material into the I",",,<"r ho-Jn~~ (i.e .. ",'T'Uuod).

\lu~h ... ork baa b.. .. n do., ....... , ubtair.ing ana" tical ,ulutions to this .-q~tiOCl fur 'p"'·ui .. d funt:t;"nal forms fur I\:z and u. Thr,.., solutions .1I0uld l.,., ap!JIl.-d to .~l!n'i·'e\d sources .JtU\. fur whICh rt:iJ\ ,IZrS.lre ~ .. ner.Jl~ It::» than ""uml:' "ut'. P.obrrt. (14::31 La,,' the t:orr .. ct solution fur L~ t:ontiitiuns

3.::.!1

52 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

The generalized solution if,

ulzm-n+2 1

X (8.13)

exp zr-n (m _ n + 2)2 KI X

where s = (m + l)/(m - n + 2) and r is the gamma function (t!.g., Abramowitz and Stegun, 1964, Chap. 6). Representative values of m, n, s, and I'(s) are listed in Table 8.1. The first nine values of I'(s) in

Table 8.1 Gamma Function for Typical Values of s·
m n I r(l)
0.9 0.1 0.679 1.33
O.S 0.2 0.69"2 1.31
0.7 0.3 0.708 1.29
0.6 0.4 0.727 1.26
0.5 0.5 0.750 1.23
0.4 0.6 0.778 1.19
0.3 0.7 0.813 l.IS
0.2 0.8 0.857 1.11
0.1 0.9 0.917 1.06
0 0 0.5 1.77
·First nine rows assume m = I - n; last row aMUme5 con-
stant K and u. Table 8.1 are calculated b~ using the conjugate power law, m = 1 - 11, which arises from the surfaceboundary-layer relation

2 _ L' au u - ,,-

• az

(!U-l)

Since the stress u; is constant In the surface boundary layer, it is required that m = 1 - n if K <X zn and '_! <X zm.

For the simple case of constant u and K (n = m = 0; the last column in Table 8.1). the solution is Gaussi.an:

~ot(" that, if we _urne t == X/UI, the standard deviation of the distribution is

(8.16)

which is the same result as that obtained fur d'''_' instantaneous Ut2 source in Sec, 8-2.1.

Pasquill (1974) giv~s references for further analytical solutions under the conditions u = constant and

K a: (h _ z)a

(0 < z < h)

K a: z(h - z) (0 < z < h)

K a: z (0 < z < hI!!)

K <l: (h - z)

(hi!! < z < h)

8-2.4

Three-Dimensional, Time-Independent, CQI18tant u and K, Continuous-Point Source at Ground Level

For continuous-point sources at ground level, we can assume that u aC/ex » a{Kx aC/ax)/ax; i.e .• advection dominates diffusion in the downwind direction. The basic equation ill then

ac

u-=

ax

a(Ky aC/a,") + a(l\z 3C/3z)

oy az

(8.17)

C - 0 as x. y. z - 00

C-ooasx.y,z-O

. 3C

l\.z 3;- 0 as z - 0 and x. y > 0

J; 1.: «c dy dz = Q, z > 0

where Q is continuous-poi nt-source strength (rna ... per time). The approximate solution for u and I\y = Kz equal to constants is

Q [".2 zl 1

C=--ex -' ---- 8U!

-I:rKx p -I1\(x/u) -I1\(x/u)] (. )

The problem with this solution is that axial eoncentration drops off as X-I, whereas observations show that x-I. 15 is more .. ccurate. The reason for this error is .he assumption of constant K. which results in a failure of the diffusion equation to account [or rapid difiusion at small times, where .. e knew that a should be proportional to x. However. the constant K diffusion equation can give WI only a a: x "'-

The only situations for which the solutions described above are accurate are a continuous ground-level line source and a continuous or instantaneous g-ound-in-el area source. Here the diffusion scale is ah.ays grater than the turbulence sale. These methods are abo valid at tilJlCS or di6tanc~ downwind beyond which the diffusion scale is !~er than the u.:rancian time or distance scale. Ho .. ever.

__ _ __ ~ __ .. '" .. , "'~"".>", -- .. _»,., ., "' ,'G"",,, ""..- ,., , _ _IIQO·'t. ~!IP."_~,:Iji".".La:_ euauaa:c.

these techniques should not be used for such situations as local diffusion of a neutrally buoyant effluent from a tall smokestack.

8-3 NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF THE DIFFUSION EQUATION

Analytical solutions to the diffusion equation are interesting but are limited in applicability by restrictions on K and u, Furthermore, because of physical limitations, the models should not be applied to elevated point sources. As a result, analytical solutions are no longer widely used. Thls is in great contrast to computer solutions of this equation, which are very common. Time and space variability in K and u call be handled by carrying a large number of grid points in the computer. Major problems are numerical instabilities and the fact that our knowledge of the distribution of K and u is not up to the potential of the computer.

8-3.1 N umerical Instabilities

Computer solutions are obtained by stepping forward in time or in space. If a random error introduced at some point will amplify indefinitely with each succeeding time or space step, then the solution is said b be numerically unstable. An analysis of Eq. 8.~ shOW5 this:

An explicit finite diffetence approximation to this equation is

Ci+ 1 J - ~J = (K ~)

X (~,j+l - 2CW + Ci,j.l) (8.19)

wl:~.e i is the current time position and j is the current space position (see Fig. 8.1). By writing C in complex form, it can be !!hown that this ""Iution is numerically sUhle only if the following condition is met:

KAt 1 ,;hl<;!

(8.::!O)

Ihus. if the difiusivity (K) is 10 ml/arc (t}pic~ ·iaytime boundar)' !.~er) and the grid distance (Ax) is 100 m, ~n tbe time step (olt) mUlit be I~ than 500 _:, or about 8 mm. If .I time step oi 1 he wl're

GRADIENT TRANSPORT (K) MODELS 53











n - t n n + t
J • • •
m + t m + t m + t
t .1.
! n' t n n + t
e
a: • • •
CI m m m
w
u
"
"-
II>
n - t n n + t
• • • •
m· t m - t m - t
• • .....,__4t---.e •
-TIME STEPS •







.-._ 8.1 Wuatntion of numberinc .yllem far ('mite diffennciD& &ricL

used in this problem, the numerical solution would "blow up ....

This restriction Oil .:1t cal'! he somewhat relaxed by using more accurate finite difference schemes, Even if the solution is stable, however, there still is some undesirable "diCfusion" that appears soIdy due to the fmile difference method. The advection term (u aClax) in Eq.8.2 is especially noted for ita contribution to numerical diCCusion. A standard technique for studying the diffusive characteristics of a finite difference scheme is to begin with .I eosineshaped hill and then advect it around the edge of a circle by using the equation

ac ac ac

-TU-+V-=O

at ax ay

(8.21)

The soIutirJlIIi for six different finite difference techniques .tudied by Long and Pepper (197(:) are plotted in Fig. 8.2. In each cue the hill ia advected once around' the circle. The second moment, cubic spline. ane! Oupeau function do not distoet the hill too much. Howevee, numerical diffuaion significantly distoru the hill in the donor cell, fully implicit, and Crank-:\icol&on schemes. If these schemes wl"re used to sotve the diffuaion equanon, it would be difficult to know if the calculated diCfU8ion wu real or numerical,

Other techniqUI"tl can be used to get around the pcoblem of numerical diffusion. The llecond·moment scheme ~wd bv F .... n ~nd \f.l.n.._ 110'7')\ L..J __

54 AntoSPHERlC DIFFUSION

DONOR CELL FULLY CRANK- SECOND CU8IC SPLINE CHAPEAU

(Upwind Oiff.....,.,ing) I .... LICIT NICOLSON MOMENT (~""ngian' FUNCTION

'.~'.~~.

INITIAL DISTRIBUTION

SLIGHTLY MORE THAN % ~EVOLUTION

ALMOST

1 REVOLUTION

'.

:~

THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONTOURS

rJC. 8.% Applicatiaa of ah types of DUlJMricaI ~ to IOIve the..tvectioa equatioa (8.%1). The Initial coline !ail .at the top of e" __ The .est tine r .. eaue the diRribut£oaaftlllltiltc from .,.u:atiou of the .-aldle_ to adYKtian .. a cirde _d the pIue. (Adapted m. 1.0 .. aad~,l976.)

to this class and was evaluated in the paper by Long and Peppel (1976). Spectral approximations sug· gested by Prahm and Christensen (1977) are useful but are too complicated to describe here. The Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method (Lange, 1978) iii sometimes used, ~here an effective velocity equal to the actual velocity minus (KlC) aC/3y is used to transport particles.

It is subering to think that none of the very extensive work described in this section ruu ar.ything to do with tllt pltY'U:J of the diffUl>ion problem. The purpot;e of thi. wurk is BOIdy to speed up the computer ~ulationa; snd to make them more true to the physical equation.

8·3.2 Specifyin, the Vertical Diffwhity

In mc..4t applicationa of the &,,_dien t tran1ifJOrt or diCfuaioa1 t..Juation at aaJr.a let· dvm 10 km, the horizontal diffusivity (Ky) is neo;iectl"J, but tho, variation of the ~ertica! diffl»i\'ity (Kz) muat be ;'!IU'ffi. In addition. tho, vertical v.ullon of the "'lnd speed must be input to L~ model, Ali a result. in tho, comparison of the GaUllllian and the gr .. ~nt tranJi.port modd., the qUettic:.n redU('ea to the relative accuracy of two ~mpirical puamdrra. 0. .nd K •. At this point. K. iJ probably leu well known thau 11. at

heig:lts above abuut O.hi. T~ old adage that you cannot get something for nothing applies to the diffusion modeling business also. The gradient transport modd ~y be ph~sicall~' attractive, but it encounters problems when the time comes to speci Cy x;

The eddy diCCu.si\ity coefficient can bt- a.o;umed to equal the eddy conductivity coefficient (Kh). In the lowe,;t 50 to 100 rn of the atmosphere (z -=-O.lzj), formulas by Husinj!"'r et al, (1971) (Eqs.l.36 and 1.39) can be used:

..

I." - 0 3" u.z ~I - . ..J <lb(zJ L)

~(ziL) = 0.74 (1- 9B-'"

:\ot~ trul Busingt'r et OLI. prefer to use 0.35 {Of von K.Urruin', ':onsunl (1..). During davtime eonditions and itt heighu bt:twt'eft about O.ll:i and O.7Zi. K. can be ... umed con.totnt, -llh I \a1ue equal to iu \,d~ at O.lzi. Aboo--e O.ilj, K. probably decreairli line.d)l to a amaII y':ue at the roWng Migbl lj. Thil t)pr of b.-haviur wu reported b\' Crane. Panoc..k~. and

Zeman (1977), who calculated Kz Irom observed vertical pollutant fluxes w'C' and gradients aC/az over Los Angeles during the daytime. At night Kz is quite uncertain above heights of about 50 to 100m but probably has some small residual value, say 0.1 ml/sec.

The coefficient Kz used bv Smith (1972) is based on a suggestion by flanna (1 %8) (F.q. 1.63):

where Am is the wavelength of peak energy in the w spectrum. The parameters aw and Am can be calculated for all stabai.y conditions by using Eqs, 1.42 to 1.47. 1.57, 1.59, and L.82-

In Smith's aru:ysis, he solves the diffusion equation and then extracts az Irom the calculated concentration distributions, The j!QaI or this work is to devise a revision to the Pasquul-GirCord az curves, where az is dependent on surface roughness as well as on stability.

Other researchers use diCferent formulas foe Kz• but common characteristics of these formulae are a linear variation near the l1ound, a constant value at mid-mixing depth, and a decrease as the top of the mixing layer is approached. For example, Shir (1973) recommends the formula

(8.22)

which is based un a theoreticalan.uysis of the neui.ral boundary layer. The depth of the neutral boundary layer is about 0.25 u.1C, where r is the Coriolis parameter. Equation 8.22 is plotted in dimensionless Corm in Fig. 8.3.

8-4 HIGHER ORDER CLOSURE

The derivation of the gradient transport equation i.1 Chap. I. See, 1-4, used a»umptioOil or the form

C=C .. C'

This reaults in the ~aran~.)f. oe<.:?"d-tJC~r "" kIlo,,'n tennl like w C and v C In l~ conbnwty equation. So that the .~iitern .:an be closed (i.e., reduce the number of wtL.owna to equal the number of equauoes), these terlOil at"- e!imirwtrd by makinjg h~ poth.:~ like

:'Iicw the morAn nJ~ C ia the onJ~ unknown in the equation iiAce the diffLIIiDitv K ......... _~ tn I-

GRADIENT TRANSPORT (K) MODELS 55

.

~

0.02 fK,tu!

0.03

0.04

n,. 8.3 DiIIIeaaioaI_ plot of Shir', (1973) formulatioaf .. Ks.

known. This method of solution is known as "first order closure." However, thi~ closure aseamption is not alwa)s valid; (or example. at the top of the mixing layer ia .=- upward nux IIC heat agairu;t a positive temperature gradient. ALso. iIS just shown, the diCCosivity Kz is highly variable and j,; not ", .. II known in the upper half of the milling layer.

We .. an eliminate seme of tbese problem,; (and perate some new probielOil) by 1molUng a higher order closure. Consider the z component of Eq. 1.16.

3C 3C ~

-~w-=H·"

at 3z ~

(H.23)

Suh6titute w = W • w' and C = C • C' into this equation, and WiC the continuity rqu.tion to cunvert waa3, to 3 .. c:al.lRm, mllltiplying the e quatioo by w' and ner.png l'i... .. d.

3 ~ 3 -. =: -, 3 --r::7C 3 ~C.

-wI .. -( w w"-lIWW ..,.-w ..

at . al - al 3z

= H • S (8.24)

56 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

closure is introduced to reduce the number of knowns to the same value all the number of equations.

(8.25)

In this expression A is an (unknown) length scale. This same procedure could be followed to generate methods of third-order, Iourth-order, or whateverorder closure you desire. With each new. order a new unrestricted term on the plus side is gained. but there is a longer, more-complicated. string of governing equations on the negative side.

At fIlS. sight the introduction of the new length scale A appeal'll to be a problem. It turns out, however, that A in the second-order scheme is not as variable as K in the first-order scheme. Donaldson's (1973) review of second-order closure models gives methods of estimating A. He shows that these models give predictions of boundary-layer winds and turbulence ~-hich are in guod agreement with observations, However. at this point second-order closure models are useful for basic research only and have not made their way into the field of applied diffusion modeling. They WlUally consume large amounts of computer core and time.

Problems

1. The wind is blowing (rom the west at 5.0 mI see at a height of 5 m perpendicular to a highwa) with carbon monoxide emissions of 1.0 g m -1 sec-I. The power law parameter fer the wind profile is 0.1. and the diffuaivity Kz has a value of 1.0 m'l/sec at a height of 5 m. Plot the variation of ground-level concentration with downwind distance from the highway for x = 5 m to x = 200 m, At a height of 20 m, at what downwind distance does the maximum concentration occur?

2. In a numerical model for bomb-debris transport in the upper atmosphere, Ky equals 106 m/sec. and the grid distance Ax is 200 km, What is the range of time steps that can be UllCd to ensure numerical stabaity? Assume that a simple explicit finite difference scheme is being used,

3. Plot the variation of Kz with height up to 100 rn by using (1) Blainger'j formula and (2) Smith's formula. AYume that L = -100 m and Zi = 1000 m,

4. Plot the variation of Kz with hcight up to lOOOm by using (1) Smithi formula and (2) Shir's formula. Aaoume that L -= 50 m, Zj = 1200 m, u, = 0.5 m1~.-;, and f = 10-4,;-1.

-"'1- ---- -- -- -----.--

• __ •• 221 __ ... c .... _, .. , ... · -----------.- ... --.-

Urban Diffusion Models

9-1 IMPORTANCE OF EMISSIONS

An urhan area contains thousands, or even million-, of individual sources t!;at range from small sources, such as incinerators. to large sources, such as POW" plants, Th .. application of a diffusion model to e ach of these sources is impractical. even if the assumption can usually he made that the contribution. of individual sources to the total concentration at a point are additiv e _ Consequently we combine most of the small sources into larger area sources of strength, Q. (mass per unit time per unit area), and assume that emissions from the ground surface are uniform over that particular area. An example of average annual area source emissions for SOl in Frankfurt, West Germany, is giver. in Fig. 9.1, wh<!fe a square grid (4 by 4 !un) is used. ~Iost area source-emissjon inventories are given on square grids, although often the grid size may vary 0\'1:1' the urban ar .. a.

Diffusion from the largest point sources can be calculated individually, and the resulting eoncentrations .. t a receptor point can be added to the contribution from area sources, The number of point souro-s treated this way is usually between 10 and 100. Some pollutants, such as carbon monoxide. have very few point sources, whereas others. such a.; 50l• are l'D<Jstl~· emitted from poir.! sources. An accurate emiso;ions inventory is e>iientiaJ for successful urban diffu~n modeling, This inventory includes a knowlrtlg" of the seasonal, weekly. and diurnal var.:ltions of emiso;ions.. H emissions are not known within a factor of 2. then the diffusion model has that error imposed on it even before it starts workir>-i:.

9-2 BOX ~IODEL

The ~umption that e mts.;ioJns in an urban arta ue constant over a di.tance ..lx. which runs roughly

from one edge of the urban area 10 the other, is often useful. The pollutant is then assumed to be uniformlv mixed in a layer of depth Zi between the ground and the mixing height. The wind speed (u) is assumed constant within the layer (see r~. 9.2). An additional assumption can be made that the mixing depth is increasing with time (azi/at), as it dot}< in the morning. The concentrations upwind of the city and above the mixing height are <=i> and Ca. respectively. Then the continuity equation for this volume is:

. ac az'

~ Zj at = ~x Qa + UZj (4 - C) +.h atl (c. - C)

(9.1)

Olqe in = source + change due

C with to horizontal

time advection

+ mu.ge due 10 mixingbya growth and .crtieal ad.ection

Some simplifications are possible. If conditions are steady state (aC/3t = 3&;/3t = 0) and the background concentration (<=i» is zero. then the solution is simply

C> ~x Qa Zi U

(9.2)

This is the wdl-known box modd solution.

Lettau (1970) defines the equilibrium box mood concentration given by Eq. 9.2 as C* and defines a llCaiing time &t/u as the fluahing time required for the air to p_ completely over the urban Ana. eeflfi~ a nondimeNion.t1 time t· = tul ~1. Then. if <=i> and C. can he neglected, Lettau " (1970) liimpl iftc .. tion of EAt. 9.1 can be written:

ac 3:T=C*-C 3t

(9.3)

which has the lilliution:

(9.4)

$1

58 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

•• km

Fi" 9.1 Aye .... uunaaI SOJ _ lOUI'Ce _.... (ia mil ..... per Iq1We me_ per JeCoDd) for FrmIdurt. W. Cermuy (Ha-. ... d Gifford, :;'917). EIIIiuiou are priated ia the eeat« oZ the ... by -l-IuD crid ~ &ad iIopIetba baled _ theIe .. ilia are aWL M~tarinc ltatioa loc.tioM are eird..d.

t:.(CONCENTRATION ABOVE MIXING DEPTH) 3z.;ot (CHANGE OF MIXING DEPTH WITH TIME)

.'~F..'/ ;//,/

~.

(BOX WIDTH)

c,

(UPWIND BACKGROUND CONCENTRATION)

C (UNIFORM CONCENTRATION)

o,,(AREA SOURCE I

~

.. here Co is the initial value of concentration, As time (l.) int'1'ebes., the concentration (C) in this equation ilppcuaches the equilibrium concentration (C") given (,~ Eq.9.2.

\'"wtram (1978) points out tlat. if the source l<l'm C). MlddenJy drupe to Im,I in Eq. 9.4, the l'oocen!ntion Ippeal"l to decrease exponentiallv, drupp~ to 0.37 Co Iftl'!l' one ilUihing time ~!u has d .. p~. loto:_ o( the UllUmption of rapid mixing

and rc;u1ting uniform concentration in the OOX mudd. Reali;tically, howevtl'. ib clean air enters the urban area, the pollutant is swept out; so, after ~x/u. there should be virtually no pollutant material left in the box. Venkatram suggests instead a "slug model" that gives the (0 II 0 wing solution Cor the situation where emissions are suddenly shut off:

... (9.5)

/

However, it should be recognised that a fundamental assumption of the box model is that there are no extreme dunges occurring, such as the situation sugg.,;;ted by V enkatram,

The box modd is often used "-S a screening mudd, wht're, (or example. a government agency ~t wish to identify a few substances in a long list oi toxic chemic. emi.:;.~ionz; that should he !ingled nu! for special attentio". In mm~' case s, though. t! .~ bux model h.u been used u the ba~ic "orkhor.;e In a diffusion stud~, .. 00 it has been found to r~Corm quite "'ell An example of this i6 the Ipplication of a photochemical box mudd to ozone air quality in Houston. T l"L. by Oeml'!l'jian .. 00 ~chtl'e (1979). They use Eq. 9.1 .. nd retain the rmal term rdaing to

changes due to vertical advection. Ozone is often trapped above the inversion layer OVtT urban ar .. -as at night and is mixed down to the surface by the growing mixing layer the next morning. Their application requires a 32-km grid size- The most complicated part of the model is the 3~step chemical kinetic mechanism. They find that predicted hourly concentratjons of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxid .. , ['IiOx. and ozone are within a factor of 2 of observed concentrations. They had an advantage here that might not be available at other locations in that detailed emission estimates were made as part of an Envjronmeutal Protection Agency study in Houston.

9-3 THE ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE AND DIFFU~ION LABORATORY MODEL

Th .. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory (ATOL) urban diffusion model described by Hanua (1971. 1973) and Gifford and Hanna (1973) is essentially a box model with the height of the top lid proportional to the vertical .dispersion parameter (oz(Ax)] rather than to the mixing depth (Zj). For grid distances (Ax) less than about 10 km, oz(Ax) is significantly less than Zj, which is typically 500 to 100G m. This modd uses the integral form of the Gaussian plume model and treats an area source as an infinite array of infinitesimal point sources of stren~~h Qa(x,)). The concentration Cat pc.int x = O. y = 0, z = 0 is given by an integration over the upwind half piau .. (Gifford. 1970):

c = r-f- [~ exp (- -t)Jdy dx (9.6)

Jo _- ITUOyOz ~oy ~

". here sources are assumed to be at ground level, Gif(ucd'~ (195%) "narrow plume hypothesis" p-rmits the elimination of the y dependence in Eq. 9.0. As shown in Fig. 9.3, a t~pical plume that subtends an angle of only 10° tto 20° crosses lines of constant Qa in such a way that little accuracy is lost by assuming that Qa is a function onl~' of x. In this case Eq. 9.6 becomes

1:- f ... o ,

C = 2/1C1 _,a_J dx

o· UOa

(9.7)

Tha can be written in the form

... Ax 0 C = (2/1C) --:b

U Oz

(9.8)

which is equivalent to the equilibrium solution (Eq, 9.2) to the box modd.

URBAN DIFFUSION MODELS 59

\ ,\

\ ,\

\ ,a.J

-,

\ au

all

----- allx) APPROXIMATION so THAT

01 IS A FUNCTION ONLY OF x

---allx.y)

ISOPLETHS OF AREA

SOURCE EMISSIONS

F~ 9.3 lhItnlion al unow pIu_ bypotbaiL For !DOlt purpoea, emiliiDDI caa be colUid«ed • fllDCtiota ollly of diltaace x.

Next, the solution must be written in a form consistent with the typical ;;quare grid that is used to present ....-ban emissions data, Consider Fig. 9.4, in which the receptor point is located in the center of grid square "0" and upwind grid squares are denoted by subscripts 1.2. 3, ... N. The grid size is Ax. The solution is obtained by piecewise integration:

c = (2/rr)'" (.f 4x/2 Qao dx

u 0 Oz

f34X/2 I) )

+ ~ dx + . . . (9.9)

41/2 Oz

W"assume that Oz has the form

(9.10)

Parameters a and b, suggested by Smith (1968), are listed in Table 9.1. The so .... ce strength within each grid ;;q uare is assumed to he constant,

u _

0.0
\ all au 003 ••• c ...
\_ I--~a--i RECEPTOR POINT

flc. 9.' Ana _. &rid patten _...t ia dae ___ til Eq. 9.11.

--~---------------- ----

60

ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

Table 9.1 Parameters a and b in Eq. 9.1 0

Par.aeter • b

V.r)" unstabl .. t:Mlabi. Neutral

E.itimatrd Pasquill 0 Stabl e

0.40 0.33 0.22 0.15 0.06

0.91 0.86 0.80 0.75 0.71

Smith's (1968) parameters are assumed to apply tu buth urhan and rural regiolll!. The solution is then:

C = (2hr~~~~2~~ -b l- + tV3i [(2i + l)1-b -(;il-I)I_bJ} (9.11)

Values of the coefficients in the summation term for several values of b and i are given in Table 9.2.

Table 9.2 Values of Summation Term [(2i + 1)1 -b -
(2i - ])I-bJ in Eq. 9.11 for Various Stabilities
and i Values
Stability
Va")" P.qaill'.
... table U .. table Neutral D Stable
1 0.10 0.17 0.25 0.32 O.lH
2 0.05 0.09 0.14 0.18 0.22
3 0.04 0.06 0.10 0.13 0.16
" 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.13
5 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.11
6 O.OJ 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.10 GeneraUy, N is the number of grid blocks necessary to reach the upwind edge of the: tuban area, Equation 9.11 iB IDOI!t valid foe time periods of about 1 hr, for which the a. values in Table 9.1 apply, and the wind d"edion and speed are fairly uniform (±20°, ±30%).

Extension to longer averaging tima is mad;: by "{.h-ing Eq. 9.11 for a varidy of wind directions and then weighting each result by the frequency with .. hich the wind biowl from that d"edion. When the "!nd direction a'0IIIe1 emissions grid squares 'i~U.I~I~-. as in Fig. 9.5, an arbitrary scheme must be .j~, ... ."j f~ indudinc the squares in Eq. 9.11. A1Iio. .:.~ mlLft be multipl~ by I/cl» M, wbere M is the ,J.,pattu,... of the wind direction frot.~ north to IlOUth .~ I2tt to ,"cot directio .. (0 < !:J8 < 45j. A comJ>UlOT ~m for thew c:omputatiom, ",hich includes JIlV" -..~ loc pyint MJUn:e:a. ia p-en in a report by

~---.NE C'5 / WINO

/ /

C25

a~~ / /

/

Cst ~ ~ 0 0 ~ 00 0 ~ ~~ = a a 0 ~o

\_RECEPTOR

E WINO

flc. 9.S Method of accolllltillc for .,. lO_ee emiItIiona wIND the wiDd directPIl iI at .. aacle to the crill III_rei.

Hanna (1973\. The Gaussian plume model is used foe point sources in this program.

After this technique had been applied to several urban areas, it was noticed that the calculated wncentration (q at any receptor was usuaRy p-opor· tional to . he emissiuns Qao in the grid square in which the receptor was located. The reason for this is that the distribution of emissions is usually quite smooth and the coefficients of the upwind Qai terms in EAt. 9.11 are quite ~maIl For most applications, it is sufficient to use the simple ATDL model, which is obtained by approximating the various source strengths Qai by Qao in Eq, 9.11:

C = A Qao u

= (2/Jr)'" r.:l7.(2~ + I)/2],-b Qao

a<1 - b) u

(9.12)

The dimensionless parameter A is evaluated in Tahk 9.3 for several values of Ax(2."1 + 1)/2 (distance to edge of city) and stabilities. Approximate values ror ..\ for UD.!ltahIe, average annual (das D), and stable conditioru; are 60, 200, and 600, respectively. Slightly different estimates oC A might be maJe if Briggs's proposed formulas for or and a, in <In urban r~ion (Table 4.S) \OW" used in •• ne dn-ivation Ivllow . jog FAJ. 9.9. GilfoN and llanna (1973) ¥mf..-d the am;·JaJ value of :!OO, usiDf: _~ndni particle data from several l'. S. cities. and llanna (1978) ¥~ified the varioition .. 'ith stabiJi~. ~ carbon monoxide da14I from several cities. ~1 ob.enatiollii are belt

---- --- .. _-.; .. _--- -_ .. --- ...... _, _._.

Tablr 9.3 Eyaluation or A in Eq. 9.12 ror Varirnao City
SiUli and Stabilitifoa
Stallillly
Ot, .... V..,. ,_... ..
~2I'f+ IY2,. -.IiIe v ...... NfttnI D s .....
5000 411 57 100 ISO 545
10000 51 63 115 213 667
21.-000 54 69 !32 258 814 simulated if the parameter A predicted abc v is divided by four, presumably to account for the tact that most SOl sources are elevated. On the other hand, carbon monoxide observations in most cities an' best simulated if the parameter A is multiplied by three, presumably to account for the placement of carbon monoxide monitors near busy street s, Howrver, A is calculated to equal about 200 (its value in Table 9.3) from data from the St. Louis Regional Air PoUution Study where munitoring stations are placed a",a) irom busy streets in schoolyards and parks. In any case, the model described in this section ideally predicts concentrations over a broad area.

9-4 STREET CANYON ~~D HIGHWAY SUBMODELS

The box model and the ATDL model can give the average carbon monoxide concentration over a broad area (say 10 by 10 km). In J street canyon or adjacent to a highway in an urban area, there is an additional contrihution to the concentration from local sources, In this case the total concentration Cis the sum of a spatially .. ~eraged Ca and a local ACI component:

(9.13)

Johnson et al (1976) outline methods of estimating ACI. Consider the street canyon in Fig. 9.6, where the important variables are defined, If the wind is more or less Jl()rmal to the street, the equations for the concentration ACI in the street canyon are:

Le.-side,

(9.14)

0.IK\5-0.15 W(u • 0.5)

(9.15)

URBAN DIFFUSION MODELS 61

where AC = carbon monoxide concentration (ppm) N = traffic flow (vehicles/hr)

S = average vehicle speed (rnilrs/tu) u = wind speed at roof level (m/sec)

W = street wi.ith (m)

x and y = horirontal distance and height (both m) of the receptor point relative to the tea ffic lane, respectively

K = dimensionless "best fit" constant

The data suggrst that K "" 7. For wind dir .. ctions nearly parallel to the street,

Equations 9.1-1 and 9.15 art" subj~ct to some revision since the average emission rate (e.g.. grams of carbon monoxide per vehicle mile) changes with the vehicle vintage and type of mixture, which would thus modify the numerator (source term) of both exprlS.ion ..

The excess concentration ACI contributed bv a major highway in an urban area is important (or perhaps 200 or 300 m downwind of the highway. Many highway diffusion models are referenced by johnson et al (1976), but most are based on the Gaussian model for an infinite line source:

(9.17)

where OJ is line source strength (in IJlaS6 pc-r ::..it time per unit length), H is the effective height of emission.; (probably 2 or 3 m), and ¢ is the anglc- between the

TUffle lAJIE

--------.------~

fie. 9.6 S+ aric 01 ~ • ciraIIatioa ia • ._. cay __ (F_ W. 8. J ..... L Co su.. •. ... D. B. T_. llrIIIIII Air o-IIty s-latioa ~ ill A.t ,~ ... Vol. 1. 3nI ed... au.. 10. p. S30. A. c. St.. (Li.), A.cM..ic "-.!'f .. \'..n., 1971·1

_ ...... --..- - ..... - _ .-- ......... -- -- ...... __ --_ .'-'-

nrioua Jt.ahility eoaditioN. [From T. W. Hom.

62 AnlOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

wind direction and the highway. An initial value of Uz (f'_g., 2 01' 3 m) is assumed to account for the turbulent wake behind moving vehicles. If d is the p .. rp .. ndicular distance from the highway, then the J istance x to be used in evaluating Uz is d/ sin ¢>.

9·5 COMPUTERiZED K MODELS FOR URBAN DIFFUSION

In Chap. 8, K diffusion models were discussed.

Th .. basic equation was given as well as various techniques for estimating K. ~Iost of the applications of K models to urban diffusion described below took place in the mid-1970's. Anyone interested in using any of these models should consult the original reference since the models and their input and output are too complex to cover full~· in this brief summary.

9-5.1 An Urban Diffusion Model That Also Predicts Winds and Temperatures

Panddfo and Jacobs (1973) applied their K model to estimate carbon monoxide concentrations ill 1,0;, Angeles. The model was originally developed for studying the dynamics of the three-dimensional planetary boundary layer and includes radiative exchange processes. I:!a;ic dependent variables are wind velocity and temperature, The diffusion equation was easy to add to the list of governing equations since the pollutant concentration h:.s little feedback to t':e other equations. The model accounts for sloping terrain through the continuity equation.

With all the sophistication of this model, it is surprising that the carbon monoxide predictions made by this model are no better correlated with observations (R = 0.6 to 0.8) than predictions made by other models that did not include weather variables, The explanation is apparently that the other models used the most recent observed winds and temperatures at each stag .. .., ",hich are more accurate than the ",eather pn:dictions of the Pandolfo and Jacobe (1973) model. There seems to be ~ paradox: to run a complex model. "'e need good .,Lt..:rvaLona of initial and boundary data from a n .. t .. ock of instrumenlil. H"",ever. if these instrumo-nu. ue in place and operating. there is often no :"!I~>t' a need for the complex model

In ~ traj~ model. a bos with dime~ior.li of 1 to :j ~m i. A.td to move .. ith the obeenni wind.

which picks up pollutants emitted by the areas it passes over. Vertical diffusion takes place by means of a vertical Kz coefficient. Eschenroed..,.. ~lartinez. and NOI'dsieck (1972) developed a model of this type for application to photochemical pollution in Los Angeles. The advantage of the trajectory model is that calculations must be made for only those few trajectories which end at the monitoring stations.

9-5.3 Grid Models with Winds Prescribed

Several models use a fixed grid and assume that all meteorological paramet .. rs are known. Generally observed wind speeds at specific stations are int .. rpolated to the grid points by means of a l/r: weighting scheme. Only a few models ( e. g., MacCracken and Grant, 1976) adjust the wind field so that mass continuity is preserved.

Vertical Kz profiles are usually linear up to a height of about 100 m in these models. Above this height Kz is assumed constant and sometimes d .. · creases near th .. top of the mixed layer (see Fig. 8.3). Models by Reynolds and Roth (1973) and by Shir and Shieh (1974) are typical of this group. Horizontal diffusion car. often be neglected for area sources. but in some models it is handled by specifying a constant

Ky. .

Plumes from point sources cannot be r,,:'O!vffl at

scales less than the grid distance and are usually arbitrarily assigned to various grid squares 011 the wis of the length of the trajectory ov .. r the gritl square. Pollutants whose major sourc .. is tall stacks cannot be accurately modeled at small scales bv grid models.

9-6 ENVIRON~lE.'iTAL PROTECTION

AGENCY MODELS ,..

A set of diCfusion models recommended ev the U. S. Envieonmental Protection Agency is available on magnetic tape from the :'Iiational Technical Information Service, C. S. Department of wmm-=e. Springfield, VA 22161. Eleven models are in this ''CNA.\!AP'' system: all are based on the GOIllSI;ian formula described in Otap. 4. The latest urban model (RA\I) uses the ATDL Cocmulationa (or an-a sources derived in Sec. 'J.3. The cast of models in this 5~st ... m is continually being updated as new models ~ developed and evaluated. For example, plana have been made to include .. modd Cor urban reactive pollutants in the near future. Turner (1979) gives iI detailed rn'iew of the statw; or the l'.\A .. \l-\P models u or 'b~' 1979. The ~p~ndix to his p .. ptT i~ reproduced in this chapter .. T~bl e 9.4 ... hich very

briefly describes each model and gives references to users' guides.. The models are all state of the art and are quite satisfactory. Some ar- conservative: i.e .. the predicted concentrations are probably higher than the actual concentrations.

9- j MODEL EVALUATION

~lo:;t urban diffusion models yield correlations between hourly values of observed and predicted concentrations at a given station of about 0.6 to 0.8. This result seems to be independent of the numb IT of statements in the computer program. Good results depend mainly on good knowledge of emissions and wind velocities.

Hayes (1979) and :\appo (1974) discussed several methods that can be used to evaluate models. These include:

Biu evaluation: R.itio of mean predicted concentration to mean observed concentration,

Error • ..ty_: The mean square of the differences between predicted and observed concentrations is calculated.

Time correlation: Correlauon between observed and predicted concentration distributions with timc at a given station.

Spue correlation: Correlation between observed and predicted eoncentration distributions across a monitoring network at a given time.

Peak analysis: Comparisons of magnitudes and locations of peak observed and predicted concentrations from point sources are made.

Distrihutio. fwIctiou: Observed and predicted cumulative distribution functions are compared to see if they wr signifICantly different.

The types of results obtained from some of these techniques are illustrated in fig. 9.:. A small bias in an urban diffusion model can be corrected merely by "adju,;ting" the model by using monitoring data. Of course, if there i; a large bias, the modeler should look carefully for fundamental errors in his physic .. assumptjons or computer program.

Time and >pace correlations are useful. but \01' should realise tb.t corrdation coefficients can IJl&5k many strange vWtiODll in the data. For eumple, aMlme that tM ohoiened cooc:entratior» at nine monitoring statioh! are aD 100 mrJm'• and the oh.ot-n'~d concentration at a tenth station ill 1000 miml. If the mudd pndicta 100 m';ml at the fint

UR8A~ DIFFUSION \'OOELS 63

5f-~1 ?'

4 •

J

(.l "

2r ·

~[ x











x

x

x



x I

6

I 5

I 7

o

2

J

4

8

9

10

TIME. h,

• Ob ..... ed. X. Predoc:ted.

The b~ i. -0.5. '.e .• Ie., - c"l/c., = -0.5.

5 I -T-~
Ibl -j
• •
• • • x • --.
I
• x • • --
x 0
0 2 J 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
TIME. h,
•• OIHenoed. X. Predoc:ted.
The time CQf'r.rl.tlon A '10.15. and b.iS IS -0.2&
5
lei I I 7. i I
10 8 1
4r- • • -
9 1
6 1
Jf- • • -
>- 1 7
2f- 4 -

15 5 4

If- • 4 -
13
0
0 2 J 4 5 •

e, lJr'bAn I'I"IIOftttGl'''I sUtO"l'l.

Nu_ -.-:sC.

If'Id numbtr ~k)w IS predICted C. The ..... carnIat_ R •• 0. 76. &d t.;a .. 0.

F'1Io 9. 7 m..r... 01 (.) bia, (b) t8e CJDrft!Il iDa, .... (e) .,,_ CIOft1IUtioa.

rune .tatiOM and 105 mrJm' at the final .tation, tbe correlation R wi! be a perfect 1.0. Coo.;iqer an urban ~a with ten obl.erving statiOOli, all reporting concentratioo. between 80 and 120 mrJm' . The mudd may do w~· well predicting the mean cooc:entratiom. with walUei ~twet'ft 80 and 120 mrJm'. also. However, there may be a \ery low corrdation coeCficienL In thia ca.;e the mudd ia unfairly given a low rating by the ~tiaI corrdation method . .\ combination of ~aluation methods i3 bait, includi.l~ a iUbj«:tiYe judgment by an e.1~rienced modder.

AT\tOSPHERIC DlFFU!,10l"l

J.o J_ J- \.. UX uy oz - Vip

(8.12)

URBA.' DlFFlSIO~ .\tODELS

3 ::c: ~ ::c
;.,0 -< '"
~ .... ,.. <I:
~ ~ ::c:
<I:
;. ~=- 1::h

i=

:t= .:

~ E E;.

i~ ~ §

.. .

1~

E ~

<j ..; ~ =~

:;-';

to- ~

=2. : r:

,.-

12

65

::0 ., ..

. ' .

66 ATMOSPHERIC DlHUSION

Problems

1. If the initial concentration in an urban area is zero and the sources are s • uddenly turned on, how many "flushing times" will pass before the concentration "quais 95% of its equilibrium value.

2. What is the concentration in the receptor block of Fig, 9.4 if Pasqulll's 0 stability class is valid, wind speed (u) is 2 m/see, and grid size (~x) is 5 km?

(1) Qao = 10. ()u = 5, Qal = 20, Qa3 = 2 mg m-2 sec-I

(2) Qao = 1, Qat = 20, Qa:z = 20, Qa3 = 10 mgm-2 sec-I

-,

!I

(3) Compare the solutions in (1) with the answers you get from Eq. 9.12. Ass-nne that there are no sources bevond >oquar~ 3. 3. What is the concentration at receptor 5 in Fig. 9.1 for east winds with a speed of 3 m/see and D stahilitv c!.lSi;?

-l ~totow'n, USA, has a street 20 m wide ... ith 500 vehicles/he driving on it at a speed of 20 miles/hr. Wind speed at roof top is 5 m/sec and wind direction is perpendicular to the street. Background or area source concentration of carbon monoxide is 4 ppm. What is the added concentration 011 the windward side of the street?

"~:~.\ 'j. . '. \ 1 ( )

'" I

~¥:.' .• - " . . .

Removal Mechanisms

10-1 INTRODUCTION

\Iu"t air pollution is eventually removed from the atmosphere. either by transport to vegl'tation, soil, or water or by chemical transfurmation to another compound, For example S02 is removed by al: these mechanisms and has a half-life in the atmosphere of a few hours or days, depending on rain intensity and relative humidity, other chemicals in the air, and surface characteristics. On tilt" other hand, about half uf all the COl we put into the atmosphere remains there. TIlt' difference l",twl'l"n the atmospheric halflives uf SOz and COl is due to their reactivity with ,;uL~·.41I<:"s in ti u ~ air and at tl ... ground surface.

\1 .. thods of transport to vegetatiun, soil, or water include dry deposition and precipitation scavenging. Despite extensive field and laboratory experiments and detailed theoretical calculations, there is much WI certainty connected with fundamental parameters, such as the dry deposition velocity.

10-2 DRY DEPOSITIO;'i

10-2.1 Gravitational Settling

Particles with radii grt'ater than about 5 J,lm have sigruficant ;;ra\ita~onal settling speeds, Stokes' law fur the terminal settling speed (v t) is valid for particles with radii I.,,;;; than 10 to 30 J.lm, depending on particle den,;Jt} :

(10.1)

.. h .. r .. Pp is parucle denaity nul J.l is the dynamIC \l~Ueit} uf air (1.8 X 10-4!. scc-I ~m-l). Fur p"rtid~:; with L .. r;; e t radii, 'tol.. .. li' law must be modified somewhat, and the or-aphical aolution given

by Van der Hov e n (1968) for spherical partid e s with densities of 5 wem3 is plotted for ... -a-level situations in Fig. 10.1. Settling speeds for particles with different densities (Pp) can be approximated by multiplying the speed in the figure by (pP/(5 w"m3) J. The settling speed of nonspherical particles can be calculated by dividing the speed of the equival e nt spherical particle 1 equivalent radius re = (3V p/411'}\ V p = partiele volume] by a dynamical shape factor a. Typical shape factors are shown in Table 10.1 (Chamberlain, 1975).

Van der Hoven (1968) suggests that, when Vt is greater than 100 em/sec (radius r> 100 J,lm), the particles are falling through the turbulence so fast that diffusion is no longer important, In this case particle ~ajectories are .calculated by a straigh t·

~ E

u

5 to' 5 to1 103

RADIUS ... m

rc. IG.l Cnri&adaul -l1IiIIc .... 101' .....

_ aI 5&1_1 _ .. _,. •• ..". ..

~ ~V.cLrrHo-.I96I, .. __ )

68 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION
Table 10.1 Dynamj~ Shape Factor a"
Shapet Ralio of axes 0;
F.llipwid 4 1.28
Cylinder 1 1.06
Cylinder 2 1.14
Cylinder 3 l.U
Cylinder 4 1.32
Two sphere, tourhing 2 1.10
Two s"hrre~ touching 2 1.17
Th ... e spheres touching
A. triangle 1.20
In line 3 1.34
In line 3 1.40
Four sphere" touching
In line 4 1.58
In line 4 1.56 • Frum .-\. C. Chamberlain, The \Iovemrnt of Parlirleo in Plant Communitie s, in Veg"'a,jon and th» ,4'moaph"lI'. Vol. 1, Chap. 5, p. 157, J.1.. \1ont .. ith (Fd.), Acadrmic PreSA. I.ondon, l'Ji5.

t In ali lash preferential motion is perpen./i,·ular to lung axes.

:t.lhlio of terminal velocity of equivalent ."hrrr 10 thaI (Of particle.

f"r", ard balli-ties approach that is based on the wind ", .. ·.··1 and the gravitational settling speed.

F... a III of I .. ss than 100 cm/sec (radius r ~ I 00 ~m), the particles are assumed to be disI't'r,..·,j by turhul .. nee in th .. same way as partid .. s havilll! II" illl'rtia .. \ plum .. mo.!.·' i~ used, bUI hI! " xvillu :,; :;lIktitult'd f .. r dr~~~II" plume height (h) to account for I[ra\ itatiollal .. -ttling. This model, called the "tilt .. d plllm .. model;" is illustrated in Fig. 10.2. Deposition .. f l'.1rtid.'S .. ith j em/sec ~ \1 S 100 cm/sec al the ;!rulilltl at .JII~ p .... ili .. n x. y i. !DHn by th .. expression

W " VI C(x.y,O)

( 10.2)

",lit',.. W is th .. deposition rate in nIL"'; per unit area p<"r unit tim ... In a Ga ...... ian mudd of Ihis situation, roughlv half of th e matt"lial is depoo;ikd b~' a distance hu. \t, wh .. r .. til e partide plume centerline strik .. s the

roc. IO.~ rllltPd piuaw .. odft. n... ..,.._ u.i.t ....

_ ... _.... ...

,

ground. Thus, for h equal to 100 m, u equal to 5 m/sec, and 2~lUD-diameter particles with densities of 5 g/cm3 (VI = 6 cm/~c). about half of the material is deposited within a distance of 8.3 km.

10-2.2 Deposition of Gases and of Particles with Radii Less Than About 10 pm

Very small particles and gasrs are abo deposited on surfaces as a result of turbulent diffusion and Brownian motion. Chemical absorption. impaction, photosynth .... is, and other biological, chemical, and physical pnx:esse.; cause t.'l<' material to be retained at the surface. In this case a deposition velocity (lid) "an be d .. fined as an empirical [unction of the obSl'rved deposition rate (w) and concentration n .. ar the surfae e (Co):

w Vd" Co

( 111.3)

The h .. ight at which Co is measured is typically about 1 m. Once Vd is known for a given set of conditions, the Iormul .. w = VdCo can be used to predict dry deposition of g;JStoS and small particles, where Co would be obtained from some appropriate diffusion model,

Many methods of incorpoeating dry deposition into existing effluent dispersion models are available (see HOIik e r (1980) for a survey]. Even the r .. l a tiv .. l~ simple (;atbSUn plume model has been adjUl'ted for Jry removal by at Icast four techniques. The most common, and one of the .. asiest to Q.."". is the w-called "source tkpletiun" model, in ".hieh the apparent strength of the source is allowed to vary with down".illd distance 10 account fur the diminishint( amount 01 material remaining aloft. The rate of change of Q with distance is

ao f-

~'-- __ w(x,y)dy

_ (:!) .. lid!) -h' J:,,'

- - - --e '"

:r uOa

(WA)

Graphical oOIutiuns to thili equation with the use of standard P.1l><!ciU-·I,ilford curves for 'J, .I,.. ~'''II b~

V__ -1 __ 11

• I • .' , '., •• , • - ,". .. ' ...

----------------_._--

used instead of the usual fixed."ource strength (I) in the Gaussian plume equation (Eq. ~.I). Table 10.2 uses Van der Hoven's graphs to estimate the downwind distance at which :-~~ of the plume is depleted for a wi",! spt! .. J (u) of 1.0 tnlse»: and a deposition speed (vd) o( 0.01 m see. Because of the t'XP (hl 12ai) term in Eq. I tl.5, the distance (or 50~'" depletion in Table 10.2 is nut a1way~ a continuously decreasing function or stabilitv (uC' any !!i" .. n source height. This mode] implicitly a .. ieumes that depletion occurs o,,~ the whol .. d~pth o( the plum .. rather than at the surface; the plume's v .. rtical profile is therefore invariant with distance,

Ta"l" 1O.:! Distance in Kilometees at Which 50% C£ I) I~ O .. pleted h) Dry Deposition as a Functiou of Pa..;quiJrs Stahility Class

alit! Source Height*

PaaquilJ'. m. G 10 50 100
A and 8 >10
C 1.13 18 43 60
D 0." 3.5 8.6 19
E 0.15 2.2 8.3 17
F 0.10 20 10.0 28 The "partial reflection" model, summarized by (h-erc.amp (1976), is a somewhat different approach. In this instance the "image" term (involving z + h) in Eq. 4.1 is preceded by a reflection coefficient (a), which is thus a fraction of the strength of the real source, This coefficient is determined by setting the deposition flull equal to the difference in Iluxes from the r"at and i~e terms, The plume is a11iO allowed to "til," to incorporate gra,itationaJ sett!ing of large particles ,d terminal apttd (VI):

The rdlcdloH <odfiCl('nt [Q:\J.G)! ':an ~ cornput .. d ~. >ohlll:o( an 1J1 • .,u~·it I'd~lIQn for 'G

(10.7)

REMOV AL MECHANISMS 69

2vd

a(x) = 1 ._ (10.8)

Vt t Vd + [uh - Vt") ai I (daJdx)

In this model dry deposition removes material from the lower portions of the plume, which therefore begins to show a non-Gaussian vertical concentration distribution. In unst.obl" conditions, because of rapid mixing within the plume, the results from Eqs, 10.5 and 10.6 are not very different; in stable conditions, however, the flux to the surface estimated by using Eq, 10.6 will be significantly smaller than Eq. 10.5 would suggest, especially Car downwind.

Horst (1979) has compared the results of various deposition models, He concluded that, close 10 the source, the partial reflection model is the easiest to use and is fairly accurate. Far downwind, however, the source depletion model performed better than th .. partial r:f1ection model. He then suggrsted a modified version of the source depletion model which permits the plume v"rtical profile to vary with distance. Fidd data to validate any dry deposition model are brgely unavailable or inadequate [Sehmel, 1980). nie modd is selected m'lItly on :he b.is oi the physical plaWlibility of the model's _umption,; and predictions.

A knowledge of the dry deposition velocity (Vd) is necesaary to operate any deposition model. Both nr asured and theoretical e::tiILJatt:S of v d are cornmonly used (Sehmel, 1980). Some theoretical models of depositiou assume the deposition procl!Sli ii analogous to electrical current flow acrOil resistances, In effect, the deposition spe .. d (vd) is inversely propor' tional to the sum of an aer..xlynAlllic resistance to turbulent ma;s transfer (r.), a resistanee to tranafer acr068 the surface boundMy layer (rb), and a r .. • sistance to transfer into the surhce (r.). In principle, then, deposition speed mould be a function of roughn". I"ngth, friction velocity, and many other ~ parameters. Wir.tl·tunnel dab &how clearly the dependefl~t on rougbnesa length and friction velocity. However, field mealiUl'ementa of d"puNtion speeds contain much .catter and do not a1waYi agree with theorics or with me.lliuccmdlts in controlled Ubora· tory en\ironmenu. The values of Vd recommended in this chap&« are hued on rmeW1 of fidd d~ta by \tc\l&hon and Denison (1919) and Sc-hmd (1980). Original rderencd are gnen in their rnic",&. \\'~ ubttnrily tilUme that the fidd measurements uc man: rd.i&bIe than thcontial ettimate..

Fipre 10.3 .nOWI me.&iiW'ed dcpotitioo ~eJ. fOf' particle. to graM. Foe particles I.ugu than about 1 ~m, turbulent diffu.oioa and gravitational iOCt~ are the dominant ~. ",bere_. (or partid ...

om.olk, than 0 I ,,_ ",,-,_._ .t;1I.~_ L _

10 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

o Field tneilsurl!'meflts

,:

\0-0 \

l~JL-------~--------~------~~----~

1(,.-2 1~' 1(;:; 102

PAR'!ICLF. DIAMETER.;lm

'IC- 10.3 LahonIAXJ iieid _:emeota 01

depoM .... ..-. of 10 &n& IFnw T.A.

Me~ ..... P.J. ~ EmpirieaI ,~ ~tioa P_ten-A SUrw-J, At ... _ [".,iron... 13: 1000 (1919); by" perr' doa of P",_ Pr-. Ltd.)

indicate a minimum in "d (or partid~ between 0.1 and l um in diameter: the exact value (or Vd is oredicted to depend on such things as particle demit), friction vdocity (u.), and surface roughno;s (zo). Figure lOA shows 1) pical calculated ulUOI. However, the scatter and sp.usity of th e fidd data preclude a vigoruua validation of the expected beha,ior of Vd, although the gener.d trends seem to ~ verified, The inac :UJ"lICit:S "f the data sugg~t that, in any parLcular mudd calculation, a ru.~~e (oflt:n oeders of magnita.ie) of ~e Vd values should be ~ rath"r than a illlgIe estimate, such as th e a" .. ~. 11111 will place upper and lower bounds on the computed (Iepolition m;Wu, whic!! is realJy all the :.Il:curaC) that can be expected with the present sta:.e of th~ act.. ,-\ few eO«ial ca;.rs in whit:h the depoeition rate is ,Uam.tiaUy ~eu are known. For example, the depolition of partidn to a f~t anopy is about 2 to 16 timca AI gnat &Ii that O11tt open terrain. wberea. m~ give rue to an ordtr"Jf· m.agrut"..Ide inere ..... in Yd. 3p«i&! caution ill ",arnnteG Cve Wluauai t)"pd of &lcund cun,.

'ol&ny me_tc'menu vi lid for ga..ea h..,e ban ITfJort..,j by 'oldlahor. and Dt-rti6on (1979) and So:hmd (19aJ). lliological U'd dWnUcal actrrity pLa~ uy rulQI in ~ depooiition 4l1d may. in Ca.:L prVVl-k the ratN'1Uti~ ,upoi Cor depotJbon wJ upta..k~. for <!~e. rd.tivdy i.,ul ~ ~h ...

- 1.0

-- 4.0

·····11.5

10-3 - ",/

11). I

10 PIlRT;CLE DIAMETER. urn

'IC- 10.4 PrecIic~ cIepo8lioa .... ocitiea at 1m rOl" .. " SO Cft1/,. and pa1ide cleA>iliea 0( I, 4, a.,d 11.5 clem'. iF..,. G. A. Seh_. Particle ancI ea. Dry Depo.itioe: A ~. Alma&. EM;,., .... 14: 100% (IllS!>); by pe=' ;"" 0( h~ Pt_. Ltd.)

carbon monoxide, 1) pic4lly ha~e nearly negligiLle deposition speeds, 10-3 to 10-4 em/sec. If me ~ is biologicdly or chemically active, however. the meajUred deposition speed is likely to be on the ord .. r of 0.5 to 3 cm/S#!C. For e:~.ample, SOl deposition speeds for various surface typd are summarized in TilLIe 10.3 l'ok'olahoo and Denison (1979»). Th" \d fer SO, in for""u j,,; not .ignifIcantly enhanced uHr that fue gr...,...,s ur ':rujl'> .. \ dependence <HI "inu speed cannot be discerned from the auil .. ble d .. ta. Ourillg the "light or the winter, when stom .. ta a re closed, ~d is about if f.tClu, of 2 to 51,,>iS til .. n during &WJlm"'r day •.

The tiepoo;ititln .p«d of other r"acti\'e ga-.; is iiiIlUiar to that of SO:. 11 j,,; d .. posited at VI a, e rage ~ (vd) of 1.5 CfUJiI"C. and it haa rdativdy tilde !IiC~tter. 4:hone is de(JOlloit..,j .1 a spor",d (Vd) rVlgill~ &om 0.02 to 1.-4 t:lnJ>«, "'ith an 2'o~e epe e d of 0.5 t:m/i<:C. The Iv"'~t !.UOrw .kpooition "p" .. d.; ..... !'"tc' vO..t-oeG O11e, wakr VIti .now (Vd "" 0.1 em/sec]. Alao, the OZOrw dcpoation .~d for neutral conditio .. appean to be lWitt .. I~ u that ('Ie un.:stahle coOOitionll.. \!any other upcrimental facton inIlumnd the m;ulu, tiUCft .. re(a-enu height. rvu~ DCa, iWU<..~ conclitioD6. etc., but tht- data do not

Tabl" 10.3 SOl Deposition Ratt!l!l*

Suriaee Yd,em/fIIC C~_t
Short grasa 0.5 0.1 m in h e ight
"'~dium crop 0.:' 1.0 m in h~ighl
Calcareous soil 0.8 \lid or dry
Acid soil 0.4 Dry
Acid soil 0.6 W e l
Dry snow 0.1 If wd, behaves like walu
Wal~r 0.7
Countryside 0.8
Citi ... 0:: Baird on London dala only -From T. A. "'c ... ahon and 1'. J. ~nioon. Empirical Atmospheric Deposition Param"'~n-- . .\ SW"v~y, Almo,. Enciron.. 13: .")75 (1£.:79); by permission of P e rgamon Press, I.td.

permit any quantitativ .. conclusions regarding these factors.

io.a \l'::T DEPOSITI01\

TIlt> '.J. .. on-tical treatment of wet d .. position is of"'n divid .. d into rainout (within cloud sca\"'!lIging) and .... a-bout (!..clow cloud ,cavellging). In practical applications lilt' two prlX'es»e:; ar e g e n e rally lumped togdlwr ,inc e they "an 1.: e modeled similariy [.ce the r .. ~i .... s by Hosker (1')00) or :-:linn (1981 \ I.

There an- abo two methods of. ding this

problem. In the first the concentration (l assumed to o.-crr;ce "lI.p~:n .. ntially with time:

at) = qO) .. -/\1

(10.9)

wh"r" .\ is tilt' >o-ealleJ ,.cavcngil:g coefficient (time - I ) and t i. lime since precipitation Legan. The precipitation-induced flull. uf effluent to the ground is d\O:'n b~

L' -JZ"\(-J

r .. e t - I) . - z

(10. lOa)

wh"re Zw ,s the depth uf the "dted plume i .. ~er. FOC" r .. l!l ( .. lIin.: •. um!JIdd~ thru~h" r;alh&iolll plume.

(10.1 UbI

i h .. me th od '-". ,tn"t1~ ,p .. Ainl!. ~pplil"ahl., onl~ to partidc" df .i -inDO> ,,{ZC (ffiO,u.xti.p.-r..c) VIti to tU;;lh rc"~m,, .:;IX'S .... hich .IT<' lTTe~",nlbly captur .. d b\ th .. pr"clptt;ttiun_ Furthermce-e; the t.icri\:ttion uf Eq. Ill.'} ,lI>uh..." the .-umpuuo that the sc .. n'ljOn~ ,·..,.,ifiu .. ut .... ndependeru ui !..oth 'p.A<:e "lid urne. In

___ J .1: _

REMOV AL MECHANISMS 71

Val')' with position to aceount for ::""n~"s in pr .. eipitation (and hence in ,...avenging rat") ')v .. r th" region of interest, The seav .. nginjt coeffici .. nt method cannot be applied dir .. dly 10 aerosols with a rnngp of diamet e rs (polydisperse) 1I111t"..; an .. rnpirical value of A is availabl .. for partid"" of that t~ pt. and size. III particular, a ,..,awnj(in~ coefficient cannot be appli .. d for an "awragl"'" particle whthe >ize is equal ttl the geometric m .. an of the partido: .-izt: range ; th .. seav .. ngin~ rate will .... IlX' small by mun- than an ord .. r uf magnitud ... MdhtXls of estimating >-cav"nj(ing cocffici .. nts fOC" polydisperse a .. rosols have ht,.". summarize.I by Vana and lIall'S (1'J7u). Th .. ,;(,av .. nj(in~ cu..rfici .. nl method is also not applicable ttl P"'" ".hieh are not highly ~aeti\e or whid. ar .. nlt!r"I~ suluhle in wal..r since it is e:s..-<ntial in sud. ,.a.....",; to iK'Count for the pu,..;iMe desorption of 1(01""" from droplets .... tlw)" fall from ~1!i"'1S of high ,·rnll"nt cOIll'cntraliun ( ... g., an "',,,'atn.l plum .. ) to ... arll th .. grounJ (lIal..,;, 1972). Soluble j!as,!S are discu.~se" in r .. ports by Hales d al. (1973) and !'Iinn (197 ~). ~inn has found that dOM" to the !>Ouree the shape tiC a GausaUll plum .. is unaltered by the wet removal pcoct:>lS but tile concentration diminishes np',""U' tiaJly with distance. Far from the source, the plum .. i~ "washed down" or "tiltn.l" from ils initia] Iwight I,y iUI amount dependent on the precipitation rate, droplet size, goas ch .. mistry, wind sprn.l, and ,Iislan.·" downwind. The v .. rtical di..persion parameter is al"" enhanced by ill. amount .lrongly okpenJ,'nt 011 droplet size,

Other methods of modeling wet r .. muval use the so-called wa;houu ratio (Wr). Let ko and Co b.- th .. eoncer.tration of effluent in tho- precipitation ( ... g., raindrops] and in the air, respectively, at some reference height; both quantiti ~ are measured ill unit of ntaMi per volume. Then

(10.11 .. )

Otl,er ddinitiolUl are ".idcly used (e.g., \Idl"hofl and lknieon. 1979); let k~ lie the e{fluent concentration in the precipitation in tcmlJl of m_ ("_go. microgram,; per !P'iI'D of tllO). In thia CiII!C the .. a.;hout ratio is .. ritten u

(IO.llb)

wbe~ p. iii the dc:naity of air (-1.2 X 10-3 glcm1). The dirne~tlcu rati .... are related by

72 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

where Pw is the density of water (1 g/cm'). Thus Wr i:s almost 1000 times as large as W'; since both definitions (Eqs, 10.11. and 10.l1b) are common in the literature, the user must be careful. In the following discussion, W, i:s used Ioe convenience.

The flux of effluent to the surface as a result of the precipitation is just

Fwet = koJo

(10.12)

where Jo is the equivalent rainfall rate in, for "xample, millimeters per hour. If W, is known and til" concentration in air (Co) can be measurer! or ""timated from a plume model, then

(10.13)

111e washout ratio can also be used to define a wet deposition velocity by analogy to the dry:

Fwet

Vw == -c;;- = WrJo

This can then be used like v d to develop models for tile wet scavenging process. An analysis (summarized by H""ker, 1980) of the microphysics of the wet scavenging process yields an approximate relation between the scavenging rate and the washout ratio:

(10.14)

(10.15)

where Z", is the depth of the wetted plume layer. Hence the washout ratio can also be used in exponential decay models of wet plume depletion (Eq.l0.9).

The .cavenging coefficient (A) is theoretically a function of droplet size spectrum, physical and chemical char .. cteristics of the particle or g;ls. and precipitation rate ... tc"Wlon and Venison (1979) report 20 field experiments in which A .... as measured for particles which gave 1\ a median value of 1..3 X 10-4 ~c-I and a range from 0.4 X 10-5 sec-I to J X 10-3 sec-I. They found wa:;hout and rainout coefficients to he neMIy equal but did not find .~st .. marie differ .. nces in A as particle size or raul duractenstiCb changed, Their median value of A for ";01 is about 2 X 10- S sec-I, and one laburatorv r,pdi~nt show e d that A = 17 X 10- 5 g ". whel~ I') L' r.unf.111 lin millimeters per hour) . ..\ value uf ,\ rJ"~n" from IU-5 to 10-4 ,,",c-I implies a half·lif .. :.~ .. '" rrmu·.~ pcoco.ec; ranging from aiJout;! hr to 1 ·l.n. Ttl«" uee of .at< nging coeffici e nts (or wet

~~m ~1 moddiJll iii pro~y best r e garded ... .,.

."I ·.f· rnaClJtu.d~ ... timation procedure. This ti

,;.6t .. ·"Lut. rrur If <"lDplrica.l values of ,\ #e w~uil· .Dk .. , '"~PI#"pru1l' for I he t:onditionli at Iun.J; thus

theoretical estimates of A must be used. The procedure is most useful {or single episodic events, where the available theory does permit some adjustment for the peculiarities of individual storms.

There are many field observations of washout ratio (W r) .... hich can he determined by measuring pollutant concentrations in air and in rainwater. The washout ratio has been observed to decrease with precipitation amount during any given experiment, presumably because the poUutant cloud becomes more dilute. On the averag e , Wr decreases by a factor of 2 for e ach order-of-magnitude increase in rainfall. Over half of the .... 3..40ut ratios (Wr) reported L) Mdlahon and Denison (1979) are in the range from 3 X lOS to 106 with a median of about 6 X lOs. There may be some variation with pollutant type, although the r.tnges in ob.erved W r fur different pollutants generoilly overlap each other and no statistically significant diff e rences can be proven. \\a~hout ratios are proLably best suited to long-term estimates. in '" hich the variability induced by sin~ .. le storm events is integrated ouL

10-4 CHEl\UCAL REMOV AL

Primary pollutants are these which are emitted directly into the atmosphere, such as SOl, CO, and NOl. Secondary pollutants ere those which are created through chemical reactions imoh·ing the primary pollutants. For example, sulfates form ... hen SO, is oxidized, or ozone i .. foemed wl..,n a mixture consisting of \0:, NO. and reactive h) tlrocarLuns is ,;oLjected to sunlight.

Oft e n an exponential chemical deca~ rate is assumed with time constant Te:

C(t) _ -liTe ((0) - e

(lU.1IJ)

The conversion Crom ::01 to sulfate is often treated a,; an nponential process. but there is much debate uv .. r th e proper value for the time constant (T e)' The reaction rate depends 011 humidity and the pre~nce of atal)·sts, and thus Ie h. been measured to ranze from an hour to ,;e"enl days. A t~ pical value of Te used in long-rang e UaDIoport models is ahout ~ d.a~ s.

o.~mica.l relllOloai em abo be studi e d b~ UPII~ the kinetic equations, F .... ~J.ampl e , assume tilat th .. followi.ng two ::hemicAl Linetic e quauons are v ali d:

IL, U·t:-.\

( 1U.18)

where 1..1 ami 1..2 are rate constants (concentration>! time-I). Then the rate of change of concentration of substance U due to chemical reactions iii given hy the equation

dCo I C' I C C

-- = "I ACB - "2 -0 E dt

(10.19)

This term should be added to the right-hand side of the continuity equation (8.2) for suhstance U. Equation 10.19 is often used in the analysis of photochemical "lIlog. The act of chemical kinetic equations for photochemical smog is in a continual state of development: a recent model (Falls and S.,inf..td. 1')iU) u,"" :;:; equation» . .\ rough ~"llt'lUatic .liC!l(ram of >nll>:! [ormatiou is !ri\en ill Fig. 10.:;. I'ril1la~

• 'mi:..sil'lls t:on~j"t of hydrocarhons, \0. and scllne \°2, :'unlight (hv. i.e .• energy of a photon frum suuliglu) results in the formation uf free radicals and the ultimate production of the problem pollutants ozone (0) and peroxyacetylnitrate (1':\\).

10·5 REMOVAL PROCESSES IN THE BOX ~IODEL

Chapter 9, Sec. 9.2. presented the box mudd. in which concentration (C) is assumed to be unifurm across a region of along .... ind width (&) and depth (Zj). RC'mO\a1 procC'sscs in this mudd can be accounted fur by using- the models developed in pre\ ious sec tions:

rIC- lO.S SimpUfied cllacr- 01 pftolodwait ....

~_Oou. "" ia !he ~ 01 • pGOloa (m- 1).

_dR •• trw .........

RE~IO\'AL MECIIANIS\1S 73

If a steady state and no upwind baekgruund ar .. assumed, the continuity equation for Ulis bUll he· comes

~ll Q. - uZiC - VdC ~x Sourer Adnc· Dry de.

lion poeition

I .... I ....

- AC ~x zi - (CITe) ole'( zi - II

Prreipib. Otcmiealle,""

lionl0C!8

(I tJ.:!O}

The solution is:

I). (~X!IIZ'I)

C = .,..----.:..:;_--.::......--_

{I + [(vd/zi) + A + (lITe> I (.lX/II))

( !tI.:! I )

Th .. numerator of Eq. 1O.:!1 <'} • .l:l./IIZI) i, II ... steady-state boll' model solution in the ab.ent·" tor removal processes. nil! terms in the 11"numinator all act to decrease the concentration. R"a1izing that ~x/u is the Ow;hing tirae {or the box, we can then tJlink of all these correction terms as the ratio of th .. flw;hing time to the characteristic removal time seal .. for that process. The small .. r the removal time -cah-, the greater the ratio and the smaller the couceutration (C). Typical values of the parameters in thiequation arc

vd = 0.01 m/sec A = 10-4 8CC-1

~X = 2 X 104 m u = 5 Ill/sec .

Zj .: 500 III

These parameters might be used Ior urban :'02 pollution on a rainy day. The d .. numinatur in tilt' equation (or this eet of par a meters is U,US 1.88 .... huh implies that th .. concentration i.~ almost :;0', I.'S..~ thau that !riven hy the simple b"x IIIC1eld ... ith 'It) rO-III"\al pro~'Cs..cs.

Problems

l. Particles with radii of 50 IJm and densities of 5 ~cm3 are released at a rate of 1 g/'!>f:C in a nonhuoyant plume from a atack 100 m high. What is the deposition rate on the plume nil! at a distance of 100 m from th .. stack for D ,;tahility and ... ind speed of 5 m/scc?

2. For the situation in problem I, wlut fraction of the original (!ffluent ill still remaining airborne?

3. The area source ,;trength of S02 ill an urban re~on of width 30 km is 10 mg m-2 sec-I. \1i1in~ depth is llun, and wind ,;pc~J ill 3 m/sC't.:. \\ hat would the concentration be (a) in the .u.,..,nte uf all' removal process, (b) ~millg onl~' dry deposition. (e) azs6Uming onl)' wet deposition. (d) ..".,urnjJl~ onl) du~mic:a1 remos aI. and (e) aseuming dUit all three removal mechanis ..... ar .. "'hft~'~

Cooling Tower Plumes and Drift Deposition

11-1 I~TRODtrCTION

'lore and ~;,re cooling towers are bdng constructed today to conserve water and prewnt the discharge of h .. ated water to streams, lakes, and estuaries. Hot water from the industrial prace".; drips over wooden or plastic barri .. rs in a cooling tower and evaporates into the air that passes throu~h the tow .. r, As a result, about :HO calories of heat are lost for each gram of water evaporated, Cooling tow .. rs can be tall (-150 m tall and 30 m ill radius) natural-draft towers (Fig_ 11.1), in which vertical motions are induced by density differences, or short (-:W m tall and 5 m in radius) mechanical-draft towers (Fig. 11.2), in which vertical motions are forced by large fans. V.-rtical velocities of about :; r:tl sec ar .. observed in natural-draft towers and about 10 m/sec in mechanical-draft towers. Tem] ..... ature and moisture differene .. s between the plume ·,d the environment are about the same in both t, (l"S of towers, about 20°C and 0.03 gig, respectively. The plume is saturated when it leaves the tow .. r, and liquid water concentrations are about 0.001 gig.

Heat and moisture fluxes from cooling towers at large power plants can cause fog or cloud fonnation and at times can induce additional precipitation. \I~other potential problem is drift deposition, in ",hith circulating cooling water with drop ~izes I'".mging from 50 to 1000 jim is carried out of the tower and may be deposited on nearby structures and " .. getation. These drops generally contain salts. fungicides, and pesticide>!, w;,ich miiy harm th e >urC~ces they strike, :\ comprehensive review of atmospheric eCfecla of cooling tower plumes is given bv Hanna (1981).

11-;! PLU'IE RISE FRO'. COOLl'G TOWERS

\bout 8(Y.'c of the total .. nd'1ZY leaving a cooling t ....... r ia latent heat, which can influence plume rise

only if water vapor is cond .. nsed. The important parameters are listed in Fig. 11.3, whid, is a ,ocl",matic drawing of a cooling tower plume. Th .. inIluenc .. of latent heat on plume rise is ~ho", n b~ tilt' psychrometric chart of Fig. Il.-l. Th .. curved lim- is a plot of saturated specific humidity (qs) vs, t .. mpo·rature, Initial pi ume and environmental temperature (T) and specific humidity (q) are indicated by points p and e, rl'~p'·cti\·dy. B~ simple mixing of pll!III" and environmental air, tho: rnixtur .. T and q "ould foil .. ",' the straight line to anl' point 1. However, th .. plum e' would then be supersaturated and ," .. uld han' to condense wat .. r and "arm itself to point 1'. Al tilt, point th .. amount of latent h .. at released is pc o portional to the liquid "at .. r in the plume (ql.)' or II ... diff .. renee on the diagram betwe .. n ql ,JIId ql' [about 0.002 -dg in this case).

The ratio of latent heat rel-as-d to initial latent heat flux i.

wh..r .. \' and \'0 are the current anti initial volum .. Ilux .. s, eespectively. The ratio or volume nux.." (\'1\'0) can be approx imated by (Tpo - Tt:') (T I' - Tr). Therefore, at point 1', th .. Iraction r j"

Unh 15~~ of tho: initial latent h .. at tlux • ..t"d""d at poi;lt l , 1£ this exercise w .. re carri..d ... ut .,t ,'-I .. ulht'r points along the curved line b.-t" .... n ~OJinb t ,.ud P in the fagure, r ,.oul'! h~ .. a maximum of .. hout :.'0'( . . \1 a Iy pica! covling to""r ... ith 8O't 1 .. 1,,"1 Ilt'at .JIld 20':, "'!l.>ihle heat, the initw ..,n..a.l" I ... -at 11ull \ Fo j ... ·ould he 110 more than oouhl..d owing 10 I . .trnt h"at n-l .. _. Since plume r~ is pco~liolul tu r;. II ... rde_ of latent hut ",ould increase ~UIIIO: "x Ly IIU

COOUNG TOWER PLUMES AND DRIFT DEPOSITION 75

F'JC. 11.1 Typieai nalllnHlnIl C:OOUaC towen. (Pbotocnpla coartay 01. ~ ~. Met.eorolociell [.uU8 tioa Senic:ea, 1De.)

nc. 1 L: r,..,....... .. •• 11 c:ooa.c t_. ~ --.y 01. J ........... n. ...., f.:o.u.c To_ Coep_y.)

76 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

T

-10

10 :'I;

T. 'C

o

t'lc. 1 U ""dIr~w dwt. a.-t liM ill .. ..... Iioa 01 • ..,. • ..,.a& ...... ty wida - ~.bln. Aa .. ilMtratiool. eopaI ,.,u 01 JMu- (p) &ad .. .v.-aa (.) .. _ ..-4 to..u..

more than about 30%. Since this increase is probably within th e errors IJf measurement, the formulas for dry plume rise in Chap.:! are reconunended Cor ~ah:ulatin~ ~oolillg tower "Iullle rise. At an~' rdlt- the dry formulas ... ould alwa~s predid lest> plume ri~' ana th .. refore ... ould be "conservative;" As sho ... n by eXp<'rience,& the bent-over plume-rise foernuia should ~ used for ... ·ina speeds g,reater than 1 rn./ src, ana til<" ~a1111 plume-rise formula should be ... sea fur wind sp<' .. t.b less than 1 nl/ sec.

11- 2.1 Visible Plume Dimen.sions

Th .. plume traj';';tUf}' near the source can be calculated t.y u...mg the formulu in Chap. 2. St"C. 2-3. The initial Dux of moisture (Vo('lpo + 'lLo)] ana the variation "'ith hright of the saturation ddicit flux [V(q. - q~» must ~ kno ... n to predk-t the dim-nsions of the ,it.ible plum e, The krill 'lLo is the initw specific humidity oC liquid "'at .... in the plum" alld is oCt r n a~ullled tu e- qual 00001 gjg. Til .. paramer-r '1. is the •. duration .pecific bumidit) of th .. enviroameut, The pJu~ ",ill be conden-ed ... hen the fuUu"l", conditioe is .... tidied.

\'J(qpG • qLo)

~ V(q. - q~)

'ug'" ... we IUUUCI pn:WCUJ.lVU mj?m- .. t me nrsr

JUagmenl by aD experienced modeler.

.... __ !!I ..... !!NJ~IJ •• I! .... _=_J .. IA_ .. "' .. '"' ... _ ... _ ...... .... ,'...,,~ __ , _

I

. ,



Chapter 2, Sec, 2-2.1. show~ that the ..£fo,.;tiv" radius (Rm) of the momentum plume is about 1.5 times tI ... effective radius (R,) of the th .. .rmal plun .... \I,,~ .... d al. (197-1) haw found that observed \isible plUIII" lengths au bt-st simulated if til .... ffo-,·ti\ e moistur .. plum .. radius (RIO) is assumed to bt> about 0.71 times th.. ,,((ecli,.,.. th .. rmal plume radius, Th.", tI ... momentum flux ratio (VIVo) at hd~ht z can be .-,;timat .. d by the formulas (lianna, 1976):

~r
\ [I T 0.28 ~ t") (windy) (11.-')
\"0
2
\~~ = (1 + 0.11 ~j (calm) ( 11.5) Fur calm plum .. s, Eqs, 11.3 and 11.5 call I,.. combined to l(ive th .. height (z,) of th .. visible plume:

(calm)

(11.6)

For bent-over plumes, Eqs. 11.3 and 11.-' and the .-quation z = 1.6F~u -1 x" can boo used to peedict th .. h .. ight (z,) and length (x,) of th .. visible plum .. :

•• " 36". ~:f [~r - ,]

(11. 7)

(windv)

( 11.8)

:;il1C1~ amhi .. nt vari..ahlt's. ;;uch as qr. q •• and u, art' .bSUmed to b.. cOII..,;lalit .. ith heii;!ht ill this method, use of the method j" limited to visible plullle heights I~ than aLout 100 rn,

11·2.2 :\urnet"icaJ Approach for Deep Visible Plumes

\\ hell the .ariolLlo; l{~, <{s •• 1IId U dUlIg .... ith h .. i~ll. models that use differential equauons mu&t k u;cd to follo .. th.: plume. \'i:;i,Ll~ pll!lTle Jirncn";"I"'.

luoJ'wakr conceutrauon, dou,j furmation. .nu rainout can be predicted, 5c-.e~ moJcls an' auiLthlc to th .. interested r~~er (e.~ .• \\~~ .nJ :'Ia .. ..on, 1971; II "III U. 11)76. 19tH; \\~iJ. 1971; KOt'nig. \lunay. and r~. i ')7B). In ~n"nllhcsc models <ICe • llLUriago:- of plumt'.n..c .HlU doud.~u .. th lnotkb and indude th .. follo"lug equ;arion", '-1~ in words.

COOU:"tG TO~iER PLntES A:"tD ORIH DEPOSITlO~ 77

Entrainmt'nt a...sumplions:

aRJaz = •• -

(11.'.1)

Equation of motion [w, + p"N;ibl~ u):

·.W

-; -= buo)·an~1' forco' - .. ntrainment dz

- .Jrag du.- to .. ater ,Irop"

(11.10)

First 101"· of tllI"rrnod~!Ia1l1ics:

aT

:.:£. = dn adiahatir chan .... • lat--nt I ... al

az' ~

r .. I .. a..,.- -. o'nlrainl1l1"nl

(11.11 )

Equation Ior saturated 'Ip. as a Iune tion of vlllpt"ratun" and p",,~r .. :

Clausius - Gapt") rOIl .. r all) ull" uf a nIJ1I1t..-r

of empirical equations (I 1.12)

Equation rur variauon 111 ... alo·r \ap .. r:

aqp = _ "Uuaillfll"nt (if unsaturau-d) az

Equatio« (ur cloud .. ah:r l{c chang .. :

aqc densati . d

- = COIl elh;lttOlI - comt"n;!01I an

3z

coalescence to rain .. :Iler - .. ntraium .. nt

(11.1~)

Equation {or rain .. at • -r l{h ,·han~:

3qh .

-- = cony .. r ....... and co..Jr:;cence from

dz .

cloud .. ater - rainoot - entrainment

The douJ.ph~:.ics panmdrriL.&tiOl" of I\,.""la'f (1%9) can be used in the last two -quation .. fur duod .... ter md rain .. ater.

\n intl'ft"St~ problem that ,'ilIl be ,.udieJ ... It. the Woo.t' model ioi th~ ,!u e &tion v{ .. heth .. , In cooling to .. en .nO' more lilcly to cause duud forn14ltion ltun .. d t:ouling to"en.. In .. ~' 'u .... r, beat e1c~ ~ a.:cumpJ.i"hcJ in a m.nt1er.unil .. to that in all"ulof!lObilt' r..iUlor. KOt'~. \Iurr.a~ •. and T~ (1978,1 (uonJ that dk' plum .... <&no! doud.. f;·~.m de) lo .... r:, .... :1'0:: mucb Iv~r tlwl ~ from .. et to .. .n; illr th e ..amo:: tou! (lic"nl • liCo.ilik) bat tJu ~

78 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

The reason for the difference is that the Iatmt heat from the wd towers ;S not all lI\lailahie. where~ the ... nsible heat from the dry towers is imrnedilltdy available, The model by Koenig (1979) has also been u,...ol to simulate snowfall from wet cooling tower plunws. a phenomenon that has bt-en observed on

i. .. olat .. d occasions ( e, g •• Otts, 1976).

11·3 DRIFT DEPOSITION

Drift is circulating w-ater drops that escllp" &urn th e cooling tower. Since the circulating ",·lIter co nbins impurities, drift should be minimized. Highly dficit-lit drift .. liminamrs, such as sinusoidal baffles, which ddkd lIIId capture drift drops, an reduce drift loss to II SffilIU fraction «0.002%) of the circulating wllter rate, ..\.; II result, environmental dC e tots of drift deposition 011 ground surfaces mol \Cegelation are observed to be minimal except in the immediate vicinity «200 m) of medunit:al-ci-aft cooling towers.

Drift depoo;ition is calculated in moch the SlIffit" wa~ as the dry deposition of particles because of gra\litational settling (:.et: Chap. 10, s..c. 1()'2.1). For drop; with radii 1l"SS than about 100 pm, the plume of drops is assumed to disperse in a t;aus.;ian manner but the axis d tho- drop plume is assum e d to Sl!ttle with terminal speed (Vt) with ~d to the ga.;rtJus plume. The drift ,It"p''''ition flu x is giwn b~

W = Vt C(x.y,O)

(11.16)

.. here C( X,)' ,0) is the gl"ound concentration of dru~ lets. C"I.erally, tiUs c.uculation is made flK drop" in it specified ,;ize range. A typical drift dro~siu ciatriLution j" giwn in T,li!ie 11.1, which indicate; that M.5~o ot the drift II1ilaII ill in drope w'ibl diamekn loe than !!OO SJm. .\ plume calculation would be made Co: .. ach uf the nine drof""u.; ~ with o,U_,t..-n I~ th.in 200 SJID. Terminal speed ["t (cm.; .... c, J foc

diameters [0 (cm)) ClIII be estimated by using the ' following equations (after Engelmann, 1968):

Vt: 3.02 X 105 02 (U < 0.0093 em)

= 6816 X 01.117 (0.0093 < 0 < 0.068 em)

= 2155 X 0°.746

(0.068 < 0 < 0.26 em]

= 1077 X 0°·224

~0.26 em < [)

(11.1'7)

Water deposition calculations are mor .. diffICult than particle deposition calculatioes because th .. wat..r drops ",ill shrink owing to ~~aporatiOG if relative humidity is los than 100'.. .\ drop 1Di<~. evaporate completely before it hils the ground. and the very small particle remaining ",ill not hne sufficient Sl!ttling speed to faU th.:oogh the turbulence. Thus, ior relative humidities Irs;; than l00'~ the cha..~t" in mass (m) of the drop due to ""apur': tion must be accounted f.- (\Ja"on, 1971):

'!; = -.S(qd - qt)Dp~h

(lLl8)

",here S = diffusion coefficient of wal'1' vapor (~l:!~ cm1/,;ec)

qd = sprt:ifIt." humidity at drop surfacr p = air d .. nsity, g/cml

v: kinematic visl;Uiity of air (-0.13 cml/..-c) Rr = Ihtlv(droplt:t R .. ~nolJs number]

~h = [2· 0.552 R e- "'(6/v)"] (Sh.-n.OU<.i numb-r)

The difference (qd - '1 .. ) ran abo be estimated b~ ~ II formula from \ I.asor, (1971):

qd - q e = {I T i(\lo/\I.Hm,/(m - rn,.)n-I - RIt

'1.. RH· [L25\bnpq e :(~Tlkt:\u)J

( 11.1 9)

",1Jd,. He = 8.32 X 107 ergs moi .. -I 'K-I

RH = rd.ativ .. humidity (on .calc ufO to 1) m. :: DUM of IiOlut e, 1.

T.abI e 1 U Drvp·,-'tk o.tn.buliun 41 \Iouth ul Ch4il Point Tu .. n·
il !I .----
0 .... --- '-101 0..,..--. r-.c., 0..,.---- '-*01 II 0..,.---. ... ..- ..
[I
_ ... ~- I .......... wa_ ...... - 1oUI_ .......... 1DUli_
: IJ lU 1l.8 II 150 -11:16 U 350--400 0.' 800-~ 011
h' -:...I .,U 1110-;:11) 3..0 , ""__'50 ().~ 9UU-1QUU tl.7
:...I 70 13,' 210-: ... !..l , ~-SOO U.6
I 'I 11ll'U-11M ').'
-lj 'l6 &.9 II :.0-:70 1.:- ,t 5W...wo 1.11 llUO-l!'W 0.'
It i
'~-llll U Z;o-JOO I.l ;i W11-700 I.e '! I!UO -llUfoI 11.1
i lU-llU • .1 3OO-l$O I.' :1 :-OO~ t!.9 1lOO-lwt 11.1
:W-l:.o l' II \Is = molecular .. _we!j!ht IIf _-olut .. , g/mol .. \10 = molecular w .. ight of wat .. r, gjmult' i = van"t Huffs factor (-2 for sea salt) ~u =:2 + 0.552 R .. ~ (II/k,)"

k, = th e rrnal ,li[fu.~ivity of air = 0.2.1. unl s ec -; at O·'C

In th .. "" formulas the drop temperature is assum .. .J to .. qual the ambient .... --t-bulb temperature. Probably till" most :,atisfactory '~ay to solve till' evaporation prut,. I .. m j" by m e ans of a num .... ical solution in tinw,when· a n .. w drop siu and s.-ttling :,p.- .. d art· calculated from th .. abov .. "'Iuatiuns at t'ach tim" st--p

Fur larg.. drop::; with diameters gr .. at-r than 200 Slnl, deposition is calculated by a ballistic trdj,·.·tory. Owing to these larg>or drops, maximum drift deposition is usuaUy observed at distances I .. s.:; than 1 ur 2 km from th .. cooling to", .. r, The srnall .. r dropc arr y a larg .. r fraction uf the drift-w alt'r mass, but tl ... ir d .. position b -pn-ad O\' .. r a much lar~ .. r ar .. a. I'raj e ctory calculations ar e ~nerally Mad .. fur about 10 to 20 drop :;iz.-s. which represent th .. drop-siz« class boundaries or midpoints from su c h data a; lho:;t' in Taw e 1l.1.

Drops are assam e d to be initi.Jily distributed uuiformlv o\,,'r tit .. plum- ceu,,", ","ctiun. TIlt· plum .. n"nkrlin .. (zc) i~ calculat .... J as shown in Chap. :!. :O: .. c. 2·:1. and th .. bottom of th .. vapor plum e (lb) i,; ;!i\t"n b~ th .. relation

{I L20)

Th .. '''por plurm. r ... iius I. fuund frum

(l1.2 I)

C·''',ltid drift dr. .. ", uf diameter D srltlinl! .. ith ,~"'t..J 't ill (!h' plum e-, <in .. " ft. .. in; .. rior vI th .. plum .. .." prob.JLl:- saturat .. d. .~ aporaricu n .. "d nut Leo eon~iJ~r'd. \ -ch .. m e {"r , .. lcul .. linj! the fractlUlI i, uf .j'Up~ tlut "br .. al.. ~".I\," ,JC ".,tu e out uf th .. plum .. in di-tanc .. ;nl .. rv..J .:., is ,.hu",n in Fi;!. 1 L~. TbfrOId .'n I, ;.; ~-'IIIl;JI~d !'v 'hUl;! til .. equation

.hHfl I~ the r",tlu '..i1 the J~U.llt:~ Uh" dC\..IV~ t..iil in l!1'l'" n1t·n.i.J ..ll.l to tit, rJUfl1C d,UIHct(:,r ;it tn..at ;J.i..."'Wl.'~ ..

'..t "'3l.1 do~ n .. u~J ,JutJn-._'(' l!lt~C\~i .lx!. :ht"' ',(.K"1< ... I, "i drop" tNI ~~ .. lI. "";1\ ... JIlx JJ[f c r .. 111 ;".c ~ .. (h vi th.- '''II . .It t .... III' Jr~NZ" u ... _ .\ltM' JlrolU_.l\. t~.d" ,!Cup. !n..I" .-, tcv"att:." ~r th~ J..rni.H<,ut ~ J. r~! lJ.l (!t.JI~ !!.1 '-_', ..Itt! 11.: ') 1Zt:" ~_J -.j : u ,-; un. '.r" lrf;~ '-" .. wc~t.lvu .H1J Lll~ -,. ~I1:<lti1tt"' .'Ooc't:"I;. Fur

COOLING TO\\1:R PLt;~IES A."iD DRiFT DEPOSITION 79

Foe- 11.5 Outline 01 a coolinc tow ... vapor pIum~ and a c!:ift ~op ..._ (for «op. ill a DaI'IOw siu ranee). By poiIlt A, • ckiit dropa ill tI;.» tiu ~ ha.e cfrowrd out of die plume. la any inlro':d .lx. a frxtioo [', (.lx/lIY:!RJ of ~ ck-opa bouka away.

.. ach drup ~iz .. and Lrt' .. ka",a~' point, th-n- i~ a tlllblu" distance (x) from th .. c"uliu~ tow--r al '" hi. h th.· drop is calculat .. d tu .tri~ .. tilt, ~.'rouIllJ. Till ... lilt' drops 1:1 J S:ZC' rango- I .. avin~ the plum e ill tl .... distance riOU;: .. x tu

x • .l."'j ",ill ... ~." th e ;!Wun.J bd 11 J~..t .. nc • .,. "a

and Xb. Ih .. y ar .. 'Pr .. ad 0\"", a cr '" ind distal"'"

.. qual to 8x, ",h e r .. 8 ... th .. plu rue anglO' (-huwn in Fi~. 11.6), ... hich call be estimatrd fWIII 01>,...",.,109

• TOWER

t i DRIFT I i

DEPOSIT:O"; I' SECTOR I

. --------_j I

• I

.!..

rIC- 11.0 Sector;' dida drupt in a VWea oiu~. ~ awa, £roa .... phu_ at a ~ dis~, will _ ..... tea _ doe powwl

ur frum P.L .... uill-4;iCfucd o ; v alu .. ,;. \ t:.pi.·.tI uiu .. u,"1} is 1tJ" lu :.>0'. Th e n t!, e drift J .. po-ition llu, (Wij) for th .. m ...... (\l,) uf Jrop~ in thaI ,iL" rail"'" : e- av III<! th e plum .. in t· ... int .. n aI c..h.) i. ;!i~"11 !J\

n... tut.A! drli t l"p'-,,,,llOn p"ltr'm ;.;, ,,1,1.1111 ... 1 bv -unUWII<! fq. 11.23 ,A .. r ;ill Jru~.ur d~s aud ... 1 Lc .......... it' il1trn Us.

Pulic".tru, Dunn. md & .. ~ (1'1:"3) h", .. ':Ulnp.u .. d d ... pr .. ili.:llUIIS vf ,..,cr..J mit 'lr~j(lvtl m<.".1 .. I. "':"'11" ,..xu .. itml~d ub"...r. .IUuns it'JIII uuli.. ?"tII1 .U1<l 'v~" ,no"," :llAt t!lrr .. 6" >11 ,JC :<",,,"

80

ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

III'HJ"ls that are roughly equal. Accu. acies are l,r"haLiy within a fadoc of 2 tu 5. Wilh all thp .. "iLiliti.·s rur error, 5I1,:h as th" breakaway and »vaporation calculations, it is "as), to SO'" why drift ,1"I""itiulI models can never L" IUl!hly accurate.

Problems

I . ..\ ,.in~,· typical natural-draft ,· .. "Iing tm"'r is 1"".11.·.1 in a valley, Envirol1ml"ntal temperature, wind .".·.·,1, an.! relative I ... rniditv are ~O°C, :; m/".·c. and :;O~(. r,·slwctiv.·ly. Wlrat is tilt" nux uf wat--r [rom thi, tower (in g/ s.·c)'~ A,,:.;urnillg that the tow .. r cfflul'lIl fills up the valley, which is 10 krn wid" .11111 I kill tl,."I'. what would L .. II.., nux of wakr from lilt" t"",,·r necessary 10 saturate the ,'11' ironment? What is I'... ratio lIf Ih,· actual lo' ... ·r [lux to II... flu, r",,,,·,,,.ar)' to -atura tr till' .. nvirouuu-nt?

I

I

2. Environmental temperature is 25°C and relative humidity is 70%. Calculat .. the saturation d .. ficit. A naturu]- draft couling to .. ·.·r has a radius of -10 m and an initial t .. rnperature of -I,-;0c. The plurm- i. saturOllt·,· :·ut contains no li'1l!id .... ter, What will 1,.th .. v j_,iht· "luIII" height in .1 cal III env irouu ... " t'~

3. A dr:.t drop ha:. a diameter of :;0 J,l1lI- TI ... tliff'·CI·nc.· I!.·t w,','n th .. ~p .. cific hu' ridity at till' drop ,..urfal"· 011111 tilt' .. nvironn ... ntal e ... cific humidity is IU)U:! l!ig. What is lilt' ralt· of c;hOln;!,· of mass (m) of tl u- drop a~ a r .. sult of '·val' .. rati;':J'~

4. Calculate th .. j!fa\'i!ational ",·ttling ,1'.· .. 01 for wah'r drop. with diameters of 10. :!OO. and 1-lOO J,l1II. :'UP!'US4' thl'S<' drop» "I'r'· r'·' .. a. .. ·d [rum a ,,1,,111,' at a h"ight uf 300 111 in a .. iud "pt· .. d of:; Ill!,.., ... At whal di-tance from the ro·,.· .... • ,,"int "oul.1 ,·al·h .Ir,,!, -trik« th .. 1-'1'"und'~

i

I

I I

.. ~ • # • ••• ....

~ * ••

--------_._----------- - ---

'. .

t(_: •

" /~ , . , .

"J" -

,-

~ .

. .

II

Air-Pollution Meteorology

. In Complex Terrain

12-1 INTRODUCTION

In II .. · pa.4 d",·aol.· air-pollut ion m-t« .. rol .. ~~ ill

• ·orr.pl.·, trrrain 1Ia.~ "nlf'r)!'"ll a.~ a I .. p i. ... ue , Part .. f tl ... n·a", ••• fur thi- i., that mall~ II.'" p',,,rr plants and Iltllt-r illfllJslri.·~ an' L.-illj! built ill .1 .. · mountain .. u~ ", • .,.I.-ro part uf tl... I: nit-d :'1 a 1>-,.. Furtl u- rrnore, man~ ra~t"rn ;mlu..tri.·" arr 1.,,','-1>-.1 near hills and ri.f)!"". allli n'l"'nl r.'gulalilln~ n-quin- that pollutant '·lIn.· .. ntrati .. n,; I,.. calculat ... 1 at II ... surfa.· .. of II ... ,... tvrrain "h,.ucl .. ~. Jnh'n·"t i.~ al"" ill."ir.·d I.y II .. · fI-quirrm"nt lu calculate tl ... impact IIf ",.un·,,,' "" .Ii..tanl national parks aml fur""t prt·Sf·n· ....

<:",n"lf'1I, t"rraill illnu.·I1 ... ·,. II ... Iraj.·.·tury and tl udiffu..;",.1 of a plume, no,.." tilt· plum e strik« a ri.I!!.·. Ilr i." it .1..rJ,·ct.-d ..hflVl· II ... ri.lg .. ·~ Wf-at meth ... ls sllt·~.lId L .. u,...·t! I ... ,.,.Iima'" diffusion? Fi.·I.! dala n.·(' ...... a~ tu an"w"r till.,..' qu .. sliulI'; an' ,;,.riou"l~ laekilll!. Ai,·", gtlfJ(f u.·", (JI""P"am" an' """ und"r "a~ L~ th .. Environmental P",I .. ctiou Ag .. m·~. tl ... r. 5. Department of Ent·~. and III.. El-etric Pm.,..:

R .. sr.ach Institute, Th e t .. chniques d.·.eri!....1 ill Ihis chap~t"f" proud .. guido:Ilc .. fur -stirnating diffusion in ('umpl"ll I"rrail'.

12·2 ~IETEOROLOGY

['I'n though it is p',s.;i.L'e that high-pollutant concentrations may occur in cOIII"I"l t--rraiu i ,,_go. "h.'r .. plum .. s intercept hill .. ides), sen-raj phpical pwe,.",... ar .. acli~ that. tend to lu",er cone .. utratious. T!~ first of th.-se ;,. tit" I"'lfj"nc~- of wind to fa .... r the "grain ~ of the t-rrain: it rard~ gu.-s 'JCW.,.; it. \lan~- fadd s:udi e 1i &iau", the validity uf this stat em .. n t. Figur ... 12.1 is a topographic map of th" WidtH" Cr...... Steam Plant u .. a in nurth"""t,,", _-\lal.ama. "r."r ... the major I .. rrain ob.tacl .. is a liu .. ar 2.")O·m krrain 3t"P' Figur ... 12.2 i" a "ind-ru ..... di~am for rnrtwrolugical &tations ill Lh ... valley and 011 the muunhin (Hanna. 19l5OL). Tit ... wind on th ... mountain LltJ",s ... ilh n .... rl~· tIl ... sarno: fr .. qut'nc~ frr' . all .lir .. ctiufl.!;. Lut th .. loind :II th .. \-all ... ~ I.- 4wnd~

d.alllll'l.·.1 III' or d",," tllf' vall .. ~. "hi .. h rt·.III.·.·~ tl ... p",hahility .. f plum .. impilll"'IJIt'nt "" tl ... m .. untain~i,J,· .

Anolh .. r fa\ .. ral,I.· md"orol"j!it-al ,.(f.·.·t in •· .. m-

pi.·, t--rrain is tI "lIhallt"'m"lIt of lurLul.·n.·.· .hlt' to

.·,"'i • .,. that a ... · ·1 up II~ air " ..... ,.illl! m .. r 011111 aruml,l

t--rrain uLstacl.-". l·alltlf:J..~. E" .. I(' an.1 I.i"",·hnlz (11):-8) r"ullfl that , ( .. r a m.·t.·orul"l!i,·alt"",·r :.110 III .Io,,"wind tlf a ri.I::.·. tIlt' ,.tamla"1 .I.·\-iation .. f .. illfl .. lir.·(·tiull Iluctuatious (alJ) "a,. ill.·r.·a,..·.1 ,,~ .1 fador tI( 2_:;. Iianlla (198U") f .. uud that all "a,. ill .. r,·;J,.,..d ,,~ a (actor of 1.(, .Iurilll! Ilt'utral .·tlllllili .. lI, wh .. 11 lIlt' "illtj dir.·.·tiull .. a,. ""rp"lltlic-ular t .. l!r.\-a".·~ (Fil!. 12.1). TIlt' ttlw .. r "as 10cat.,1 2 to iii k rn from tIlt' ri.f!!.·" t" tlw north» .. ", a",1 ,....,Ih" .. ,t in 1-"4:. 12.!. \Iflr.· d.· tailed olt,.,.nati .. ,... ,,( all" ,·r.· ma.I,· at a ndwtlr" of .-J'~t·n I""-"rs in tilt' I; •. ~ ... -r-, Cal:f.. !! .. "tllt'rmal an-a. Th .. t-rrain '·'''I,.i''(" ,,( ran.!omh ori-nt-d J()OIl'm mountain- and ri.I::,·,.. For tilt' .·I"Hn staticns. Hanna (1980c) .. alculat--d Ii umedian hourly alJ valu .. s frum ;; .Ia~ S of .. 1,,.. nalioll,. at a h"lght uf 10 m. Til .. ".. OIJ \alu.." ar .. plott.·cJ al(ain,.t tl,,· hour of th e da\ ill Fi!!. 12_3. "hidl ,.ho,,' that '.i::hUim.· a8 vatu-s ~rt· al.ollt 20° tfl 2('° allll .Ia\ tirn-- value s a;l' ahout 30' tu .35° ()\ .. r tlat t--rrain lIil!httirn .. a(;l value-, .'r .. pr .. dickti 10 I. .. olll~ :;0 ur I ..... (,.,.. .. TaLI,.,; 4.2 .. nd 4.3). With .. xtr .. mr- stahilitu«, 1II'·3I1d .. ring ma~ caus .. occasional hi:;h valu .. s of a9' lIu" .. \.-r. in th» (;,,~ ,;.,rs. a9 is cunsi.l.-nlly hi!!" f .. r all .taIJl .. conditions, which I .. ads us to th .. couclusio» that t .. rrain uh,tael .. ,. cause an -nhanc-rm-nt tlf 'JI). This conclusion is furth .. r confirmed L~ the .lata in Fig. l2.1. in which alJ i" plotted again.;t "illd ~p" .. d ;or lIighttlm .. rullS at a ;;i\"lon dalion. AI lu", "illtl "".· .. d,. corr .. sponding 10 th .. larg..,.t sLilic "laLilil~ l (g:T) ZKJ! oz ) at ni!!ht. alJ is a maximum a, a rrsult of lilt''''' t .. rrain "{(.-cIs.

Of cuur ....... complex lerrain ako cau,;,.,; changt'S in su.rfac .. ..j .. ~ .. r wind spr .. d and dir .. ction which .. .J'''rSfl~ .. {f .. ct pollutant conc .. ntratiullS. Pollutallts ,·miu .. d n .... r th .. groulld inlu th .. n~hltim .. drainag ..

82 ATW)SPIIERIC mnTS10~

r::J 305 m .' fie.. ' 457 m IZi!I 457 m <. Ele.. " 610 m

'.'OU~jTAt'"

'.IE TEO"'OLO(~I(."'L TOWE'" •

I I II I 1 o s

."'

tic. 12.1 TopucrapIJior _p of area within 10 Ilm of "ida ... Cr~'" SIr ... Planl, 'lr1 .... oIociai .talion locatio ... arr pwn.

...

\

\

\ \

...

\

\ i

--l90

I ,

i

/J

/1

F"IC. I:!.:! Arulual om) .... rose for .... , a..t !Kat ... _teoro6oP:a' statioel (61_In"').t Widow. c.-ed. ~..a-. are treq_.y per 22~,· oedM.

la~ ,'r ",,'r ,I"pilll! t .. rrain lJla~ f .. I1.... tilt· ,Iraillaj!" now d" .. nhill t .... artl p .. pulatiou ,· .. 111 .. ,.,.. TI u- tl,i ..... · """" (h) .. f th,· tlraillill!" la,' r .. II a ,impi" ,.J .. P" i~ ~t!",I,~1 t.~ Bri~"" «(1)7'1) I .. I, .. i!i,,," II~ lit .. furmllla.,:

(I :!.I)

h = 0.037 , /'

(I :!,:.!)

"It .. ro' " i~ tit .. di,laJII''' 011 .. 11;; tit .. ,I .. .,.· Irum tilt· I .. p of tit .. ~Iup" ami J j" th .. ,luI'" 'II~I .. in radian». For all illl,l!f .. uf 20' and a Ji..4anCt' uf JOU m. th- Ihidw,'ss (hi j" ahuut IJ m. Br~ (197") used "I"'I}!~ WIL",na· liun principles to arri, .. at th e ( .. II" .. illg f .. rmula for th .. charact .. ristic .. ind >p .... d in th e drainag e la~ .. r:

,1 1-( ',' .... (.J )' u = _. ;) ~tn 1'1 I I.

(12,3)

";"'r .. H i .. the Jo,,'n"'aru ~nsihl .. h .. al t1I'~ (in units of m 2/ St'c3) ... hich is )!i\~n by

(l;,!.-l)

-\IK·!'CIU.rTIII\ \lnEIIKIII.OI; \ 1\ CO\IPI.I:\ Tt:RIt'\I\ 83

r". 12.3 Di....w .. nalion of OIJ al a hrichl 01 10 as for II -teorolociQJ CO .. .n in ~ tllfTaira at thr Gey_. ' .... lhormal .ra. Itourly OIJ ,.Iues for S da, ... n. a'-.nerd t .. rlhft' for radt 01 II .lalions. The biP"l. -.lian. and I,n.w Ilf Ih. II "IJ ,81 .. al ddt how .... piolled.



..

• • ••





- ." ..

:' ..

~,



... -~. l

•• ~ _ -i

. ------=-S~

,

..

6

B

WI',Q 'OPHD ~, ~''''<

re. 12.. Hourly nft'.. 08 .s. .. ind spred for a;pttiIM (2100 to 06(0) dala frota fi~. ~ .. Iion ajpU at Ow Gey_.. 'fJOth~ aru. This .laliDa ia located about haIl .. ay do ... a I~.atm ride e.

For t~ pical values, H can be "f til" order of 0.001 m: /,;«3 on a cI .. ar night. If $ = 270 and 1 '" 1 k m, then U = 1.8 rnI sec. ..hich is a \ alue of wind "p"ed O{t"l1 "boo-rwd in drairul!!" la~ .. rs. Drallla;! .. frum the id .. al Jop' s eonsid"c.-rl in th e above derivarion w;u;dl~

~ to C'lJIl"~n7" intn .. I\.rrnw .... 'UIIU ... .., -"-; .... '-. ..... _

a ,f,·"p .. r ,Irailla~.· "ri ... r.·· .\n ,·urnl,l .. uf t~ 1'11'.11 .. if traj ... ·tllri..,. in a \"idi.·~ i~ ~I!u .. n in Fil!. 1 :!..i ... hidl is ill"" t .. L. .. n [rom tilt' rt.,.ult~ of till' {; .. ~ ""r.- "'p"ril11<"f1t (\appo .-t al .. 11)80). Thi" draina)! .. nu .. ha. .. a .1'·I'tl! of :;0 10 100m ami .. s!","d "f :! to J ml sr,' and j_ • aL'nd :! III 3 km do .. nhill Irum lit .. ridl!f't .. p~. :\ f.· .. · k ilom ..... rs fartl ... r d,,"n th .. \;dl .. ~ ... 1U"Ct' it hrllad .. ns out and the slope d .. en·a,..·~. th .. draiuag.. 1'001 j_ .. "h"..n, .. d 10 L .. ahout :!OO III d .... p .. ith a speed of ahout I rrJ,..e.

,\um.·rical or physical motl ... " can h.- lL ... d to estimau- ;"ind 110"- ", .. r compl .. " t.-crain. \I,,~t "f th .. won. h .. for .. 1')75 has b .... n t .. port .. d b~ l::j!'oIn ( 11)7.;) . \'un"ri"al nIi.HJ .. l. ill lL'" a!" all "r ...... Mdl1!rJd e ," and

much .J ...... lopm .. ntal .. on n -ds to h.. dun... TIlt'

bifg.,;t 1I" .. d is {or field data hieh WQuld aid in th ..

d .... ·lopm .. nt and t.-sting of such mud .. I". In num.-ri..-aJ mod-l», it j" difficult 10 obtain tl ... nee .. _~ d .. tail (,m;dl j!l'id .jz,,) .. hil .. still r.-taining a Iarg .... nou~h domain ,jz" to cov .. r Ih .. ar .. a of :1I1 .. rest, For "impl .. h.,H.Jim"",,ionaJ hills, tJI" putrntUl f1.... thw~ app .. .,.,. to I!iv .. gum! r .. sul",.

PlI~'';CaJ models of nuw over compl .. " terrain haVl" b .... n r ... i .. ",ed b~' 1I0sll.-r (1980) .... 110 points out that the roost ub"iow; .. {f .. cts occur .. hen th e !low is "tcatifird. Bloclifll:. I ....... nt'll, rotors. and

.. _._L_ C __ •.

9

U A.T\I(lSPUERIC OlfFLSIOS

I,hrnllmrn. Ih.1 hn .. b .... n ob...-n .. d. Th .. 8tabilily l'~rall1"" r rrn.tll ... Ct .. n u,...,J til cLs....i(~ thi.- .. uri.. i~ th .. 11110-,.. .. 1 FruUlI .. numht-r:

r r II == :\11

.ti.-pl¥rd ,.Ji~hll~ in;a ..uMr alll14 .... I ... , ... Fu,. 1-"11 <: I. rn .. lilln" t .. nd III I ... limilr.1 I .. I".riz"nl;al loUn.,.: i.r .. plu",,"," .. ill imp;1.-t II.r Plufa.-r ,1I''''''~ I" " .. ar .. ult.1 hili. rath .. , Ihan .. HI' Ih"m (Hunt, :'n~."·r. a'ul I-"I ..... n. 11'78). Fur "II -; I. t!1r airn .... j,. ..... J~ III b~ "'''I' til" 1,,1'''( till' hill .

O:.! . .i)

.. h"rr l i~ II,,· fr .. r ... lrram "iOlt .1' ..... 1. II i. Ih .. hill 1,,·ij!lll. a ,,,I "Ii j,. th .. Bruni \" aNla (r'·'III .. n!·~ (in

J 2-3 IJIl-"flSIO:'<i CAl.er LA noxs

(I UII

.. Iwrr 0 j,. th .. p"l .. ntial I e- mp-ratur .. ~n" "Ii i. Ih .. nalural Irequ .. llry .. r .. ",·iII.lion .. r an air par ... ·!

\. I'a. ... luill (1'1;', .UI!j! ,. ... I.-n;alitt",. .. r .. ind

n nll lurl.III .. " ... • Il:Iram r-. if ;p ail.t.I h .... 101

I u..rd III "al"ula'" ,'ifi,L.iun. 11 ...... "'1'. in 111 1 "'al

~r-----------~----------~----------r---------~r----------.

~ ..
..
0 I
..
.,
.__ .. _ ..,. -.,.


-~
E
Z
0
t:
'" ."#
>
...
-'
...
·100 '-.
\
\
\ ...
\-.
\
-1~
-, I
-2001 , /
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
DOWNWIND DISTANCE. m flc. 1:'5 c.o.po.ite new 01 .upw- _.. pilot Woo. trajectoria do .. ~ Creek -.y_ ia dM c.y_. &eodler'" area. The IOtid liM ~dI. dM trajectories iI dM _. I, .. tern ... doL ~ dM ~ 01 doe 1Paiuc. flow • _dud by dM poiaa.t wIIidI tIw ~ POP ... Old 01 doe flow. (Frva c.J. ~qpe. S.1l. "-- ...... H. F. ~ r...u... WIM o..n.u-. U-. N ... ,,.'·Lilt.BaJoo.I. ia S«..J JoiN Coaf~ _ AnIir ....... of Ail' PoDa.lioa~. p. 496. A-a. ~_ ........ Society. Bo.t...~. H80.)

\iRI'IIU.1 TIO' "I[HUKOI.IM;} I~ WMPl.[\ TERRAIS 63

--- - ~

.' .......... - -- - - -

.... h

/

h, • h '1

IEGAN AND 9RIGGSI

/

/ ,

/ /'/ . "

- -:' ... "

,

.ic. 12.6 'I.lralio .. ol""_ b .. ~, __ "ti i .. BV (1973) (----) ..... Epa (1975)(- - -)

_xl ..... fur _lral and un ... w.. ... nditio .... T1w I h, • II jo .... oho_.

---_

\......,' ~ .. ~ .. Jl ...... ' 0;0:0:., •••• '""'"" "':":": ••• ,"="":. ,~."'"""' ••• .,.,..... • ........ _..,., • .,..,-:0: •• "7.

,iIUOIliu",. ",. tI .. "01 hOi,,' III .. 11I,\1I~ .. C -urh .l"'ail.·,1 .. I,,,,·nOltiu,,,.. In thi- •. a. ... II,,· "mpiri"al 10"111",1 ... "hid, ar,· " .. ,....,1 "" m".I .. I,. ,1 .. \"o-I"I',·d ,,~ l:Iri~~ (1 ')7:1) a lit I Ei!a" (1')7:;. 1'17(1). ol ... ,...,il,..,1 ill Ih" f .. II .. " j"l! pilra~'T"plo,. van 1,.. u,...·.1 10 ,·,.Iirnat .. tliffu,i .. n from •· .. ·, ...... 1 point -our ... -e-,

Fir,l. "ill a I'!u,,,,' impad •. " a t-rraiu oL,.tad e-, or "ill it "tI.· up ""'r II ... oL,.t ... ·I .. ·~ If a t--rr, .. in ri.. .... is .1""""i,,,1 of iI ""u,,· .. in u-utral ,,",,1 IIn,.",I,I .. "'JllJiti"n~ (l'iI"'Juill (;iffortl d ........... -\- H-C .-1>: or Fn '> J). II, .. plum .. t .. "oI. I .. rid .. up tl .... ,.j"p" "hil .. I""""I! part .,f il~ .. ff .. c!J\" .tad .. h"4!ht (h) ,.·Iati, .. to Ih .. ~lJund. In thi,. ... 1. .... Hrij!gs (I ')73) MJ~ .... ts tl ... t h ,.h .. uld Lt· r .. due .. ,1 L~ th .. terrain h .. it!ht (10,) ur h/2. "hieh","r IS th.. ,rnallt"&t r ... lu ct ion, T .. rrain h .. ight (101, i,. m .... -ur .. d [rom 110 .. L<L ...... of tit ..... urce "ud .. Tlti,. wm'''pt i.. iJlu"lral ... d ill Fig. 12.6. Th e hi2 corr-ction for I,~h t .. rrain is ~d on pot .. ntial now th...,~ and wind-tunnel -xperim .. nts, a,; m e ntion ... d in ~tt. 12·2. Eg- .. n's (197:;) mudd is th e sam e "" that uf Briggs .. 1e"pt that Egan ..ugg .. st,; a r .. duction of hI' 2 ratn.., than hI fur It-rra''1 h~4:ht,; i.-so; than half rh e .-ff.,.t:ti\ ... plum e hrig .. t. Thu- th .. assumption 1,\ Eg..,1 .. oul" ;?n .. "J~htl~ lu ..... r ~und.l .. vd cone .. ntrations

,,,,1,1 .. l"OlItlitiullli (Paa;quiU-(;if(onl d __ s E-F: or Fit < I). both mod ..... ,.. -..me that th.. plu~ maintain- a constant .. I .. vation: thWi the ..(( e din plum.- h .. i¢lt (h] is r ... due .. d h~ t e rrain h .. ight (hd. If tl ... terrain IIt·ight i., great .. r than' th .... cr e ctiv .. piu'De h .. ight. th... plume ma~ impi~ .. on it in E or F coudition e ,

If there b a terrain rise upwind of th .. source and tI .... wrage .Jop..- of the rise ahov .. th e source exceed! 2~~. downwalih may be induced by the air flowi~ duwn U""r the t .. rrain drop. For st ee p hills, it • poewLl .. to get a "cavity" rU e ct. i.r .• a counterrouting e ddv. Th .. cavity would extend thre e to ten hill hright.a downwind. which would potiIribly cause downw""h and fumigation of it plume in th. ~n. Figun; 12.7 illu~trat ... these r{fee"; For more prf'C~ ",;timat.-.; of conc e ntration dWtrihutiolUl in thia case, "ind-tunnd or wat e r-channel rno-!ding of the lituation "oould be don e .me.. the trajec~oriea depend h e a\il~ un d e uw o(!h,. topopaphy.

(,~pt..., -l .hoWIi that. an ~r source can be used in the G.UioI!W! plum e model to account (IX "reflection ~ fwm the ~und :surface. However, Egan et a1. (1979) P',int out that this aMUmption leads to &11

Af!RUPT TERRAIN PllJ"[

RISE ",'PACT ION

.·ic. 12.8 .. hial ""nn'Iltr.lion .... ialion .. i:" do .. n· .. ind d;'lan"" .... n .brupl lerr.in ri. ...... pproadlrd. --, Gauuia .. -.ckI .. ilh r .. n ..... ion. - , -, Gau ......

-..drl .. ilhoul ~1J..dion. - - -, rHU_rndrd nor ....

II"" fro", ,,11111"" IIlIl'ill;.!ill;.! "" .1""1' I.·train III -1011.1.· (E F: F II' I) ",,".lili"IL" TI ... rvf .. r.· hi- m ... I..I loa_ II ... r"'I"""1I1O'1I1 that avial plum.' •· .. III·.·lllraliO:II "0111 .... \ '"r lIu·rl·a~ "itt. .1""'Il"ill.1 tli~lalu'" (~.,. Fi;.!. I:!.II). F .. r Ih;. ",,,.1,·1 I .. I ... apl'li.·,1. II ...... ,li.1 nln,· ill 11:0· fi~'1Ir" 1011.1 [ir-t I .. · ,·al.·lIlal.·.1 ... , Ihallh.· .niuinuun ntl""·lItr .. li .. n- «( :roln' ..II INtint 'rnln ,"an I .. · '1""·rlllll .. ·.1. Fr .. m ,,,,inl '111'11 I .. II ... p .. illl .. I .. hidl lit.· 1'111"'" .!rik,·· lit.· "'rraill. II ... a,iar •· .. IIl·.·II· Ir .. li,," i- ...... ·unlt',111l "'I"al (:"'111'

11... allah .i.. ..f a.. ..1o ·nali .. n- ill 1'1,1111"'"

I ... ralll Oil II u- ,; •. \ ......... :: .... II rlllal .itt· .1 • .,...·ril .. ·.1 ill

' e-e-. I:!·:! .11 ..... ·.1 Ihal a~ "a.' ..1 .. ,... I" .. 1",1 .... ,,1.11 ... "'1""'11'11 11\ ,'r 11 .. 1 "'rraill oIlirill;.! II,,· ,Ia~: I", .... ·' .. r. .". in;.! I" t--rrnn r- (f.·d •• it "'01 •• ·11110111 ..... 1 ,llIrill;.!·lh.·

lIight. III fa 1Ii;!ltllirn .. atl 01 I fall "'lid. 1,,·1 ..

tl ... "u-utral " value-. Tlai. r"'lIli i., •· .. IL.i,.t.·1I1 ... ill. rh .. f.· .. limJl.~1 ,Iifill.i.," "'I"'rinu'lIb Ihat han' 1 ...... 11 '·"llllud,·,1 in 1'I'"'pl.·, 1''Traili and >-Ol'l'l.)r,. th,·

a....uml'ti .. 11 it~ E;:an d al. ( I 'J71) that ,.taLl Ia,,"·" F.

allOl F .Jltllliol h ... hif, .. ,l til " e- utral t"la. [) .. fl<"

,...1'·'·liu;.! a, and a" I\II .... I,·.I;,!.· of II,,· .it.- (r.;: .. ,a1I .. ~ ... itllh) .J.uulol l..- u,..·t1 It) m",lih a, if n ... · ......... ~. Duriu!! lI .. ulraJ alltl III1,.tal,I.· •· .. II .. iti .. II •.. nat·!,'rrai" o; alUl al ,·un .... '01" I ... """,-

Diffu~ion ill ,all.·~,. i., limilo·.1 .. larll tla .. \alh'~ .. idth (W) <'tfuab rul1j(lu~ :!o~. ,\1 lI4!ltt dr,al ... 1 plum .. ,; could fill up tl ... ,ali .. , latlrilu", .. ll~ .. ill. \ .. ~ linl .. n-rtical diffusson ( ..... F~. 1:!,'J). Th .. hij!l.r,.t cone .. ntration 1'ltpt-ri .. IICnJ b~' th .. vall .. , .. all .... ouloJ b .. gin!! h~

(12.7)

I" th .. 'Luruing, "break-up (,mugation" J.,ril~ th" 1",i1ulallt lu th .. \all .. ~ floor .. 1a .. 11 d ... ,tabl .. Lt~·.:r '" .. nJnJ (rulD l..o .. lo .. by th .. 1'':i1ting of th .. f!I'OUIIJ. Th" 'l\ .. r~ .. l'l.)lIc .. ntrauon in ,hi,,; cast' j"

rll. 12.9 ~rmatit ,;-, .. oj.n .; .... trd pI __ .. rd .tr.> .... ,.11" 01 .. idth • d_inc .t~ rond ___

1.\ 1III!I, .. a, 1"11,, .. • .. ,,,",talll ,~,·,ab ... "ull' tllur JI,,";! II ... ·i.I.· all' I ' .. n ''''ar II ... I,op ",j a I \1o"-olillwlI.i,," .. I..J .. ,,,· .. ill ..... 0111:,:1.· .. f I (I ., .u-i"'11 m ...... , ;,1.· .'mi"iflll ... r.· 11.1 :: ,..... I III '. \_"mo' II i!!1a I •· •• II.lili,," .• ,.itl. OJ ,Irai",,:!.· .. ill.I .. 1 1m ....... If tla,· "arlolill mfllltJ,i.I,· tniv" unif .. rml~ .. iUin 1 ... · .Iraillag .. I .. ~ ,·r ... h;ll i. II .. · "uf,,," m,,"u,i.I,· <I""".-n. tratiou a e1i.lam·,' .. f :!IIO m ..• (111 m . .111.1 !f.un nt .I"" II II n- .J"I'" fr"~11 II ... lai::I ..... , .~

:!. C .. II,i.f,·r all i. ,lh.·rm .. 1 011111 ... 1"" r,' .. it!. ....... ,,1

,,,,,, ... 1 .. I' :; III ...... {! illg on .. r a hill,," la .. i!!I.1 _,.)) Ill.

Lutenl..... Ih,· illlo·na .. 1 h"lIOl.. 1I1I1II1"·r. \\ I~, .... ill laap"",11 III iI plum- 1"'a,lill;,! t .... arrl th .. laiJl'~

3. \\ ill. II ... u-e Ilf Bril!,;!"" vr ilo·ria. fill eI' 11..ftJlI" .. ill;,! 101101.·, \. • .u,n.- ' ... utral « .. nditi .. II ••

PI..-,ior ahoy.~ t..m(It), ..

Predic1rd hrjpto{ plu_abo ...

Itil

.!UO IU

Ie ".~

100 _'00

:;00 1I.l00

Ij 100

-l, _\.,.,-um .. that an .·I .. ,.I .. d point-sourc .. ;;i!lInr

.. ill impact a ,.. " !Dr'" duri";! \r~ .taLI" '.JCI.lW-

tlUII.>. T" .. -ou .. : tr"nl(th i.. 10 F;' -ee ,,",I tl .... ~,d

'p" .. d ;_., -l,Il, ..-,'. (.tIl'll!at .. th .. te"lIlcrlin.- cu"c~nt:: .. · lion ~t th.. ptJUIl til .. p:ure.- impact.. th .. a.-,.,a • Jj,.unc .. uf .3 km frum lh .. ,..,UIU,

------------ .......

~ ..

. . \ I

'}. ,

./. ..

~~ ~

II

.. ,Lollg-Rallge Transpor-t andDiffushm

1.11 ":!·r.l ":!" Irall'port .1,"1 .lilfll·'"" ,·alnll;,li .. lI_

11.1," I .... -n important f .. r th.· 1111..1.·.11' uulu-trv -in ·

II... 1'1 ~r. 1" ..... 11 .. • .. I' II .... Iall;:,·r, .. I' 1 .... ,,1. I.·· .

" ... ,n • -r. ,llInll;: II ... I ,a.-I .1",·a,I,· tI ... prohl,·m f

1 .. 1I;:·rall;:.· Iran-port of -ultur a",1 lIilrll;:"1I "0111- 1".111111. [rom I'''''''r plan I • .1,"1 .III,.:! from urbau ar.·a.loa,.' I,,·,·om.· in.-r,·a,in;:l~ important. ~lIlfllr frolll ,li.la,.1 ,...11( ... ·- n·a .... "ill, "al"r ill II u- almo.plt.·fI· 10 f .. rm a"i,1 rain, "lIid. ,'an ,·au .. · ,,·rioll. ,'11\ iruu ""'" 1.11

,1.111101':" ill .11.-1. r'·IlI"I.· ar-: - ... - II... \dirlll .. lad,

\I""l1lain ... I '\ e- " 'un.. .1, .. 111 lal. .... III' ~'·all,lilla\ ia.

Th.·,..· df"d,- an' .Iiffit'lllt and '·'I'.·II.i\.· I .. IIIt11,il .. r. alth .. u::l ... (,... larj!" I'ftlj!ranL- an' 1I1I.I,·r "a~ h~ II,.· Orl!;llIizati .. n (or E.· .. n .. llli,· (: .... pe·ralilln a",1 1)""'101'nll",,1 in Eur .. P" awl tl ... L ~. U'·p.lrlm.·,,1 "I' rn.·rj!~. ('.~. Em ir"'"nt·"tal Pr .. t ..... ion ,\:!.·m·~ • .1,"1 EI.· ... ri.· r.",,"'r R.·,...ar.-l. ln-titut-- in tit e- I' "it,·tI ~Ial.· •. ~"\O'ral r; .. ·.·"1 fI'\ i.·" Pal"·r.- !':I.i.t on litis .uhi'·'·t. i"dll,linj! II,,,,..· L~ Ba ..... ( J ')lill) .1",1 Elia,...." ( 1')80).

'\UI: ... rou- m ... l,.Js an' ii\ ailalrl.·. ant! ",,111.' .. f Ill,·,.,·

m I.·I. an' .1"",·nL ... 1 iii thi- d,ap,,·r.II"""\,·r. a.- ~d

II ~.· i- nil t!.·filliti\t· m ... I.·1 fur IO"I!-ranl!" Irall-pe.rt

a".! .Iiffu.iull. Th--r« .1f" , impl~ to .. manv lIli"",illj!

pi ... · III' iuformatiou, -ueh a.- a, "I' 1\, ... wffi .. i-ut-.

at tl ,.... .cal.· •. Sillcr tilt' Pa"'Juill C ;iff"r,i a, and a,

,·un arr .J.·fill.·.1 onl~ I" .1 .. "n"ulIl oIj__t~" .. r. of

"h<lll.,l. 10 km, "lUll!! ra II j!" .. i.- d .. fill .. ,1 in Ihi. dliopt.-r a ". an~ tlu"lI"intl .jj,.tant· .. ;"'l"'alo-r than al. .. ut 10 kn .. -\J lit...,.. .jj_~lan{·.-s "inti .pt't'd alltl tiirrdion ,J,,·ar.. iilltl lim.- and 'I'acr variation ill ",ind .t'locil~ h .. cum« irnportent.

13'-2 'IODEUl\G COl'iCEPTS

In pracuce, ",ind. are 011",1\, ;I\t'r.lf!"d o't'r .1 certain period, such a.. all hour. T urbul-nt diffu-ion is th .. n d.-fin.-d .tS the diffusion .,·unll'iLut .. d L~ turbuI e nt rddi....,; with tim e seal es I.."., than th e a\l."raging

1111 .... III thi- ".1,,'. r .... ::"" I hr. III II .. · oIittll~'''" nlilali.'!I.

ae ae "~";h

II ... Irlrh"I"II"" .... utrihut] .. " .11'1' •. .1 ..... 1111 II .. · ri::hl·h,,"o1 -i.l •.. \. II ... a\'T';:" .. iml lid.1 ..t,all::'·~ 1'1'''111 h .. ur t .. lu-ur, II ... ,,((,','1 i.- r··1t ill tI .... ul,,·dillll "'rl!l~ 11 a(: ;"

01.111 \;IC:. a~ 1111 II .. · h-It-ha 1 ,i.I.·. .. lai.·I, ai_II

...... trihut« I .. \arialillll~ ill 1'I.' -ntrati .. 1I «:. If ... ·

","II"'" an a\"ra~<jn;! IlI'ri",1 .,f I ,Ia~ ratln-r than I I.r f .. r tl .. · ",i,"" ,.. ...... 1. 11"'11 h .. ur-t .. -I, .. ur variati .. n~ ,11 .. uld III' :,ar.lnk'I,·riz.·.1 a. lurhul.·IIt·.· "" tl ... rj;!lal -i. I.· .. f E'I' I :1.1. TIm. turbul .. nl diffu-iviti • -s- 1\,... 1\, . alltl 1\, or .li",II'r>-itll' p"rarn.·I.·r.. a,. 0, • .1,,,1 ul a~.· illl'f"a,inj! (u,"·lion ... f a\"~:lj!inj! tim.',

~ .... ·all.·,1 "puff' m."J .. L- ..taim t .. !ta,"I1,· IM.tla -mall- •• ·al.· .Iiffu,.j,," and larj!'·.,...·-.l .. nk·an.I,·r (,.. -e-, f .. r I'\ampl.·. 1J,·rfl .. r. 1'1811: Ita e-e- ,'1 aI .. 1')';-'1: J .. liu ... ",. \\ .. 1(, a'ltl \1a11t·U"". Jlroll: \\,·".1.·11 ... aI .. 1'1711). Fil!Ur.· I :1.1 ,Iltl\.~ lall'" .I plun .. · i. ft'pr.· ... ·III.·,1 h\ a

RElEASE PCINT

re· 13.1 Sim .... tioa oi a pha_ by a -w. of put" rrirait4 at <qual ~ ;"tena!... It ....... ...t that " ~ t.

• U\lOSPHERIC lJIHlSWS

"";u uf pun •. Puff rrlr_ frrqurnc}" i. .djuatrd .. , that thf!l'r is roughly thr amount of purr ,)\'rr!ap .hown on the faprr. A wind firld is nCC'r,lrd. "hid, ",>old b- ..... d on radio .. mdr ..tati"m' (.pad"!!. -300 km), !lUrraCr .tario"" (~parin". -:>Olo.m). u,. .. 1Il<"",_ .. lr ........ arch grid (a<pacing. -20 km) "r m-t .... · rolo~ .. 1 t""'rno. In mod-..l .. IIUch .... Sh .. rnvn·. (1'r.8). t ...... ontinl1il~ Mlu .. tilln j,. u ..... 1 to a.lju.t th .. wintl fit·ld ,.., th .. t it i.. 1IliI>'. CII""i..trnt. Th .. mi:\illl! el"l'lh mu-t aL.o h .. Io.nllwn .in~·" ;all m ... I .. l. nmfin .. th .. 1'"lIutant" til th .. mi1MI la~rr. Fran-port will..! \,·1 ... ·· it~ ...... m.. t .. h .. ..! .. fin".1 .lif( .. r .. ntl~ ,,~ e- at·h ffilHI .. 1; .. .jt •• it "'luab 11.7:; tim.." th .. 8:;O·mJ, wind in th .. mod'" L~ jlllln,..>II. \\'IIIf. alltl \lan .. u- .. (11J7R) an.1 rquaL. th .. t·ollCrnlrali"n.wri"hl .. tl win,1 in th .. m ... ),·1 b~ lIr.frt .. r (I ()80). The ob,;rn ... 1 wind" mu"t 1..inl .. rpolat .. tl into "tlll"r rr~UlL~. j!,·n .. rall> u.inj! a 1/(diall.Jncr)l wrij!htinl'. "lthou~ ... ,me- mod .. I" u,... an addition..! wrightinj! rat·tur inmlvillj! win,1 ,Iir.·.·tion. n,iaI lIituati,m i .. d .. picted .ch,·matkal1~ m Fij(. 13.1.

l>if(u .. ion of th .. puff j,. handl .. d quit .... ruel,",> Th .. fi,.,.t h'nuol1ll _umptioll j,. that purr tliffu"iufI i., similar to plum .. diffu .. ion. whid, .. Io.flIIWfl t .. t... wrulljt thror .. ticall> ( ...... Chap. 6) but i., .tillu..dul ill .pplirJ mOli..t... !'irv .. rthrl" ..... ther .. j,. 110 infornliltioll .vaiuLI .. un th .. ~pr e ad of purf .. at IOllg rall~" in th.· mi:\t"d I.)"rr, ... ,d it i.. nrc~ to rail Lad. on plum- 0'8. \\'rndrll d AI. (1976) ha\ .. r1lnpulal .. e) th .. Puquill-Girrord eurv .... rtlr 0) anti 0, (F4!. -lA) I .. gr .... 1 t!i"tanc .... -. prtJc .. dur .. n .. t ,..· cu mlllt"lId,·el h~ Puquill or Giffol'tl. Th .. lI .. frt .. r 111180) mt .. 1rI u,...,. th .. !limpl .. npr ..... ion 0) "0.5t (0) in rneu-rs ... ,,1 I in seconds] for all ,;.jtuatiu~. Fa> ... ,.1 R .. ,. .. II,tw.·i:: (1980) .nJ juhll"OIl. Wolf • and \!alll·UM. (1I)7R) .-1m .. th.t tit .. Fickian law. a; = :!~I. j,. \ali<l. willi

/

, ,

P'

!

d

.

;p

..



\

rIC. 112 ~e of wiad ..-.. obeened at .. til awfaa .... tioM. wtida -' bet cued to ..u-w die __ _ at poiat P. ~ .adeM ~t fSdl

.......... lIy 1/4". n.. 80deblly Oru!er (191911) .... IWft.r (1980) .eiPt, • edditioa. ea l' ~. ... ~ 1~5_0i.

~ 10" 10' '. It j,. ( .. u no I tl.al o, l' .... I I .

"Nt'wl (.,r tI, ·a!,·Ulatl<lII o( p'oIlul .... t •· ..... ·.·lIlra II·

a'''Uj!rd .. \ .. r 1"" .. r 1"II:.:rr .jnt·r t .. t .. 1 .hllu 11 '"

.1 .. minal ... 1 I.~ m'·311.1,·r fur I",r:.: .. a' "r"';:III;: tim r

11.1' •• · IN:.:" ,,\"ral!1I1>! lillw" .1 j .... Jffi.·i,· .. t I .. I. .. " .. II,,· .. i,"I·.lir ... ·li,," (rMlurlln .Ii,.tri"uti .... in ~~ \ .

• I .. :.:r ...... · .. I .. ~. :-h .. ih (1'177) ,11,,1 IIr."I..,. (I 'J7ei ... , ,. .... e·ih ", I'r .. fil ... I" " ... ,,11 .. , .. rli.· .. 1 ,Jiffll·j .. ,1. \1

.h .. rl .!i .• I .. w·,,· II'l' i. iml" .rl .... ' f .. r ..t I ... 1 "'!lr' •.•.

I ..... ,-. .. r I I .... :.: .1i.·lillI'·'·' C . IIIU I. ... , II 1.111111'" .u.

t... .1._um 1 I .. fill "I' II .. · IIU, ... I 1.1\,·r '",if"r",l,

0 .. 111 .... 11. \\ •• If 1 \Ia .... l.... 1'17»). 1Ir ... ,I.·"·

0'17"01) K, .. _ulUl'li .1( •• Ii-t ... 1 il; T .. 1.1.· 1:1. J.

T .... I.· I :l.1 IIr",I,·r·· ~U;!;! •• I.·.I H .. lali .. 11 B.·I .. r,," ~, ..... 1 ~1 .. 1 .. lih t:I .....

Slabilil, eta.. 11:1,.' 1.-:

-----

\ 11,11

II IIlI1

I. 7u

" I .•

l ... 0

I.:;

f ~ u I."

I III II ..... 11r,·r ha,,,I, ""101., .. 1 i., 'Iuilo' illll'"rtalli ,iII ... · II ... 1I .. If·li, •. _ f"r elr~ .1'·I"Nli .. n, \Orl .1"1,.".ili"lI. 011 .. 1 dl .. mit·al t ... II.f .. rrn .. li"",,, IIf d"':lIit·aL •. -ud • ..,. ~O:. aft· I~ l'i.· .. I1~ "" Ih.· .. rel .. r .. f a f.· .. eL~ •. II.·,..· a::aill. lI.,w .. \I·r. ,·ru"!.· .... ..uml'liull •. ·ue·" .... 'd - I .·ru,·"'·l· fur :'0: .. "I'd tl.1 em. .... · f .. r .ulfa ... ,. ... ro· 1I1i1.1.· I,~ 111",.1 ;11\ • ."li:.:al",.,... TI .. · 1'''II\''~i,," "f :'1 ':

I .. -ulf .. I.· i- l!'·II."t" .. il~ "",.ulLr.1 I .. 1 .. 1..· 1,1"1'" Oil .. r, .. to-

.. f a!x.ut I', !hr. v. ... ,...1011\011 r.llt" i., u"' ... 1 III 1..-

l''''l''crlilillill I., r .. iufall " .. 1.' rili,..·.1 I or I",w"r:

".j! .. :Omill ... ud nUllt (I'17a) IL"- :\. (frat'li,," "·lIIu,.·.1 prr ...... · .. 11,1) III 4 R'I. wh"rr R i., r .. illiall r .. t.· (ill mm·hn. fur .. ffilulrralr raill "f ~ 111111. hr. wI"! r"mmal I,d-,·,. "Ia ..... t .. r,,1t" .. i' 72',/hr.\ ,Ji.I!"ll~ there.,...ut formula i.. IL ..... I j,~ j .. IIIL...... V. .. If. and \lalll'U..o (l1J78) ... ill, :\. 0 0.6 X Itl .. It V. .... " il j,. raillill~ ... rl r"I11 .. ,.11 i. 'Iuil .. r{f.·di.r: h .. w .. ,rr. u, .. r a ItJl~ lilll" l"·ri ... I. \Orl and d~ ""111.)\ al ...... rtlu..Jl~ ,·ff"di, ...

RrconunrrJ.llioR.> for tltr PiUilJlldrr.; Ji:.c:u,....J .d .. ,\ ........ as (ollu ... ;

a, 'U.;it (a, in In .UlJ I ill..-.:I ! IT.!l

~. (tL>t" T aLlr 13.1) (LU)

~'IiII'P:,~'~·C"""'_""""""'·'v'._ <", ..

',11';1,:) 1.II ... a ~ •.

I I I i I

',1("',:, 1I.I,m·.~

111-;,

~I': -'~I'.: ... II\,r'I .. 1I r~(o- IUIII.r 111.!Io,

:\ III' I:' (:\ III Ir ... II"" ••.•. I .. 11.1

n III 111111 hr ) 11:1:-1

\\ 111.1 \.-1 •• '11\ . I ,.. ... It-,·n .·.1 I'r"lil ••. ""1::1.1.·.11" •· .. I .. ·.·lIlr .. ti .. n ,1i.-lnlulti .. 11 "illl ".·;~hl. Inl.·r" .. I ... I.·Io.-l ... ·.·11

.1 ... li,,", 11.111:: I r: ",·,::1.1111,,, «I :1.11)

\\111 .... ' 111"'''\ 11I",·rl ... 11I ... ,IJII-I ... 101o- " ... r ... llld,·r •. Ih,· rn.alt·hlll~ tit "n·.li,-tl·11 .IIU' .. it!'4·" ... 1 10IU -r- lltr.lllo u 11..I1t,·rll- 1"""',111'" '11111. • .... ,\. III 110.·-,· .. ppli.· ...... II •.

h ..... ·\.·r. II,,· 111 ... 10-1 I. 11,,1 trulv \aliol ... I 1 .11 .. -e-

,..a!i,I .. li .. " "·'llIar.·- I"-III'~ .. I ,It,· 111<1,1.·1 itlt .. II

lfuJ"I"'nrl"n, .1 .. 1 ....... 1.

U·3 APPI.IC:\TIO:\ TO'-\~ t:'ERT TRACER

~'lIIr .. f II ... 1""IoI"IIL- .·" IIIIIo·ro·,1 .. illo I,,"~-

r ... ,,;: .. Ir .. II'I",rt .u,,1 ,lil'l"lI.i .. 1I 111 1.-1. f .. r -ulfur ... ro·

.Iu.· I .. 1II1'·'·rlaillli.·, ill ,In .1"1'.",ili"lI .... ·1 ,1.·1" "i· ti .. n, 0111,1 ,·1 n- 111;".11 tran-f .. rm .. li,," s-, Tit,· "-.li"l! .... 111 .. ,1.-1. I,~ lI.illl! illrrl Ir .. n·ro .• udl .... _ 8 ~ "r. a ~a. Ihal i .• ro'l .......... 1 r .. utill.·" from lIudrar ill,lallali .. n". IIr 111 ... 11·111.1,1.· i, ... rl Ira ... -r-. ", • ..11 a.- :' Fb .. r hr .. , ~ " .. ·IIa ..... ·,. i. u-eful. F"r lit .. ,..· Iran·ro. Ih.· ....... ·0.·,1 •· .. nr .. "·rati,," patt-ru- M.· 0111,' ,..,1.·" I .... ill.l •. 111,1 turbuh-nc«, Bronkr (1":-')1.) t1"",·nl .. -e all appli"ali,,"

"f 1ai.-lIIu.I.·II" II,,· ~a,allll .. h Hi"'r 1 Io .. r .. t"n (~HI.,

an·a. l~.· I"\"ali,,",, .. I ra .. ill ud 1 .. ti .. II" "'arIa ... ·

.Wlk.lr... I ...... r-. r.·I.·a ... · ,il 111,1 a '1I1-I.III ... rnplill::

an .u.' -hown ill Fil!. LLt III ldition I" r..,ulillt'

n·I ....... · I' 8~ Kr. I .. u Ira ... -e-, ~F ,,,1 h"a\\ IIIdha",'

1«' )ell.) ·r.· r .. lra,...,llrulll a (,:.!·m .10:.·1. :'\t'r a -I-Ior

p,·n",1.

Tit ... mu,I.·1 -imulat.·, II ... pollutant 1"u III.· 1,\ a

-n .. " uf -vufl.,. ... h tra] .. ct .. "", ow- cumpuu-d b~

huurl~ aJ'''''liulI l!m .. nb. Fir~t. th .. ra .. i",..mol ..

prof" .. [rom lilt" ,t .. liull ,war",l Ih .. "'l!rrJrllt .Iarting I",illt i- u",·.ll ... ·-timat.· II. ... a\rr.a;.:.·la,rr ",ill.1 (\' \) ... ·i~"Io·J 1,\ th« .:u ...... -ntration:

't \-

II

~ C, v,

,

.. h .. rr II ~ th .. lIul1ll ... r IIi 1(,\,,6 up tu th .. IIU1jll~ h .. i~lt. \li1illj! I,,:~lat j_,. J""'rmillt:'ti 11\ f .. lIu .. in~ II. ... rnnimum .una.: .. t ... ml"·r"tuc .. Ul' ~ "J~L&llc;Jl~

GA

N

\J) - Su,t .

(!)-T ..

®- r'A"

' .... .tW 10-'. o :1S 50 I!> 100

t ' I I I

.m

tic. 13.3 1M Sa Rh« n.,..;-.t .-pi ..

~ and _1 ........ 1 dau Iocatiou. IF..- 1l.1l.

Uruln. ~odfiiAc th. a-Jta uf Two Ilecftot ~ oal. INp.-niun [kpen.n. .... ~,_>4. I.', ... ;'on.. 13:

IS:!6 (1979).1

until it i"to·n·rpt,. til" l:!tJO (;\IT IMHJllfling. The r.-laliulL- 1 ... " .... ·11 Ih .. IJUi!llitu.1 .. and din-ction ftf lhr ..urla ... · .. illtl (\',). 0111,1 awragr L.~ .. r willi, (VA) ar .. ,ld,·rmuu·J 01.,,1 ar .. ar"ilraril~ _umrd to appl~ al all ,wliulI~ un tht' ru-t ".,,0.. The ;ao1vaJlI&jt .. uf UIoi"tl ,wfa.·.· w i".I,. I,. thai tll"'~ rrl"lrt h .. urf~·. in cunlr .... l lu rawitlMJIIJ .... , whidl report ill I:!·hr inlrnaL.. Flit" ,·,...mpJ... tlai, aualysi .. 11liII~ ,Jww lhat \" JI\ A I z. II.;' alltl thai II ... ,Iiro'diun of \'. i.~ :..'00 to lh.· I .. It otth e ,Iirrdi .. " uf \" A. "\"11. a -urfacr wind Ollila e """m","t .larlilll! puilll i, cal"ulaln! t..~ usillg a d 1 di..lalll·" ... ·il!hlillj! .111.1 a alit...:t;' ..... r~hling (a,.) Ki\'rll lt~

Q. = I - 0.5 !o.in ~.I

( I.UIl)

.. !t .. ro· 0, i. Iii .. JII!d .. brlw .. en the .. md directjon alltl II... lin« Crt rm th.. &lation 10 the wgm e nt atartillg I",illi. Onl~ allgl .... with magnillldrll of 90° 01" I ..... an: considered, Finally. a tnru;port wind ill det e rmined It~ u..ing th .. calculated IiW"filc~ wind and t"~ ~ti()11li d .... t'lcprd at tit e r .. winoOnd e ..talion.

\" .. rtical Jiffu..ion b caleulat e d rrom the one Jimcnaluna1 .1iffu..ion e <{uatWn by w.ing a \ .. rtical JicrUel\it~ ~tW to :- mll..:c ill iI h.:,ight lIr 100m. 1111:. ;., til" valu .. Urnl .... "'&.00 ....... ming Ioe lI .. utnl l'lIlIalitiuna bdur .. hr Pft'pal"t:'d til" I"t:'ril;.:d T aLIr 13.1. lIurtwJltai JifflJ.SlulI b,;j\t'n b~ o,(m) = O.5l (..-q . GJllc .. nlraliulI cOlltrihutWfU from each puff that P"'-'" a ro:c .. plur duri~ th.. .ampling po:riod arr .ulnlll .. J ... no.l .. n a~ .. r&fr.' cuncentration it c&1cuI.tcd.

90 -\T\loSPIlf.RIC lJIHISIO~

II!.",·n.·.1 01, .. 1 pr .. llic-t .. ,1 =,F6 nceutration» on

II... ')11-1..111 ..allll'lin;! afl: art· plon 1 ill Fi!!. 1 :1..1.

"ra"I"r hOI, ";a,lju,kd- ", to a \alu.· of 3() m1 /,....,,.., that tl... maximum pr.·,li .... ·,1 ':"''''''ntraiion aj!r"", .. itl. tl... ol,,,,·nali .. n, :\ .. utral ,till.ilih conditi .. n, (l'a"'luill I;irr .. rtl) pr .... ail.·,1 .Iurill)! t"i.~ .·"p,·ri'",·III. hut a valu« ;.f '" Mlual I .. -;- III: I,,'" prll.lue.·.1 a 1"'011.. ,· .. II .... ntruti .. 1I that ,.a.. muvh to .. hi)!h. Th .. fi!!,Jr" ,I .. ,,.. that tl ... I'r ... li ...... 1 .. lun ... i; .li,,,la ... ·" ah .. ut :.!O lm frllm tl... "",,,·n.·.1 1"'011... '" hid. i, .. li,·al • .,. 01 ",i,IfJ·.lirt·di .. 1I ,·rr .. r of alH.ut J 0° til J :,;0. TI.i, .. r ... r i..

" .. I "url'ri,inl[, -in · th .. input ",ill.1 .. h",·nali .. n- aCt"

j!i\ •. " .. nl~ t .. tl ... , ar..,.t 100.1I"",,,\,·r. tl ... lid n--ult

i., a '''H.r ... "ro·lalil.lll !.c,lw.·.·1I .. 1.,.·".·.1 aml pr ... lickol

.... nceutrati .. n- al fi, .. ,J point-; W.· ,'an ndu.l .. th .. t

tl ... m'HJ.·1 .Iid fairl~ ... ·11 ill .·,tilllihin;! tl rr ....... ;n,1

concentration di-trihutiou hut .·rr ... 1 ,Jithtl~ in • .,.Ii· rDOIlin)! 1'1 II lilt' ,lir' :m.

~l~~

o

z 10 Q

..

.. a:

~ 50

... u z o u

...

':i. :>.0

a: --Ob_

... >

'"

M~I !)fcdlCflon, With "MtOtJI Wind .ruumptl(}flS

..•••••• S.ond..,d .•.. _ P,b.II

--- Surf..:. -.- !fJlllNet'

1 0 '---'-_~--L_~~_......_-J'-- __ '----'-_.._-' 50 40 )t) 10 10 0 10 10 3('1 40 50 60 70

NO~TH

$GUTH

CROs':;oIV.NO DISTANCE. km

F •. 13.-1 O,-"N uod ~tN SI', .-onct •. trabun Oft til. 90- ... JlLlllPimc an .1 Sa.annah R.i,",. It· ..... R. R. Druler. ModdiIc til. RetJUJu 01 Two R«"O'IlI ~a&e ~ [I~U •. tttrWL f'-",'II''''''', 13: 1528 (1919). J.

Problems

I .. \."llIn.· m"III)! .I .. "tl" z ... f :illll m. 111011 m . illl.1 :.!tlOO rn, For .. a.·h or Ih.·,..· mi,inj! .1"1'11t,. .··Iimal .. Ilw .Ii.·ta' ..... ,1 .... n .. in.1 OIl ",hi"h o/.· 0.:1 " for .I;a:.ilil~ .·1;,1.,"" .\. B. C. U. L 01,"1 F (",... Bri~,', (J f .. rrnula-).

:!. What i, lit.· ,Iiff,·r,·n,·.· 1 .. ·I"'.· .. n (J, 11,..·.1 I" lI .... flt-r (:'JHII) .u .. llhat ",..-.I"~ "a~ an.1 f{""'IIJ:""":! (I'IHII) .. I ·1 .. "'II .. i,1I1 tli_latwn .. I :;1..111. 11I1..m. .ill 1..111. 11M) I..m .. il)() km, alltl II~) llll'~ .\.....urn.· .. ir .. J ~p4·.·.J i:-:; rn. -'-"l·.

:t Crutlf'l~ • .,.Ii,ua'" II,,· rradi"" .. f =" 'I r"lIIaillin;! in all air ma-, ... ft,·r it Ita_ "w''''',1 lb· AI;.;Inlit· I It- .. an fr .. rn :\ .... Y .. rI. t .. IAlII.lun. :\ . ....om.· t~ pit'al ",i,uJ -IH'.·.I, arul rai"fall fn·'I" .. tIl·i.·,. E"pllill all ~""r ""..Ulllpliu'L"

.l_ :\ ""::III"nl _tartill;! I".;nl in a Iraj.·tI .. ~ "011<-,,1..· ti .... i ... al '- II. ~ 'II. T"n ,tati .. u, .. ith tl ... f .. II .... i,1:! '·.M.rtlinal., ar.· n·IM.rtill:! tI ... f .. I1 .... ill~ .. i,"1 \.·1 .... · ili.·~:

, , SporN. Uinrtlvn.

Station ( .... .,..... (_Ihl. ... ra/o« tk&~

au 1.0 8.0 Jlltl
~.O :.!.O 10.0 18t1
3 ;!.II :;.0 11.11 23U
4 II.:> ;!.O ".11 200
.j ;!.O 9.0 :tll 280
b b.1I e.u :!.II 3Utl
e.u :!.O :;.11 3311
8 3.11 1.11 b.O l211
tj 1.0 2.0 :;.0 :!711
1-. .!.O -1.0 &.0 :."X) ------- .-----._ ._-- __ -

I :..1"111.11.- II,,· ;1I1,·rl".I"II'.1 _, .. ·.·.1 OIl Ii,,· "":,:111 .. 111 _tartillj! pttinl 1.\ u_i,~

I 1/.1: .... dll i-r;!.

:.!. Ii til .11,,1 tliro-.·tittn .... '!!hl:IIl!.

-

~iS '., . l{t)ff'rt)Il'-(,t~~

.. .

.,

.

a\t

.-\Lr.un .. ",il:&. 'L a ... 1 I. :\. :'I"~"II (E.I,..). l'jfJ·t Handbook of .\lalh e mali .. ol Funetion«, \ali,,"al lIuro-a1i .. f :'lalllla"l,. '-\"pli.·.1 'Ialh :',·r. :::.:;. (;1'0 .

.-\nl(.·II. J. "- .. P. \\ . .-\11"11. allli E. A. J •. ,.,,"p. 1'171. \I .. ,.. ..... ;al.. H .. lali\.. Difiu,.i .. 11 F,lilllal.·,. fn.1II T rtr."," Flil(h",. J. Appl •. \I .. t"UI'oL. 10: ·U·~,.

&'ra.1. \t. I.. (E.l.). 1');'>8. PruJ"ct Prairie l;rau: .1 Field i+U(C"am in lJlffusion. (;""rh~ ,it'al H"""an-h Papers, \f1. :;e.l. \',,1,.. I allli II. H"IMlrl .\FCW:· TR';>8·:!r. Air ffln'" Lam"ri.I~.· R"",·ar.-ll (:'-nl'-f.

Barn. P_ J .. 196· .. f~tlmalitJr: of Dounuind Limn'''tration of .urbom« f:tflu .. nt» lIis.·har" e d in Ih e . '·~¥tlrburlwod of Bud1iiRflJ. It"IMrl ;\ECI.·:!()·I:i. Atomi •. · [llt'rj!~ ,,1 t:.Il1a.la. 1.1.1., Chall .. Ri\rf. Ontario.

Ba,..,. :\ .• 1!J811. 'lod"linl( 1. .. 1I1! Rallj!" Tra'L'p •• rl aUtI Diffu,.iu!l. in i+,,,· .. ..ditlflJ of 2nd lui", Limf .. r .. n.· .. on .lpplit."aliunJ III .1" Pollutic ... 1I"' .. o,,,I'II!.\'. '\"w tlriran,.. La" \Iar. :!·l :!7. I emu .. \III .. ri,·all \!d .... n,jtl~.·al :"x·id~. (1 .... I .. n, \1 ... _

-. C. W. H .. nlJ .. ~. J.:'. :,.·ir.·. and c.:,. \I .. rri •. 11)79. lJ,.1'f!/opm .. nl of -'1,.,usro1.. Air (,huUlh' SimultJtiun .Uud .. ls: \ .. 1. I. Comparali\ .. :'.·",i· livih Swdi"b uf Puff. Plum .. and Grid 'lud .. l,. f",. l..or.g.Dio-Unl·" Oi ... prMlIlI ""d .. lir~. R'·p .. rl EI'.\· 600/7·79·\\. Environm .. ntal Prukdiull ;~"Ill'\.

B..lchrl .. r. (;. K .• 195U. Applinliun of lilt' .:'illlil;u-il~ Th'''(l~ 'If Turbul-nc .. I .. '\llIIu,pl. .. ri c Oiffu,i .. n, V· J .. R. .V"'~'jral •. "! ...... 70. J:!8): I:n IUJ.

--. 195:!. Oil fu";"" in ill Fi,.fd uf ll .. rOUI! .. rM· ... b Turoul .. lltt. II. Th .. R e- litli\ .. ''''Iiun uf Partid..", Proc: umbna.tr PhilOl. SO(' •• .uJ: 3-l5-J6:!.

Hr.ahilffi. R. B.. B. II; S .. ,.f~. and W. D. CruLi .. r, IIJ:;:!. .\ T .. dulltfU" fur faj.: .. :inIC and Trac;l~ .\11' Pa!'cri~. Tran», Am. t;..upla.,·s. Lnio«, 33: 1t!5-833.

~. (; . .-\ .• 1973. lJrffwlOn Estimatio« IUI'SnuJii f.:miuiolu. ATOI. CunlnlmliOIl fil .. \u. :''1. . \tmoaphtTic Turbu! e ncr .. nJ Oiffu..iun L .. lwC.t· tOl'~ .

I 'I7~. Plun... Ri. ... • fwm 'lullil'l.· :' ... un·,'" ill Gm/in" Tou,,.r f.'ne·uflnm .. nt 19;-.,. EHI) \ :'\llIllt."jum :',·ri .. ,. (:..IIf'):'· l)art... '1tI .. \t..r." It. !!I7t :'1,'\"" R. Ilanna and J'"l'r~ 1'.-11 (Co ... nli ...... I .. ~). "I" Ibl·17t}. CO\F·7·WJO:!. \TI:'.

-.1'17:;. Plume Ri-r Pr ... Jidi,,"~. ill/,,,,·Iur,.. on .Iir Pollution and f:nl·irunm,.ntal Im/lo,", ·lnalylf'l, \\ .. rk,llIlp Prtlc.·.·din"". 8",1 .. 11. \I a " ... :"'1'1. :!'J IIt·t.:1. 197:;. PI" 59·111. Am.·ri,·;J1I "d.· .. ml .. "it-aJ :'.,,·;rt~. &,1,,". , ........

-. 1'17'1. .-tnalyti,· .U"d,./i"IC of LJrai~ Flo, .... \TI)1. It .. purl 7IJ/:!:!. ;\IIII"~pllt'ric' Turbul .. ".· .. ;'11.1 lJiffu";'l11 J.lt. .. ral .. ~.

-. I')HI, Plum .. Ri .. · OI"d Uuu~allc~ Err ... · I,.. ill .ltmlJlplrf'fu· ,S,.j"nrt' IIIId Puu· e r i+ududi"n • ()a~1 Rillld"~"11 (Ed.). DOE It''I, .. rl DOE/TIC. :!7fJOI. ill I'r..,.,...

Bu."II~.·r. I. \ .. 1. c. w, "l'a.lrIl. Y. [zumi, aflll E. F.

Hra.II.·~. I'J71, Flu ,,·Prllfil.· R .. lali.tlL.IIII''; ill tlu.\IIIl""I,I,,·r .. :'urfac.· l.a~ .. r, J •. tlm",. St·i .• :!B:

IHI·18'1.

Ihzo\a. '\.1... Y~.I\. (;al',! .. r, illid \'.:\. harMlv. I'J711.

E",H'f'illll'nlal E,.tilllalillll uf II ... l.olj!ran;:ian Tim.' "'·a! .. flf Turbuh-nce. 1:1. "tmOl. Uceanic Ph."''' &. :!I:;·:t!().

c.ll!li .. lli. P .. I'r,:;, I)."."",i"d CUII,· .. "lnliurL' uf all .\irlx"., ... Tr ....... r HrJ.· ...... d ill lit .. ,\ .. i"J.lxJfh,XMIIl( a Huildilll!' .Itmo,. f:nt·irtlll .• IJ(!i): 7:J«j·74-:-.

Carl't'lIkr. S. H_ F. W. Thuma.;. ;i"c! F. E. Garlr .. U. 1'J6H, F:!U,~oJ,. StuJy of Ptu~ Risr al lAr;:,. Jo.l#{·Irae <; e ur,j'inK .::;'atiuns. T .. IIIIO'_"'" \'0111 r \ ;\ul!.uril~. " ... >cI .. Shoals, .-\101.

T. L \!on~om .. n. J. ~t. l .... ;uill. W. C.

Culh"Uj!h. aOO f. W. TI-.omaa. 1971. Princ."ipal Plum .. Oi~lI\tod.-h. TV.\ Po\O .. r Ptan"'. J. tor Pollut, CUlltrol AIIOc." •• :!I: -'91·-l95 .

(:.aN.. ... II. S .• and J. c. Jargrr. 1959. Cund~IiOil uf H~I in Sotid«; :!rltl rd .• Oxford l'nivrrs.il~ Pr e ao;. Lundon.

C"u"h .. ~, S. J.. J. c. \\'~ripMd. an.' J. C. K.im;al • 1 !J79. Turhu] c n-, .. III th .. E\ulving St.1LI e L..~~. J. ~tmu, . .sca.. 36: 10-l1·a.t5:!.

91

92 AnIOSPHl.RIC Dlnl SIO~

CiumL .. rlain, A. L. 197.). Th .. \1,-" "JI1f"ut "I Partid,.,. in PI.;Int C"mmuniti..,.. in ,'''/l''tation and til' . ~tmo.ph,." -, \',,1. I. (~p.:;. PI'. 1.- .. j·:!O.l. J. L \! .. nt,.illa (Ed.). ,\,·.;I.J,·mw Pr .. ",. IAJlul"n.

(:h.IIJfIlI~. F. II ... 111.1 H. \. \I,·ru'I<"'. I'}.':J. :'imi· louil~ Tlu··,n "f Dif(u-i"" ,u,,1 I!lt" ('!.",·n ... 1 \ .. rli.· .. 1 -'pr .... d in .1. .. lli .. I ... li,· :'urfat· .. Lrv-r. lJ"unJan·./.an·r J' tPtJr,Ji.. :1: W:-;· t r..

f r .. u ... r. II. E .. 1'):;-. \ Pradi.·al \I.-tI".II" .. [-I,n ... t· II':': II ... 1 h-I.·r ... 1 .. f \lrn'''I,h,'r ... f ~'"t."III"''''I.-. ill 1'r.,,·,o,·dmeJ of th» Fir" \ul'l1fllJ/ (;In,fpr .. '' .... •• n Ippli.·rlU .. t- .. r .. lo«: v, "'1'. {:. 1'1" (:':~$-( :.:1.;. \ 1II,·ri,· .. " \1.-1 ... 'r .. I .. ~;.·al .'cot'i.-t,. I I art f .. oL ( A ifill.

Craw, ,; .. II. \. 1· .. ""i.J.~, ~nol fl. /"111.111.1"77. \ \I ... id for 1Ii.-p.·r-I .. " ir .. ", \(0'" ."."r ... ·• ill !oll\,-t·ti,t· 1I1rl. .. I.·,..,,·, IlmlJ.J. l.m iron .• II ::';:1·')041.

era .. ("nl. T. \.. I 'H',( •• Pr .. ,J""ltt/l ,,,,J .'.amp/uti! \ucl"ur Ouuri. front ,h .. J 11''' pom! of b'f/wlOn Theorv; I :'.\EI: Itrpurt I (:IU.·lt'Jll:1. ( "i,,·r-.h "I C .. lifornia. l..l .. r.·n ... · H ... ii"ti"" 1..I1 ....... t .. n.

{:""z,,·r. \\. D .... ,,,I B. 1\.. :' •.•. 1.. 1').;:-;. (~",,·.·"Ir .. h .. " Ili.lrit.;.li .. n- 1I.\.'r" .... ,1 Plul"'''' Tlar-'r ,,, T"""I\' T ..... "il,·~ from .. P .. iul ' ... -urv«. Trans, 1m. (;pophu. ! ilion. Jll: t!·,i:!.

f).1II01. \1. T.. ..,,,I J. \I. 11 .. 1 • .,.. 1')7(.. :'t .. 1 i.-I;.·..J .\'-1' .... ", IIf II ... \\ .... I1IIul "I I' .. I~ .!i'l ... ,.... \.1" ...... ol-. IlmUJ. I:", Uutl.. III: l.-;·:;41.

1, .. ,; e- -, It. \\., 1'"-;,,. l..Ir.,:.·,:'.·al.· lIiff".it,n (n.m .. n I'il Fir.·. in Id,ull ..... III t;,."ph'JII·'. \ .. 1. h. 1'1>U:~U t. F. \. Fr.·"l,,-t . .111..! I'. \. :'1.'-pl ... nl

(Ed-.). \., ... 1.·"".· Pr.·", \ \ .. rI...

f).· .. r.lllrH. J. \\ .. I'J70. \ 1'1 J)lIIlO'n,j""al\u "I< ro-

., .. 1 111\ .·-ti:.: .. II'III of !f... 1.1,·ala.·.1 1'1 .. lId .. n !~oU"IJ .. rv I"",·r. J. ('''''P'' 'i. H .. lloi /1"11 •• :r:'7 -WI,

-' -.1')7'. \ H,r .... [111, .. ·,,- ....... 1 '\"III,·n • ..J :'!u.h .. i :.h.. ",· • .:Ia, .. ",I \" ... " .'Inlotur.· "I J i1 ........ j I '!.'"d .. n B .. u, .. Ln I ... , .·r. tI"ullJan'/A'rr U"'t'urui .. I 1l1·(tI •.

Drtn.·fJun. 1\.. t... ,11,,1 1\.. L .'t·Ia,·r.·. 1')7". \J.>fJlio ...

ti .. ", uf .. Pt. .. 'Ud,,·III,,·al HOI" \1, .. 1.-1 I ", \ ..

!)u .. Jih ill lluu~'''". T ....... -. III Pt,J<· JUtI!. 'J;

.'prrJ4l, .... ("u"/ .. ,,,,,,, .. ,. "II U;Uf ... ()Xtri4fJ": [nlrt'· «'II.JfJS U Ilia rit.. T ulal Flit ,run", .. nc. ~.II\ II'",· m.-ntal Pr"lro I lUll \;_: •. ,,, " !{.·-r •• Ct II r rt. .... ~r

Pm.:\. c.

Uid.:oOfl. c. H.. I;. E. :-:t .. rt ... ,,,I L II. \t.6..-.-,j"

1%9,\ ruJ~'~mj(- Effnl> "I II. .. [UI{.JI !{ .

tur t::Umpl"x .m EfOu .. ". I .. r: .... ,,!,~I1"". \uct.

id/,. 10: :!:..'8·:'!C.

DOIl.u.Lon. c. Dut' .. I 'J7:J, .\!mu'J.>",·r" r'Jr1>u1"'" " .md It. .. D~.,..n.al vi .\tll1u~!JLrra<: PuHul .. III •. ," .,H/S ;: url"itup In '.I.-r.} .... ,.! .. uru!Oti.,. i'P'

~- '_

31 J.Jt}O. U . .\. lI.;Iug .. n (Ed.). ~j.-rJ(''' Pr ....... Prinnton. x. J-

Oe ... an. J. c. T. \\. II .. ,.,... and P. \\. \j.-l .. 'a. 11}.'8 • \'oui.ati"",. in \Ir ........ rrd \'01101.·,. uf l....trral ()iffu. -"'" ParOlmrlrr-. J. .~ppl. .\I"r<)r,Jl.. '7(t.,:

Ii;!j';l:ll.

f)rn: .. r. R. IL ''.I7f r, 1 J..trmlin.;ltiu" .. f .\tn"',,I'I.rno· l>iffu.-j.,,, I·"r"",.-(,·r.. ..ft:mlJ.J. f.11t iron., ! 0:

IjI'·III.'.

-. j'J7'J,.. E,.lilll .. ti,,:! \ .. rli.· .. 1 IH(u.it,,, f" ....

Huuli,... \1 .. 10-, ..... 1,,,·;.· .. 1 T" .... r 'I.';a_ urt·rn.'IIl-. .I'mm. f:llflmll •• 1:1: I:- .. )'J.i:;'~' .

-. jfJ7')1o. '''"I .. lin;! II. .. R.-ulL- Hf T .... R .. .-rDl \1 .. ,." ..... 1.. 1Ii.'po-r.ic,n E'I'.-rimrnb. ·.'moJSo f.l" "'..... 13: 1 :>:!3-1 :;3:1.

EoIi,,~,·r. J. I; .. l'I.;:!. I T .... lanlf/" .. for " ..... urtns: cit .. /wl:Jd .. J .'trw'lur,. of llmoopla,.,v Flou, ,; ...... ph, -it, H ..... oud. P .. , ... e-. "' ... 19, \ir F .. r ... · (:..m. lori.I,,;.. R.,.,- .. rdt 1..&1 •• rat .. ri..... C .... "'I" -i.·- It,.. ,,·oud. Ilrrr"'orak. (' ..unLri,';!r. \I a-e-,

E;!an. II. \ .. 1'17:;. Turl.ulrnt I>iffu,.io ... in Clint""", T .. rr .. in. ill [_,.,·'ur ... on .tir Pu/luliufJ tUtd f;IIl;, ... · tno>ntaJ Im,...-tlnaln" .. pp. ll:!·':r.. J).1I .. ,,;!0'1l (r.1. ,. \,n.-ri .. all \1 ... t .. tJ'u .... ,!i.· .. ' ~,o,.t ~. H",.t, ..... \l ......

--. H.1I1:lTitu ...... 1 L \,.u.I ... j'171J. L-tilJuti,,:!.\;c 1,1u..lil~ In.-l. in Rr;:i""" 01 1Ii;!'1 T .. rrain l Cl4W ':1 .. 1,1,· \tm ...... ' ... ri.· C,,"JiliulIl". Pr"['ir.u, Fuun" ",mlJUllum un Turbul .. ",· ... IlJ!fuuon. and .t .. Pollutio«; \Ill. \1 ..... " .... 1. :'.M·j.,,,. Bt.-Iun. \L.._

--, .111.1 J. \t..! .. " ... ~. '·}7:!. \':'m .. rio:..f \1. ..... ·'ill;: .. I \.h .. dlOn " ... 1 Ilii(u,.jon .. r ~~n .\rra ~ .. uree

1·"lIu'''''(,.. J. Ipp/ .. \1 .. :,. 01 .. If: JI:!·3:!:!.

FI.,:uu. \. \\. 1')4r!. fIn j ,lr," .. li.,,, .. no- imrrl .. " 1.1

\1".1.,1,.,111111.:( , " .. f, .. 1. '."II.'~, F'K .\ulun_ ttl 17 .I .. l.

~.Iu"",·n .. \.. I'JKt), \ Rn ir .. ul ~..u,,,,,!U,t;! .. TrOll .... port \S..JtJ.-lill;!. J. Ippl.U .. , .. urul" 1": :!:H·:! ttl

L.;:rlru,,"n. H. J .. ! 'J'JH. Tl'r c..lnli .. ti"u .. f Pr .. <:ipitr I."" :-.· .. , .. ,>;!i,l;!. 1I111 .. , .. Ui'ulutt ... · ... d A'umlt' I:nt'rx.' 19611. 1'1" :!utJ.:!:!1. 'fl. :I. :O:L..I.· (Ed .... l :-: \1.:1: Hrpurl TID·:!" I·N. l'~._~ .. \t"m;'· En.-r",,,

I A.lUm.,...."n. \ TI~. f;

Em,rulllllrlltal I'rul .. di .. n \trlll":' .(f}7H. (;uiJ"!lIw oJ" tv t,J1I4li"U"d..l .. 11'\',11'::' (;u .. l.-lill'· :' .. ri ... \u. L!J.w. It.-po .... £P\-'-j'Jl:!·7~.J:':'. IIHi.y .. I \ir I)ualll' P!"JJlllfl:! .. fit.! -'L1IlJ..ru. •• Rr,.,.. .. n-D l'ru,,;:lr P..n.. \. L

Em IZlUln .. ·"lal ..... ,1"lIb CU'1">r.ah .. ll. 1'J.'7. Cuull~ T uu'" iJnl' U,·,. fra .... r £xJWrrm,.t. H.-vurt 1'1>:'1'·( J"f :-1'1' Em ir.,"lIIrntal ~"trtlb (·"~po.rr t~JIl. lI.' .. J1HJ) .... r rUII.

(_'",,:,U"UfU.I drr. \. ',,.J.. j. It. \la.rtlur.t ... 1Iui R .. '\. \uroiN ... I.. 1'17:!. ElaJUQIlLln uf a D'ff"'JlUnUuJft f;)' Pltulo<"ilrJI'UCaI itnu« iinwlts,wIL. Filial Rr-

P",r!. C. ... tr .. .-t \ ... (1I1·0:.!·O:ru, I.~ (;,·, ... r,,! H,·· ,...an·It Curvorolli .. n. :'.&111.. H.ul,.ira. (:"Iif.. f'll" En,ir"lInlO'nl~ Pr .. to·.·hlll \:.:"''''\.

F .. II~ .. \. II ... lnJ J. II. :'rillf..tol. 1'1:'11. 1: .. ,,1111110·,1 IJ,"rl"l'm"nl IIi .. "illdi.· \I,·,h .. "i,1II I"r 1'1a"I,o• hrmi.·aJ :'m,,;:. f:nl iron, .".,. T,·,·hnlll.. I'" l:l'm· J~O.'.

F .. ~. J. \ .. \1. E~ "oIi,·r. ","I I). I'. 1I0 u 1t. l'lh'l. I C"rr,"a::lJn of Fl.,lti 1,f .s» rvat ton s II! Plum .. 1<,,;'. Flu .. 1 \I.·,·h .. ,: .. ·~ 1 ... 1",r.ll .. rv 1'1I1,li"alioll \0. (1)~. :\L" ..... ·hu .... lI, !a,.III,,1t- .. f T,·.·I",,,I,,:.:~.

--. allli J. J. R""'·IIL",,·i:.:. I 'IBII. \11 \",,1 Ii,·..! lliffu,i"11 \I, .. irl f .. r 1 AlII;: lJi,I<!,,,·,· Trall-poorl .. I' .: \ir ",,11111 .. ,,1,. IlnrtH. Enriron .. I L :1., .•. :11,( •.

Fr,·nL.id. F. \ .... ".1 I. ...... 1<:. I 'Gil .. '11101;.-, "I :'m .. l1,:',·al.· Turhul"III !Jiffu,i"a III Ih.· \lfI"O'I,h,·n'. J .. \I,'I"'II'"L 1:1: ::IIH·:l'J L

j r ..

F.

\

:-:.'lIultau ,,'j:E "I"'rlll •. ,,1.

1'1.,:;.

\..

I.~Tall:.:un E,"J..rwa Turl'ul ... , ... · .Hunl/th· U "alh .. r 1<"" •• Ii:!: ;,. .. n·:!111 .

--. 1')..'1 .... '10111.-111'011 l'r"I"·rll.·,, .. f .. FI,I<·(.;_"";: "luH'" lli.-I"'1''''u" :\1,,,1.·1. ill .telfln,·". "' (; .. ". ph'~"·J. \ "I. r-. pp. II :'·I:!H. F. v. Fr'·Ioi.;,·1 allOl I' .. \. :'1 ... l'p.uol 0':,1,..). '.'· .. .I.·mit· Pr,·,,-. \, ... \"rl.

_-. 1".;'11>. L .. mpuI.Jli"lI .. f I'"illlti,," frllm .";nt raJ :' .. ur ... ·,.. lnt, J. Ilr Uall'r,""llllt .. :.! Ill'l·llH.

I "" I. I.... "f P.ullli,·,· \I,·I ........ I·.;.:i.· .. 1

t ""'1'\ali"",. f .. r r-limatin;: \h".,,[,It,·ri.· Ili~I',·r· -i"" .. \ud .. ~J .. ::( l):~:',':'.

--. I'J'JH. \l1llutl;nr IIf Th ... ,ri,·~ of lIilfu,.iulI ill II ...

IA,"rr I ... , "r- .. i II. .. \llIIu"rl ... r,·. ill \1"''''''''/061'' and Itomlf' f.ftt'rl!.'· J96J-1. I-'p. 114')-111 •. II II. :,bolr (Ed.). I:' U:C Krl'"rl TIll·;,! ~I')O. I.:'. \lumit' Ew·r:.:, •• ,,"nll,.""''', \'11"":.

--_ 1"7u. \l~fi" ... piwrll l):1fu"u.fi If • ..1'1 ( ;-i.,J" \rt<J;. in Pr", ... ·.·.1111;:· .. t.1 If .. J. f ·ofl.f.:r ...... j or th., [n u-rnattonal f«(J.IUJ~h_J'. frlfl"":ll_l': t \,"jt·wU~J". BfI:.:irlll". F" .. .j~II'1. \ 1".1 H_ ! 'j ~o \\. r" .. 1Il,'ol ,Ed.). \,r 1',,11,,11"11 t ."lIu"i \, .......... 1'''''.

1 tJ':-_'~. \trw'II~-yt ... r.. Ui-'·v,-r"' .. H. \loJ.+.. lur

Em ,rlllllll"II taJ i'"lIlJtlt'" \pl'li,·..cill,L-. ill I. e- , •. , "ps un ItT Pui!ull'ln find I-.'nl'fr"nrr",nl lnapud AlWhS>'s. 15v,lulI. \1 ......... ~ •. 1'1. :'!') 110-1. ::. 1'):'.";. p~. :i"i·.'H. \m,'rao'''" \1. It-,~,,I .. ;.:wal'''''''d\. B .. -III". \1 ... ,.,..

'-. ~ '/7h. r urt,uirut I 'iff IJ_ ..... "II I~ l'lfI;.! '.IWffU· ...

H.·\J.· ... \"'·L ..... d .. 17 loH·*,.

--_ J 11-:7. I n)p"''''~'fh·f1t· H.·Llll\ filii t U"'uHI 4 Itt_-. n..t

11"11. J. 1f'IJL II~'. ",,,1 .. !" : II ; I:

--, J qut II"fJ;uf1!.Ji /JlfrUJ,~!lff :'1 {tt,.· ttmlH/lftt'r,'." 1 lAJ.~rtJn~tt.JfI ll't';.U{/twui }::t"flr\. i)tlE H"pl.lrl 1_\-Hh":-·\I:,. i 0'" \L"",· '\ "'f!ldi. L .. ttH,r.Jlt,f\. \n..;.

- ... ".j .. 1:. H."" ... 1 "7:1. \I ... I,·ill,; I rt..II' \If 1' .. lIlIli"". 11111"" fll'''''",,:' 1.11·1.:11.

1 ;"I,I,·r. I I .. I'';':.! 1:.·1.1,",,- \"'"":: :"'1 .. 1.,1,1\ 1·.If.':II' t-r- In II... "':urt.Jt"I" 1.&\ ,·r. I!II', n,/"r\ .1." \ ,'r \(,., •. ",,,/ ... L 17·.-.1I.

1I~lil-I.., . .I.. l'lh.:. 1; .. _ 1I,liu,.i .. " , n- .1. 1:,,,101,".,I'lff< IF Tr"", .. ".. Ito ~ 1:1,';.

11.1111,.1 ..... 11.. !'II,ll \ ·,I,·tl'.NI IIf F-t"".oIII'; \. rl" .• 1 Fd.t\ rr.ul'"'l""n iii th., 1'..1!:. t.lf\ 1:"!III,I.Jf\ 1.1\ f r 1 "III:": (.i'~lr."·~I'f; .. II'-- (.t -III' \ ,-rtl,.il \ ,-1," JI\ 'p ... -rruru, I. III~I"". "., ... ~., IO:.!h,

'-. i'171. \",11'1'1. \I,·II"NI .. I • '.,1. "I.,!,,,~ 11,-,,,. "'11111 fr.lnl I ri • .JJ1 \rt";' ' .. urn·... I. I" /',,1/:, t.

(".,,,,r,,1 '"tW" .. :.:r :-: 1·:--:-:--

--. 1'1:':1. i1"-nil'li"" .,1' \ 1111 t "'''1".1.' \III,i.' t .. r I )i"'pt-r-"iull ir"llI \1111111'1,· ~lIlIrn· .... ill Irldll~ In,,1 I" 1'"11"/,,,,, ( ou t r .. /. 1'1" :.!:t·.t:.!. \1111 ",ri .... :""irll .... 1·lihl~,I".!'-. \lIn \d, .. r. \Iid t.

--. I":'~. \!.·Io'IIr"I.,~,,·.,1 !·jl,·.I- .. III ... \1.·,10.1111'.11 I tr.d. f uuli .. :.: I.'''.''r ... ul I!t. ,',,,- 1:1,1;':1- t ;~I ... t"lII!" I )It'fu~lu" Itlaili. In (Huh,,!.! 1'"" ,., ,. III "",. 111,'111 1'1-;1. U:II \ """I",-iu," ',·rlO·-. I "llo-c•· 1' .rr ". \101 .. \I~r. I h. 1'171. '10'\'" I:. lI .. nll., .,",1 J"rn 1',·11 II :'H,r·!:., .. I .. r-i. !'I" :.!'II·.(IH •. t II\~ :' Urill:.!. \ II:'.

--.1'17 .•. J{.·l.Jli.r !Jilfll-i "~I .. I r.-trllllll I' .. ir- l Iur itl_~ CUII\' ... -tftf" LtM •• tihHU -, IMp"r pn'4·nt.·.1 ..It First (_·on!.'r .. ",·" on k"sallnllJ arul \1""""'11/" HoJPiing •. Inain ... m.l Pr"tlll'tl"n. 1 ... - \ ,';"--. \"\ .. \11" ruan \t.·l.·nr.Ji'~;.'al ,....:.,.·i.·h. ~~u-ltl!1 \1.1.,-.

._- 1,,71 -. !'r,·oIid.·! ",101 t II~r, ... 1 I.".III'~ ('''''''r 1'11111'" ItL-,· ar ,,1 \ i-ilol,' 11"",1' I"'II~li, "I II,,· , .. lan E. \IIIt, ... I"u~f·r PL.lllf" I,m -v, ~'f!li'''"'' (0 1111::. i o.";:.!.

-. I 'J~:!. : liurll.J1 \ .Jrt.Jllull ... "1' lht" .... t;JI.ilah 1'.11 llif ;" li,,''';''''i'1o- \1111. 1 dUll I)i-I',,<-i,,,, \I."I.!. I. Itt "uIlHt. ('""",,1 h'1W .. _"a: I &:- • ~'L

---. 1'1110... I ",,', 1,"11/., I", In', /1)/ I ""illl;: 'l'Iu", 1'/,,,,11' \I. "i,·/. H.·,o,rl 1'::1 1\1 \1:1 ao. FU\lrullfUt"ut ... 1 ~'klln" :"".'r'\".·~ \,irllllll ... tr.Jtt'oIl. "r H.· ..... 'ur, f"'" I "",i"'(,Jt"r\ .

I 'JlltH,. \1'· .. -lIr.-.: .J, .JII,I 'J. "' I 1111'1.1 •. , 1.;r .. II' '·· .. r !It.· r\ \ \\ .. 1 .... - I· ... ~i... \IJi, .. r:u.";t,·jlll 1'1,,"1. 11111",- f.""r. ' .. I ~ ~II.

--. I "I~!"'. J)i"w .. 1 \ ~n .. lill" .. 'I ll"rtb",Ia! \\ ",01 J'lrn-tl.,1l Flu:-ttutt·.n .. d., .n ,'''J''pll'' ! .·rr.lllt . .1l C: \ "'-4·r·,. t...iliL. l~"utHiur\·l~H·r H,·tt·rlrf,£' .. -,H I 10,-110'1

-. 1 lilt(. \lIIlU"'pL"'f!t t,tt ... 1 .. "I f.urr',,;, PrtHfu, tUiJl.;1i l(tn'HfJlJf""~' ': ;O'if r 'JI~ci jJ"u~t'r I+ud,tl

illdr. ; J.HT\ i it.. .. ;;~·r .. ufl i ~.ti. J i)t IL H'·po.r"

1J411'. i:l.·:':~titJ: .. il ~I("".",.

- ,tnd 1. \. t ;alfurd, I q:-:- \~pil' ,Ji!t,,, ttl til ...

\ I! H ,.,j!l~,k : J u..', i'l-fKr-,.,,, \I, .. irll" r r.",i.·

" AneosPHEilIC DIffUSiON

r.t. "'rIOt ("~ny. in "'--'PIp 0/ ~_,It ,\ . .J T()/OCWS ....... ,~. t..o-.i_ If- ~f"Ur. ~ .... ATDt Contribatiuft ~f). ':"7/1:. ,\IJIM" ~ T~.nd Oin ...... '" l.abunhwy.

-. G. A. 1Irl,p. J. Dr.m ... rrr. R .. -\. fopn. F A. (;irr ..... 1. .nd f. P .... laiII. 1977. ~um_ry or R .... · .omnarnd.,._ -w loy thr·UI=- 'l.d,.h.'p un !'t.1Li1il, (l....oir~.t.... :'t"",_,. II no) 5iJIIY (:un"". R.1l. ..... "r' .. nn"_ .~ .• ;'>3: 1:JO; .. I:lf)q.

IIa..,.,n. IJ .. \. (£d.). 11):;tJ. ,.,.~jff' Pr~" Gnau: .f 1·j,.1J ~'" iIIlJif/ruioll., (~f"Dph,toiclll Ro.-ar.,h Papo-r-. ~o. :;'1. \',.1. III. R~ort /\FC:RCTR· :;R.:!r. .. w F.IO"? Cambritlp- Rr-r.,h (" mtn'.

11.a~. 1. "' .. and .'. P""'Juill. 1 1):;1), [Jif(~ rrum • (_tin ... _ !'o •• ., .. in Rrlat.", to thr !'prrtrum

and :'.calf- of T.~, in . .JJ_,.. ill c",. pitY"" Vol. 6, pp. 345365. F.:'i. frmkid and P .. \. Sllrpp.d (Eda.), A('.kmic Prr... :Yw ',..n.

11a,.... S. R., 11J':'f). Pnf"'-~""""'''' ..J ~ fur ."ir VwJi'Y S"'."'"JllII_&. Rrpurt [r.8-93R:!. Em-i,,,,,_t.11 rr.>trrl"'"

t\tnw,.

Ikntn'. J. L. 1 fJ6,';. Thr v ariat .... of lI .. rizunt.1l Dm....... Para-C"", .ith Ti_ f.w Tr ...... Pmuda uf ()_ lloar •• L'ftCPI'. J..ppL v..~. -4( I): 1:;.J.1:'J1.

-. IfJ80 ...... ~" t.hor.IMin.J'_~ T_".", uul ~ ."..Ift (.4RL-.4 T "IJ). R...,... ERLT\I..\RL8I. :\at._1 O.:ra_ - .-\I~ ~.~ .u R ....... wn» t..LanIury.

~ U~ I «1M, All £a,..n.....t.1' !'I...J~ .,.

AI-..pIwric OiU ..... Trllu. lfl(:!): :!fr .. :!'il.

HCJb.or1h, G .• I~ Jlu~ lNpda. lila" S,_cI. uul 'ofreI_/_ li"- ... ir '''ahott ~._,

Ik c-er,.-. t·.., 5 ...... E ftIUI

~.~ hL&.tioII So.. "'·101.

H .. nt. T. .-.. 1'1:'7. A ~r IJrp&rtio.a \1odrI r .. ~ flu.. • f' .. __ "_. ..I,_u. 1:',.,-.. II: "1-16.

-.IIf':9. ~~, ~ QI\'rrtic.I WI.... ,_ • Groo..d t-d ~r. J. 4"". ........... 11: :U:.IQ.

, .. ....lrY. I. P_. Jr.. 197'). E..,-val E.t ... ._ of • .1 .. (.4. .. , ~ 8dIiIIcI tJIud·T"w Str.rt-.

;. "..,.,_.. uf ,...". S,. - _ r ....

Ir..-r. 1Jt/f ..... _ .4i ,.. a-o. '"~

..... IS-I&. 1cr.9.,.. fIO.l.609 •. ~ ~

"""""PraI SuOrt., w-.

-,I .... ~ A,.5 ul Air P .......

0rpu.ibDe ~ Sur ... 0.. ..... .... _ ........ a.-.dt ~ ill "---"

rtf ,It~ 1 .. ~".'itHtt:I fAft/rntru. Oll..lir Pollataltt. IJItI1 'Br!ir f.ff~b ".; 'M Tf'f'rP.1riaI &o .. rd~ ... Banfr. Afbm... Ca....sa. May '0-17, 1986. 5. \. Krvp.a .nd A.II. l.rw (fA). Joltn "iky & s.-. N... Yon.

-. 1981. flo. and Dirr ......... No-. 01,... ........ in .4,_p4..n.- St-irr.r ."d Po_r Pr"Ju,inll., llanyl Randrr..Hl. (Ed.). DOE R~orl ()flLTI{", T.'IlC)I. in P"''''',

HulwT. A.II. aed \\. I'-"":reln. 1976, Buildi", •· ... e [f(~ .... Qn Short ~~ Efflwab. in ,....pn.c. of Tlrn S_y"'pn';". 011-4,...,.,.,"", Tw6.,.. ....... lltl/ruioll. _d ."ir Q-li". fUIriP. S. C. (kL 19-22. 1976, pp.. 2JS.2.t.:!. "-'ric.n MrtroroloJicai soo...,. Bc.ton,~'__

"_I. J. c: R. .... H. s.ydrr .• nd R. E. La,. .... Jr .• 1978. flow SbadII,.. .nd TurIJuL.a. Oiffwm Arou ..... n.,......~ Hill. fluid ~1udrIin( Stltdy CM Err«tI& 01 Stratirltlltioa. "art L flow S Ir.~. DOE Lport [p A-6OOI"--:8-04I. ~ftllaI ProI""tioR ~y.

rr.iD. J. S~ 1rr.9a .......... ., p!_ ~ .. --\ ~ (;._.qaUrd 5dwer ... pn-prill'" of I·_'. S,.",,_;. •.. T ~~. lJt/luil,.. _" ..Iir 'oIlali-. L.o. N ..... J __ 1:;-18.1979. pp. 6UJ9. "-"'=_ ~Irt~ ~"h'.

a..to.. \'-. .

-.I'h9I., .-\ 'ThrunticaI Varia of tJw .- ..

Prurlk PQnr La- Ea"_" f_tiue 01

s .. ,rur a. ....... ~.h .. -4,_

IAn-.. 13: 191·1'J.I. •

""an'. !It. r ...... R. K.. o..-N 196.1, ."'-u-

.,,_.. DlII~iue s. in owrr n.

TrrraiIt. IIIL J. ..Iir I ..... ,,.,,,_ :( 11.1:): 999-lo:!'!.

....___ ... 8.. E. SIwI.. IL E. RIIff. H.8. s.p. .... L S ....... Icr.s. c.rllflNl 51_,. ef R..f y... EIfIa.., Di/fwiIttt .. .,..,_ ,"_'"n,."

,~ s.li-. "'-ic ......... f.- fl,pan AlF/:\[S'~ StaIGnI "--dt I_li .. w. Plio Al .... c.aa.

-,I. C. su.-. _ D. B. T_.lr.6.l"Air Q.Iity S" ";'" \ta.W.c. ill .... ,... ,..... :w ""-. V uI. I. a..,.. 10. ". 2n!i6!. .\. C.

~ (U). A.c rr-.:\nt YwL

-. D. L I. L \&a. -. 19:'1. l-.

T_ Lp-I ,__ .... T~ £... dI.ca 01 ~ ~_ , • , ... ill £-p, At_ Eu ...... I:: SII..s%:'.

~ J. s... .. ",. I~. T senn- ill

tAw c-t;n I r f , ...., J • .4 __ St&..

33: !ISZ·!J".

..

•.. _ .... _----

j

K-. S. K .•• nd L L ....... 0. 1968.. So._ 0....-. ........ i.-. .,r Rrfalm- , .. irAr ()j,.pmoi. ... in 1''&.1l11O"11phrTP·_ Ro..ndary I ... ,rt'. ~, ...... r"rirn",. :!: Jr. -107.

K.a.-..i. A.. D nd ,\. S. \lonin. 19:>:. Thr F .. rm .. r

s-oLr Jr I:r. 11_.. Or,." .. "'~. 8:

I Q:!O.J 0.13.

Kn.Irt'. E.. 19M. On aI ... Ot.triLulion .... 1 r..on'inait~ of •• In S~ in AI ... ~ r ......... lio-. .v.."orol,. .11_ ••• 10.

KonIir. L IL 1979. AIIOIIUIOfU DQfldilw. ad l'rwipi,.,itHe c.UftI 6~ I,.,,"trWl Hea' Rrjft". IifHL R.rport R·z.I65.00E. n... lUnd Corpor. Iioa.

-. r .•. ~lurny ... nrI ,. ~I. T..,. 19':'8. OiCron ...

ill ".-...pho:ric Coawmiua Cal*'d L~ ..

E-rJy fl,joorlrd in lIw F _ uI ~~ and

''''It''IIl I .... a. .... ,_ 1:. 12: 1013-10:.'0.

1.. .... R. G .. 1979. Thor [lrrrlaul Rrlr-If~ ... ' .. krial lJW.pmoio .. ill .hr C"""ftt;'~ ~ s..-I.y 1..,",. ill F_,,, S~..,,-._ - r~ e. De/fuioa. PIll .... ''',.,itHe, Ilrno. ~ .. J- 1S-19. 191'9. pp.27.J..l, "-rir_ ~..r Suc1rt,. Bo.tDe.) ......

..... R.. 1978, ADPIC-A lJwff ~ Partidr-I..cd \1odrI for tIw I~ uI AI .... epIwric Puhlanb _, .a. t.:u.,..n-. au Rrpua..I Tqcu s. ...... J .• 4,.",. .v..tHroL. I:': ~329.

Lrtt.. ~ 19':0, "" • ..r ..... \Irt~ BMa .. ~iaI ~ oil'''_' Diff..,., ill

"---" 0/ S."""'_ _Vallipk s-n.

("- DifI...". Air P" __ CuetM

Of ~ •. U' 86. r-w-.l..I

Prue«tiue Aer-y.

Lo.r. P. £.. .... D .•. P"PI'ft •• 9:'6. A c..-,.. ..... 01 SQ ~_ric:..r Sdw.n It. c.InIatiltctLr . ~ 01 At_.pMrW Put.tiua, iIIltw.H.. ., ,A. TlirJ S~..,_;. __ ... ,_,..rrir

r~. Dell .... MAl .... f!WiIY. ~ ~ c. Ort. 19-!2, 19:'6. ". 181·186, .~ ~ Suntty. &u.ao.. u...

~ .. y. ~ .... L £. en.... 1r.'S. LW __ ...... Air Q-lity ... (UKAQ-I)." A..,. _ .","¥r.r .$or." u.t-- - •• "".- IIIMI, .__ V .... ...." .....

,... ........ V ..... YIy '_ •• 1r.'S. A.-.v.. '_'.,;rJ 5uOrtJ. a...-. ....

YdlNt. J. L, r. PIMIIft. I .... Sc. ,_",

.,,.._ SIIwIy AI.sJ. r. S. ,..,~

~ s-nw •. ~ Air ,..... c-..uI M .. ·' .....

~M .. fa. T, A... ... ,. J. Dr-. 1r.9. rp,."

At ". 0., .- rw.....--A s.w,.

...,_ c..-. 13: s:'1-lG.

'\a.-h L. If. L .r.mih ..... Jr .. 1_ F. H.t.rrt. R. J.

I and K. ~1. ~. 1957. ,\irbo ..... ~Ir~ .

_nl. or ;\t...... Drbrioo. }.v..,,.,,rJ.. I-I(:!J:

16."' ;':>.

, .. ,.. R. 1..1971. TIt, ",~ .... nIU, .. J .. (] ....... lc ...

Pr '", • ...d. ~

'Irn_,. R. :'4_ 1979. rart.u ..... IMr __

Build..,.. in 1:1I(fi"'_; •. \'r,,.,,I,,p. F_ J 1,.

(bl.) (I .. Lr paLIi.oIwd).

- ... nrI B. T. Y""J. 1971. .Wl-T.IIIt#4 S,.~ _ c-_ .tluilt,f 0- '0 J'.no.. S .... Hrt"It,. .,.d I./ft'tioII Rata A6or. a """",#'til SIn.d.,..

Rrpo .... r.E1r.1·:2R\U-lrrYlh. r _... ~ ...

rn;'rndy. fluid 0, .............. [Jill 1.aLo ..

r .. I."Y'

'&r, ..... J. 11_ T •• r.a L r; ~~ J .. \.

~ D, !"u 19:'~. \lrch. .... ~

fbI. r n-:. Towrt' PI_ 8rl.niur. , ... .-r-

--.. \~ f'h.dictio_. ill C".".. T u.ft'

I:'w __ ,., -19':4, [RDA ~.,. Srrir-..

C~ , .... ~Id.. \far. ~-b. Icr. ~r'U'. R.

't.n... ...d J rr .. y Ptll (t:uo i!l ...... ).

pp. Jlr.·r.:!. Cf):'4F·:'-IOJO:!. xns,

, ......... A. S .. _ A. \L '!lH.kr-. 1'YJ3. Oi __ ............ n ... ,.trriootn OIl T.t.......... ill .hr t.~1T uI .\t~ __ d .... (;,.....t. I",."

.U.t.'-.l -''''SR. 93: :!J. .:!6:.

-. _, A. U. Y -cIu-. 19:'1. SIcIi.t,. Il.itI ~ ......... ., r.,.,.",._. " ...... J. t..-, (U). 11w WfT r-.~. w-..

"""--. [J. J .. 19:' ... ota...rn .... _. ~ ' ....

• ....,. _, ~ uI '"n c.....d Lnd

r~ uI C-- [' Matm.&

Du_w_' uI .. T. Sbd ...... tAo .. ,... 18B:

:O1·~1. .

~ppu. c, J .. Icr.", " )~ It. r .............

A.cnr-, uI Air , ..... "........_ \Iudrl..., ill

It---.- 1#1 ,A. S,..-. ,_,..ft'W

Dill __ ..J ..... IWI.1ioIa, s..u caL.

Srpt. 9-13, 19:'.a. ".~ •. ~ ~

......... SurirtY "'-

-.19:'9. LWiw· s.p ,....., "" __

~~.'_~""""""

"..... ill ,...". s,rr, •• _ r _.

IJtffwi-.. MAl ,...,._, Sr..,

J.a.1S-1 •• 1r.9 .u..r.. ~ .__

MupaI s.a.rty ....

-. S. I. ..._._ tl ,. s...tp... • ...

nr-.. 0...- ..... u.c ~wa

8.:: y ,,__ Ii .. -t ZM J.., c. .

_ AnN ti .. II{ ..c. ,.... .

~- Owk .... 1.. .• Yu. %"-:1 •• _ .... ~ '-*_ Mct.. 'I, " s-we,. ......."--

96 AUIOSPHEIlIC OIFn'SlO:O-;

01110. K. E; 19:-6. Lorall:! H.-.ry S",_ o.nr"rriltol fm". COf'llilt~ Totrn. 'OA.-\ Trch. ll .. mOo. ,,:' J:R·:-:!. '\.tli .. fU' n.· raft io· ... n., .\lmt .. pIIrrit· \.'n.in.'r.l1 j,,,,.

..... '.· .. mp. T. J. 1'1:'''. ..\ f; .. nrr.a' f; .. ~n

,)i(( '" .,.'''' .... ; .. n \" ..... 1 r.~ t:1 .. u(,..J P .. int

:'t ~ J .. Ippl. "",.",,,-. I:;: 11":-·11:-1.

r ... !... n II.. .. n.1 J. K. \n,: .. O. 1%.1. .\ P'rrliminary "'t ... ,~ .. r \., T""rl • .,;..,. in I .... to ... \ .... ,. RMn 'I. ,j,"1 (".m Td, ... 111 .rtthL", II..... • ... '6,,.

H "1' .-oIl.~hlJ •.

.... "'1..1( 1. r ..... ",1 r; .\. J ... ub<. 19:-:1. T,,16 of.,.

I ,.bc""",.,,,,J~ 1'011.,.,., .VnJ,f l.'~ CO '·J .. J.tin" I_t ••• dI,. L,. .1 ........ W,.ITopoIilea I,.... \ "I. L (' .. £,\1 Krpowt -190&. e."'l ......... t~II:!·U!:!:l ".. ..... J a., r~ (,,,"In' fur thr

.:n'ir .. f1m .... l -.J 't.n. , .... _ r .. lho- [JI\"'" ..... nLlI f>r .. C""li .. n~,.

1· .. f14.M". II. \._ it T.--l"" . .,. II. 1,..... ...... _1 J. f:. ~~n~l. I'r.:-. Tho- f:h,a,.. ... Irn-l;.... .. I

Turfmlrnl \..t. .... ~ f:. in I .... ~wf .......

I ... ~ ......... w t:..ttn...-tn .. «:. Iilio_. ",,,,,.ary.

1./nn '''',...wvL. II: r ...... JhI.

- L\' .:,..11. .... K.. L,_.hul&. 1'1:'8. Un

fh..r .... t l;.... or 'inoillirn-t .. ", F1urlut"_ in

Ihr ~ .. f · .. I ... , ..... n.-"J.ry.I ..... "n ''''".".,L.

I:;: a:l"~""

r_, ........ _ 1"1. Thr .:....;.., ..... r Ihr I~ .. ul .u..n.._ )wrNl tklftJlUl. v.... ..,:

~tJ..I'J.

-. lrot. .-t'm_~ lJi/l .. _ :!Dd nI.. j .... .i"_' ,,~,,_ l ... l.

-.1';':;. Thr I~"'" of 't.I....w.. in I .... \t_~ ..,,_.. ~ ~n. ~ R.e. f ... ~ ... I ...... Ur,.,..... ., IWI., __ ol 1:',_·

_ .IJ I.,." . a-l .... n. 1'9- I·:U. \-. ...... ''''tnlNluprilil ~I", 1:Iu..t .... , ......

-.I'1:'b, .h~ ,_,_.._ "__,,.,.. III (A __ "._~~ ,.." II. '_611 Jt,. .,-"_.",_ (~ .. lA, T_ .uri ...... J "'.I, IL-powt [J' \~.w l..:-bO.llJb. t.:'. r-~ .... .....uI~.~

r--.. c. A... lroo. T1w~" ~ tiL,. .,. "iad ..,_. .... T...,...,.. .. r Ptul ..... ;"

tJw l..uWr . .tle ,h ria ~ .. t..,n.J.t"L "'........t. 9, sr __ l.

r~ K. ll. ..... w- r ..... ·~

,.._ ~... 0IIIl ... I"., \Wn.. J. tW..... .t. ': :l:-·~

r • .&.c.ru •. \. J_ fl. E. 0.-. _, \I. ~" Ia..

Ea""""_ oJ ......,., .... r..n..- .. .J ..... I .... I~ ~ &ur '-tWIll .. .,. .--...

iIII( T ......... ill ,.,_ ., .... !ItJ .UHf

aslte .,.",_". MJ Ihl T~"" u.ftw·

"_'. r. .Uu. CM... w., ::.-1 Ir.I.

"-nalt I .... i' • .,· .. r ,\ ..... _vlin "",I .\..u .. · naulin. ,,_ y.d.

Prahm. L r .. and O. flsn.t...,-n. 1'1:'7. 1">nJ K...n~ Tra ... purt or PoD .. Llnb !'imu .... lr.1 b,. • :.!D r~nad ... l'"'tnl ~.., \" .. frI. J. .tppl. .v,,_,.,,,__ 16: ~.f)IO.

K- ........ Il, D .• 1'1:'2. T~ flu..,.... in I"~-

izun~1 [liff P.a_I"", • .e " Sinck 'II ......

I)"a.n,. a. J. Ippl. .""'~ II: 6:-0-6:-J.

Rrid. J. U .• IfJ;tJ. 'iii""". Chain Smublio f

\rrtio- .... r~po-No ... in .fIr 'irvtral ~ur(¥ .. I ,"

r.~ ~_f¥ .. .and [I .. nard R ..... -... BoettJ.ary- • Le.",.,. .tk"orol.. I": :~:!:!.

Rr, n ........ ~. D P. \I. tcoth. 1 '1:'3, , .... thr_tit-al

\I .. drfiat .. I P'ho aI·\ir P .. 'hati .. ". Pt. I.

F.~lir ... .e I"" ,,, -1,_ CariNHL. :-:

I O'.!!-I 061. .

R;.."""...... L •. _ Ift.!h .. \I~ Iliff ..... !,hu_n Ul4 .. I~..,... ~ ';nph.l"ror. R. Sr.,.. ".-.J"aJ.!in. t. 110: :-09.

tc.oLnt... tJ. F. T _. I It.!I. n.,. Thr-umi.-aI :'.-att.-rinc uI ~ .. in iI T ........... \I.....",.....,.,.,_.. R. Sw. fLo.Jo.J. Sor.I. If»: 64nk"a.

s...-.bf. J ...... ('_ K. Uic ..... 1'1:'~.IJif"__ t.cIw Lo •• _ s,-tI_I.~ Cotulit ..... T rchaical ,...__,_ S%. ~lioui Ott ... a. ... A.~ .~ EMiroat_1It.lI Ik........ ULorIlarin. .. \ir ~" t....Lorllar,.

~. C. A.. 1980. rilltidr ..... c_ 0., Drpt-itioe: ,\ IL-Yir ••. tl_ Can.-.. 1-1: 'J8J.IOI!. ~ a, J .• Itr~ u.-.... ... diIr."itr t'-""lr - ..... 'It..-.- .... r_... J. Sri."'...,."'_ :-: :!I-:!::i .

~. t:.. \l. 19:'I.\ppfk ..... r.. • ~aI Tn,......-, ~ ... lflr ~ ..... uI ~ _

P........... UOIn ~an. l' IliA.... ~ ..... -t, __ IA ......... II: 1 :-3.I:-a.

~. «:. \.. I r.a. .\ '"- c.-.a .... 'ludri r.. ._ .-....w.. -~ ~. T~. J.tPfl.. ....~ I':: 31:"31').

~. t:.. t:..19:'1. \"'5 ",~ ... ~ oJ AI_ ,._ T ........ n.- ill tIw .... ~ ~ Bu...Ln Lnn. J. b __ Sn..10 I J:!:- ·1 J.'W.

- ..... L j. ~ I.:'-&. \ ~ t ...... \.ir

r..I.b_ ~ _, ~ tIw :'l_

ui ~ lWr ill dw ~ u.v...

,...._ ·\rra.J.·twL .""-'L..ll 1&>-:0&.

s-.. ~ fl 1".:-. ~.......,_ __

J L.r ..._~~

..... .,.~ '-1.C. ':-&1 J.li.r ..........

...... -t -tir'"" c-..l . .c- .......

~ J_.I-l I96: .. \.ir' .....

~.~

..

:'linn. ~. (;. '\ .• 197 •• T1w RnJ"triLuti .. n .. f ~ f;. t'lumr r .. >N'd Ly R"""iLi.- .~.ut. :t,-. •. btr-rolll.. 8: !3:~:.!;Jf).

!'wn:th. t:. J .... n.1 K. J. ''''H.-rnun. I'J.-ob. TI ... 'h .. , .. f t .... Irr·'\ur ..... lint Pn.prTtir .... r :'ih .. r , ... Iiol .. R ... ,._.d frum .. \I .. unlMn T'1" Q. J. R. . ,,",14>9'01. S,~ .• 8:.!: JOIJO'J.

!'''';Ih. F. It. 1''',7. TJw. .:ulrria .. I ~ .. ~n Timo-

:"roiL· K .. lali ... wup in f'_·llin ~i .. _' TIIFf .....

"'n,·r. in """r.rJ~. ,,! , •• I .~. It"r."Uf· ,-,,"" (..,-Wio" ".',..",* .... 1 /"I."'fVJI,,,,, ",.,.tUlIt. CJ\411 KinT. ,htbri... C, ..... I... :'''pf. II' ':t. 1')67. C:O,\f-67O'JJI.

-. ael'::! .. \ :'t- .... __ , .... : .... _Ii"l' ., \rrtirM

fti.-pr"..,,,,.,f .. Ph,_ r,._ a ....... ro '; .... un.1

,-" .... in Pr, .. .....I.ttp #01 t'" fAinl '~t~ "I tit,. #:'p'rf ,."_,,,. fir ,...n.,iott " ... /,.1'116. K .. po .... '\T').O:\L".II. ,\O .... h \Ilanlir Trr.al~ IJrpntuti .. n.ltr_b.

- ... nd J.~. fu~, II"" Thr .:, ......... '" .. rU&N~ 01 Parti.: ..... in !h~\I~. Q. J. R.",.""oI. r-- .. 87(371 r 1t:.101.

-. _I K. n. Ifunt. I n. \lrt"'~",.~", \.pr .. !>o .. I ..... Tra~ .... or r .. llut ... n ....... I .. "'J! I,.,. La"....,. •. 1,_ Ellr","_' 12: U.1~77.

~ .... ~I. L. I'KiI. T ..... -._r ...... # Itr \Iirr .. mrt ..... l1li"'",,,,,, \..,uLb • ."....._,_ 1Io1W!r" •• I ~~jj_

-. I~. RIt-_-..lH 1: .. 1_ IA e /"mIIr,u)If ., Ii. ~ e/.""__ I-:/JI_h. I .. ~ .. \....n.-- ~.lCirt, uI ~lwninl Uci~. '\r. '·ud.

:' ....... I'. f; .• I'n! .. \ ~ •• ! [do~ l)ifr ..... '" in dw .\t_...,.......... Pr_. It. ,Sw. fLoeJuaJ. ~.I. 1:1."#: 11.1.

-. "):;':l.U __ ~. \1o-i~ .. ·I;aa lfo.oL

G ........ 'W. "'. 'ud..

tn''''', t;. I.. II".!,. I~r ....... ~ f:. ... tia_ \1 ...... · _t.. I'r-. ,__.,....,.. ,Sw •• ;!'U: I·~.

-. 14.&8. ~ __ of ..... 0/ Hof c. R.IY" lir. tS.\£C Lpurt \IDUC-919 CLU)C·;!76J.I ... \Mea Scir.ti£ .. ....._...,. 'TL'.

T ..... O. B.. 1 __ t ........ of ''''~ Dia, _. r........ ~ ..,..,. Srftic •.

PwWtr .... fJ'fq.\I'.:!6, R.~ .\. T .. ft ".-un

£"';"rn., ~i. ,,._

-.I'J:'tI .. \1 .,.. ~ \Iud.rWtc: .\

c:n..;. ... L-tlr J.t.1'u6L t:-17vI '-_~ ...

'jU;!~19.

L 5. (jp,oartmrnl • .r C._IIlrn- r; I'.,s .• :mir ..... m",l~ nata !'-n ir r; Qi.e, •. 11"" "I tit .. '''it'''' $ .. ,,,.

\ "n ...... 1I."rn. I.. "HtH. 1". ... ..;1 ... " .. I rM1 ....... ",.1 f;,._. in ''''t,.,."",'fl'· •• J .,,,...... I:",.r/l' 1IJ6If, PIt.. :!.t!.;.''';. .,. '1".1.- C .:'1.,. I .. U f. '1.· . po"" TIl).:! 11'10. I.~. \, .. .,. ........ r~ f ... .,.mi-

"'on. '11.".

-. 1"7". \ ~ .. nn .. l ri .. t.1 \I .. ".. ...... .".."t •• "

\I .... ~ .. "iH ........ I n r 'A'" ." .. 1 ..;1 ...... 1.

In.rNoNl f:.""lit"'''''' \.,.L / .. 17(:!,: :!:.!:1-:!:1I1.

\ .... Ltl" .. a.. \.. '·'7K.\1I [' .",.1_'" .. r I:'.,

\I. .. 1rb ,... .\if '.'\I .. lih .";m.lluli .. ,,. It_". #:. •• ..,._ I:.! :!:!U·2:!.-.O.

... iI.1-. III': J, TJw. K~ .. r "' .... Ir. •• unl M ........... J.

..fppL .If,' .. omI_ IJ U.- Ul.

• __ ..... L L. I). C:. r .... .-D , R. L 1\- ....... j,,;t •.

\ Krp.na! ......... \10.1.-1 I f :'-f'4I""" Ia., .. *

t ... , ..... C;' .. Uftl' I ........ \ir C ... · .. nlr- .......... I .;4'1 _. :o' .. ,:t .... (,._ r~ .. I ... 1 .. ",I C~ .. 4u .. 1 ~ __ ... ,..

in ,_print \ _. TIt"" ."; .. "'po_." f)If It_,.

'pIe," Tw6 ,,,,, ...... _J I, Q-hh .

H..~h., '\. C. 1)'1. I" :!!. I'r.-h. f'f>- .:1 B.:!:! J.

.\-nr3n \Irt .......... op ... ~ .. irt~. Ifo \I.t-.

.~. T. \l L."'" P. K. :-1. ........ 1'1':'1 Ihr

C:.~ uI H..~.... \10..... ltr.t ....

""_".J. IppL "".....,._ JO: ~/"~"':l

-iLo.. O. J .• 1976. C ... • .... , ... ~f &ulJ..." I.

I 1'- ., . ...,'.y " • ..,.,1 aft"N~ of .\JLrru

0. _1 .. f \ ................. [..p.rrri"" tt.,. ....

'\0 .. I. I .... ·~· .. h .. I \J.orrl4. LI __ ..... \JIwrt.a. (:-I...

-.IY:"I. n .... ' ... 1.., .......... n ... ·I(. ....... J H.IJin,," _. \"""'...... I.. J:,~ :o't.ar-L ~Il. tSHR.tl: T,..._ r. .. .!" ;S'-~"r..

-. _. .,_ (). 1- '-"tIm Ior.'ll. I •• ..., t ... uI ill

R...I-lnrl "_ , ~ :.a.... ~.

.Il_ Ij,.ir __ 1::'-;.- IfJ"'A·IfJ"''-'.

." ...... 1- c, 1'r.:A. \~ n.-. ...

Ifo~ t...,...,. h,,_ lu ~ t_.

,,_ , •. "'''~'''' 1f.rc-W.. .. "I-Wt

-.'J. R. Wk. -' L. !'i. K".,.. 1tr.'1. \1u.IrLtc t .... .-\a~ Ifo-,-, r.-...,. .w... c.-,.. ... ._ Ia.\ 1fl.;!II.

"

..

• '.1:

I I I ' . ''P

\111 lor tH f" .' ;i~

. ~ .~i

• • r '""'~.

4Jw_ .. ,lz. '\lcU .. SJ Uno. r .• ~U

"-I.J ...... u

&or..t. ~ L, U .. .as ....,.r.J~u

..... ,,_r.'

"'dwW. G. L. ". u

1rMJrJ.c. W.(rikd. a.. rt ....... i

"".E. f.(ritftI .. ~rt"'"

1. Sol

___ "(l.U

1mL~ 7'9

.... G. A..II.I'-I'. I;. I •• ~. 30.

12.1$

.... G. A. (ae..I .. It..-. rt ...... 2; ~.J.A..i.U

.,_ .. XL.U

c...-tti,,'_2% c.,..t.rr. S. I.. 1':. r. c::..r.A. •• H. s.. 50 ........,.5.J_.

~A.c..'; ~.f.H..~; 0. __ "0_"

C 't ah.-·c.(at.r4.~

run 21

c....o.a.(~at .. , ...... rt .... l..; ~.H.Lr..za

c.-.G..S1

~T.V_U

c--. "'.I1.U

0.... It. T_n o..-.a.,.. .. U

D •• rlf.J. ,.._ -:"." ~.J."'.t""''''''''''tl..).r. Do_ .... LL..

n-o...

0.-.'. J_". :. ~c.a..u..

t_.. c..s..,.

o.r...J.c..JI."" ·~"L..r

~."".JI."""

(' oJ" a.L._

u.-.. •. e., ~

. ~

L.cfn. T. -. (riW .. Ur,.., rl aU. ':7 ~J.G..U

r-. B. A.. S3.1l.1S

u-. B. A.(m..t ......... rt ...... r: £eDlf. C. A.. I'

£l-. v. __ Sl

o-..A..r.' ~IlJ_:-a

1:.._ ... rr-.,,_ "--'.lS !Mo._Rbi s,- Corp.rat ..... ., ~.A.Q~U t:.~.~I~

r ... A.H.. 73 f.,.J. A.. U." r~r.x.4.1

~Y~L.U

WrtMl. f.L(at .... ~d"'l. 1-:".21

~. f. A..:'- es, r.. ~.l3.lt.

". u.. u. ... 5Il. W. M

~f. A.(m.4_"-d .... l.r. ~.D_r.

Gnat.LLU

...... J.~n 1Wt",.J_l%. :l

......_ It L.JL.~ .. "-iI1a d al). U

~ s, ... 11.21. tJ. ss, 51. S .. "

1'- ':7 •• I.U. ... ........ O.A.CUl.:9 a.,.J. s, )t .• I. U a., .... s.a..U ......__LJ .. U HrtfW.J- L. U. r. .... __ l_4.'

......... G...

.......T .• _J .... " ••• C ..

.......a.r_J' .. I •• n.~ 11.

n_U

........D.'_H ...... .l.H..:.

....... LI.( ............ rl .... ).

U

...... J.c. ..... ...... 1..11 ••



..

.. ' •. '<"

lrw ..... J. s, 7.31.1:2 .... b.rr.!'t f_" 10_.\'.1'4..4.1

1_'.(niN ........... d ... ).1.:>.I

J __ c..'-.U

J ....... J.c..5O J~LA.U J-_ If. a..:t. 'I. 11

'-.J. A.(riW .. ~""ft'd al). n ~.J.s..1.'

~~L.Q

L&t..L4.1

~AI..U

~.L.':7

"'-iL L a.. ':7. :-a

1+' ...... L C. (aa..i .. Yr,ft' rt .... ).

- ..

...... a c, .. ....... a..U

La __ a.E..J'_"

Uawttt..J.K. c~. ~ d .... ).21 ...._._.ll tl (cR4 at'_"',

d .... ).1.U I.dt.a. tl. r. ......... a.. ••

a...c. a. J. caw .. Wede.. d .... L U t...c.r.L,.u

~K.c..w ..n..,.J.L.IIrM. ·T.4. ... :e ..,..,L.U

.........,.J .. " ..

"--.a.L.r.

.... It.tl.U

lA.- .... J. a..tJ

~J.J .. "

.._.,. a. '-:'- .:

""-.J. H..11

.... 45.. .. U. ..

M • ".T.Lcc...c ..

t:.,.- et al). r. ....... 11. J .. I:

v-..c. s.' dalLr.

.......,.f ::

~.Il \l (riIN .. ~Ia rt aI.). U ~c.J_"-6l.l3.at

Nrtknilr. D. D. J_ %2

~P .• _31.lI.~ ~R.A..6l

0IIutJI0.. A.. 6

Ot ... R. E.. i8 ~T.J_"

' .... D. H..U

,_..", ... J. P_6: '_'.,. It A_ 7. SI. II

,... r _ t. 10.:s. r..:t. 31. 33..

31. 3'J ••• SO. s:. at

,.".... f. (ritN .. Ita-. rt aI.). r. ,........C.A..7

Ptoppa. D •• _ S4

~1lR..U ,......A.J_:'

'-'".r_30

"-I.Dc..r.

""'alla.LP_U

.......,- .... _u

I .--.o..u

.... LS.(ata4_.,~rtal.).1 "'J.o..IO .• a.,...w.,S.D_U

....... Lf_U

I*fta. 0. r. T .• Uo 51

R- .. -iLJ.J_1I loth. r. \l. 6:

Ruff. a. E.(n ....• J--rt 11.).:4

~.J_30

Sol-. L (ntr4 .. J""- rt 11.). :4 SCIM ..... L L.SI

Scift.J. s. (urN. a- rt 11.). r. So-rf,. I. L. U

Sdt-t. G. A.. ... 70

s....Iftd.J. H.. 71

s.-.- .. J_U

SIw",C.\l.62,"

... E. (riWIt .. Joh- rt all. ;U sa-....c.A.. ..

saw. c. c, ss, 6:

s-...c..U

s..ta. II. I. (c'" .. J"'_ ct aL). :4 su.-. Il. c, 61

Slaw P. R.. 7-:

SIiaa. G. x, 71

-tIl.E.J_U

_til. f. Il.:t. 41. sz, II _til. \l E.. r..:t. st ... Su ..,-. It r_l3. ... s.,- .•. H..u. ...

s.-.-. •. I. (niM .. M.ya ct aI.}. -:7 5brt,.c. E.. U

s..-.LA.,ULU

s.n-.. c, %5. 31. SO

T .. P.'M.. 71

Ta' .... G. L.l%, ...

AL'THOI 1!'4D£X "

T~ ... It (~ .. P.-I., rt 11.). 1.54

n.-.r .• _17.r.

no- r .•. (cit", .. Carpr.1ft ... all. r.

1_. D. I.. r.. 61. 6% ...... 6.S

V.drr ......... L.30.67 V .... c..1S Wnlc-.A..SI

.ri;J .. 71 W-w..LLUoI1 ... .,v-.. T. Jt. L_ r: n-. D. J __ :1. %2

• ...,.D.£..r. WoH.M..A..1I w,~J. c.. 7." S4

.' ....... J.C.(cde4 ......... ct 11.). 1. S4

.,...-.1, J. c. (~ .. '_"., et 11.). 7.~

..

_----

,

~ III. i.' 4' I 1 ... 1., '\. v ; ",

. . .

. v

\ .... ,-.. 87

,,~ .. , ~."'" ..... Iorat. z, .1. I::

\. " .In. 81·8&

\ori\ ,,_I.~ir... Iq·::1

\111 \1: _.Irl "I

\, .. ~ .. ...re '"

•• "" __ ..... ~ ."".7,,,,,, __ ...,__. -"' ... I

\.-"1 Jwt...Irw .. _f Iwt.... ...

1 , Hili) _ r... ........

... ,,_. - .. '~I

\'''''.ac-c , .....

r""t_~ .... ~.17

rfln" 1 .... ',. ::'"' .. !7

~:......a. ,,~ ..... ..I Jnh ·In .... :-q I&r ... _~;"_

..... _ •• ...... _11

...., .................. !:

__ '~_""--'IJ

, ~ .... --II

" , _M _". 11. I.

"....._ 1Iu,. II

J. ".1.1'. N. "' ........ ,.l

..... _ .....

..... _..._ 'i:-.')IJ

,.--....1 ............... 7.

Jtrr.&-. ••• __ ~ 4ntr ...... 7'l

Jtrr.a ,_.I:-

Jtr- , .. "--01 _ •. !7. :!II

"'-_ va

._ \ '.1: II.IU

................. _...I9.:. ..... _ .... J"_'. 1 I

I:..A-_ __ •• ~.I

..... - ~"

_._ I.c

1:.. ,.:,

UN ...

11*1.1: \

'lr_.I .._ .....-. ::·:1 I~.I _"- ~:-:'l." ..

1 .. _ ..... ' ._.

... : ..,_. :'1." lit

• Jo- __ ,,._ .... '- ,.._ _. I:

I~_I_" _, -:7

C~........, , __ ..........

_ '111.111.31>

'~~. IIt.-~1. - ••

t.:,_-~ h. :1

c~_ r--" ~.:

t ...... __ , ... ,.. ..

...... • ;!~ .. "'. 1t>-1'J

t:. .. '"1nr ... - .... , ' •• L 7 •. t!. 18

• :._~ ..._ ""~:'" :-.1. 88."

I~ .. .1:-. -:1811

C:._ .... 'trt-r. !. "'" e, ·~3

I~~ .nrffi, I. .~III. '"

':"' • .1 ••• .,...... I:'

.- .. "

.:,._..,._ ...... _..u_

17 ....

I:~"]I ...Iori ... -,

I~ .......

J,_... ...

..1 ... ': ....,.88

I..,__ ,.~ .... :1)

.......

~ ............. I9.:~ ..... .._.__.Z'i

...._ ,._ 18. ''I

I~ ...Iori ~ 1.'i

....... &1& .. ~I

.....", It>- VI

..... _,,, It..'"

--.. .. I. &I>. UI

........... :-

Iwt..-.....-. .. ')U.'16 ........... ....,__".J,.).) .... _ .. :

_"''''''__).1._

....... "",. ~

~ >-:

'-IIr ._I L &!. •

,_ •.... J ')1. "1. , ...

I... .. _ &!.~ ...

~"" &.l

1 ........ ' •. :::,

...... ~ ....... -~\

~".'I"

[WI ..,..__ ~.,

~,,,,,,-.7:.:' ~ ..,..__ .:71. •

••

t:.., .. ,-~ tn.h. 7 •. ;..

h M s. :-. t.:. ~. I. ~~-.

.:'.1. t I. Ih. I;!. "

•.•••• ~, .,_.r.a.1. IJ. II .• :

...... , _ •• - .. h

.Jt,.. , ...... '" _ .....

........... IWo>. _f _ ,._. :-:

U .... "' .. _ ........... II. 'IJ. '!!.. .. ~ H_"i"".I.. ~ •

t __ .~al..'i:

... , ,.._.I:!. Il ::-

.... "'~ r __ ...... [1\,

.......... h:.!

.:. --.;!.77

.:.~ I

t:nw .-.h_. M

t:..lrnoa ........_ 'I

[ • .__ '" e..1

~r""''''''' •. _.~:':3

• ...... _ ...,...._. :5. :;1 ••

......... _ _1>.1I

._...,...._, .. ~ _ b ll'i'

.- ... ,,_ ..I ......... _ ... :!. :-: .lu..Io.c _. -,7

•. , ... Iwt. c~. 'J:

t·,. _ , II>.. i 7 • .". ', •

.,_... .

• __ 17. I:' U. II>

.~.._-- '.: .~...., ...................... ......... .,.

t:.-- ......

,._.. :11.'i ,..,.. I:

..

....... ""--.1 . .:

I.__,._ .............. :!.. ...... -. t:.M. II. I.

.;, ....... -.- ;0.50

1".1 •• ..--.. : ..

......... 4..1

u..~ -0....:-

....._ )'l.A

.................. 01 ....

H •• " ...

H .... _· l

IN"TtuI ...t.r._ .. "'_ P ._

, .... , •• ff ........ I:!

I""'__"'_ ,..._ ........... U

1 .......... -- _'-". ".1:;.:;1

1 __ 4 rwt...Irno.... 'I

I ... ~ l. 11·1"

J..t ............ 1

~ ff - -:" ,..~.-"". h:!. M

... ", 11- •• 11'1 .

141'_ .:....n- ~. ". III. III

1....:,_ ,_ 1:·'''. U 1".:;1

I~'_h q

I · . ...,_.... n

I , I. L!

I~ 1. I. : I

I ~...,tr .• ,.

1._,_ ".......,..~ ....... Wfu.to .... S:·QlI I ... \~_M"_Il).":!

\to- • .._.. ... ....,. '"''1''''' :1

\1 •• .,.....tln .... __ ,_

II. 1-. ;!:!.;! I. I:!. .U

"'"_ , ,il. 16-13

\In...._ h. __ ~ :&

"'-'- "'""'. U

\1, .... I..n ....... 1zJ. ..... :7.11.

UI. ...

\1 ,_1

"' ,

\I..Iri.. f.F\. bI. '"

"' _ 1

"'- .. '- "......._ I)

\I. __ .,.._. II. I!

"'- ILL ,._ !7.

1:·1" ..

"- I:...to. ......... lb- I" ~ __ .,.._,_.l:'

~,- ,.._ ... ,......_. )tj '---' u..-: ~,. !

""-_ _. :1

"- '_.}

~ .. ...,_,_.Ib

'"'-'''' ,._Qr.. .... '" •• ,

_, ...•

\, ....... ....,.._. t' .....

'-o. .......... _,...,_

......... --

~,~ .. t' ... \.-1

'\1 ....... \ .............. _ __._ ,..

'_ --....54

,_ __ ~ II)

, _ -.-.c.l

, _. 1.1. l.

'......_,,_ .. ,

,.__..._ ioI

"__ __ ..._,,

_....-. :S

1"',_'" _.&.4- ... 0. ...... rY r""",", 1r1T-. ,no '"

."...., ........... &..n ... ,.,. I·" ................ "' .. r tv". iIrnr-4ft"

.--'

..,._ ..... _, .... _ 1r1T .... '"

,"'- ~ .. ,.~. '" .. 1'

""- ,..--t, .. , ••.. I ftp ...... , " .............

I I. ,'.

I" .....

tr ,._ .. ~ .. 7'. 7h

.trtrr-. I .. _,._, .. tutt...Irt. e,

1' .. 1:

_ .... II III It>

........ 1 .. ....,,_ ............. 'I

--.., -- ,:,

" .. ,... _ __ ... n. I I

r._ .......-_ . .l

r,_ .. t;._ ... ,...._.... ;,,"'. III. III r~ I.~' :1

r· •. iwo"""''''· ....... :1. :'h rnlt'- _.Irl hi

1'1\1\\ .... Irl ...

1'1 \UP _.Irl '"

P .... ..,..... 1I·1:;.il

r..tf _.~ ~ ... r_ .1.(1._ ....

87.118

tc.-L.I ....... , _....,._.__ 71. 7:! • \ \I _..Irl bo'

L,..__..,.,.._. ...... I5.

...... ... ' .. :1

~wP...-._,.

t.. .... r.-Lbl

..... __ .1I

............... .,.__6:.71 ....__. .. .-Iuc ... ~,...

Itn -"'" •• "~ ') L~"""".&.:-.!7 .._.__ ......... ;:q

.............. _. l.1. l8.. W. II

..... _-"""' :-,._::-

..... _..... -~ .. ~

" ,

, w&. __ 71 7l

'_-*4. ')I

.......... .., .~. \. ~\. ,. .......... ,....._ 7!

__ _..._ U

• _ ... II

.... lU. 11. )'t.Il'" «; ~ ....... ..................

.. -.-- ....... ~., «: ,...a... PIlL.

..

.............. ..,._._')!

.~.....-.~U .................... ,..... '""_ 11. !.4

~ ".~

..... "._~·jl

............ --!~. _ ............. ..,

Sl1IJ £CT L"'DU 101

..

"'f , ;! .• t..

,,._._ 11' •. 11

.. 41 l 17 .. 111

.......... , , ,

..... Ioft-..... If.· I"

... ., If II

.. ......,..., .. _ ..

• .r,.u..... ". ~

_ 1. .. Ir._ ,.-.._. :11

"'41; .!r, "",""j... 71. M

''''' ••• ., 41 ,...Irl fJl

......." r .. t " ._ ...,f'I. .. .tIN" .6dI ...... "'~

"I.:_! I

........ , " .......... t.nc_ ~.!

,_ "",_I ·of t..A.t..c. :.:-:

"J-"'" II. 1M. .!OJ .,...." ..... .,... l' ... ....."

... -J.- ..... ~~. :!7 .. 8,. .. ,_ Mr,

cr-<..I.f_ I

Itoooot- ,...._ 'I

..... 1:·11

~...,_. ,dr. I .............................

_ •. II

_ .. ""'.t,_ rBr.'. ,OJ ....... _.,~ 1fl,.1I' ......._·.t,,· e , h:'

... _. '_ -'rt 1>1

.wi.. __ ~ II.n.. fa. I". 17

r ....... .....,._..... ., 'I' I: ... l'J r .. ,Ioor· • ..._._ ........ :16-.JII. U. -,I

r .............. ~

........ _ ............. '"-!7

• -t:..... .. >rY.:-

T_ \0IIn ............ ::. ~

r........, .......... dro.pa. ~ •

r ...... ~~bII

r_ III. S:-Ift

r -'rt II. I!

.. _. ~

Ioor "_,_ ,,~'". Ie ....

1oor I':

r, _ ..

r "

..._ ..... 'at.-.~'

.......... _ ,...._, __ • I'>. [,.

_.-.

_ ... ...._ .......

_, ...•

...

I ,un, z: .....

'-... ,_.1

,_....,,......._ .... '" •.. _.

.. ' .

t ............... 111.:'7 ...

\ ................... ." \\1J.n ~ .. ~ \_....__...__ !!.!&

\_ ........... ~u

102 . A'OIOSPHEIJC DlFF\:sION

"'.0 .. '."". :!I)·ZI ... ~ ... , ...... -I. 7Z

"'.,~of .... __ ~.8 ............. '""- ..... __ ... IJ:Il.Qf)

....... ..,.......... 71. 7Z

'II ... ,_alof 88

........ f:,....~~ I!I.1t!

.............. -~ .. ;."

..... """"" .. _._ rr. 0. 7

....... ..".......,._,. 1:!

......... ,_. .. ~.IQ.~

\rrtwal ..... , ....... el ~ 17. IA

\-...aI pIo_

t- .. _.~_~I:! ..... .- ...... I:!

__ r.-n._ ..... _.1.1

,..;... -..1;

'r.,... __ ... 11

,,",,- ""'- I I

\ ortu;oI _... II. 17 \"&,-",,,*1 ,_ ..............

.......,7,..77

\' ......... d,,, of 1*--. II. I:! ..... K."""- . ......cane. f)

T ..... booa .... _... ..... _co","" 01 _ II ~ ....... ....-cy of t ...

u-...s $uoIft <" __ I _,!Ie< ttle ~ $!4U • .-,_ ....-c.

t .... ..,'. __ of t ..... ft __ ._.. .... .,,_ 00' ....,.oed. 00'

....._ ... ~ IeopI ' ..w" or '--';.0" lor t ... ~.,.". _' .... [ ..... or

"vf_ o' _ ~ __ . _ .".d..ct. 00' __ .,_..,_. 0-

,_ ........ tt...t ." .ouod I10t ." _." _ ''9Mt. R~ .. _

to _ -",.foe a. __ CoM P'Od..ct. __ . 00' .",_ 0., rr __ . t,_. _f«t_. ". 0 __ ..... 40ft r.ot ~,..., CDftIIof_ >J# _., ' ...

" ,,t. ,_<Oft. or ._ .... b., , u_ $1_ Cow_,r or

_ ~ ,_..,'T ... w __ 0 __ of ~ •• .,, __ .... dO _

~ • ." .... 011 'efleCt ........ O. , ... U"' • ., S~_ eo...._ 00' _ ~ ,_eot

..

, "

:~,' ; ~ .' .:

~;', ' ' . ' .: .." " f:., 11 it ~ 11 I ~ ..

,'$.;~ I '. ,-" • fir

Preface iii 2-8 '1ultipl .. Sources 1:-
PruLI e ms 1:-
Meteorol~
I-I Introduction 3 Source Effects 1'1
1-2 G .. u-ral Circulation 3-1 Ov-rvi e w II)
1-3 \' .. rtical Temp .. ratur .. Struetur .. 3-2 Stack! erodvnamic Efft'ct 1')
and Stabilit v 2 3-3 Structure Ii Flow Around
1-3.1 Adiabatic Temperatur e Gradil'nt 2 Buildings 1'1
1-3.2 StaLilitv 3 3-1 Diffusion Calculations
I~ Structure of ti;e Planetary Around Bui"'in~ 21
Boundarv Laver .J 3-4.1 Isolated Sources lpwintl
J~_I T~rLui .. nee Flux .. s .. of Buildings 22
1~.2 Ekman Spiral 5 3-4.2 Sources Close to Buildifl!!" 22
1~.3 Similarity Theory Gi\t's Wind Problems 24
and Temp .. ratur e Profiles in
Surfac .. Laver . . . 6 4 GallS8ian Plume Model for Continuous
1--lA Turbult'nc; Paramet e rs 7 Sources .,-
_"
1·5 ·,-s" uf Sp e ctra to Estimate 4-1 \\bv LSt' the Gaussian ~ll1(lcr~ . .}-
_,'}
TurLul .. nee Parameters 8 4-2 Fo;m of tho Gaussian Model .,-
_,'}
1-6 Lagrangian Turbulence I) 4-3 Stability Classification Sch .. mes .,-
_.
PruLIt'IIt> 10 4-4 Choice of 0v and Oz 27
4-4.1 Stab~lih' Class \! .. thud 27
2 Plume R~ II +4.2 Tht 06 'and Or \I.-thud 30
2·1 Introduction II 4-5 Wind-Spet"d Variation with lIt'ight 31
'1 " Top-Hat-Xlodel Equations 11 4-6 \laximum Ground Coucentration
_._
2·2.1 D e finitions 11 and Fumigation . 32
2·2_2 Sd of Equations fur 4-7 Awraging Times and Pt'ak-tu·\, .. an
\' .. rtical Plum .. 12 Concentration Ratios 33
2-2.3 Set of Equations for 4-8 Sector 'Iodd (or Long Sampling ..
Bent-Over Plum .. 13 Times 34
2-3 Plume Trajectory ~t'ar Source 13 Problems J.j
2.3.1 \' ertical Plumes 13
2-3.2 Bent-Over Plumes 13 5 StaWtiw ~odeb of Difftuioll from
2~ Plum .. Rise Limited L:: Ambient Continuous-Point Sourees 36
~taLilih 14 5-1 Introduction 36
2~.1 \' -rtical Plumes 14 - '1 Tavlor's Theorem 36
:>-_
2~,:! B..nt·OnT Plumes 14 5·3 Influence of Eddli Size un a 38
., - Plume Pen-tration of Elt'uteJ ,M Lagrangian-Eulerian Relations 39
.oJ
Inversion 14 5-5 \lonte Cario Particle Trajt'ctu~'
2.1) Plum" Ri..e D .. termin-d b~' \1o.Jd& of Diffusion .to
Amhient Turhulence 15 PruL I ems 40
2-6.1 :'\"arl~' ~ .. utral Conditions 16
:2-6_2 CuIl\t'Cti\t' Conditions 16 6 Puff DiffWlioa 41
:!-7 ~laximum Gruund Concentrar.on ~I Introduction .II
"ith Breakup \todd 17 ~2 Stati&tical Approach 41
• vi

6-3 Similarity Approach 6-4 Applications

Problems ...•.•

j Similarity Models of Difftuion 7-1 Introduction ..•..

7 -:! Diffusion of Continuous Plumes in thr- Surface Layer

7·:!.1 Neutral Conditions .. 7 -2,2 Nonn-utral or Adiabatic

Conditions . . . . . 7·3 Diffusion in the Full Depth of tl ... Daytime Plan .. tary Boundar. 1<)\ t'r

ProLI .. ms . .

8 Gradient Transport (K) ~Iodel.s 8-1 Th .. Basic Gradi .. nt Transport

~'od..t '

8-2 Analytical S •• lutions

8-2.1 On .. -Dim .. nsional Equation, Time-Depend .. nt, Constant K,

:\0 Wind, Instantaneous

Ar"a Source 50

8-2.2 Three Dimensions, TimeDepend .. nt, Constant K, :\0 Wind. Instantaneous

Point Source 51

8-2.3 Two-Dim .. nsional, TimeInd .. pend .. nt, Variabl .. u and K, Continuous

Ground-Lev .. 1 Line Source , . 51

8-2.-l Thr .... -Dim .. nsional, Tim .. - Ind .. p-nd .. nt, Constant u and K. Continuous-Point

Source at Ground Level 52

8-3 :'\um .. rical Solutions of th e

Diffusion Equation 53

8-3.1 :'-lumerit'a1ln"tahiliti"s. 53

8-3.2 Sp .. cif~ illl! th .. \' e rlieal

Diffusivitv 5-1

8-l High .. r Ord .. r a~surt' 55

Prob] .. m- .,... 56

9 Urban Diffu.sion Models

9-1 Importanc .. of Emissions 9-2 Box "od .. l . . . . . .

9-3 The Atmospheric Turbulene .. and Diffusion Laborator. \lodd

9-4 Street Canyon and Highwa~ Submodds , ..•.•.

9-5 Computerized K "odeLl for l"rban Diffusion

0-5.1 An l'rb.tn DifCu,.jon 'kJdd That .\60 PreJicts Winds and T emperatures

57

59

61

62

42
44
44
46
46
46
46
10
47
48
49
:';0
50
50 9-~2 Trajectory Slodels

9-5.3 Grid "odds with Winds

Prescrib .. d .....

9-6 Envi onrnental Protection Agency "odds ....

9-7 Model Evaluation

Probl .. ~ .....

R~moval Mechanisns 10-1 Introduction 10-2 Dry Deposition

10-2.1 Gravitational Sdtling 10-2.2 o..p',,;ition of Gases and of Particles with Radii Less Than About 10 p.m

10-3 Wet Deposition

10-l Chemical R .. moval

10-5 R.'moval Proc-sses in tl .. < 80'1( \Iotlel

Problems

11 Cooli~ Tower Phunes and Drift

Deposition . . . . . < • •

11·1 Introduction

11-2 Plum .. Rise from Cooling Towers •••.. 11-2.1 \'il-iLl .. Plum ..

Dim .. nsions .

11-2.2 :\umerical Approach for D .... P \' il-ihle Plu mes . 11-3 Drift Deposition

Problems < ••••

12 Air-PoUution ~letMrol~ in Complex Terrain

12-1 Introduction 12·2 ~'""',,rulo~

12-3 Diffusion Calculations

Problems .

13 Lo~-R~ Traruport and

Diffusion ... ...

13-1 Introduction

13-2 ~Iodding Concepts

13-3 Application to an In .. rt Tracer

Problem, .

Author Index

Subject Index

62

62

62 63 66

67 t>7 67 67

68 71

-., ._

73 73

76

78 80

81 81 81 8-1 86

87 37 87 89 90

91

100

!

1-1 INTRODUCVIO\

To sd the sta)!.· for lilt" n-maiud--r of th,· handbook. in this dlaph-r .... must I,rif'fl~ r .. vi .. w ",·v .. ral aspects of meteorology. ineiuding the g .. neral rireularion. vertical stabilit~. and :,urfal',·-Iay .. r -truetur-. \Iost students are eag .. r to b'-gin imlT1t·diat,·I~ th .. ~tud} of applications of th .. C;aussian plum .. JIIOlI,·I: how .. v .. r, "\'I'n th e application of tl1l' Gau,,;ian plume mod-I requires a kllo..-Il:'dg" of wind ruSt's and ,tabiJit~ and an appr ec iation of the influence of wind shear on tl.., rang .. of usefulness of the model. Abo. th .. lat .. "t d"Hlopments in plume-rise theorie-s n-quir .. th .. abilit) tt) understand and .. stimate verti .. al profil .. s of .. .1,1) dissipation rat e, Th .. r .. fore this chapt e r .. iU be a useful reference for till' r .. rnainder of this handbook.

1-2 GENERAL CIRCUL\T10N

Th .. -un is th .. source of n.-ar!y all cnergy receiv .. d I,y th .... arth's atmosphere. and the sph .. rical shape of th .. earth is responsib] e for th e unequal absorption of this e n e f'~)· h~ th .... arth's surface and th .. atmosphere. ~ ithout th .. transport of h .. at by th .. atrnosph .. r e and th~ oc e ans from the .. quator to the pol .. s, temperatu .... s .. ould 1)1' several tens of degrees cold .. r at the poles am: warmer at the equator. However. the fact is that there is a strong poleward transport of heat that is accomplished hy direct Hadley' cells. traveling high and lo~ pn-ssure systems, and major perturbations, such as hurricanes. In the northern hemisphere Hadl .. ~ cell. air rises over the equator (causing much rainfall), moves at high .-I .. vations toward the north. d .. scends at about 30° :\ latitude (causing df) desert r.-giorL>l. and then moves as the \orth .. ast (:\Ej trade "'inds n .. ar the surface from 30° :\ to,,;:rd th e "quiltor. The \E trades are known as the most persistent general wind system on earth.

Meteorology

\orth of :mo \ latitud«, tilt' dir-et Ibtll.·v 1'1,11 11f1'ak~ down, and "I1.'r~~ i,; transporb-d I,~ tra\C'lin~ high and luw pressur,' s~!'tr'ms rn.,vil1~ frnm ,,,·~t to "a.4. Warm south .. rl~ win"~ and ,'oJ" "ortlll'rly "inrls h.·II' accomplish th,· .. n"r1=~ tram-port. Ewn mor» "n"r~ is Iran-ported b~ lal"lIt Iwal I'rol'.·" ... ·s. w lu-rr-. for ,·,ampl.·. (;ulf of \I",i,'u water is ,·vaporatt"1. transport ... 1 northeastward, and rond .. ns,·d al!ain apr .. cipitation. For .. a .. h gram of wat.-r il1\oh,·t! ill thi. .. pm.·..,.,.. :i-l0 .'al is transport: .. 1 towartl th .. north, Bt·tw .... n 600 :\ and tl ... 1'01" i- another wind tlt'lt with an ,·ast.·rly eompom-nt at the surface. hut this circulatiou is not well .I,·fined.

l'pl' .. r-l .. vel wind- strml)!l~ iuflu"rH'I' "inds !It'ar tlw surfac e , wher .. mo-t diffusion proU .. ms orcur. In g .. n .. ral, the speed of the upper-I .. vel winds is proportional to th .. slope of surfa« .. of constant pr .. ssun-. The atmospheric pressure (p) t}pica"~ varies !Jy no mor .. than about :;r,f at sea level O\, .. r the ,·art!.-" surfac e, However, th .. t e mp-ratur- (f) could L .. 3000K at the -quator and 2-l0oK at rh .. ~~,I .. ,.. TIa· -quation of stat .. for th .. atrnosph .. r--.

p = plff

( 1.1 )

wh .. re It is the gas constant (0.287 X I (j~ .. rl!" ;!-I oK-I). tell- us that tilt' t! .. rbit~ ip) mu .. t b,·I .. "at th,· equator than at the poles. Th .. h~Jr<.""tati., "'Iuation.

( I ,2)

'" IM!r .. z is the height and g is the acceleration of ~avit~ (980 .. m/,;.,(l). th e n sU'4!ests that the I"'e;;.,ur .. deereas se s with h .. ight fast .. , at th e poi .. , than at th .. equator. It follows that. if P'l'S>U~ pis constan, (say 1000 rnh, or 11,6 dynes/cm1) ,( sea lev .. !' then an~ other ... onstant pressure surface Aloft (5a~ ;,00 rnb, or 0.5 X 10' d~neslcm1) wi!! -Iope downward from th .. equator to th .. pule. as in Fi!!. l.l.

2 ATMOSPHERIC orrrrsrox

I HIGH TEMPERATURE

(lOW

DENSITY / EOUATOR

CORIOUS FORCE

rIC- 1.1 CrOd oection ol the ur!h', atmotpbere, 11\0';"" how 810pinc pn ...... e IUrfac:et I'ftUIt at mid-atn""phere. ~'"terI)· wiP.'J. are cauted by a balma' bet"ern p.-el!lUle (orcet and Coriolia f<wcu.

lilt' equation llf IIIIItion Sl~S that air will first 1,.a ... :d,·rateu toward tl.., pok~ along th~ ul'l"'r con-taut I'rt:ssun' surface in th.- figur .. :

d~ =_g az I - Iu

tit a~ p

( 1.3)

wh .. r.. II "' "a,terly ... ornponent of wind "P" .. tI

v = north .. rly component of wirul "p._ ... d y = northerly coordinate axis

subscript p = constant pressure surface

f = Coriolis parameter, which is "qu"l to two times th .. earth's rotation rate times the sine of the latitude

TIll' parameter f is of the order of 10- 4 sec - I. I h .. appar e nt Coriolis force an".". as a result of th .. earth's rotation. which constantly displaces a cart e sian coordinate s~ stern fixed to the surface, An analo~J is l'iwll L~ rolling a marL Ie iro!'1 the edge of a rotating r .. cord tumtaLl .. to" .. rd the center. The marble will encounter r .. gions with 1.-,;;0 angular momentum than it has. To .. n oL ... rver fixed to the t~ntaLle. the marLle wiD always curve toward the ri~t if the turntaLle is rotating counterclockwise, Sntilarl). in the northern hernbpl,,~re the Coriolis forc e is to the ri!;ht, and in the southern h .. mi-phere it is to the left. The poleward pre".;ur .. force is thus balanced Ly a (' ..... riolis force towilrd tho- equator in wth h .. mi"I>h .. r .. s. which causes g"llo<ral we~tt'ri~' flo .. at midlevels in the atmospher .... t mid-latitudes. Ihe magni· t ude 1)( the resulting "gf'OStrophic" ... ind spt'd is giwn Ly setting du/dt = 0 in EAt. 1.3, whkh ~idds the formula

u = -f:; t

(U)

Other h~dr .. dynamic forns. which art L"~onJ th .. scop" of this .:hapkr. fr"4u"ntl~ .. ause the w"stal~ flow to Le ,·ompr .. ~d into narrow L.·lb. ,·all .. d jd str .. ams, with ,.p .... d~ up to 200 kill/hr.

~ld .. orologi"a1 data are gath .. r ... l [rom many stations across the ;.;IoLe anol are stur .. J at th .. \ational Climath- Center. i'iational O .... anir and :\tlllusph .. ric Administration (\U..\.-\) .. -\"'lIe\111 e, \.c. \lan~ statistical operutions ( .. .g .. annual wind ru,..,~ or fr<'tlu"I":~ distrihution« of wind dir .. ctiou and .p ... ·d) have alr .. aJ~ I> .... n «arri .. d out and "an t.. .. obtain ... rI from tit., \atiunal Climatic (:"nt .. r at wn r .. .1",-maol.pric .. e , ~urfat't· weather summaries at laf',!er \atiullal W .. ath .. r :3..n·i.·" stations are coll .. .-t .. d int ... report; .. all .. d "Local Climatolu~ical Vata." w hich ar .. mail.·t.! to subscribers monthly. Th .. Climate .411:1$ of Ih .. United States (L S. Dvpartm .. nt 0' --:.:mm .. rc e, 1%81 cuntaius lIIan~ data t1s..cul for oIiffu;ion valculatiuus.

}·3 VERTICAL TDIPERATURE STRUCTURE AND STABIUTY

:1

H

'tf". _*

}·3.1 Adiabatic Temperature Gradient

lC a var~ ... 1 of .iry air is mo'''..! \t'rtit'a1I~ without .. "changing heal with .its environment (i .e-., adiaLatically ), the first Iii" of th e rmody namics L"com"s

I

o ~ "p .rr --Jp ~

where "p is the specific h .. at of atr at constant pr,.,;.,;uno (10' .. rgs ~-I~K-I) and T IIIU,.t L e in J"lffee:s Kehi" (or absolute}, :::ub.stitutlllJo! irom the

---------

h~ dro-tati« f"llIatiun (Elf. I.:!) ~ i .. ici, th .. formula for th .. adial><lti.· tr-mperature grndient:

IdT)

\;11: ad

( I.h)

ur a t"mp"ratun' .l .. crt·a",· of alMlu! le(: fllr "a..!1 .. l--vutiun in.,.. .. a5'· uf 100 JIl. Tilt· pou-ntial t"mllt'ratun- (0) j" an important parameter defin.·tI from E'l' I..') Ly ,.ul"tituting for (I!p) with till" II",· .. f th .. "'Illatioll "I stat-- (E'I' 1.1) and IJ~ ifltl"I!Tatillg from ",·a-I,·\,·I pr,·",.urt· (I ()6 d} n .. ";"1I12) tu th.· pro'",",uro' I' ;.II all~ I,·\d.

(I. 7)

wh.-r« th .. ratio R/.·p "'I ual s 0.280. In other word". tilt" "",,"ntial temperature of a ,><Ire .. 1 of air at t,·mlJf"ratur,· (T) and pre,~ur .. (1') i" the t .. mperatur .. that would n-sult if tlw pared "ere brought adiaLaticall} from a pr .. ssur .. P tu a pressur e of 106 d} n .. ,,/cm2• It follows that

( 1.8)

011101

( 1.9)

wh .. r .. 1. i,. tlw h,·ight aLII\!" m .. an sea 1,,\1'1. TIlt" adiaLati,: potential temperature p"dient (d8/oIz) is zero. \ wide rarll!" uf temperatur .. gra.Ji,·nb i,. oL""rwd ill the at mosph .. re , Lut the average valu .. in th- tropo."lu·r .. [low .. st 10 k m] is -O,65<'C/IOO m. This represents a balance bdw""n vertical mixing pru..,·"_",·s anti radiat ivr heat "xl"hall!!"~'

Wh .. n air is saturated with w ater \ap.,r alit I is ri,ing n-rtic'ally, till' adiabatic temperature eJ.,..r .. a.;.- is I,·ss than that gi\t'n L} E'I' 1.6. :\..; air cools, its l'apal'it~, for wat .. r vapor dnr .. a.. .... s, and liquid wat .. r i..~ ,'on.lo·nsed. This pru ..... ss r .. l .. ase,. h .. at to th .. air at a rate of aLout ;)40 cal/g (latent heat of vaporization. L) of .... md .. used "at .. r. Thus part uf th .. int .. mal .. n"I~· u ..... d in ""pansion is recovered frum latent Ilt":.lt ,...1 .. ase, and the moist adiabatic temp .. rature padi .. nt (dT'dz)m is j!iHn b~

( 1.10)

"h .. ,... rn, i." rh ... aturat .. d mi"ing ratio (mass uf "aln ,apor per mass of air at saturation], The w~t adiabatic

\IETEOROI.04;l 3

t"mp"ratnr" !-'Tadi"ut i., 01 fuudi"'l ,,( 1"I11I"'rdlun' rangillg (rum about ,O.')cC/lOO 111 in ,· .. 101 p"lar .'lil11alo-s til ab .. ul -OA~C/ 100 111 in "ami tr"pi, .. 1 dil1101lo-,.. Th,' Slturalt·.J wakr·\ap"r ,"i,ilt;! rati .. (11',) is a fu,wlio" .. r 1"lI1ll1"ratllro' allol i- I'rt·,...·IIIt-,1 ;:raplri "all~ ill Fig, 11. .. of Chap. II. Witl. ".1..1. 10°(: ri-« ill temperatun-, m. r,",~".I~ .11111"1,· •.

1,3,2 Stability

:\Id,·orulo',fisb .li,ti";':lIi,l. I !.n·.· ,~~I.·,· .. I' II •. at mospheric surfa ... • 100~'·r; 1III.-Ia"I,·. ""1111'011. .!I"i stahl.·. Th,·,,· aJj,·,·th,·, r,·f,·r til till" n·.lt'li .. 1l .. I' 01 l,arc·,·1 uf air .Ii .. pla ... ·.r ... li .. " .. li,·all~ ill II -n- \ ,'rli'al din-ctiou. Figu,..· 1.2 .ho"s til!" ,·mir""IJI'·IlI.J1 lal'~' rat .. s that giw ri,,' Io Ih,.,..· "laL.ilil ~ d ... ,,·,. III "adl ,·xamp! .. II ... par c ,·1 ',rigillat,·, al th .. 1"'i;!I,t i.llli,·"I ... 1 L~ th» .-ir"'!.. in tl... figure: at thi- h"i;:hl II ... t,·mperatur,· uf th.· l'ar .... 1 i, tho' sam .. a, thai .. I' itenvirunmeut. If Ih" d .. u"it~ nf Ill!" l'ar ... ·1 i... I,·"." lha" tlrat or its .. nvironment 0p < PI' IIr T,,::- Tr,. Ih"n th .. parcel is accelerated upward. If IllI" "'·II.il~ IIf th.· pan-el is ilion' than that .. I" its "ll\iWIIIIl"1I1 (pp > PI' .. r T p < T.,), th .. n the paTl· .. 1 i- a ... ·.·I,·ralo-.1 dll"""OITlI. If the d .. nsit)' or th .. pai ..... 1 is IllI" ~:1I11" a, tha! of it, environment (T p '" T r). th .. n IllI" par,·..! "ontinu,', al its or~inal sp,·"d. Fur th .. '·'3mpl .. of tilt" unstahhla~ "r, th .. pOlr ce] is continual!} a.·.·.·I .. ralt-.1 a\, a~ fwm its urigin. Th .. exampl« uf till' neutral la~ ,'r ;J,,,,,, that th .. temperat i. n- of the !Jan· .. 1 is alwa~ s tho' ,alii" as thai of its "II\,irUUI111'ut. awl IllI'n is no f"ro'" Oil it. Th .. sldchl's aho"" the t .. IIIIJ1"rOllu,..· profil,·. illu .• tra; •. til" gra\'itatiollal analu'_~ for a ball UII 1,,1' "f a hill (unstabl .. ), 011 a nOli plain (neutral). OII1,J in a vall .. \ (stahl,,).

We can formaliz" th.·,.., ,t.lIJilit~ .. rit-ri«:

'It

. aT" 0

lllstabl.:: a; < -0,98 C' 100 III

". I aTe 0 o· , )()

. veutrat: 1; = - .98 I .. II III

0.11)

Slabl,,:

( im'·r>-i .. " ,·orujiti. .u)

Typically, the criterion fur in,tahilih is sati .. fi .. d 0111, within about 100 m or the surface' on a sunnv Ja,·. The atmosphere is n~lr" on a wind, and dOud\ J~\ or night and is sUble near the sUlf~ .. ill nitht Our ;t an~ time in an dented in\~ion layer. Uurillg .ubl .. conditions a pared .u..pla-:rd from a!) .. ouilihrium

, ,. , .

4 ATMOSPHERIC DlFF(jSION

1\

t

TE'.1PERA1URE UNSTABLE

___D_

TE"·PERATURE NEUTRAL

_--_.-

v

I

..

\

\

~I Jf // ~I

TEMPERAiLRE STABLE

Fie- 1.2 IDuatration of unabble, neutnl, and stable l!llvironmmllll IftDperatul'l! profil"" (- - -). Aft air paI"'t!I moved adiabatiallly cool ... it I'M vertically (--).

b',,!. as in F;g. 12, will oscillate ahout the equilihrium level with the Brunt - ViiiSiilii frequency nB\' [radians/se«] :

( 1.12)

where 8f: is the pot .. ntial temperature. The stability parameter (s) in U). 1.12 will he important in the calculation of plume ri".. in Chap. 2. For t~ pica! stable temperature gradients (O"C/ I 00 III and 2°C/100 II), the Brunt - Viiisala period (2lf/ nS\,) is 353 sec aJ.~ 200 sec. r .... p .. ctively,

Th .. parameter s ma~ also he thought of as being proportional to the rate at which stabilirv supprt"Sses the generation ·)f turbulence. On the other hand, turbulence is being generated by mechanical shear forces at a rate proportional to (3'J/3z)l, The ratio of these two processes is called the Richardson number (Hi):

(1.1 J)

Oe,,"~ the su1ility parameter Ri ghes us more information than s about the statr of turbulence in

the atmosphere. which is. in turn. directly related to diffusion,

1-4 STRUCTURE OF THE PL\~ETARY BOUNDARY LAYER

The earth's surface exerts a draz on the atmosphere which influences wind speed up to a hd{!ht of about 1 km. Diurnal variations in temperature and mixi~ ratio are also noticed up to th .. top of .his layer. which is called the "planetary boundary layer" (PBt). Since most diffusion problem". with the exception of such problems as aircraft emissions and high level bomb blasts. occur in this la) .. r. it is important to know the variations of winds. temperatures, and turbulence parameters in the PEL.

1-4.1 Turbulence Fluxes

The so-called eddv diffusi\lh' (K) ... ddv viscositv (Km). and eddy condoctivitj (Kh) coefficients a~ derived b~' =,,'Uming that any variable .\ is the sum of an .1wragt' A and a tucLulent Iluctuation A':

( l.l~)

... here _.\ could represent -ueh variables as temperature. aLsoI .. te humidity, or pollutant concentration.

The awragt' is usually over a time period of about I hr. Further, the Reynolds awraginl; procedure is used:

( I. 1:,)

'1t'xt. consider th .. continuity equation for A:

d:\ a,\ 0:\ oA aA ~

-=-+u-+v-+w-=B+5 (1.16)

dt at ax oy oz

wh .. rf' B includes all external eff .. ets, S includes all internal sources, and w is ver-ical sp" .. d. Also. assume that th .. atmosplu-rv is incompn-ssibl-.

( !.I 7)

Bv substituting EIJ. I.I.J into Eli' 1.16, usin;! EIJ. 1.17 (multiplied by :\) and averaging according to Eol' 1.15, we obtain

d.\ a\ a."\ a.\ _ 0::\

-=-+ii-+\'-+w-

dt at ax ay oz

- - a (.~)

= B ~ S - - u' \' ox

3 (,-;) a (-.,)

- - \':\ - -- w:\

ay oz

( U8)

The term "J,\i is the flux of .\ in the x direction due to turbulent fluctuations.

Since such turbulent fluxes as u' A' can b ... measured only with fast-response instruments and are diffit'u!t to treat theoretically by analog)' with the molecular case, the turbulent flux is commonly assum .. d to be proportional to the mean gradient:

!'4"i - K a.\

\\.,,-- -

az

(1.19)

.. here K is a diffusivitv coefficient (in units of ml'sec). The negative sig~ is included so that the flux I; down the gradient (i.e., (rom high values of A to 10 .. \aJ~5). Thi." technique is a 1:00 called first-order closure. ~ewnd-()rder closure (e.g., Donaldson, (973) is a moe- recent scheme that ;oes one step further and approximates such terms as u'",':\' with m .. an l!'".Iients of (u':\'). Closure ean be extend .. d to any .. irder, but th .. technique soon becomes unbearably t'ompiel..

, '

\IETEOROLOGY 5

If A is th e concentration of a pollutant. tlll"n E'l' 1.18 yields the "diffusion equation;"

a."\ aA a\ a,\. a, ~K a,\)

-+u-+\-'-+"-=~+- x-

at ax 3y az ax' ax.

\\ h"r" 53 can rt'IJCt',;"nt internal I'I"OCO·"';'·S. such a, chemical reactions. If :\ is the wind-speed compone-nt u on' in th" x or y dir .. ction, then ['I' 1.20 ~ idds th» equations of motion. For unaecelerated now h 0111 n· gem'ous in tlu- x and y directions, these equations hecorn ..

O - azl f a ~K au~

- -g - + v + - rnz-

a" p az az

(L!l)

o = _g ~zl _ fu + ~ fKrnz a~\

a;lp 3z \ az}

~ 1.22)

where Kmz refers to th" vertical component of the diffusivity coefficient for momentum, or the .. dJv viscosity. Ther .. is a balance among preseu"" Coril)li~. and frictional forces in Eqs. 1.21 and 1.::2. From this point on, th.. bar notation for av .. r:tges has b..'·11 removed.

1-4.2 Ekman Spiral

A simple expression for the variation of the wind velocity through the whole depth of the PBT. was developed b~ Ekman in 190~. He assum .. d that the eddy viscosity coefficient ior momentum in the vertical (Kmz) wa.~ constant and that th e geostrophic \, ind-speed approximation was valid:

u = -~~

g f ()\II

• P

( 1.23)

(l.:.!-' )

The suhstitutiou of these equations into Eqs. l.:!i and 1.22 yield-, the (oUowi'¥ forms of the equations of motion:

(:'25)

, y ...... - \ • tp,,; • _. ! ... ~ '~ " • '

- ... . . . .

6 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

If we orient the x axis parallel to the geostrophie win,l vertor arul assume that ug and Vg are constant with Iwight, the solution to these equations is

( 1.27)

( 1.28)

"Iwre a = (f/2Kmz)~.

Thi- solution is shown in Fig. 1.3, which shows t!.at tIll" pr .. diet .. d angle between the surface wind .111.1 the g.·o:;trophic wind is -l,50. Th .. predicted angle is high~r than is usually observed because of the r .. stricting assumptions made to ~t a solution. T~ pical ohserved angl e s between the surface wind and the geostrophic or free stream wind are 5 ttl 10° in unstalil .. conditions, 15 to 20° in neutral conditions, and 30 to 50° in stable conditions. Wind·direction sh .. ar is very important for diffusion at large disranees. .. here the bottom and top of the plume can move if: directions differing as much as 40 or 50° and thus ~ ield a much larger plume spread than ·.hat possible as a result cf turbulent diffusion alone.

The real atmosphere usually does not agree with tl ... Ekman spiral at the top of the mixed layer (Zj) b .. cause of the developrn .. nt of an inversion at that IIt·ij!ht. On most days this "capping inversion" at Zj r..,.lIlts in strong discontinuities in such parameters as water \apor mixing ratio and eddy dissipation rate. Holzworth (1972) has analyzed observed temperature pro files and published maps and tables of Zj for most regions of th- l.nited States. Typical afternoon mixing depths (Zj) are about 1000 to 2000 m.

J·4.3 Similarity Theory Gives Wind and Temperature Profiles in Surface Layer

Tit .. momentum nux [ used tl) define th .. quantity friction velocity:

u';' or Kmz(au:az)] is u~. w h .. re u. i- ... alled the

1 -,-, K au

u.;; = .. u w = mzaz

( 1.2tJ)

f", 1.3 Ekm... wind .inl. The .. ia~."orit'!' .«ton at ~ac

hP;pta (~ &IIIIa,) Wroeda tile

CeootropU: arity .«tor at

the top oIlbe _xf1llaYH (aJ·

The equation of motiun (Eq. 1.25) (an L.. used to show that u; usually varies L) less than 20% iu ,: ... surface lay .. r. or th .. low.,:;t 50 III of th .. atmosphere. During neutral or adiabatic conditions, th .. h~ IlOtlH'"i~ Km a: (sealing: ;1'<',,(1) X (scaling: I e ngth) can hI' used, wh e re tl ... surface value .,f friction \dvc'ity (u.) i- thsealing sp""ci anti the height (I.) i~ the -caling I.·n;..rth. i.~.,

K = k us z

(1.:10)

\'011 Karn, S constant (k) is nu-a-ur .. tl to h .. n.:J:; over v e ry -rnooth h'rruill ami OA ove r 1I11"t other t .. rrain.

If k is assum .. d to .. qual O.-J.. t h-n E". 1,29 be"omps

L' au _ 0 C au _ 2 I'- - - .""t' u ... :t - - u,..

az az

au _ u.

a7. - o::r z

( l.31)

u (Z)

U = ~In -

0.-1 zo,

This is the well-known logarithmic wind profile, w here the integration constant (zo) is vall .. d tilt' roughness I .. nj!th. In genaal. :to - h'IO, wh .. r.- h is the h .. ight of the roughnt',;,; elem .. nts, surh as buildinl!> or plant cov .. r.

During diahatic conditions [( a8 / a_z~ 0 J w .. define a scaling temperature [T. = (w'T' 'u.) J and aneth .. r scaling length

u;

L~------

( 1.32)

0.-1 (;r/T) (-w 'T')

This is called the 'Ionin·-Obtlkho~ It'Ilgth. lfl.-r its founders (\Ionin and Ubukhov, 1953). L is posith .. for stable conditions (u. .. ually at night), negati\t' for unstable conditions (usually daytime). and appreaches infinity for n .. utral conditions (dawn and dusk transition periods and cloudy. windy condi-

..

\

\ \

I

I

GEOSTl'I()P .. 'C ...... O 5PHD

tions). Th .. absolute vdhe of !. rail be thought of ~ the d .. pth of th .. m .. ehanically mixed layer n .. ar thl' surfac ... Th .. ratio z/l. is another stability parameter that has heen found 10 approxirnat .. Ihl' Ri c harrlscn number (Ri) during unstabl .. conditions and "'Illal Ril( I - j Hi) during stable conditions s, WI' c an now mak .. the similarity pr .. dictions:

... t: Z)

u. = fn \zo' ["

(1.:J:l)

T- To" fn' f.!:....!.)

T. \zo I.

( 1.3-l)

wha .. subscript "0" ref .. rs tu a surfac e value and fn and fn' are universal functions,

Consistent w ith th .. above, observations (Businger dal .. 19-;-1)~~owthat

-Ii

ts r) (unstable)

(stable)

0.35)

O.:..h 30 " ¢h (!.L 0.7 -I (I

1. 3z q

)-",

9 I (un-tabl .. )

0_' - z

= .• -. •. ) ['

(stable)

( 1.36)

wher .. ¢m and ¢h ar .. the dimensionless wind and temperature gradients. respectively. Paulson (19-;-0) has intl'grated Eq. 1.3;; for unstable conditions to gi\'1' the solution

l4{ z l rl ~ 1 ')]

u=- In-· :.In :; 1 +_

4 Zo .. _ ~

.In[~ (1 + +)] . 2lan-1 _!_ .;\ (1.37)

- <Pm <Pm - J

In stable conditions the fullowing solution is easily d e rived:

u. ~ z -B

u =- In->;,

0.4 1'0 L

( :'38)

floe eddy dif!usi\lty for mom e ntum (Km) and for heat (Kh) can he defin .. d by Eq. 1.9 b~' lL'<ing .\ = u and A = 8. respectively:

( 1.39)

\IF.TEOROLOGY ;

11,1111

The etld} diffusivity co .. ffil'i"nt (1\) (or 1'011 11101 lit, i· IL'uall} assumed to 1'111131 K". awl "xl"'rinlf'!1lal .. vid e- nee t .. nds tn support this,

}-4.4 Turbulence Parameters

In eonv .. ctive conditions. i.e .. w hen th» :-lIrfa ... · i~ warmer than the air above it. th .. important "'alin::: parameters are th .. mixing-lay .. r Iwight (Zj) alltl th .. scaling velocity (w.). whir h is defin .. d by

11.l! I

Deardorff (1970) first mad .. use of this paramd .. r. anti Kaimal et a]. (1977) applied it ill their analv 'i, cf a fi .. ld experiment. The quantify (J!'/T) ~'T' is ,'all",J th .. surface buo~:mcy nux (U): it is proportional to the surface heat flu". Th .. surfa o- lav .. r f'xt,·ml,. to a height of about 0.1 Zi. and.above th~t h .. i;.:ht. durin~ unstable conditions. wind .pt·",l is l1t'arl~ "'II1.·tallt and wind direction turns slightly (.'i 10 10°) 10 lilt' right lin the northern h .. misphere). Wi'lIl !,r"fil.·. above th.. surface layer in neutral anti "alii .. conditions are more complical .. d: th .. inter .. ,t..,1 read .. r should consu!tthe hasie re!~ .. ~n" .. s (Wyll;!aartl. Cot e, and Rao. I 97-l: Wyng"lmL 1')7.';1.

Th .. param .. ters au' ay. and tJ",trf· the :-tall,!;.nl deviations of turbulent velocit v fluct flalioll.- I,' tl ... v, ~. and z directions. respectively. Pano(,J.-. y -t al. (1977) haw recently studied data frum ""\"r~i ditfer e nt sit .. s and have determined formulas I A:!. lAB. and 1.51 for aw• o.; and 0u, .... "p .. ctiv .. lv, ( .. r unstabb- conditions. Irwin (1979b) d .. v-Iop .. d th .. power-law form lA" given in Eqs_ 1,~3 to 1.·1.; (or til .. variation of aw/w. a10ve the surfac .. laver. Formlll.!." for n .. utra! and stable condition" wer; oht ain .. d f,\ fittill;! analytical formulas to f'UCVe>' pr ..... nlf'J 1,\ \\'~nga3t'd e t at (1975) and \\\ngaanl (197 -l).

aw = 0.96 (l!. + 1:..)1;

w. Zi Ii -",

~ z Zt)

0<-<-

zi Ii

(z)O.I-S

= 0.763 \~

(Zt ~ ~

-< -< OA

Z; Zi

= ;),37

:. ~ " t ' I •• " ~ ••• .' I~I ..... ~ , .» • ~ •

8 AnlOSPHERIC DIFFlSIOl'i

where Zthj is the height at which the first and second formulas gin~ e'lual values of Gw/ ... 'e .

Ow (fZ) (U6)
- = 1.3 .. xp -2- (neutral)
u. I..,
= i.s (I -~) (stahl .. ) ( 1..1.7)
Zj
IJv ( z'y
.l ~ 'I (unstable) (1..1.8)
u. '- - 0,,)1."
( £z) (neutral)
= I.3,·xp - 2~ ( 1..1.9)
( 7.) (stabl e )
= 1.3 1 "~ ( 1,;;0)
ZI
Gu = (12 'Is
- ~) ( unstahl .. ) (L,)I)
u. .0,aT
- ., 0 ( :1 £z) (neutrul) (1,52)
- _, .. xp u.
= 2,0 (I .-~) (stahl .. ) ( 1.53)
Zj In tllf" t!a~ tin .. ' Zj i" usuallv mark .. J L~ an mversion capping t h.. unstable .... -ll-rnixed layer above the ground -urface . .-\t night 'In inversion is present to som .. d .. go.·.· at all levels, and ~ marks the height at which ~urfa. ,,·i!Hiuced m ... -hanical turbulenc ... die" off to z .. ro , Turbulent inten-ity ill the surface la~ e r can Le .. stimat .. d h~ dividing' tho appropriate values in the Sl't of £'1'" 1.-12 to 1..,):1 b~ th .. appropriate values in th.. 5I't of Eqs. 1.37 and 1.38. The turLul .. nee intensiti e " Gy!u and Gu/u Ilecr ... 3S<" with height for all ,.taLiliti • .,.. ... h..rt'a,. a",iu increases with h ... ight In unstable conditions and d .. creases with height 111 n .. utral anti -tabl e conditions,

Th e "'ILly dissipation rate (f) gh e " th ... rate at

whicl, turl ulenc is " .. ing diS5i pat ... t.I into n e at at small

:'ell t' s. TLs rat i11 L e important in the «alrulaticn

uf plum', rise. In the surface lay .. r, f is gi\ .. 11 L~ th .. formula (from tl; .. energy equation).

£ 'p .. rim .. nts indicate that e "'" 0.5 H .It h .. ight.> aLun' the surface !a~· .. r at middav. DuriI¥ neutral

"

conditions, however, tilt' dat a "how that f = II!. O.-1z up to h.,ights of ""\eral hundr .. ol rnd .. rs.

1·5 USE OF SPECTRA TO ESTmATE TURBt:LE~CE PAR:\)IETF.I{S

Th- .. tldy "n"r:-~ ~P<'drurn I ~(n) J ~\t'5 informstion Oil th., amount of "nt'r![\ carried J,\ .. doli.·> of

~. ,

t.liff .. rent "iz.·s. it involve» a Fourier tran-Iorm of til ..

corr .. lation f'lwffi"i"nt K(T):

u'(t)u'(t •• ) R,,(n = .::_:..::.!..::...;.~...:...:

G~

wh .. r .. T is the tim" lag. Th .. turbulence time scale id e [ined Ly

T=i;p.(T)t!T

The larger th .. "eddies." the -low .. r R drops off with time and the larg .. r th .. lim e seal .. 1.

En"r:.." ,,,,,,·tra hav .. L.. .. n f'"IIlt! to f"lIow similarity th"ury 31,0. and universal ''(luation~ for th .. ir furm "an L .. written, (Th .. ,... "'luatiOlb will 1I0t I ... repeodue .. d hrre Lut can L e found in Kaimal et aL 11)77). On .. important -calinz !-,aram..tt'r i, th .. waveI .. n~th (Xm) at w hid, th .. ed-Iies are "aery illg til e maximum .. nt'C;,~. Kairnal I'l al, (1')77) d ... luc .. th .. fullowing form fur "0 during <U1I\ ... di\e <L\ timconditions :

(z < L)

(0 .. ;5·0.38 til;

= 5.9 L

( L<L<O,lzj)

11.':;:-.

1t'

= L5lj(l e -5Z tq (0.1 Zj <, l < zi)

(1,581

Fur neutral l'ulI.litions, th .. wa\,.J"II!!th :\m of ()t'ak. "nt'11!) is a-sum .. " to !)t' .. qua! ipr all thee .. l't,"lP'~ II""!.> of turbulence ......... ral Ct'St'ud .. -rs ha\ .. pro~ .. d th .. validitv of tI .... a,.,.umptilln that A'!l is proportional tll h .. ight in .th .. sur! ..... :.1\ e- r hut a.:,\ mptuti.·a!h appro;;.-ilt' • .l "Olblant at ,,'TT~t h e- i.:hb

(neutral, (1.51),

j~Ulfh .. y, Wy ~aard, and K.t!,nal t l '17'J) ,,:iH' observaIloo.o; of th .. 'lIn.llion "'Ith ikight of th .... a.d~l~th

Am fur lilt" :hn'" turhul-ur» "OfllpOfl"nt, durinu ,101101,· ronditiou». TIll" "I",·nt·d I".inl> .. an I,.. fit ,,~ th« fullo"in~ -irnpl« 11O""r 101",:

Am" ~ 1.."; {~r5 ( l.hO)
Zi 'Z,
~~0.7 (~r5 (l.hl)
Zi z,
A.u~ 1.0 f~r'~ ( ; • f ~:! .
---
li \~1 Th,· vulu» "f Am" ~i\t"n alton' "an L.· u-ed I" ",lirn,,10- "m lt~ u .. in~ II", formula "u~~""h-J !I~ Hanna ( I 'JOl:I)'

"m =. \ 0 w Am"

(1.113)

"Iwn' ('Ol"'jllill n f)7 -l) hOI, J .. termincd thut th,· 1,.',1 vulu .. for th.· constant - \ i,. n.I:;. TIll' parumet .. r 0" can L.· .. stimat .. d l·~ u,.in~ th e ,ugg .. -tions in :' ..... I··U.

1-6 L-\GR.-\~GL-\~ TrRBULE~CE

.'0 far we hav« L ..... n Ji,,·u.,-in~ Eult'rian turbuI.·n.· e, "hi"h i- IraJitionOlll~ nu-a-ur .. d at a [io-d point

! .

on ... rHt·tt·orulu~ri'·al tU\\I'r c .. t'" r~:! I ;,. l h- \\illd and turbul-no- an' m-u .... ur.·d l;~ ..111 .Jlit'It1Ulllt't"r ~I'" IIII' air 110\'" pa-t. \no!llt"r 1\ , ... "f Ful"rian ""'",IIr.'· m-nt i, mad .. h~ an ~ir'·r .. ,ft. "hi.·" fli.·- t hro,,~h I' turhuh-m-. alo,,~ a ".-ar" 'lrai!!hl lin--. \1_0. ,;". uu-a-urr-rm-nt In"ui.· b~ ..III aflf'UUHlh'I,'r II .. 1\ i n:.: \\. t fa tilt' mean wind '1"· .... 1 throll.!!h ti, r: !",,, ,- '·all ... l a Eul"rian rm-asun-m .. nt. In 'IOn,' of 11 ... ,,· ,'a,,', .I", .• lIlt' m,·a.,uring iu-trurn-nt m.".' "il}, tl", air.

\"·a,.un·IIl,'ul, of an air 111,,1.·.·,,1.· (I .. r :! '" Fig. I.-t) thaI ha- ! .... ~II la::~,'d ali.' ( .. II .. " ... ! _1.- ,I rnoves 'hn"J~h I!,.. turbulent li,·loI .. r.· • alk" 1.1 gral1~ian measun-ment, -; Clt'arl~ th,· djifll, .. jIlH • t pollutants i- a 1.a;''Y'>ln:,:iar. pr"'.·· .•. "hid, unfor tunall'l~ mu-t lL.uall~ I ..... -timat-«! L~ u,ill!! LlIl,'nall nu-asur .. m .. nts, anti ",'III" r.-iation-hip !,..I".·.·II tlo., I wo ~~ "l .. ms should L e- ,-,laLli,I n- d.

An air mol ... -ul- "ill iI"n"ralh I foi II I.. .. ;:i,., II turbulent t'J,I~ has 3 low .. r fr"-Iut"I<" :h .. 11 thaI mea-ur--d II~ a fj",.,J all'·II1OIll.-(,·r. Tloi, i· ,rlld.·" illu-trat-d L~ Fil!. !..i. ill "hid, a, ir"lIlar .<,Jd, "iI', tallg"lIlial '1""'" ( •• ) i- illllllt'r",·d ill .Il11'·all \\111011 "1. Th" 111 .. 1""1,1 .. Ir,,\.·I, "" .... ar",".:1 tlu- ,·"d. ill till,.. 21TIVw. "ha,-a, ih.· fi,r,1 an-rnom-t-r .... ,.- tlo.· .·oI.h pa". ill tim-- 2R:". Th-r-I .. r- th« fall" "I' 1..Il(r.",:.:ial' II) Fult'rian tim.' ",·al.·_ (3) in thi. ti",lft· I, :£i"'11 I"

Ii

1""

! !

i I

I_~G~.!.·.G:~·. H

~---

f'" l.~ F ... <'fUIl £<>d ~~i.an .. ind-_ ..... tnC ,,>tMJU. Tru .. Lqr&n(W .. 1Il4 ,.........,... ....... u.,.. ci' .. n h.- ~ ur ~rtxln 1 w<1 :!.

10 .o\T\IOSPIIERIC DIHl51O:-<

/

fi,;. 1.5 Large eddy at ....tiu. R app'...:hH an ..... momet« on a lower. The eddy move. with mean 'p""'d (ii) and has a m .. an tancrntiaJ velocity (W).

"Iwr.· j j" tl u- turbuleno- inl .. nsity, usually "ailed Uw/II. '\" turhuh-nce inl,,"sit~ increases (stability t1'·('rt'a"""), ll ... ratio fJ ,I .. cr .. a. se s, Pasqui]! (197~) "U!()!,·"ts that a ~flo,1 aVl'ral!" valu .. for {j is 4. Rl'id (I'J~() fill,!>, that more aevurat .. diffusion calculation- ..

"~'''' I ... lIIa,I,· if

i3 - 0.:;



( 1.6;')

"hidl ill,lic·al,." that ih .. r--larion {30: Iii is correct but t hat II ... «rud- fIIod.·' ill Fig. 1.5 ov .. restirnates till" prol'"rtiollal it ~ constant.

Problems

I. Cal<:uiate th .. 1IIa..;s of the atmosph .. re. [Th .. ,·a. ... i.·,.: d .. rivation · .. ilI take I""" t!lan one-half page,)

2. Suppose that th .. 500·mL surfac .. is lOOn III hil:,'tll'r owt' ;\i .. w Urll'ans. loa .• than it is ovr-r Chi"3l!'" III. What is the t'~twanl cOlllpon .. nt IIf II ... g, .... strophic w iml at that 1 e " .. 1:

:3. lIn a windy day till' following wind oL,..."a· tioll~ ar .. mad .. :

z. m 0.5 1.0 2.0 u. tnl» .. c 1.6 2.3 3.0

4.0 8.0 3.7 ~.·l

E.;.limalt- the rough n .. "" I.>n;!ll. (Zo) allli tl ... frivtion velocity (14).

4. :\ ....... ume that Zj = 1000 m, L = -50 III, and U. = 0.3 mlse«, :\t what height does Uw rea .. h a maximum? \\~t is it .. value? What is tht' value of Uv at that heighl? If u = 5 mlSt'" at that height. what is Ihl' ratio of 1~"I'ang:ia" to Eulerian tim" s .. ail'S </3) for th .. y ami 1. components?

Plume Rise

2·1 INTRODUCTION

Plume rise is a very important factor in determinin!! maximum ground·level concentrations from most sources since it typically increases the effective stack h .. ight by a factor of 2 to 10 times the actual release height. Because maximum gnmnd·lt'Vel concentration is roughly proportional to the inverse square of the eCC .. ctive stack height, it is dear that plume rise can reduce ground·level concentration hy a factor of as much as 100. \Iost industrial pollutants are emitted with high velocity or temperature, and plume rise must he calculated. However. pollutants released from some building v .. nts or motor vehicles have very little plume rise.

A few areas of plum .. rise are well understood, such as the trajectory before final rise is reached and finai rise in stahle conditions. In both of these cases. the effect of ambient turbulence in the aiz outside the plume is nerligible. When ambient turbulence affects the plume, such as during final rise in neutral conditions and during the last half of rise in convective conditions, the models are less certain. and more research is needed.

2·2 TOP·HAT·MODF.L EQUATIONS

The revie.... article by Briggs (1975) provides background material on available plume-rise models, \lost models are based on fundamental h.ws of fluid mechanics: conservation of ma811. potential density, and momentum. The distribution of temperature, speed, or other quantities a.:ro,;s the plume is "S&1med to have "top-hat ~ Corm (..r-t..); that is. .. variable has a certain value inside the plume, another value outside the plume. and a disccntinuitv .. t the plume radius (R). Basically we are tooling at inte~Tatr.d ,n'erages of variables in a plume Lro,;s section.

2·2.1 Definitions

figure 2.1 is a schematic drawing of a vertical plume and a bent-over plume which illustrates many of the variables and parameters important in calculating plume rise. A plume is ust'alIy more or I .. ss "vertical" if wind speed is less than ..bout 1 m/sec. ~ote the difference on the ragure in definitions of the plum .. volume flux:

(verticai)

(2.1)

(bent over)

where w is plume vertical speed, u is amhient wind speed. and R is plume radius in .. plane perpendicular to the plume axis. In £qs. 2.1 ... Wf"U as in other equations in this chapter, the Cactor 1f is left out. The initial volume flux is defined by using the initial plume vertical speed at stack exit:

(2.2)

Initial buoyancy flux (Fo) and momentum flux ('10) are defined hy the following equations:

(2.3)

"Ppo v

.''0 ~ --wo 0

Peo

(2.4)

where ~h8Cripts p, e, and 0 indicatr. plume. environment, and initial values, respectivtly. For plumes whose molecular weight (m) differs much from that of air. Eq.2.3 sbould be rewritten hy replacing dI temperatures (T) with the ratio lImo (IDeo can be aMUm~ to equal 28.9). The value. of the buoyancy

11

12 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

BENT-OVER PLUME VOLUME FLUX: V = uR2

ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY: 5 = t.(~:. + O.Of ·e/m)

_- ..... --r--~--\'

~\ )

6\' y

_. 4-- vERTICAL PLUME

-+'r'--~b-)'t--VOLUME FLUX: V = wR2

hRr-

\. I I

U

II Tpo

6h

INITIAL BUOYANCY FLUX Fo = -fL (T po - Teo) woR~

pc

VERTICAL PLUME

--u

~r

h = hs + 6h

-----1

BENT-OVER PLUME

Fe. 2.1 ScDematic diIcnm of verticaI.r.d beat-over pI_ whic8 illualrats _ of the parameter. and vlriabla impor..ant for pI_n.- ealc:ub&tior.a.

flux (F) and momentum flux (\1) can change with height, where th .. y are defined by the relations:

(2.5)

\1 = w ..

(2.6)

Fnvironmental stahilitv (5) plays a prime role in slowing th .. plumcs vertical motion:

It (3T~ 0010C1 ~

s=- -+. ..m

Te 3z

(2.7)

The last ftctor is the adiabatic lapse rate, which is e implified to O.Ol°Q'm from ;~H'alue of O.OO9S"C/m in Eq. 1.6. Thus the last t .... o terms could be replaced by (j1J~/al. From Eq. 1.12 we set that s is the ~uare of the Brunt - \" aisala frequency n B v,

The ntio (S) of the effective area influenced b~ the plume momentum to the erose-sectional area of th .. "'-H:alled thermal plume (Briggs. 1975) has no .. been recognized to be abo-u 2.3 for bent-over plumes, Till. factor permits the accurate assessment of both plume traject~ and final plume nse.

Because we n .. gleet the deuila of turbulence. we h ... e un .. leA consers stion equation than we ~e

independent variables. An additional relationship, called the "closure alIIiUmption." is needed to solve the equations, The clu,;ure IDled most often is the T7)lor entrainment _mption

(vertical plumes)

(bent-over plumes)

The entrainment veloeitv (ve) is the effeetive spt:~d at which emironmenta1 zir is ora ... n into the plume througll ita buundaries. Taylor (1948) prooosed that ve is proportional to plume vertical speed. The constants a and fJ ..,., functionally similar, but fJ is much I~er than a.

2·':.2 Set of Equati<..u for Vertkal Plume (:rom BrigI. 1975)

of _ .v dz----

(2.8)

· . . ill.,

Momentum conservation

d.\! F dT. =-;-

(2.9)

Closure

dV ~

-= 2 a Rw = 2 a ~I dz

(2.10)

where a equals 0.08.

2-2.3 Set of Equations for Bent-Over Plume (from Briggs, 1975)

Buoyancy conservation

(2.11 )

where S equals 2.3. ~Iomentum conservation

(2.12)

Closure

dV dz=2~Ru

or, if u equals a constant,

R = j3z

(2.13)

where ~ is equal to 0.6 for a 'JUoyant plume and ;3 = 0"' + 1.2 (u/wo) for a jet.

PLUME RISE 13

2-3 PLUME TRAjECTORY NEAR SOURCE

Sometimes the plume trajectory near the source must be calculated before ambient stability or ambient turbulence has mue:. effecl Stability has little influence at time periods less than s-~, which varies between about 10 and 100 sec, and ambient turbulence is not important at distances I~ than about ten stack heights at typical power plants.

2-3.1 Vertical Plumes

For most plumes, early rise is dominated by mom .. ntum. In this stage radius (R) = 0.16 z and average vertical velocity (w) = 6.25 ~ll¥z. Transition to buoyancy domination occurs ~t t = ~I/Fo (typically less than lO sec), after which radius (R) = 0.15 z and average vertical velocity (w) = 2.3 (Fo/z)~.

2-3.2 Bent-Over Plumes

For short times, the buoyancy flux can he assumed In be constant. The transition to buoyancy domination occurs at t = ~I/Fo. the same as (or a vertical plume. This time has been found to be typically about 5 sec, "hich corresponds to a travel distance. of only about 50 m. The plume trajectory in this region is given by the equation

(2.14)

This equation is cc.npared with observations in Fag. 2.2, where plume rile anJ downwind distance

MCMENTUM FLUX ENM~CEMENT CuE TO BUOYANCY (Fol/Mu)

~ 1.! 0-.. ... pI_ tnt« ..... u • C_..._ .){ 010_ ... .un- (J.oda _JiE Ii h i). --....~'"-,.. .. '!..IIIw .. to_nal ..... ",.- Inr_"

14 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

hav .. b .... n suitably nondimensionalized, and different (,UI1lI'S are plotted for values of wolu equal to 4, H, and 16. Consistent with the recommendations, p = 0.6 is used with the Fo term in Eq.2.14 and 13 = 0.4 + 1.2 (u/wo) is used with the M term.

For buoyancy-dominated plumes. Eq.2.14 becomes

(2.15)

Thi." is the famous"~ law," which has be .. n shown to agn-e with a great bulk of field and laboratory data. The coefflcie.it 1.6 can be expected to be accurate within ±4(f1c with variations due to down wash or local terrain effects (Fay, Escudier, and Boult, 1969; Brij!gs, 19(1).

2-4 PLUME RISE LIMITED BY AMBIENT STABILITY

At night a deep (100 to 200 m) stahle layer usually forms near the ground with other layers of varying stability above it, In the daytime there is usually a well-mixed convective boundary layer of depth 500 to 2000 m with a stably stratified "capping inversion" at the top. Plumes will nearly always have to contend with stable air at some point in their trajec tory.

By recognizing that w = dz/dt, diiferentiating Eq.2.9 or 2.12 with respect to t, and substituting from Eq, 2.8 or 2.11. we obtain

(2.1(;)

This is the equation of a harmonic oscillator with period equal to the Brunt- Vaisalii period 21rs -~. The vertical velocity (w) must ad like a damped harmonic oscillator since the volume flux (V) always increases WIth time as a result of .. ntrainment. Wher» vertical velocity first drops to zero. maximum plume rise is achieved. Plumes do reach a maximum rise and then drop down to an equilibrium hright. As a result of w.ve drag. :10 more than on" or two of the oecillations predicted by Eq. 2.16 are visible.

2-4.1 Vertical PlUJ:DeS

Harmonic oscill .. toe solutions and field and lahoratocy experiments s·~t th.t the equilibrium height (lrq) of a vertical jet in • staht.- environment i'l

z~ ~ ;:.44c'r

For buoyant plumes, Bri~ (19!H) finds that Zeq = 5.3 Ft s-\ -- 6 Ito

(2.18)

The correction term 6 Ito says that a virtual source exists a distance of six stack radii below the actual stack height.

2-4.2 Bent-Over Plumes

When the plume is bent over. the ratio of maximum plume height to equilibrium plume height is predicted to be 1.5 and 1.2 Cor a jet and a strongly buoyant plume, respectively. Formulas Cor the final rise of bent-over jets in a stable environment are not satisfactorily developed because of the lack of data. However. the fonnula for the final rise of a buoyant plume is well known:

(2.19)

The coefficient in this formula was developed from comparisons with many observations, including the TVA power-plant plume-rise dab reproduced in Fig. 2.3. For these data, the coefficient 2.6 is slightly conservative (underestimated plume rise). The wind speed (u) in this formula is an average value between the heights h. and h. + .1h.

2-5 PLUME PENETRATION OF ELEVATED INVERSION

If a plume can penetrate an e1evat .. d inversion. ,,"ound-Ievel concentrations mav k dramaticallv reo duced because the inversion then is a strong inhibitor of downward diffusion. This situation is depicted in .-rg. 2.4. If the plume does not penetrate the inversion, the plume is trapped below it, and high ground-level concentrations mav result

Let WI :lroitrarily define an "evated inversion to be a jump (.68i) in potential temperature at a height (~I) above the stack. Define an inversion strength (~8a) .68j. If a plume penetrates the inversion. its buoyaocy flux is reduced by (~8a).68i Vi' where Vi ill the plume volume flux at h~ight zr!' We can conclude that the plume .. ill penetrate th;S inversion if F> (g/8a) .68i Vi' Remember that the plume volume flux (\') h. been defined 18 bei.lg equal to the true vobme flux divid~ !ly 11'.

The volume flux Coe .-ertical bu~ant plumes and vertical jets ia given by (}'07 r:,' and O.lt ~t"'z,

5~--------r---------r---------~--------r-------~~------~--------~

PLUME RISE 15

--_

/ ~~ -----------

/ _,.,.. ........ -- .... -- __ --

/ ,. ":......_ - ..::--:;:::;-s.;C' __

1t:: -- ...- - --:.:;- _.,. -..- ._ --

/ _ -,.;""- ~

", _-_ ."

I ~ __ ,.""" <, ,

I ,....... ." ,

I ,..

4

w

(()

a:

_J

<t

Z

2 ~ 2

w :::E o z c z

-- -- PLUME TOP

---- PLUME CENTER LINE

• • • • ~h ~ 1.6 F'Il u-' .. %

O~------~--------~------~~------~--------~------~------~

o 2:3 4 5 6 7

NONDIMENSIONAL DISTANCE DOWNWIND ( .. /us-'I2)

Fic. 2.3 Obeerwd pI~ tnJectorim .. a funetion of downwind diltaaee (both nondilDealioulbed), abo,"", maximum ria! ac~ by b_yaat pI_

respectively. Thus penetration of the inversion is forecast if the following conditions are met:

Vertical buoyant plume

(2.20)

Vertical jet

(2.21 )

Bent-over jets will not be covered here because they have little abilitv to penetrate in· .. ersions, The volume flux (divided bv rr, .,f buovant bent-over plumes is given by V = 0:10 uz1. and penetration will occur if

(2.22)

This formula provided fair agreement with data from the Ravenswood power plant in New York City reported by Simon and Proudfit (1967). If the final plume rise (~h) is within a factor of 2 of the inversion height (zel) above the stack. only a fraction (P) of the plume can penetrate the inversion. In this case Briggs (1975) suggests the (untested) formula

. _ zrl P = 1.;) - ~h

(223)

A fraction (l - P) of tne plume reflects 0(( the bottom of the inversion and diffuses dowr.ward.

2-6 PLUME RISE DETERML"iED BY A.\fBIENT TURBULENCE

On cloudy. windy davs or typicAl sunny summer afternoons, the stability can be neutral or adiabatic in

fay Ip

16 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

... .." .. ---



z

F

T

Fe. 2.4 Diagram of buoyant plume penelrati..., an eie.ated in_sioa..

the lowest 500 to 2000 m. If the plume reaches no stable lay .. rs. it may find its me limited by ambient turbulent: .. , which eventually dilutes the remaining plume buoyancy. Prior to that time the internal turbul .. nee of the plume is ,;ignificantly greater than the ambient turbulence. Bri~ (1981) has developed the "breakup" model for the cases when me is limited by ambient turbulence. In the "breakup" model the plume n;; .. is a.-";·.1I1Ied to terminate when the internal plume eddy dissipation rate just equals the ambient eddy dissipation rate.

The results in this section are highly at-pendent on Chap. I. which gives methods of estimating boundary-lay er profiles of eddy dissipation rate. turbulent energy. and wind speed.

2-6.1 N~arly Neutral Conditions

Final plume rise in the "breakup" model rN is ,--Ilm .. d to occur .. hen the following condition is

Th .. left-hand ratio is the internal eddy dissipation rate of the plume. and c is the ambient eddy

dissipation rate. For a buoyant. bent-over Flume. z = hs + 1.6 F~U-I x~ (Eq.2.15), and. by definition, w = dz/dt. With the use of dx = udt and f = u! /0.-1 z evaluated at z = hs + 6h (valid during nearly neutral conditions), it is possible to arrive at the foUowing simplified formula (or plume me 6h:

6h = 1 "' 4{ ~o\'\ h ~ . .- ,"uuvs

(225)

For a jet. no veri~ing data exist. bet a theoretical estimate of plume rille at "breakup" in neutral condition)! is

(226)

where D il! the stack diameter and Wo is the ir.jtial plume speed,

2-6.2 Coaveetrse Conditions

I

During convective conditions the neutral value for the eddy dissipation rate, e = u!:0.-l z , must be replaced by an estimate mad~ by Briggs (or conv-e-

vapor per mass 01 air at saturation). The wet adiabatic

_

conditions a parcd displaced from a .... Ollaa."; .. _

tive downdrafts, f = 0.25H, where H is the surface buoyancy flux (see Chap. I, Sec. 14.4). The rI"SUlting prediction for buoyant plume rise is

(2.27)

Please note that this is a tentative formula. Plume-rise observations in unstable conditions are the least satisfactory owing to rapid dilution.

2-7 MAXIMUM GROUND CONCENTRATION WITH BREAKUP MODEL

So that the dependence 01 maximum ground concentration (~IGC) on effective plume rise h,. = hs + Ah can quickly be seen, suppose concentration in the plume was uniform. Thus 'IGC would be inversely proportional to the volume flux lI'U h! at the moment the plume first strikes the ground. This ""s-dt is consistent with that obtained from the model that assumes a Gaussian distribution of material across the plume [see Chap. 4, Sec. 4-4) with standard deviation Oy and Oz in the crosswind horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. For oJOy constant, the resulting \IGC prediction is

(2.28)

\laximum ground concentration is low at low wind speeds because of high plume rise and is low at high wind speeds hecau.. se of high dilution. As the wind speed increases, plume rile decreases but dilution increases. At a critical wind speed (uc). 'IGC reaches a maximum. This occurs at a downwind distance x". For the neutral "breakup" mudd, if we assume that or/Oy = 0.7. the critical wind speed occurs at Ah/h, ",},:

_., ._(u1'" fFo')'" lJe - .... J u.} \h,

(2.29)

(2.30)

Fur the unstable model, the critical wina speed occurs at .lhih, = 5:

_ 0 ." F 11-\ . -~

Uc _ .-..J ~ h.

(2.31)

~c = 0.015 QH \ Foh~

(2.32)

PLUME RISE 17

If there is some question about whether to use the neutral ur unstable formulas. use those which give the highest (most conservative) MGC. In quantitative comparisons of MGC data measured near powcr plants by Moore (1974). Briggs (1974) finds that thto dividing line for the neutral and unstable formulas is II ,7 m/sec.

2~ MULTIPLE SOURCES

~lany sites have several stacks that art' clos» enough to each other that visual observations prow that the plumes indeed merge. The reduced entrainment and increased buoyancy of the merged plumes may increase plume rise significantly. Examples of multiple sources are mechanical-draft cooling towers or lines of power-plant stacks.

Briggs (1974) developed the following empirical method. which is based on TV A plume-rise data (Carpenter, Thomas. and Gartrell. 1 %8). Th .. enhancement factor (EN) is defined as the ratio of the plume rise from N stacks to that from one stack. The buoyant, bent-over plume n.e from one stack (Ahr) is assumed to be given by Eq.2.19 [Ah,=2.6 (Fo/us}"]. The spacing between the stacks is dx. Then a formula for EN that has the proper asymptotic behavior is:

(2.33)

where

(2.34)

There was no dependence of EN on wind direction relative to the line of stacks for these data, although Hanna (1974) has found that the plume rise from lines of mechanical-draft coding towers is greater for wind directions paralld to the line of sources.

For vertical plumes, me~r is assumed at a height (zm) where the radius (R) eqlJais one-half the stack spacing (0.5 A~). The plumes are then treated as if all buoyancy combines but comes from a virtual source a distance (l - -'''Jzm below the actual stack heights. There art" no data to test this model.

Problems

1. A stack has an inside diameter of 3 m. The plume has an initial speed of 10 mI~ and a temperature of "73°K. Ambient wind speed is 5 mls«. temperature is 295"1(. and vertical tempera-

,"IUlllt lval .. ,I"'" a _~_ ~_

18 ATMOSPH~RIC DIFFUSION

ture gradient is O.OI°K/rr.. Calculate Yo. Mo. Fo. and s, Calculate final plume rise ~h.

2. For the plume in Problem 1: (1) At what downwind distance does the buoyant rise term equal the momentum rise term? (2) At what downwind distance does the "73 law" give a plume rise equal to that calculated in problem I?

3. A cooling-tower plume with an initial height of 100 m, Ito = 10 m, Wo = 5 m/sec. and T po = 3000K

rises into a calm. dry atmosphere with Teo = 2800K and 3T/3z = O. How high wal tl.e plume rise above the ground?

4. Surface friction velocity (u.) is 0.3 m/sec, ambient temperature is 270oK, 3T/3z = O. and wind speed at stack height is 3 mfsec. Initial plume parameters are T po = 400oK, Wo = 10 m/sec, Ito = 0.5 m, and the stack is 50 m tall. Calculate the final plume rise ~h.

complex.

3-1 OVERVIEW

Diffusion calculations would be greatly simplified if stacks and buildings did not obstruct the airflow. ~tost stacks are built ne ar other industrial buildings. On the positive side, however, some utilities build huge 300-m stacks at fossil-fired power plants to ensure that pollutants from the stacks will be emitted high enough above the ground so that there will be no possibility of pollutant interaction with their other buildings. Other industries use short vents constructed on building roofs to release toxic materials to the atmosphere. Stacks on most residential dwellings and commercial structures are usually short and unobtrusive because of "aesthetic" considerations. The purpose of ihis chapter is to provide guidance on:

1. Calculation of concentrations in building cornplexes due to emissions from ewting sources.

2. Design of stack placement for minimizing air-pollution effects.

The reviews by Hosker (1980, 1981) provide background information on the relevant phenomena and methods of calculation.

3-2 STACK AERODY:"lA~UC EFFECT

W ... pressure in the wake o. the stack ma)' cause the plume to be drawn downward behind the stack. Down",ash can be effectivdy prevented by maintaining th e efflux velocitv (wo) at a magnitude grl'..1tnthan the crosswind velocity IU). The (ad. that down .. ash will not occur {O£ w~:u greater tlun 1.5 has b~n gen.:ra1I~ recogniz."j. For WOiU less than 1.5. r:ri~ ( 1973);ug;;~s that the distance (hd) that the plume Jown .. ashes below the top uf the stad~ can be obtained by the following formula:

Source Effects

(3.1)

where D is the internal stack diameter, as illustrated in Fig. 3.1.

---_u

"'11. 3.1 Sdteaaatie diacr- of It.... 8Ild importut ph"" ~ten:: ••• eUIU "iocity;u,.ind ipeed:

D. iDlenIaI IUdl d'-lfr. ",. Itadt heipt; .ad bel, do_ ..... ~

3-3 STRUCTURE OF FLOW AROUND BUILDINGS

We have a fairly good idea of the flow around a simple building. as drawn schematically in Fig. 3.2. all a r.,gult of many wind-tunnel and field experiments that have been done. The upstream boundary layer is assumed to he a turbulent shear flow. The lace of t ~ upstream building i.'I not shown in this r.gure. but we know th:t there is a .1agrution point about t\Oothirds the way up the Iace: downward-mo\ing air is beneath this point. The important f .. atures of this Jia.,onm ar .. the separated recirculation zones on the ruof md sides, the turbulent ",ake cavity lone, and the turbulent wau.

Let tbe buildi"! betght be H, the lTOtll!wind width \\', and the alongwind I.!ngtb L The wind is assumed

19

20 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

INCIDENT WINO PROFI(E

LATERAL EDGE AND ELEVATE!) VORTEX PAIR

-----

-----

----

rIC. 3.2 ~I of flow a_ • ~ed baildinc ill a deep boundary Ia,er (Hotker, 1979).

to be perpendicular to the building Iace: if it is not, the flow is drastieallv changed, and the following techniques do not apply. For ratios UH greater than about one, reattachment of the streamlioes to the roof and sides can b .. expected unless W /H is very farg e. Between the upwind roof edge and the line oC flow reattachment ill a zone of recirculation (see Fig. 3.3). Pollutants released into the region by low velocitv roof vents or short 8lack~ may produce very !Ugh !:~ncentrations within this zone, Let ~ be the ~'TIaJler of Hand W and ~ the larger; define the t:haracteri81ic I e ngth R:: ~~ ~ .... Wilson (1979) finds that thl" roof cavity e xtends a distance

it

x""'_ c 2

(3.3b)

This cavity is bounded above by a turbulent shear lay e r [zone n in Fig. 3.3) and above that by the turbulent roof wake [zone ill). The upper edge of the shear layer, which begins near the maximum cavity height. is gi~n apprcximatdy by

Zu x -;:- "'" 0.27 - 0.1 =R R

J..: "'0.9 it

( 3.:!)

(3Ab)

ff'lm t~ r~"fht

upwind ..age and reaches a m .. ximum

t4 ""'0.22 it

In Eqs. 3A, lL is measured from the upwind roof edr .. and is greatn than -e- V.Won s~"stll that. ii a roof-raounted ,-u.:k ie uU ~no:lgh that the lower plum", ..age r-mains above zone II. conumwtion c'£

_. - -- 4Im(z/L)

\4 ...... //

UPWIND vELOCITY PROFILE U, Ulzl

SOURCE EFFECTS 21

'I RECIRCULATION CAVITY BOUNDARY

'n HIGH TURBUL "NCE ZONE BOUNDARY

'ID ROOF WAKE BOUNDARY

\

~------------------L------------------~

rlC.3.3 Flow 0 ..... ~ler of 'I lone Oat buildinc roof for wind perpendicuJ~ to the apwind face. (From O.J. Wibon. Flow Patterns Over Flat·Roofed Buildmcl and Applieatioa to Exiullll Stack Oeqn. ASHRAE Traru... 8S(Pazt 2): 2IJ4.29S (1979).)

the roof is unlikely, and if the plume clears the wake boundary as well. there is virtually no danger of contamination. Wilson recommends that a line of slope 0.2 be drawn in the upwind direction fro~ a point on the zone II or zone III boundary (depending un the safety margin desired) immediately above the air intake or other critical r e ceptor that is closest to the lee edge of the roof. The eifective suck exit should then be above this line.

The wake cavitv behind the structure is important because plumes c.a~ht in the cavity can be quickly mixed to the ground. Let Xr. h. and Zr be the length. width, and height of the ... ake cavity. respectively. Crosswind cavitv dimensions \r and Zr seldom exceed the buildine: di~ensions W a;d H by moee than 5<Y'c. Hosker (1979. (980) has developed the CoBo.,.-jng e mpirical formulas for wale cavity length (xr):

Xr .\ IWH)

H = 1 • Ii (\l,iH)

(3.5)

.. here. for L H ~ 1 or ;0.

.l . _ 'L)-~

.\ = - _.0 • 3 .. \ H

('L\-'; B = - 0.15 + 0.305 If)

(3.6a)

whereu for UH ~ I. where flow reattaches to the roof and sides.

A = 1.75

(3.6b)

B" 0.25

Cavitv extent is lIl'!aslll'e'd from the lee building fue. For ~ical buildings. these formwu predict that the wake cavity length (Ir) is about 2.5 times ill! great as the buildir.g h~ight. T~ maximum wak~ (,.JOIvity length (-10 H) is predicted (or Iarg~ W/H (i.e.; tWI>dimensional huildings) .

3·4 DIFFlJSIO~ C.\LCULATIONS AROU~D BUILDI~GS

The literature on dilf_on around buildi~ is (1:11 or "rules of thumb" tbat an h!ed on practical '!.I.perience md willd-tunDd ob.enltionJ. 1n !lOme c»es theaoe ruiN of thumb em be I'~jied by ~y.cal

dJJV" C "I'''~ ... -.... __ '-'"_ __:...... __ ------

22 ATMOSPHEnIC DIFFUSION

~easoning and theoretical derivations. The following sections are arhitrarily split into sources upwind of a building and sources near a building.

3-4.1 Isolated Sources Upwind of Buildings

If the source is a distance greater than 2 H upstream of the building and its height (lis) is greater than two-thirds the building height (ns > 2 H/3), the plume will rise over the building face. Parts of the plump. at heights less than 2 H!3 will be caught in the downwash in the frontal eddy over the lower part of the building. Some of this material will be caught in the horseshoe vortex trailing off along the edge of the wa~.;. If the flow reattaches to the building roof and sides, high concentrations may result at these points, If the building length (L) is small, the flow wiD nr.t reattach, and the plume is deti~ted above the cavity. Any pollution caught in t;;, 'l3ke cavity will mix thoroughly to the ground. The overall effect of the buildins is to increase the dispersion ,r ~ he plume,

e .

although 10<!;J1~' high ground-leve! concentrations

may result owing to !erodynamic effects of the building,

Wilson aud :'-Oetterville (1 <i78) conclude that in this situation the most important effect of a building is to mix the plume concentrations between the zround and the roof. Thus the roof-level eoncentration should he held within limits. In design studies the stack heiy,ht in a model can be v..ned ;,0 that thh·j"ht of the .naximum tolerable concentration .sopleth, as calculated uy a flat-terrain diffusion model, is higher than the maximum downwind building heizht.

For buildi-z clusters or out-of-the-ordinary building shapes, win"d-tunnd and/or field tests ace nec~ <an' for a realistic assessment c-f a site. Cagnetb (1973) shows how results for diffusion around a reactor complex ury strongly when there is a minor change in wind direction.

~.2 Sources 008e to Building!!

In most c_ ve::ts and stacu an louted on or near the !>uilding. Pri:nuj' concerns are whetht-r pollution is emitted direetly into a ravity or recircul.", jon zone, the ~tude of the concentranon In these zones and the deflection of streamlines and i'll'f .. a.;e in dispeesioo for plumes outside these eooes.

(a) "mb. .-\6 mentioned eariier ... vetlt located on the lower two-thirds of the upwind face win emit .nro the upwind e ddy and be transported around the

sides, dose to the ground, whereas a vent located higher up will emit into flow streaming over the building. If roof-vented vents are located in the separated areas near the I e .ading edge of the roof and sides. as discussed above, ineffe--tive ventilation can lead to high concentrations and recirculations, Halitsky (1963) and Wilson (1976) present windtunnel observations of concentration patterns resulting from various types of vent positions, building shapes. and efflux-to-wind-speed ratios (wo/n) .. \n example is given in Fig. 3.4, where the plotted concentration K is :aade dimensionless in the following way:

D· . I K C.\u

rmension ess = Q

where C = concentration (pg/m3) u = wind speed (m/sec)

Q = source str .. ~h lug/sec)

.\ .: convenient characteristic area ( e , g., WH)

for the building being studied (m2)

The wind·tunnel experiments suggest that flush, Iow.velocity, roof vents give maximum values of K ranging from 10 to 100 at the roof surfaces. In the design of vent exhaust and intake systems, it may be wise to use a conservative value of 100 for K.

The effects of variations in deux speed (wo) and vent stack height (ho) are shown in the experiments by Halitsky (1963) and Wilson (1976). Roof concentrations can be dramatically decreased by increasing the upward efflux speed and by installing relatively small stacks. If the ratio wo/u is increased from 0.5 to 1.0, maximum roof concentration is reduced by a Iactor of 2 to 3. Wilson (1976) found that the upper bound on the ratio of concentration at distance x from the vent to the vent exit concentration wa:' a function of wind speed (u), distance [x}, diluent speed (wo), and ve n t area (.\. ) :

q~) ] ~ 9.1 wo A; 1,3.8)

(exit] upper u x

bound

{b) Stack. Efft'Ctiye H~L :\ major concern ill to keep the plume a\Oay from the wake cavity. where it would be hro~ht to t .... ground and recirculated in a region with low ventilation rates, This problem results if the plume is rdea.:ll"d too dose to tilbuilding and/or at too Iowa 'peed woo The familiar "2~ tilllel' rule" is often applied because experience has mown that there art' few downwash problema if a stack whOle height j., at least 2.5 times • great as the height oi the bui!d~ is built. From the previous diavalIll and di6cUllf'lon, it is d"ar that the wake

I

SOURCE EFFECTS 23

rIC- 3--' Dimeluionle. concentntiou (K = CAulQ) COBloan (Of' __ lIJred fIuoIt rool_t OD buiJdinc .. Mre LJlI = 11i/H = 3.0 and we/It ,.. 1.0. [From J. HaJiUky. Gaa DiflDAon ~e. BddiacJ. ,ISflR.4E Trara; 69: 476-477 (1963).)

cavity does not extend to ::Iis height. a fact obviously recugnized over the ~'eaf" by "plume watchers. ~ In many ca-es the ;:'"': times rule can be relaxed. and the pollutant concentrations can srill be held ... -ithin acceptable limits. Hri~., (1973) has developed a ,.traightforward method vf determining the effective height of a plume near th .. wake cavitv, as described in th e n .. xt paC"a;:nph.

First, stack ·.1UW n" ash is calculated by u.s~ Eq. 3.1. The diectl\'e ;t.lclt heizht after d ... nwash is h' .... ·hich .. qual; the :,udt height (~) minus the downwash (hq) (,~ e !'"i;:. 3.5). ~ .. x t , let r ~ defined ;is th .. ,m..Jl .. r 'Ji " Jnd H. rh"l. If h' is gr~at.-r than II • t.5 r. (h .. vlum e IS out vi t he wake, and ibe df .. cti ve plum e ' ~ .. ~ht (It..) ~(luaJs h'. Oth e rwi~ thoplume is affected b, th~ bUJldi~,

For h' :-- H - I.:; ...-

~~--------1---

~ ,

I

+

\

H

I

1

re. 3.S DiII&T_ 01 eUectm pIame Iwcht in the.,_ oi do ... , .u!t d_ to ..... .-I=! boUidnc.

Foe h' < H· Lj ~ and h' > H.

.~ ~ = :!1~' - (H • 1.5 n

.3.10)

for n' < H,

h. = h'- 1.5 I

13.111

, '

24 ATMOSl'HERIC DlHUSION

Finally, the plume is assumed to be trapped in the cavity if the effective source height (he) calculated above is less than 0.5 r. In this case the plume can be treated as a ground-level source with initial area t2•

On the basis of field observations of plumes released from a large vent from a reactor building, johnson et al. (1975) developed the "split h" concept for evaluating effective plume height. They found that, for a particular reactor sample, for speed ratios wo/u between 1 and 5, the plume would alternate between being in and out of the cavity. The percent of the time that the plume was in the cavity was given by

E = 2.58 _ 1.58 wo u

(1 wo -)

~ < u < 1.:>

\3.1~)

E = 1).3 _ 0.06 Wo u

(3.13)

This result is probably highly site specific, however, depending on vent size, placement, and building geometry.

(c) Concentrations in and Downwind of Cavity. The dimensionless concentration (K = CAu/f) in a wake cavity is generally found to be between O.:! and 2.0 if we assume that the plume is nearly completely drawn into the cavity (he < 0.5 n (Barry, 1964; Meroney, 1979). Concentrations are relatively uniform from the lee side of the building throughout the cavity. Because of this rapid mixing, stack height usually makes little difference for plumes caught in a cavity. Because of this rapid mixing, release within the wake cavity of pollutants from ground-level oe from low stacks makes little difference in the resulting concentrations. However, a taller stack of

,..ahout the same height as the wue cavity may result in effluent being transported quite directly to the ground by the downward curving shear layer bounding the cavity. This is one instance whel"f; a taIl stack may produce higher ground-level concentrations than a short one.

For plu"lCli not entrained into building cavities (he > V2), the standard GaUlill~n plume formula (4.1) can be ,,".ed to estimate concentrations. t"sual1y wind speed (u) is defined ill z equal to H. U a plume is entrained into the building cavity, modifications to the GaW!liian plume formula foe t;,e eenteri ... ·! <''O1lcentration due to a ground source are US<'!d:

(3.14)

The "constant" c is intuitively estimated by Gifford (1975) to be between 0.5 and 2. with the lower value agreeing fairly well with test results. The factor cWH represents the effective crosswind area of the building. Dispersion parameters (ly and (lz can be obtained by methods given in Chap. 4, although measurements suggest that (ly and (lz in wakes may need to be modified in the future. For example, the use of open-terrain Oy and Oz values leads to concentration decreasing in proportion to distance raised to the -1.3 to -1.6 power, depending on stability. Meroney and Yang (1971) and Huber and Snyder (1976) have found the power to be closer to -0.8 cut to a

• distance of 50 H, which is presumably due to the dispersion inhibiting effects of a very persistent horseshoe vortex. In full-scale field studies (e.g., Dickson, Start, and Markee, 1969). the power has been found to be about -1.3. The difference between the field end laboratory results may be due to mesoscale wind-direction fluctuations observed in the field but not present in the laboratory.

Problems

1. As-ume that the vent in Fig. 3.4 is emitting toxic gases z~ a rate of I g/sec and that ""0 = u = 1.0 m/sec. Estimate the maximum concentration on the building roof and on the downwind building face. The building is 10 m high and 30 m wide.

2. A stack 50 m high emitting 10 g of toxic gases per second is located just upwind of a 4().m cubical building. The stack diameter is 1 m and wind speed and initial plume effluent speed are 1 mlsec. The plume is nonbuoyant. Estimate the ground·le\-el concentration on the plume axis at a downwind distance of 300 m.

3. ~ts. ~tcGraw is cooking cabbage on the third floor of a JO-m cubical apartment building. Her kitchen exhaust fan emits 5 g of cabbage gas per second to the outside. downwind sid(' of the building. Wind spee" is 2 m/aec. What concentration of csbha.ge ,,~ is smelled by ~Is. Jones while she halljf8 up her .... ash a distance of 30 m from that !!ame side of the building?

-I .• 'or the situation in problem 3, what is the concentration on the plume centerline a distance of 1000 rn from the building? .\s;ume sunny condrtions.

c 1 -~'/2a'

------e· Y

Q 21fuyuzu

-_._--,-._-_._-------------,.-------------._---'< .... _ ... _-_ .. _---_._-_.-----

Gaussian Plume Model for Continuous Sources

4-1 WHY USE THE GAUSSIAN MODEL'!

Other dispersion models, such as the K·model, the statistical model, and the similarity model, will be described in succeeding chapters. The Gaussian model is discussed first because it is still the basic workhorse for dispersion calculations, and it is the one most commonly used because

l. It produces results that agree with ex perimental data as well as any model.

2. It is fairly easy to perform mathematical operations on this equation.

3. It is appealing conceptually.

4, It is consistent with the random nature of turbulence.

5, It is a solution to the Fickian diffusion equation for constants K and u.

6. Otht2' so-cailed theoretical formulas contain large amounts of empiricism in their final stages.

7, As a result of the above, it has found its way into most government guidehooks, thus acquiring a "ble __ d" status (Environmental Protection Agency,

1978). 1<'

4-2 FOK:l1 OF THE GAUSSIA.'i MODEL

The origin of the GaWiWn model is found in work by Sutton (19:!2), Pasquill (1961. 1974). And Gifford (1961. 1968). Consider a continuous I!OUlC( of strength Q (in micrograms per second) at effective height (h) above the gTound .. -\,;.,ume that the wind ~7'!ed (u) is uniform, The concentration C {in micrograms per cubic meter) is then giVt'n hy the formula:

The coordinate y refers to horizontal direction at right angles to the plume axis with y equal to zero on the axis. The coordinate z is height above ground, which for the time being is assumed to be Oat and uniform. The parameten Uy and Ua are standard deviations of the distribution C in the y and z directions, respectively. The purpose of the lut term is to account for reOection of the plume at the ground by assuming an image source at distance h beneath the ground surface. Figures 4.1 and 4.2 contain diagrams of the Gall88ian plume. All variables are assumed to be averaged over a period of about 10 min. Corrections fer different averaging times are given in Sec. 4.5. Averaging time should be chosen so that most of the turbulent eddies go tilfOUgh at least one cycle during that averaging time. Unfortunately averaging times in experiments are often dictated bv other operational considerations, such as the durati· ..• of release of a tracer.

Newcomers to this fidd often _. "What happens in the Gaussian equation when wind speed (u) goes to zero?" The standard reply is. "Calm winds are defined 81> u equal to 0.5 m!sec." The truth is that anemometers near the sutface may register u = O. hut the winds in the planetary boundary l.yer very seldom stop entirely. There ill nearly always a slight drift. and the seemingiy CacetioU8 anawer to the a.bo¥e question is hued on conaiderable experience.

The effective height (h) em be estimated by 'mng the techniques outlined in Uaps. 2 and 3. The remaining problem. then, is speciflcation of the dispersion parametera 0,,/ and Oz. These are given a&

26 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

\ ,

l t ./

./ \ I /'

\ , /'

- '::::IMAGE SOURCE <,

<,

<; '-

....-

SECTION A-A'

.1

I

rIC- U Dilcram of typieal plume, illultratiJlc concept. mpc:.rtmt ill the G ..... plume r~ Symbob: • II wiDd .-I; h ia effective _ce Michl; ad <lJ and <lz Are .taDdanI deriatioaa of crotIwind COIIC8IOJ'atioa distribution&.

e

f

>

Y. m

~~L----_~~---_40~---_~~----_-2~O----_1·C----·O----~10----~~----~~-----~~--~~~--~oo

,_. 4.1 c.- -uo. 1ILr-cJa ec..... pf_ .ida Cly = 2) .. as = 10 .. ..4 _ .... _lrabae of 1.0.

t

1

GAUSSIAN PLUME MODEL FOR CONTINUOUS SOURCES 27

functions o( downwind distance and stability an,1 are based on a com]; ination of experimental results allll theory.

4-3 STABILITY CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

Fur an ,·~timatt' uf Oy or Oz in the absence of research-grade turbulene .. m .. aHur .. men .... the slabilily c11h1t1 must fil'llt be d .. t .. mli",·,J. preferably by a simple scheme b~ed un int'xpenllive and ellllY measurements. The most widely u~d tlChl'me was developed by Puquill (I fJ!' \ and wu modified slightly by Turner (1967). Table i . ct,"lain. the criteria for Pa1!tJuill's llix IItability dUl!ell. which are bucd on five c111<!8t's of surface wind speeds, three cIilll8e8 of day time inwla· tion, ami two classes of nighttime cloudiness, In general. stability cllI1!l'e8 A through C represent unstable conditions, d_ D represents nearly neutral conditions. and classes E and F represent stable conditions. Some USt!f8 have filied in the blank in Table 4.1 with a so-called "GO> cllI1!8. which they assert applies during light wind. stable conditions.

If turbulence measurements an" available, it iM preferable to estimate 0v and Oz bv using 06 and Oe, standard deviations of ~ind directi'on fluctuations in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Early advocates of 8tabilit~· classification schemes based on 08 or Oe were ,I. E. Smith (1951) and Ccarner (1957). The Brookhaven National Laboratory (B~L) c1388eS are defined by ~1. E. Smith (1951), using wind direction (J recorded over a l-hr period, in the following manner:

A: Fluctuations (peak to peak) of (} exceed 90°.

BI: Fluctuations of (J (rom 40 to 90°. ~: Fluctuations of (} (rom 15 to 40°.

C: Fluctuations of (} gp-ater than IS° with strip ... chart showing an unbroken solid core in the trace.

D: Trace in a lint! •• boer-term Iluctuations in (}

less than 15°.

Ccamer's (1957) classes. which are based on observatiUIIS of wind fluctuations at a height of 10 m, are defined in Table 4.2. ~ote t!ut he distinguishes bt!tween two roughness types in the neutral class, The basic turbulence typing methods are compared in Table 4.3, as reproduced from a rniew article by GiCCord ('976). The (act that these divisions and comparisons are arbitrU) is important, and this !;)Etem should not be considered perfect.

To. further confuse the reader, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) (Carpenter et aI., 1911) and the :'<iudu.r ~gulatory ColllDli88ion (~Rq use vertical temperature gr .. dient (DT/Ih) to define .t.:lbili~·

claMes. Thill m .. 'I,od does not explicitly consider the eHt!cts of wind speed 011 diffusio'l and consequently ill 1I0t a sufficient method for all situations. It would be better to USt! Hichardson's number (Ri) or the ~lonin-ObukhO\' length L to characterize stability 8in·:e they are direct measures of atmospheric stahility, which accoun ... for the e Ifeets of both mechanical mixing and buoyancy forces. Guider (1972) analyzed diffusion data to determine the graphkal relation among roughness zoo the \lonin-Obukhov length L. and the P31!tJuill class shuwn in Fig. 4.3. If two of these parameters are knuwn, the other can be estimated from the fib'llre.

The following recummendation was made by the American ~It!leorolugical Society Workshop on Stability Cl_i£ication Schemes and Sigma Cunes (Hanna et aI •• 1977):

.•. The foUowinl( quantities an requtred to char· acterise ay and az in the boundary U) er:

1. Roughne. length, z., and friction .elocity. u •• u meuu~. of the mechanical turbulenl%.

2. ~ixifll depth. "'. and ~onin-Obukho.

Iencth. L, or the heat flux H, as meuumo of the con .... etive turbulenc-e daytime.

3, Wind ope I. II. and ltandard dt!Viation of wind di~ction fluc::tuationa, a6 (the wind veetor ill needed to apedfy the transport wind. and all is required to estimatt! ay, eapet:ially in staNe condi· tiON).

On a 6l·m tower, all quantities but mixing depth (zi) can be measured by standard instruments required by the ~uclear Regulatory Commission. antI remote sounders that can messure Zi are available. ~lethod8 in Chap. 1 (Eq~. 1.37 to 1.53) can be used to extrapolate 0IJ ~ Oy/u to plume height frUIT. I height of 10m.

Despite the ~t.rong recommendation to use turbulence measurements tu estimate diffusion, most people today atill use the Pl1!tJuill letter classes because they have produced satisfactory results in must ClIlit'I! and because they are t!Uy to use, Howt!\'er. the user must bt!ware if he applies lette-r classes to problems outside the aru of their deriv .. tion (e.g., complex terrain, distances greater than 10 km, effective muse hdghts of above 100 m, and many other problems). For these problems, direct turbulence measurements or theoretical extrapol .. tions are necessary.

4-4 CHOICE OF or A:,\O Oz

4-·U Stability a-. '1ethod

'\JOrit publis.he-d o; and o~ cunes ;M OIl function of downwind distance a:nd .tability art! based on OIl ft!w

---------~

28 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

Table 4.1 Me~roI" Conditiou Definin« PuquiIl Tu~ Types·

A: Extremely unstable conditions B: Moderately UNtabie conditions C: Slightly unstable eonditiona

D: Neutral con.iitic.nat

E: Slightly stable conditiora

F: Moderately stable conditioN

Daytime UuoIatioo

Surface wind .peed, m/.ec Stroac Modente Slicht

<2 A A-B B
2 A-B B C t:
" B B-C C D
6 C C-D D D
>6 C D D D F E D D

*From F. A. Gifford. Turbulent Diffusion-Typing Schemes: A Review. :VucL s«: 17(1): 71 (1976).

t Applicable to heny Oyr.n:ast day or night.

:j:lhe degree of c1oudin_ is defined as that fraction of the sky above the local appill"nt horizon that is covered by clouds.

Table 4.2 Cramer's Turbulence O_*

Table 4.3 Rdatiooa ~ Turbulence
Typ~ "ethods*
Stability aBo dec
Ikocrip t.ioa PuquiII Tuma- BNL (allO m)
\" ery unstable A A 25
\Ioderatdy unstable B 2 B, 20
Sightly unstable C 3 B, 15
Neutral D • C 10
Slightly stable E 6 5
\Ioderately 8ubl., F 7 D 2.5 Stability «kocriptioo a B. deJ

ae.dec (at 10 m)

Extremely unstable 30

Near neu tra! ( rough surface:

trees, buildings) 15

Near neutral (very smooth gra<s) 6

Extremdy stable 3

10

5 2 1

-From H. E. ullmer. A Practical Method for Estimating the DUpa-a1 of Atmoepi>eric Contarrananb. in Proce«Jjrllf' of the '"" NGlional Confwence on Appl~ J/et_oloB,.. pp. C-33 to C-SS. Ammon ~leteorologi'2l Society. Hartford. Conn.. 1957.

*From F. A. (;ifford. Turbuknt Diffusion.Typing Schemes: A R e view •. \ucl. SGf •• I7( I): 72 (1}76).

5

;,

..

~~~~--~~--~--~~~~--~~--~

-Q. 12 -Q. ! 0 -0. 011 -O~ 06 -0. eM -0. 02 0 0. 02 0. eM 0. 06 0. 011

'"L. m·1

fie. '-3 C .... .-0 .... ' ....... t~ typea .. a flllKtiotl 01 tile ~ObUJIoy atabiity InIctil ... tIae .-ody..-c ",...._. I-cdL A. u'_"" _tIIIIIe eoa~ B. ""lIIiy ...... ~ c. .... , ....we coMitioN; D. _tnI eaedio- (~ .. ..._,

OW-'.y or .t,. E.1IfiPdy ...... eoad~ F. r.ty ..... ~ {Fro. D. CoW ...

__ '-'-' A.--c Stahility '_loin .. tIM S.uc.l.a, •• ~ lAy~ j1.~. 3: 56 (1m).,

GAUSSIAN PLDIE MODEL FOR COi'iTI\UOl'S SOLRCES

carefully performed diffusion exp .. riments during the 1950's and 1960's. Project Prairi.: Grass (Haugen, 1959) is probably the most frequently quoted diffusion experiment. The terrain was uniform, releases were from near ground level, and concentration mea .. surements were at downwind ,listances less than 1 km. These experiments resulted in Paequill's (1961) curves, which were adapted by Gifford (1961, 1968, 1976) into the forms shown in Fig. 4.4. Note that, at distances beyond 1 km, the lines are dashed (i.e .• a guess). They may work under certain ideal conditions at greater distances, but there is little basis in observations.

DISTANCE DOWNWIND. km i .)

29

Table 4.4 BrookhaYen National Laboratory
Parameller Values in the F ormuJas
Oy = axb and Os = exd
Paramettt'
T,.pe • b c d
B. 0.40 1l.91 0.41 0.91
B, 0.36 (J.86 0.33 0.86
C 0.32 0.78 0.22 0.78
D 0.31 0.11 0.06 0.71 DISTANCE OCWNWII:!). km ( b)

rIC- "-4 Curve. of a,. and as for 'IIlrbuienc:e types bated 011 th_ reported ","' ... uiII (1961). (From F. A. Gifford, Turbuleat Oiffuaion·TypiDc Schema: A lleview, ,V...,L Sa[., 11(1): 11 (1916).)

Because calculators and computers are in such wides~read use at present, most people would rather have a formula than a graph oe table. Several researchers have wOC'kcd out arWytical power-law foemulas for or and 0,.. O:1e of the early suggestions was by \1. E. Smith (1968). lie summarized the Br\L formulas, which are based un hourly 3"erage measurements out to about 10 km of diffusion uf a nonbuoyant plume released from a height of 108 rn:

0.,. = cxd (x in meters) (4.:!)

Values of the parameters a. h. c. and d are gi~en in Table 4.4.

Briggs (1973) combined the Pasquill, B:'-il. and TVA curves (observations out to 1 = 10 km), '-"ing theoretical concepts ~garding ~mptoti.: limits of the Ioemulas, to produce the widdy used ;o:-t of

formulas given in Tahle 4.5. Initial plume spread at all stabilities is proportional to) x. the proportiunality Iactor being 08 (in radians). At large distances, 0,. is proportional to :l~, as predicted by the Fickian and Taylor theories of diffusion. :'-iote that or and 0% ace independent of release he~t and roughnesa in these formulas. There are too few .. xperimental data to support more complex formu1ation~ including these two variables.

The Prairie GI'aIi8 experiments were carried out over terrain with roughness lG of 3 em. F. B. Smith (1972) and Pasquill (1975. p. 19) hav .. found that 0% varies 3::! l~. where p lies in the range 0.10 to 0.25 .. \ technique foe incorporating Smlth'8 (1972) recommendauons into arWyticaJ forms foe 0% in each of the P-G categories w. gn-en by Hoeler (1973). The arzer values of the expon<!nt p are applicable to shorter tit:itances and ro~er SIlJ'faces. Over rough

30' ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

urban surfaces, especially under the influ .. nee of the nighttime urban heat island, the increased rougbness should be taken into account. '1cElroy and Pooler's (1968) diffusion experiment in St. Louis was used by Br~ (1973) to develop the formulas given ill Table 4.5. Other people make the assumption that urban Oy and Oz should be moved up one stability class (e.g., C to B) to account for increased dispersion over urban areas.

4-4.2 The 08 and':e Method

~luch research concerning the best way to relate Oy and 07. to 06 and (Je is being don e., 1;'1 perhaps 5 years the subject will reach a stage where definitive conclusions can be drawn: The recommendations in this section are based on the latest available research. The idea behind this research is to remove a laver of empiricism (the Pasquill-GiUord curves) from "diffu-

Table 4.5 Formulas Recommended by Brigs (1973) for Oy(x) and Gl'(x) (lOl < x < Iltm)

Puqujll type

A 8 c o E F

0.221(1 .. O.OOOh)-'t 0.161(1" 0.000b:)-0, 0.1h(1 ,. O.OOOh ,- 0, 0.081( ... 0.000 Ix)- " 0.061(1 .. 0.000 Ix )- 0, 0.041( I ,. O'(lOOh)- 0,

A-8 C

o E-F

UrbM ConcU!K>u 0.321(1" 0.00(41)-0, 0.221(1 ,. u.00(41)-'" 0.161(1 .. 0.00(41)-" O.llx( 1 .. 0.00(41) - .,

0.20" 0.121

0.081(1 ·0.00021)-0, 0.C61(1 .. 0.0015,,)-" 0.03x(1 .. 0.00031,-' 0.0161(i + 6.00031)-'

0.241(1 + O.OOIx) .... 0.201

0.141(1 + 0.00031)-" 0.081(1 + 0.000151)-"

Recent diffusion experiments under dear, nearly calm nighttime conditions (so-called category G) suggest that horizontal diffusion is actually greater during these conditions than under conditions a."50- ciated with category F (Sagendorf and Dickson, 19(4) because the plume often meanders during G condi-

". tions, which results in 06 equal to 20° or more and relatively low hourly average g'"ound concentrations at a given point. Van der Hoven (1976) &naIyz!:d _eraJ category G diffusion experiments and found thAt observed Oy values corresponded to anlthing between categories A and F. Thus diffusion in terms of tabulated dispersion parameters is indeterminate ".hen category G ~tahility ill fUllnd. Of course, diffusion can still be estimated on the basis of actu, measurements of (J,I'

With the use of ~tability cJ...ses in complex terrain -uua IWIl1!. o's are also difficult to determine, The diffu..ior experiments aumm.ariud ill Chap. 12 ~ener.tUy "how thAt Oy and o. in complex terrain are A L.ctoc of 2 to 10 gnater than that peedicted from the Pa><qUIU curves, Again. measurements of Of and 0., are the t,.,.t solution to this unc«Uinty.

sion calculations by developing a technique that relates diffusion directly to turbulence. Taylor's (1921) work suggests the formulas:

Oy = Oft fy (It;)

0. = Owt r, (;0

(4.3)

(·U)

where fy and (t are universal (unctions and T y and T z are turbulence time scales in the y and z directions. The fact th ... averaging times (or all variables are equal and that turbulence pararuetel"ll are measured or estimated near the release height is implicit Since diffwion calculations are g:enerall~ made in practice for downwind diDunceli (1:) rather than times (t). the foUowi~ forms of writin~ Eqs. ..1.3 and ~A are desirable:

(4.5)

• - •. -" --- .. _40 --- _.-t'''' •• -

(-1..6)

where it is assumed that a;, "a./u and a" " aw/u. 'Jnce the universal functions fy and fz have been determined, then ay and az are completely determined by observations of a8 and ae. Presumably Ty and T z are similarity functions of z/zo, lilL, and Lflu •.

Pasquill (1976), Dra-Ier (1976), Doran, Horst, and Nickola (1978), and Irwin (1979a) are among those actively investigating the Lest form (or the universal functions (y and (z. Although Taylor's (1921) statistical difrusicn equation (see Chap. 5, Sec, 5-2) can he used to derive a theoretical (onn for fy and f ... , current data an: scattered enough that simple empirical formulas are justified. For example, PasquiIJ (1976, gets good results by removing the dependence of (yon the tina' scale Ty.lrwin (1979a) has derived the folio' -ing approximations to Pasquills empirical table.

(" = (1 + 0.031 );0.46)-1

= 33:\.-~ (x> 104 m)

[x ~ 1<t m)

(-1..7)

where x is in meters. This solution is diagrammed in Fig. -1..5. The approximation has the desirable property that ay a: X at small distances, At distances greater than about to km, mean wind direction shear in the planetary boundary layer may become important, and Pasquill (1976) suggests the rough rule: a.J-i

1 1 :.

to the ay already derived the term 0.03 (~a) x ,

where ~a (in radians) is the change in wind direction over the plume depth.

The universal (unction (z is more difficult to determine since there are fewer data on the vertical dh.1!rihution of concentration. Furthermore, a Gaussian distribution in the vertical is found only as long as

1.0 r--~r-'-lrn,!TT1,~---r-~"'."',"'I"I"I'"I--r---r-r"'i..,.,-nT1,

x, "'

fie. 4.S fy = a,/(a~,,) aceoniDc to Eq. "':' • ..tUdI iI lrwta'. (197'91a) ane.pt to fit ...... ''1'. (1919, Ia.bk

GAl!SSIAN Pl.lJME MODEL FOR CONTINUOVS SOVkCES 31

az is less than the source height; otherwise reflection and absorption at the ground surface distort thl" plume. Of course, no matter what the plume shape is, az can always be calculated as the standard deviation of the observed concentration distribution. Draxler (1976) plotted observed values of fz = oJ(owt) as a function of time after release (or several di ffusion experiments. He divided the diffusion data into ground-level and elevated sources and suggest..d the following formula for ground-level sources for fy (all stabilities) and fz (stahle and n .. utral):

wh~re Tj is assumed to equalS Ty.l>raxlrr presented a slightly different formula for elevated SOUrcI"8, but at all x the formula." agree within :1:20%, which is probably aa good accuracy as we can hope for.

For unstable fz, Irwin (1979a) plots observations of oJ(owt) = fz vs. t* = w.tlzj for elevated and ground-level releases, These figures are reproduced here as Figs. 4.6 and 4.7, where the "best fit" curves are forced to obey the theoretical la',v a 'X t It at luge times. Unfortunately the data do not seem eompelled to follow the same law. Values of the conv .. ctive velocity scale (w.) and the mixing depth (Zj) can be obtained from Eq, 1...J.3 and observations, respectively.

PII- 4.6 V ... 01 as/(awt)" ~ fOl' eJeqted me.- (-0 -... _table cr.di~ af'leue heichb race front 0.15 to 0. 71.

+5 WIND-SPEED VARIATION WITH HEIGHT

lne fact l!at the wind speed (u] appearing ill the ~ Gauseian plume (ormula (~. 4.1) ,bauld be an

32 AT~OSPIIERIC DIFFUSION

flc. 4.7 Values of 01/(owl).r.. t" for --'8Ce me.- (1i> cmrinc uDStabie ce»ditioas. Rrieale heiPb I1IIIP from 0.002 to 0.067.

average valu .. over the plume depth is generally recognized. In practice, the wind speed at the erc e etive release height (h) of the plume is used. Sometimes observations of this wind speed are available. but usually the wind speed must ~ es timated Ly u,;ing observations near the surface. The theoretical formulas (Eqs. 1.37 lind 1.38) or a pow .. r-law formula can be used:

(4.9)

wh.·r.. 7. is h"ight in meters and u lOis the observed wind speed at : height of 10 m. Thi!:; formula is used by several of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) models, with value" of the parameter p estimated by Irwin (197%) given in Table 4.6. The power law is Il"!iII accurate than Eqs, 1.37 and 1.38

Ta.hIe 4.6 Estimatu of the Power (p) in Eq. ".9 !or Six Stability O&S116 and Two Roup_·

SWoility d~

A

c

D

E

F

8

rrb&n p Rural p

0.15 0.15 0.07 007

0.20 0.25 0.-&0 0.60 0.10 0.15 0.35 0.55

·T ~ II bar.d on ,niomutlon by I""," I! 979b ~

Jllti -hould not be used at heights above 200 m . ~ ... um.. 'J ~ u,oo (or z > 200 m), but it is an ..... ·t'~I"" -olutjon to the problem of wind .ariallOn .,110 hrlt(ht.

4-6 MAXIMUM GROUND CO~CENTRATION AND FUMIGATION

Because regulations are written in terms o, maximum ground coneentrations, it is informative to differentiate the Gaussian plume equation with respect to x and set the result equal to zero to ?'etermine the distance to the maximum concentration. When Oy a: OZ. this occurs at the distance downwind where 2ai = h2, where h is effective plume height (equal to h, + ~h). The concentration at that distance is given by the foemula:

. 2Q Cz

Cmax = lI'h2eu;;y

(-UO)

Experience shows that this cntical distance is a few tens of stack heights (ha) duwnwind. There ill a "critical" wind speed at which emax itself ill a maximum if there is any plume rise at aU. This phenomenon is called "high wind fumigation" and can !.ersist for hours. The term "fumigation M in this context means a situation in which high concentrations are brought to the ground from an df!vatt:d plume, Equations 2.29 and 2.30 can be used :0 estimate the critical wind -peed (uc) and the distance (xc) to the maximum concentration point. Equation 2.25 gives the plume rise (~h) under those conditions. Concentration (C) can then be calculated from Eq.4.9.

"Limited-mixing fumigation" occurs "~n upward diffusion or penetration of the plume is restricted by an inversic 'I. below which strong mixing occurs. In Los Angeles., for example, a fairly penistent marine IUbbidence inversion exists at a height of about 500 m. If the inversion height is Zi and it H _,umcd that the vertical distribution of material in the plume i.e uniform from the ground to Zi, then the ground·level concentration is given by

C> Q

(211','" U Zi or

(4.111

Tennessee '-'..Hey Authority experi .. nee sho .. a tli.,t limited-mix.ill( fUnUgatiof1 ','ore frequently gi\~ U.e highest ground concentrations at their Hry tall stacks (h. > lOOm), wherea.! high ... rind fumigation i.,; more fnquently critical at their shorter stacks.

ThU can be seen a.! (oUow.: consider the ratio of the concentrations predicted b~' the two methods

! 4.1:!l

&7

If we assume that h' = 20i at the maximum point, then Eq, 4.12 becomes

(4.13)

If mixing hdght (Zj) is 500 m, then limited-mixing fumigation will be more important than high-wind fumigation when the effective plume height is great~r than about 200 m,

4- 7 AVERAGING TIMES AND PEAK- TO!\lEAN CONCENTRATION RATIOS

A measuring instrument must be turned on and off, and it always has some inertia that prevents it from responding to very rapid fluctuations. Also, so that the number of data points can be kept at a manageable level, groups of data are usually averaged together at certain intervals. The total period over which the instrument operates is called the sampling time, and the time imposed by instrument in .. rtia and/or averaging is called th .. averaging time. These concepts are iilUl'trated in the data records in Fig. 4.8_

The effect uf finite sampling and averaging times is to remove very high and low frequency fluctuations trom the data record, whi.;h w()I,ld thus reduce the total variance, If the sampling time is T., then eddies with periods greater than T. will not contribute to the calculated variance_ Similarly. if the averaging time is Ta. then eddies with periods less than Ta will not contribute. Pasquill (1974) has expressed this analy tically:

:'(T.,T3)= a'(oo,o)L- f(n) ;in1rrnT. (lfIlTa)'

X [1 _ sin' :rnl> dn (4.14) (lfIl T .)1

where r-1(T.,Ta) is the variance for sampling time Til and averaging time Ta and F(n) is the spectrum function at frequency II.

The di(fllllion parameters (ov and Cd are directl~ mated to the standard deviations of the turbulent velocitv Ouctutions (0. and ow)- .\,; sampling time increases, intuition and Eq. 4.14 teil us that observed values of 0. and Ow. and hence 0. and Oz. incre ase, The exact levd of increase is dearl;' • function of the ,pectrum F(n) and the times T I .. nd r a, and the anal~tical equation quiclly becomes ~"ry eompli-

GAlJSSIAC'I PU;~I£ :'IIODEL FOR CO:-iTI:'irOl:S SULHer=, 33

C

ON

I

l----T.---_I

OFF

t

1.1 SAMPLING TIME IT,I IS LENGTH OF TOTAL DATA ReCORD

ACTUAL DATA

.: INSTRUMENT REAC!";"

--1 T. r

to '

(bl INSTRUMENT TIME LAG (T,' DEFINE:' BY .1C/.1Co = .-It-tollT i

C

tel AvERAGING TIME IT.I

.- .. 4..8 Wlllltratioe of .....we time (T a> (a), ~t ~ LIe (Tj) (It). _4 a-... a-. (Ta,) (c).

cated. Furthermore. since the turbulent energy spectra of the y and,z compcn .. nts are not necessarilv the same, the increase of oy.Uld Oz with avengi~ time is not necessaril~' the same .. it"er. GiIiord (1975) su~ts accounting (or th e effect; of sampling time through the empirical formula:

(-\.15)

where d and <! represent two different cases. and q is in the range 0.25 to 0.3 for 1 hr < Tod < 100 brand .. quais appruximatdv 0.2 for J rrun < rid -: 1 hr. Thr standard Pasqwll-GilCord CW'H2! represent a sampl;~

.'

34 AtrnOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

time T se of about 10 min. Thus Oy for a sampling time of 1 hr equals 6°.1, or 1.43, times the Oy found in Fig. 4.4. This is very close to an increase of on, swbility class interval.

An air-pollution concentration observation (Ca) involves an average over a period Ta. If the concentration record (as in Fig.4.8c) has significant "energy ~ at periods 6fUter thaI' T a. then the individual C's are not ~'e~ representative of the true mean (C). Physically. this situation is caused by the plume meanderill~ about. as ill Fig. 4.9. As the narrow plume passes over a given point. the concentration is high for :1 brief time but then drops to a low value again as the plume meanders over to a new position. Gifford (19;;9a, stated that the ratio cf peak-to-mean concentrations (P;~I) is in the range from 1 to ;; for source and receptor at the same elevation, As effective plume height increases while the receptor rern.ains at the ground, Pi'l increases. with values of 50 to 100 or greater near a 10o.m stack. The ratio P!\! decreases as distance from the source increases.

Gifford suggested that the PI" problem could be analysed by ISIIUming that there are two separate scales of diffusion, wherc the total diffusion rr over a long period equals the sum of the diffusion yl IIf the instantaneous olume due to small scales of turbulence plus a contribution [)2 due to meandering 'Jf the plume:

(4.16)

Thill assumption leads to the following formula for the P/\!:

y

(-i.17)

Unfort-matelv little is known ahout the behavior of either the large-scale component (01) or the smallscale co .... -onent (?).

4-8 SECTOR MODEL FOR LONG SAMPUNC TL\fES

Over a long period of lime, such a~ davs or months, the wind direction is likely to touch on all points of the comp~. The horizontal crosswind distribution in the plume, usually represented by ay• wal no lunger be importmt since ·h., wind-dr--eclion frequency distribution wil be fa;rly smooth as w'! go around the compass.. In this case the sector mood can be used. where it is UtlumeJ that there is no hmiwntal crosswind variation in concentration within an angular sector equal to the resolution of the wind-direction data. For example. wind direction is commonly reported as :"i. ~:'oiE. :'-iE. etc .• giring rise to 16 sectors with .... iJth 22Yzo. The formula for ground.j,,\,e! concentration from a continuous-point source within sectors of ati.itrary angular width 2rr/n (ill radians) is as foUcw~:

--- !·,.R ... vE~AGE PLUME POSIT!OI';

- - - ,· •• IiN AVERAGE PLUME POSITION

-- ..... - -_-.., ....... -~ ....... ~ .~.UJC:;;U &II I"lyZllt:al

GALJSSIA:-' PLVME \IODEI. FOR CO:\T1:-'U>l;S SOVRcES 3S

c- f~)' fry fQnJ ~-h'/2a~

\"11' \~1I'I1zU_

(4_18)

where f is the fraction of the time the wind blow~ loward that sector. Thus, gi\-en an annual wind rose, the distribution of annual aVf"l"age concentrations around a continuous source can be estimated.

Problems

I. Assume that the effective plume height is 100 m and thaI the continuous-source release rate is 10 ,jsec. Stability is neutral, wind speed is 5 mlsec. 116 is 10°, and l1e is 5°. Calculate ground-level plume centerline concentration at a distance of 1 km (rom the source for the following 11 methods: B~L, Briggs open country, Pasquill-Girford- Turner fi~!'e:I, and Draxler (Eq. 4.8). Gj\e the deviation or each an>lwer (rom the average of the four.

2. Suppose that you a ..... burning your trash after dark in your backyard. TM fife has died down so that there is no plume risf'. and assume no down wash or source effects. Source height is I m. wind spt'ed at that height is 2 mlsec, stability class is F, and source strength of -uspended parlicll'S is 1 Wsec. What concentration is your neighbor, sitting in his lawn chair on the plumf' centerline 100 m downwin,I, exposed to? How far must he move his chair sideways before the conce ntration d .. creases to 10 mw m3?

3. A big po· ... er pI.nt re leases 1000 W:;,I'C of SOl' Effectivf' source hright is 200 m, wind ~p'· ... 1 at a height of 10 m i.'4 6 mJ~e. and it is dUUliy. Plot tit .. ground.levd plume centerline concentration 3:! a function of distance from x = 0 to X = 20 km.

4. Calcuiate maximum grouRfI.levd concentration and the downwind dilllance at which it occurs using both the "high-wind" and "limited mixing" formulas for the ~oIlowi~ conditions: Q = lOOO 'lIsec. u(10 m) = 4 mlsee, sunny.\h = 250 m, and ;l!j = 1000 Ill-



Statistical Models of Diffusion from Continuous-Point Sources

5-1 I~TRODUcrION

The statistical. similarity. and K theories of diffusi')f1 provid .. alternatives to th" Gaussian plume modd discussed in Chap_". These theories are disCU!lS .. d in Chaps. 5 to 8. The definition of statistical models used in this chapter is !:lased on the feet that diffusive motions have a certain random 01' stochastic nature. Thus the path of an individual particle can be d.-s:rih .. ,1 by a statistical function. If particles are astmmed to have no memory of their previous motions and if their chances of goi~ left or right at any time are equal. th .. n they will follow a "drunJ.anJ'~ walk" or ""onte Cado" path. This simpl .. discret .. -step ~tocha:;tic diffusion model i.~ valid for moIfi.·u1ar di(fu,;ion. L-t n be steps downstream from th .. source and m be steps perpendicular to th., axis (see Fig, 3.1). The particles flow downstream in the n direction ;it a constant rate and can diffuse only in the cross ... tream direction. The pro~ab~ity of finJing the particle at "epo; n.m is !dven by the fonnula

~2\~ (m2)

P(n.m) ~ -J '-xp --

. ~- 2n

(5.1)

As n iocreases this solunon appeoaches the familiar (;auwn or bell-shO!peti curve discus-ed in Chap. -t. ,.ith a2 = n. Since n is proportional to tim e , th e result of a pure ~Ionte Cvb diffu-ion modd j", a IX t".

5-2 TAYLOR'S THEORK\t

Th .. ?lm;ical b_ of the dtunk.uu·s ,,·all.. or \10111 .. Carlo method. i .e., noncor.dated motions. i"

-------

~ STEPS"n"

~ DOwNWltm

SOURCE. ---- .. FROM

SOURCE

STEPS "m" CROSSWIND FROM

AXIS

re.S.1 Orientatioft of steps ID and n in ~te Carlo .. obIem.

net valid for atmospheric diffusion. In the boundary layer of the atmosphere at heights of 10 to 100 m during the daytime. the turbulent speed y'(t) will be correlated with the speed v'(t + .1t) for tim .. lap tot as great as several minutes. For ""ry short time lags, on the order of 1 sec. the speeds v'(t) and v'(t + ~t) are nearly identical. An autocoereIation coefficient R(.1t) is defined by th e formula

R(.1t) " y (~) v (t + .1t) a;

(5.2)

where the bar indicates a time nerage_ For small time lags. R ... 1. and for large time 1a:!S. R - O.

The speeds (v') dKIlSSeU ;~ ~I,ia sa:tion refer to those fdt b~' the particle or patcd 3Ii it moves. Thti system is called a ~flgian .~ste':l 01 motion. In ;:I)otra:;t. the speeds fdt by an an .. mom"'~ fixed to a msst are called Eulman. Rdation,. betw ee n these two 3\stt"RIS w~ d.i.;cu.;eed in CJ....!p. 1. 3«. 1-7 . and are furth .. r discussed in Src. 5-5.

Tavloes (1921) lh .. ~m of diffusicn (rom a continuous source hegins with the a.seurnption that ~. is tho: cfU;I;win,j de\iation from 4 filL .. d .uis of a

36

1

,

;

.. ~

•. ~ l

ST A TISTICAL \IODELS OF DIFF[;SIO:"l FRO\! CO:-;n"LOlS.POI:';r SOL aces 37

typical part« le due to .. ddy "p" .. d v' ah.-r a tim" t. The s~ mbol ? (.-q ual to ~) ind icates the mean squa rv · ',f a larg" number of values of y. Particles have been assumed to be releas .. d from a single point and travel paths illu-trat r' d in Fig. 3.2. Each partid .. is in .. rtial-ss and follows th .. airflow .. xactlv. Then thrrat e of change with time of a; is g:i,,,n h~ .

d<?v (i?' ~ -,

Tt=-jf =:2y <It -= 2 Y'

-=:2 lot V (I) v (t + t ) ot' (5.3)

If th .. turbulence is llOmogen .. ous <does not 'a~' in space) and stationary (does n. t \ary in time). then

v'

PARTICLE 1

PARTICLE 2

fie. 5.2 Tr.ec:tories followed by two typial pa-tides.

Eq. 5.2 can De substitut .. d into E'1' 3.3 to yield. up'.m integration.

1 -.) 1 fl fl' r ,

G, - _ o; I) 0 R( t ) dt dt

15A)

This is usually referred to as Taylor's equation.

We can use simple approximations to determine the behavior of ~ at small and large times.

As t - O.

R(t) -. 1

13.5)

J~' Rlt') tit' = T

ur

Ir"

Thlb . .:b travel lime foe a continuous plum e IOCr..L""'. tbe rate of djffu~on deer .. .1.><$. Particle motions are ~t t~t linear b~a~ the parncles "r .. member" th .. tr llUtial ,dout\. Ho ..... ' .. r ... n..n -uch trav-l tunes u .. r,,4ch.:-ti that the putid<s "u lon2"f rem .. mu .. r L""II'

initial motions. the problem reduces to a .\Iont .. Carlo problem. and Oy ex: t"".

A simple expon .. r.tial form

R(t, = up (- +)

(5.7)

has oft .. n prov .. d 10 ~ a useful approximation to th .. autocorr-logram. Th e int .. ?ration uf E(~. 5.~ ... ith th .. use of this form for Rit) results in tho: solution

(5.8)

which is plott e d in Fig. 5.3. It is interesting to noll' that th e asymptotic lines r.: = a; r2 and a; = 2 civTt m .... t mUj?hly at a tim .. equal 10 t ... ict" th" lime seal .. T.

1~~-----------------------~--- ~

~

~

'O'~

c

t

I

10U !::-

r-' r-

F

! r-

~

,o·,l

~/ "V

I'

r

"yj ~-------- --------

fico S.3 \.nahtial _t»a ! tc.. !..8) to "~I«. "'I1U1XIr'. WIth tlw ~tJOe t1.a1 ~t) = up l-~·Tl. .'.naoptoOr """'DOnO l ... ad .... Urp _ 1ft';10 4l0tr.1.

38 ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

Equation 5.8 can be used to derive a theoretical form for the function fy djscussed in Sec. 4-4.2:

It) Oy fY\T = Oyt

s r [t ( t\1'"

= (2) t T - 1 + exp - TJj

(5.9)

This fonnula for fy (in which it is assumed that t = xfu and u = 5 m/spc and T = 50 sec) is compared with Pasquill's (1976) curve in Fig. 5.4. There is good agreement in the midrange, where fy is approximately 0.5 and x is approximately 1 km, but formula 5.9 slightly overpredicts at small x and slightly underpredicts at large x when compared with Pasquill's curve.

x, km

Fic.5.4 Compar __ oJ. Par.quiI'. -pirical IUC'~ tiou for f(x) with the aaaIytic.I aoIuti03 (Eq. 5.9) to Taylor'. equation with the .-alllptioa that t = va and a = 5 mil« and T = SO ...:.

Doran, Horst, and Nickola (1978) and Draxkr ... (1976) define ~ different time scale (Ti) as the time at which the iunction fy drop; to 0.5. Equation 5.9 cao

he used to show that Ti'_' 7T, where T is the Lagrangian time scale. Of course, any user of Taylor's equation must reali~ the strict physical _umptiontl made in its derivation. Since turbulence is assumed to

be stationary and homogeneous, the theory cannot be expected to be strictly valid in shear zonal, such.

the near-surface layer of the atmosphere.

Sutton (1953) solved Tayloe's equation (5.4) bv using tne following assumed form for R:

Rtt) = c.~.tr (0 < n < 1)

(5.10)

where II is v'iscosity. It develops that

~ 2v" ~ 1-n

y = (1 - n)(2 _ n)O;. ( y·t)

1

=2C}(ut)1-n

(5.1 !)

The factor n is determined from

(5.12)

This method was used extensively in the 1950's but eventually got so complicated by empirical factors that it was replaced by the simpler Pasquill-Gifford method.

5-3 INFLUENCE OF EDDY SIZE ON 0

According to the results of Taylor's theory derived above, the rate of change of Oy with time is a decreasing function of time of travel for continuous plumes. We can guest' intuitively that the influence of small eddies decreases as the plume grows since small oscillations of particles deep within the plume do not contribute to "diffusion" of the plume as a whole. Instead, eddies with diameters roughly equal to and larger than 0 cause most of the diffusion. This result can be shown analytically since the autocorrelation coefficient [R(t)] and the energy spectrum [F(n) 1 are known to be Fourier transforms of tach other. The variable nF(n) is proportional to the amount of turbulent energy carried by eddies of frequency n. (The frequency n of an eddy equals the inverse .Jf its period; n increases as eddy size J"ceases.)

Without going through the details of the mathematics. we can rewrite Taylor's equation (504) as:

(5.13,

Sampling time (T I) is assumed to be much greate: than travd time (t): thus the plume is assured of being continuous instead of instantaneous. The term sin1 ('I'nt)/(lI'nt)l is unity for large eddies with Irequeecies ICiS than roughly lit and drops to zero for smail eddies with frequencies greater than roughl~' Ii t, 10 other words, this term is a filter that passes only low freq'lenc~' eddies. and, as tra~d time incre_. fewer and fewer eddies are paseed by this fdter: hence Oy ex t for small t and Oy ex t'" for large t.

There is .. low (req~cy cutoff imposed by the finite sampling time, TI. This cutoff is accounted for by multiplying irNde the integr.al (5.13) 1)\ (1 - sin:

.~

I

STATISTICAL MODELS OF DIFFUSION FROM CONTINUOUS·POINT SOURCES 89

(1I'nTs}l(lJ'nTs)l1 (see Eq. 4.14). We can conclude that continuous-source dlffusion is influenced only by eddies with periods ranging roughly betwecn the !r .. vel time and the sampling time. Pasquill (1974) points out that these results ue equivalent to the simple equation:

(5.14)

where tJ is the ratio of Lagrangian to Eulerian time scales, which has been observed to average about four. The terms in the parentheses imply that 0; is sampled by a fixed anemometer over a total time Ta/(J, where consecutive averages over a t.me tlfJ are taken within that sampling period before 0; is computed. The concept of sampling and averaging time has been illustrated in Fig. 4.8. Thus for constant Ts the effective turbulent energy o~ will decrease as travel time increases. With Eq.5.14. diffusion can be calculated by using basic wind-speed observations. which makes this equation a very practical but so far underused model.

Doran, Horst, and Nickola (1978) assume a standard Corm for the spectrum F(n) fc.= ltable and unstable conditions and integrateEqs. 4.14 and 5.13, which thus accounts for the effects of averaging time t and sampling time T. on ~. They find that larger values of Oy/(08X) are associated with longer averaging time and sampling time. However, because of the scatter in the results of diffusion experiments, the improvement over simpler models for Oy/(08X) (e.g., Fig. 5.4) is difficult to see.

5-4 LAGRANGIAN-EULERIAN RELATIONS

Small elements of poUutant p5eII or inertiall!!lll particles foUow the airflow euctly. Intuitivdy, velocities measured by parcel. following the airflow (~npm) are more &lowly '-uying than those measured hy a fixed anemometer (Eulerian], The problem is that lO .. e m ... t use fixed anemometer observations to estinute diUUBion. which requires that rthbons between Eulerian and Lagrangian turbulence be developed. The spectrum F(n) in Eq.5.13 and the autocorrelation R(t) in Tayloe's equation (5.4) are Ugrangian parameters,

If 0; ia kno .. n, thl! nRL(t) a; can be estimated (see Eq. 5.4) from d10;/df. Hown'"" second derivatives of fIeld oo.ervatiolUl are very difficult to compute .1Ccuratdy. A more common method of

comoarison of r~ ...... n..un "n" s;' .. ~_ ••• -'- • ..1 '-

to calculate RL(t) and RE(t) by using concurrent observations Crom free-floating balloons and fixed anemometers. Gi((ord (1955) and Hay and Pasquill (195Q) suggested that Lagrangian and Eulerian spectra and autocorrdograms were similar in shape hut displaced from each other by a faclor (3. Figure 5.5 illustrates this similarity concept, which can be written analytically;

(5.15)

(5.16)

where fJ can be Cormally defined as the ratio of the Lagrangian to the Eulerian time scale:

(5.17)

A simple method of evaluating (J is to consider the circular eddy in Chap. 1, Sec. i-6, which gave the result that (J was inversely proportional to turbulence intensity [jJ = O.5/i = O.S/(Oy/u». Paaquill (1974) suggests that, on the a\erage, in the planetary boundary layer, 13 equals 4 for neutral conditions. jJ ~ 10 as

0
TE
t
... tal
I
£ is1
...
c
_J
" "~E
_l
. " ... ,"
"
Ib) 'iI· 5.5 EaIeriIa (IlE) .... L.-cia (aL) ... ~

~ (.) ..-tra (II), ......... __ to

~ IiaI.w IMd Iia. at"'- dial _ dW_l

L_

.. -----------_ ... -----

I

ATMOSPHERIC D!FFUSION

stability increases, and II .... 1 as stability decreases. There is much scatter in observations of p.

5-5 MONTE CARLO PARTICLE TRAJECTORY MODELS OF DIFFUSION

Thousands of particle trajectories can be easily calculated by today's high-speed computers, and the statistics (e.g., Oy) of the particle distribution after a certain time can be estimated. This is potentially a powerful technique for the evaluation of diffusion in nonunifonn and nonstationary wind and turbulence fields. In practice, time steps ~t of a few seconds aIT used in the computer model, and the following equation is assumed:

x(t) = x(t - ~t) + u ~t

(5.18)

where the total speed, u, is the sum of a mean and a turbulent component,

- ,

u=u+u

(5.19)

The turbulent component is the sum of a correlated component and a random or Monte Carlo component:

u'(t) = u'(t - ~t) R(~t) + u"

(5.20)

where the random component utI is assumed to have a GaW!Sian distribution with zero mean and variance ~"given by

(5.21)

This relation is necessary to conserve energy ~. from one time step to the next. The autocorrelatio ... coefficient R(~t) is a Lagnngi.1n variable.

The turbulent energy O!' can be estimated from boundary-layer equations, such as 142 to 1.53. Any form for R(At) can be used, but the simplest is R{~t) = exp (-~tflL). Thl» the Lagrangian time acale lI1 .. t be estimated before Eq. 5.20 ca" be wed. We U8e the fonnula

(5.22)

w~e "mE is the wavdengt.h of peU. e~rgy in the Eulerien spectrum ... given by EqL 1.57 and 1.58 for the three velocity components. The frM:tion (~5)

comes from the fact that the spectrum for an assumed autocorrelogram of the fonn exp (-~tfTE) has peak energy at a period of about 5TE. Then, if we substitute Eq, 1.65 (with i = ou'/u) in Eq, 5.22. the time seale (TL) becomes

T - O.IXmE L----

au'

(5.23)

Typical time scales (TL) for a convective boundary layer of depth 1000 m and sampling times of about 1 hr Me on the order of 100 sec.

The advantage of this technique is that diffusion calculations are related directly to basic turbulence characteristics. The calculated ay values a,;ree exactly with the analytical solution to Tayloe's equation (see Eq. 5.8) when mean winds and turbulence are assumed to be stationary snd homogeneous. In these applications the particles aIT rei cased from the same point, and the initial turbulent velocity is chosen randomly from a Gaussian distribution with zero mean and variance o!'.

Reid (1979) applied this !echnique to estimate vertical dispersion from a ground-level source and WilS able to satisfactorily simulate observed distributions in the Prairie Grass diffusion experiments. In that case strong vertical shears of mean wind speed welT present. This Mon~e-Carlo-typt: method will be most applicable to difficult situations, such lI!I sea breezes or complex terrain, in which the GaUBsian plume modd does not apply.

Problems

1. Assume that R(t') = 1 - It'ITI for It'lTI .;;; 1 and R(t') = 0 for It'ITI > I. Flnd an analvtic Connula

(or ~ with Taylor's equation. .

2. A continuous release of neutrallv buovant material is made at a rate or 1 F/sec from'a height of 100 m. Lagrangian time scales T &n the y and z directions are 50 and 10 sec, respectively. Wind speed is 5 mlsec. Calculate the centerline concentration after a travel time of 30 sec.

3. In the da)·time {J "" 2. A plume is sampled over a period of 10 min., and averages or 10 sec are made withm that period. What Ympling and .. veraging times should be used in calculatine: c? so that the

equation ~ = a!t1 is valid! -

4. Show that Eq. 52:! foUoWII from Eq, 5':::1.

Hint: aquare both sidol of Eq.5.21 and .nt"ra<!e bv Ul!ing ~noida' av~ COllYentioll8. -.

... , ..... ' ... ""------"'------_.,-----------,--- ----~--,-----,-----

i

6-} INTRODUCfION

Possibly the most confusing aspect of atmospheric diffusion is the difference between plume and puff diffusion. Plume diffusion formulas apply to so-called continuous plumes, wht"n- the release and sampling times are long compan-d with the travel time from source to receptor, On the other hand, puff or relative diffusion formulas apply to so-called instantaneous sources, where the release tim!" or sampling time is short compared with the travel time, These definitions lead to a dilemma when the release time is roughly equal to the sampling and travel times, as shown in Fig. 6.1. In this case a combination of the two techniques may be neeessary.

~----------

( 0)



t e I

FlI- 6.1 "- ..... roeUlift to ampWoc u.- (T.) .... ...... 1iR>~ (t). (I) Coatia_ .,na-

(TI >- I). ()) Coea..o.. at .,.._

cr, .. t], (e) 1Mcu'_"'_ (T, C I).

Puff Diffusion

?uff or relative diCfusion parameters (a) appropriate for the instantaneous plumes in Fig. 6.I(c) have been measured in vel") (ew field experiments. Consequently questionable situations arise in which some model developers use Pasquill-GiCCord continuous plume a's (or puCfs.ln this chapter several theoretical approaches (or estimating puff a's are outlined. and a Cew comparisons with data an' made.

6-2 STATISTICAL APPROACH

In the Taylor statistical approach to diffusion from continuous plumes covered in Chap. 5, the trajectoeies of single particles r-lativ .. to a fivrl a xis were discussed. How .. v .. r, for puff diffusion, no !ix .. d axis can be defined, and the motion of ono' partie] .. relative to another must be studied. Fur this reason puff diffusion is often called r..lative diffusion. Batchelor (1950) wrilt·s an t"Iluatinn analozou- to Taylorsequation:

- - IT f" ----

~.l = )'~ + 2 • • .h(t) O\(t + tl) dtl dt'

(6.1)

where Yo is the initial separation of twe particles and ~v ... is their relative velocity (i.e., the difference betwttn the velocities of the particles. OV = "2 - v I)' However. verv little is known about the conelation term ~v(t) C5v{l + tl)'

Smith and H a ~, (1961) expand on Ba tch dor 's analysis and assume an exponential corrdoj!Rm with length Kale I to deriv .. an equation for the ~()wth of a puff:

do _ <)Q:l rx- ,.;,oJ1

(62)

when' i = a.:u ill the intenaty of turbulenc-, r = otl. and n = r.l (Ie is waH' number]. The w,·jghting function (in brackeu) is, in effect, .. filter Iunctron analogOUI to that used in the statistiul theOl' fur

...

42 AnlOSPHERIC DIFFUSION

continuous plumes. This filter function tells us that eddies with sizes roughly equal to the size of the puff or cluster are most important for the growth of the puCf. In contrast, eddies with sizes much less or much gft'ater than the size of the puff contribute little to. tl ... puff diffusion. The filter can be thought of as a wiwluw that passes .. ddy sizes between roughl~ al2 awl 5a. Th .. argument for the lack of contribution from small eddies is th .. same for plume and puff diffusion: small eddies move particles inside the plume or puff with little influence on diffusion. Large eddies merely transport a puff bodily. On the other hand, large .. ddies can contribute to th .. di CCusion of 2 plume from a fix .. d axil'. This situation is simply sumrnariz .. d in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1 Influence of Eddy Sizes on Pufi nd l'Iume Diffusion

Diffusion type

StEe ranee 01 eddies cootributinc to diffUJioa

Plume

Only "due with sizes greater than u times travel time and ICII than u times umpling time

Only eddies .. ith size. eloee to the puff aiu

(t factoro(3)

Puff

Once the standard deviation (a) of the distribution of mat .. rial in a puff is known. the concentration (C) of material can b .. calculated by the Gaussian formula:

(6.3)

when.- ()p represents emissions (in mass per ~ond) and diffusion is assumed to he isotropic (i.e .. the same in all directions), The variable r is the radial distance from the puff center. Richardson (1926) recognized the dependence of puff difCusion on plo'ff dimension .... hen IIr used .. mpirical data at man~' scales to derive an expression for the effective eddy diffusivity for puffs:

K=O.2a'

(6.4)

wtlrCP. K ha.I units of squan" meters per second and a hal units of meters.

The main cp.suIt of the difference between plume and puf( diCtU!1ion is that there is a region in .. hi"h puff growth iA greater than plume growth. Thill occurs wtlrn the puff is growing through sizes within the in .. rtiaJ §ubr~ of the energy spectrum. wh~cp. the sp.-.: to! e nerg)· ill rapidly increasing iIJI eddy siu iocr".I'Il. A precise (onnulation of this effect is better ~en b~ similarity theorv,

6-3 SIMILARITY APPROACH

Batchelor (1952) isolated the bask physical parameters involved in puif diffusion and used them to deriv e similarity formulas. For example. he reasoned that at short times, wh .. n the puff dimensions were at scales within the ir .. rtial subrange. the rate of diffusion of the puff (da2ldt) was a function of the eddy dissipation rate (f). the time after releas .. (t). and the initial sill" of the puCC (00):

da2 ..,

- a: t(fao) dt

(6.5)

or

(6.6)

In practice. this diffusion law applies for only a few seconds, At longer times. when the puff has forgottl'n its initial size. th e following similarity law is valid:

(6.7)

or

(6.8)

The constant Cl ha:; been experiments and is gen .. rally unity. ~106t experimerits

evaluated from a few though t to be of "rd"r )·ielt.l th- relation

0.5 < C1 < 2.

At still longer times. when the puff dimensions are at scales larger than the edd~ sizes ill the inertial subrange, the rate of puff diffusion becomes equal to the rate of plume diffusion.

Ii 1 - _2

m 0puff - !T_plumr t--

(0.9)

rsing these formulas. we can summarize the difference« betwe .. n puff and plume diffusion (Table 6.:.!).

Table 6.2 Compariaoa of Puff and Plume Diffuson

Shart_ea Lone tilDel
Puff aa:t ('t"CY ohort t) a '" I~ (t>TLi
a'" t'" ( in Irn:ne;iiatr I
Plume a'" t (t < TL) a" ." (I> TLI The a a t' regime does ,;how up in puff diffusion o'-:vations. as .hown in filii. 6.2 and 6.3 (Gifford. 1977). These data include radioactive dout.b. tr troon

E

~

:r ~ o

i

o :J o ...J U

TRAVEL TIME ltl. sec

I!I F,_ieI and Katz '1956) e Seneca (1955)

.. Smith and Hay (1961) + Hogmom (1964)

• p~ and Angell (1963)

OataK,..,

• CrOliet' and Seely (1955)

Z Brll'am. Seely. and Crozier 11952! a MacI1ta l't 01. 119571

• "'~lfter (1965)

* Crlwford (1966)

FJC. 6.2 Tea ~ ~III _ relatiYe diff1IIioa. (From F. A. Gilfonl, Trop ..... eric Ildali .. Diff.a- Obaenalioaa, I. AppL M,lft>roL, 16: 312 (1971).)

pairs. photographs of plumes, artillery bursts, and soap bubbles. Typically a t"" ~w is valid over part 'lf the ran,,~ of most experiments, although a tl.O law seem" to give the best agreemfllt O\Ier the largest part of the f.gure. The figures .. how that the a a: tit region is not often present at large times owing to the pmitDce of mesoscale and synoptic seale eddies (high and low pressure uystems).

In an attempt to devdop a theory foc ay that fits both puff and plume observations, Gifford (1981) begut wi<h the Iitati3tiCal equation (5.20), v'(t):; v'(t - .11) R(~t) + v". Here the lateral component (V) is used instead of the component u'. He recognized that t.'us is a form of lAngevin's equation:

(6.10)

where Tl is a random ace deration and ~-l equals the ugt"angian turbulence time scale Tl.' A solution to Eq, 6.10 ill as followa:

PUFr DlFFl'SlON 43

TRAVEL TIME It). sec

OaUlK,..,

.. AI'IpII et al. (1971)

e ~ (1968) Outbound .. ,_.", (19681 Inbound + 8_l'tal.(1970)

• "-denon 119721

• O_in (1959)

• Edinger (1952)

Z Kao and Wendefl (1968)

• R_t.II923)

• Kauml<i and Monin 119571 * Smith and Helfer""", (1956) • Hanna (1975)

Yc. 6.3 T.ehe trDpOlpheric expen.e. .. CIa telatiYe ....... (F'_ F. A. Giffonl, Tnpaa,larric JleIaliwe IlIftwairw Obaenatioaa, J. AppL M~leoroL. 16: 31% (1977).)

-0.5 (1 _ V~:yb') (1 _ e-t/TL.)l (6.11)

when- the eddy diffusivity (Ky) applies to the entire Oow, i.e., it is stricdy a large-6eale quantity, and v., is the .w vdocity at the source. If Eq. 6.11 is ae~ O\Ier all pouible initial vdocitiea (vo), then Taylor". lOlutioa (Eq.5.8) for diHusioa from a COIIti.-ous source is obtained. For find Ve, however. the dowe lOlution applies to instantaneous (puff) diffUllioa at .null timc.. Aa time increat!ell, the lOlutioe approaches the Fickian equation, cr, :; 2 Kyt.

Eq-tion 6.11 wu compand by Gifford (1981) with tIw fidd observations in rJgL 6.2 and 6.3, _m;Ill that K:: 5 X 10" m2/aec,.e:: 0.15 mlaec, and T b :: 10" see, The resulting curve prorided a ~ fit to the obeervations for aIllrllYd ti-.

..