SELECTED MAXIM’S OF LAW FOR FATHERS RIGHTS I.

MAXIM’S OF LAW

Maxim’s of Interest that apply to Fathers Rights

II.

MAXIM

a. An established principle or proposition. A principle of law universally admitted, as being just and consonant With reason. Maxims in law are somewhat like axioms in geometry. 1 Bl. Com. 68. They are principles and authorities, and part of the general customs or common law of the land; and are of the same strength as acts of parliament, when the judges have determined what is a maxim; which belongs to the judges and not the jury. Terms do Ley; Doct. & Stud. Dial. 1, c. 8. Maxims of the law are holden for law, and all other cases that may be applied to them shall be taken for granted. 1 Inst. 11. 67; 4 Rep. See 1 Com. c. 68; Plowd. 27, b. The application of the maxim to the case before the court, is generally the only difficulty. The true method of making the application is to ascertain bow the maxim arose, and to consider whether the case to which it is applied is of the same character, or whether it is an exception to an apparently general rule. The alterations of any of the maxims of the common law are dangerous. 2 Inst. 210. The following are some of the more important maxims. Regula pro lege, si deficit lex. In default of the law, the maxim rules. [FROM: Bouvier’s 1856 Law Dictionary]
A communi observantia non est recedendum. From common observance there should be no departure; there must be no departure from common usage. A maxim formerly applied to the practice of the courts, to the ancient and established forms of pleading and conveyancing, and to professional usage generally. Lord Coke applies it to common professional opinion. [Blacks Law, 6th Ed.]

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OWNERSHIP OF CHILDREN—Memorize! Partus sequitur ventrem. "The offspring follow the condition of the mother, This is the case of slaves and animals.; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 167, 502; but with regard to freemen, children follow the condition of the father." Trying to split children: Memorize! “Here be two maximes of the common law. First, that no man can hold one and the same land immediately of two severall lords. Secondly, that one man cannot of the same land be both lord and tenant. And it is to be observed, that it is holden for an inconvenience, that any of the maximes of the law should be broken, though a private man suffer losse; for that by infringing of a maxime, not onely a generall prejudice to many, but in the end a publike incertainty and confusion to all would follow.” Section 152b. Maxim’s of Lord Coke
[Nemo potest esse tenes et dominus. No man can be at the same time tenant and landlord of the same tenement. Idem agens et patiens esse non potest. One cannot be agent and patient, in the same matter. Jenk. Cent. 40. Meaning: You are either your child’s Father, or the judge is. No man can hold the same land immediately of two several landlords. Co. Litt. 152.] Meaning: There can only be one Father (one main guardian of the child—NOT TWO!) Haeres est alter ispe, et filius est pars patris. An heir is another self, and a son is a part of the father.

Duo non possunt in solido unam rem possidere. "Two cannot possess one thing in its entirety." Blacks Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition, pg. 502
Meaning: Only one person can own the child. There is only four (4) choices: 1.) Father 2.) State 3.) Mother (but she needs subsidy, thereby can’t really own the child) or 4.) the child (as an unemancipated minor). Haeredem Deus facit, non homo. God and not man, make the heir. Haeris est nomen juris, filius est nomen naturae. Heir is a term of law, son a term of nature.

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The heir is the same person with the ancestor. not in atrocity. Matrimonia debent esse libera. 233. Haeres legitimus est quem nuptiae demonstrant. Qui providet sibi. Vir et uxor consentur in lege una persona. Haeres haeredis mei est meus haeres. 443. RIGHTS OF FATHERS Rights never die. 8. n. 22. No one can owe to himself. Co. 1600. He is the lawful heir whom the marriage demonstrates. provides for his heirs. Page 3 of 21 . The heir of my heir is my heir. Paternal power should consist in affection. 17 Mass. 3 Buls. “A citizen cannot be taken by force from his house to be conducted before a judge or to prison. Marriages ought to be free. Patria potestas in pietate debet. the more ancient shall be preferred. “No one can have a servitude over his own property. Nemo de domo sua extrahi debet. He defends the force and injury. Co. He who provides for himself. Inst. non in atrocitate consistere. Nemo potest sibi devere. 112. Husband and wife are considered one person in law. Defendit vim et injuriam. 2. 2 Bov. Where two rights concur. A privilege is a personal benefit and dies with the person. Dig. “A [father] commanding not too strictly is best obeyed. 26. Litt. 50. Inst. Litt. [Bouvier’s 1856 Law Dictionary] Nulli enim res sua servit jure servitutis.Haeres est eadem persona cum antecessore. Remisus imperanti melius paretur. providet haredibus.” Dig 8. 17. See Confusion of Rights. Privilegium est beneficium personale et extinguitur cum person .” 3 Co.

Pater is est quem nuptiae demonstrant. but was gradually curtailed. "Maxim. 15 Bin. Inst. Dig 50. 304. Ab. N. is acquired for the master. This term denotes the aggregate of those peculiar powers and rights which by the civil law of Rome. 327. Inst. He who uses his legal rights. 2. Matrimonium subsequens tollit peccatum praecedens. 548.] Nemo praesumitur alienam posteritatem suae praetulisse. 1 Bl. benefit. [Blacks Law Dictionary.. harms no one. Qui jure suo utitur. Com. children (natural or adopted). Litt. 3 Co. 6th Ed. Anciently. Quicpuid acquiritur servo. 1 Bouv. 17.[No officer can compel any Good and Lawful Man to get a license. Inst. Litt. S. 20. 273. it is the consent of the parties. A subsequent marriage cures preceding criminality. 32. or privilege in commerce. and any more remote descendants who sprang from him through males only. Co. 239. 7 mart. 17. belonged to the head of a family in respect to his wife. the paternal power. Dig. All men are equal before the natural law. 30. "Invito beneficium non datur. 553. 1 Bouv. it was of very extensive reach. until finally it amounted to little more than a right in the paterfamilias to hold as his own any property or acquisitions of one under his power. 1127] Page 4 of 21 . 446. “Offenses against nature are the gravest. Co. belong to the husband.No one is obliged to accept a benefit against his consent. 5. nemini facit injuriam. n." p. acquiritur domino. 50. NO one is presumed to have preferred another's posterity to his own. omnes homenes aequales sunt. Pecata contra naturam sunt gravissima. Cohabitation does not make the marriage. 4. 2140). 112. Dig. n. Nuptias non concubitas. Quod ad jus naturale attinet. Whatever is acquired by the servant. 33. pg. embracing even the power of life and death. Patria Potestas “In Roman law." Bouvier's Law Dictionary (1914). paternal authority. 322. The father is he whom the marriage points out. sed consensus facit. All things which are of the wife.Omnia quae sunt uxoris sunt ipsius viri.

Page 5 of 21 . 13 Vin.. 550. 39. Cent. Qui doit inheritoer al p re. a tutela removendus est. Fraud is odious and not to be presumed. possessing full social and civil rights. Qui in utero est. The Child knows his Fathers bed the best. The malice of men is to be avoided. 3 Co. 78.) Pueri sunt de sanguine parentum. 6th Ed. Car. Solus Deus haeredem facit. not under any legal disability to act for one’s self. pg. FRAUD Once a fraud. is considered as born. Cro. “Right and fraud never go together. 1434] RIGHTS OF CHILDREN Si quis custos fraudem pupillo fecerit.Sui Juris: “Of his own right. pro jam nato habetur quoties de ejus commodo quaeritur. (See Emancipation: Majority) [Black’s Law Dictionary. whenever it is for his benefit. Fraud and deceit should excuse no man. He who ought to inherit from the father. Ab. Fraus est celare fraudem. “If a guardian behave fraudulently to his ward. 40. Fraus est odiosa et non praesumenda. It is a fraud to conceal a fraud. 4 Co. 3 Co. ought to inherit from the son. Children are of the blood of their parents. 539. Malum hominun est obviandum. doit inheriter al fitz. he shall be removed from guardianship Jenk. God alone makes the heir. always a fraud. 15. (There can be no abortions due to this maxim. Fraus et dolus nemini patrocianari debent. sed pater et mater non sunt de sanguine puerorum. but the father and mother are not the blood of their children. 270. 1 Vern. He who is in the womb. Jus et fradem numquam cohabitant.

Fraud deserves fraud. Dig."Maxim. It is natural that he who bears the charge of a thing. [Blacks Law. One cannot transfer to another a right which he has not. 17. Faemina ab omnibus officiis civilibus vel publicis remotae sunt. p. 54. Vainly does he who offends against the law. “Time cannot render valid. commoda cujusque rei eum sequi. 50. seek the help of the law. 29. He who acts fraudrlently acts in vain. 17.2149. 10 Pet. in the same degree. as a physician or midwife. 50. Nemo plus juris ad alienum transfere potest. 50. [No legislative body Page 6 of 21 . R. which may be proved by the direct testimony of one who was present. is presumed to be always so. Qui semel malus. Dig. is often important evidence in proving parentage. 17. 100. an act void in its origin. Qui per fraudem agit. Fraud lies hid in general expressions Fraus meretur fraudem. quam ispe habent. Car. The fact of the accouchement. 680. Fraus latet in generalibus. 10. "Bouvier's Law Dictionary (1914). 317. should receive the profits. frustra agit.Fraus et jus numquam cohabitant. 2. 175."p.“The act of a woman in giving birth to a child. MOTHERS OBTAIN BENEFIT OF CUSTODY OF CHIDLREN MUST BEAR BURDEN: Accouchement-. Cro. Women are excluded from all civil and public charges or offices. 6th Ed. 161. He who is once bad. semper prasumitur esse malus in eodem genere. 17. 2 Roll. Dig. quem sequentur incommoda. 50. non potest tractu temporis convalescere.” Dig. Fraud and justice never agree together. Frustr legis auxilium quaerit qui in legem committit. Plow. 18] Secundum naturam est. "Non dat qui non habet---He gives nothing who has nothing. Wing. Quod initio vitiosum est. This is very doubtful morality. 17.

Because legislative powers are limited. Page 7 of 21 . He who does not have clean hands. He who first offends. Max. hates the light. n. 50. cannot benefit from the law. Inst. “No one is to be punished for the crime or wrong of another. 66.or man can convey any authority or jurisdiction he does not possess over common Rights vested by God in another. “No one shall take advantage of his own wrong. See 1 Bouv. Qui ex damnato coitu nascuntur. 7 Co. 26. Francis' Max. 2. 17. Nul ne doit s’enrichir aux depens des autres. inter liberos non computantur. “He who acts badly. Bouviers Law Dictionary.. is not counted among the children. No one ought to enrich himself at the expense of others. Litt. Co. “A right cannot arise from a wrong. Nemo ex suo delecto melioroem suam conditionem facere potest. Qui male agit. 137. and not criminal. causes the strife. Jus ex injuria non oritur. shall not have equity. 289. “He who derives a benefit from a thing. all powers derived from legislative acts are limited. 1433. sentiere debet et onus. Inst. “No one can improve his condition by a crime. ought to feel the disadvantages attending it.” 2 Bouv.” Nul prendra advantage de son tort demesne. “no one ought to enrich himself at the expense of others. Nemo punitur pro alieno delecto. n.] Nul ne doit s'enrichir aux depens des autres. pg 38. 3 Co. He who is born of an illicit union. odit lucem. Inst.” Que sentit commodum. He who has committed iniquity. CLEAN HANDS Qui accusat integrae famae sit et non criminosus. 8.” 4 Bin 639. Let him who accuses be of a clear fame.” Dig. Qui primum peccat ille facit rixam.

210. To be dead born is not to be born. 3828. In judicial proceedings. 167. probationes bedent esse luce clariores. In criminalibus. “Every act is to be estimated by the intention of the doer. Not to be born. 4 Bouv. No one shall take advantage of his own wrong. but not ignorance of law. 148. The laws consist not in being read. 116. We may do what is allowed by law. Impossibility excuses the law. Inst. n. EVERY CITIZEN MUST KNOW THE LAW (Natural/Common Law) Idem est scire aut scire debet aut potuisse. 1856. Ignorantia excusatur. This maxim is applied to the duty of every one to know the law. 2 Bouv. Co. Page 8 of 21 . See 2 Paige. 35. Inst. pr l. Id possumus quod de jure possumus. is the same. 8 co. Litt. 29. n. 1. Ignorantia legis neminem excusat. Domat. but not ignorance of law. n. See Ignorance. 1721 and 1935. the proofs ought to be clearer than the light. Nul prendra advantage de son tort demesne. pari sunt. Ignorance of fact may excuse. Ignorance of fact may excuse. and to be dead born. infancy is aided or favored. s.Omne actum ab intentione agentis est judicandum. 45. 29. 2. non juris sed facti. 6. 3 Co. inst. Impotentia excusat legem. liv. In judiciis minori aetati sucuritur. Co. No one shall take advantage of his own wrong. Litt. Mortuus exitus non est exitus. Non in legendo sed in intelligendo leges consistunt. In criminal cases. Co. Nullus commodum capere potest de injuri su propri . Litt. Lane. pg. 4. t. but in being understood. Non nasci. To be able to know is the same as to know. et natum mori.” Bouvier’s Dictionary.

69. Litt. Officium nemini debet esse damnosum. 7 co. An office ought to be injurious to no one. Ubi non est condendi auctorias ibi non est parendi necessitas. No one can be a witness in his own cause.” 12 Co. Cent. Judici oficium suum excedenti non paretur. Praxis judicim est interpres legum. Judex non potest esse testis in propri caus. Page 9 of 21 . A judge cannot be a witness in his own cause. “Where there is no authority to enforce. 392. 4 Co. The practice of the judges is the interpreter of the laws. The judge is the speaking law.” Dav. Co. Testis nemo in su caus esse potest. Si meliores sunt quos ducit amor. 113. Judex non potest inuriam sibi datum punier. non ratum est. 139. 4. The offices of magistrates ought not to be sold.JUDGES Judicium a non suo judice datum nullius est momenti. 10 Co. 76. Jenk. Litt. If many are better led by love. [Bouvier’s 1856] Judex est lex loquens. more are corrected by fear. plures sunt quos corrigit timer. Pirata est hostis humani generis. there is no authority to obey. Hob. Co. Officia magistratus non debent esse venalia. 76. 234. Inst. 11 Co. “To a judge who exceeds his office or jurisdiction no obedience is due. Factum judice quod ad ujus officium non spectat. 96. 3 Co. 113. A pirate is an enemy of the human race. No one may be judge in his own cause. 279. “A judgement given by an improper judge is of no moment. Inst. “A judge cannot punish a wrong done to himself. is of no force. An act of a judge which does not relate to his office.

That is the best system of law which confides as little as possible to the discretion of the judge. De Aug. 756 reads: Impossibilium nulla obligatio est. Bac. Sc. Bacon.” Col. qui minimum sibi. Bac. 550. p. Optimus judex. quae minimum relinquit arbitrio judicis." Officia magistrates non debent esse venalia. 46.----No one should be judge in his own cause. No one is to be punished for the crime or wrong of another.Optimam esse legem. A punishment inflicted on a few. De Aug. metus ad omnes perveniat. BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY. Paen ad paucos. Ab. No one is presumed to give. 46." 2. Optima est lex.) "Nemo debet esse judex in propria causa. “The offices of magistrates ought not to be sold. (13th Reprint 1998). Quaelibet jurisdictio cancellos suos habet.Litt. Sci. quae minimum relinquit arbitrio judicis. id quod certitudo ejus praestat. Nemo praesumitur malus. He is the best judge who relies as little as possible on his own discretion. 6th Ed. and this is an advantage which results from certainty. Nemo praesumitur donare. Delay is disapproved of in law. Aph. Every jurisdiction has its bounds. 8. That law is the best which leaves the least discretion to the judge. 234. Aph. 1. No one is presumed to be bad. 22 Vin. causes a dread to all." 3. Page 10 of 21 . NO ONE CAN BE PUNISHED FOR ANOTHER PERSON’S CRIME Nemo punitur pro alieno delicto. Sci. De Aug. Mora reprobatur in lege.) "Nemo debet esse judex in propria sua causa----No man can be judge in his own cause.) "In propria causa nemo judex----No one can be judge in his own cause. There is no obligation to do impossible things. Aph.

” Jenk. Page 11 of 21 . “No one is allowed to incapacitate himself.” Bouviers Law Dictionary. Cent. 3 Bouv. pg 40. 1856. The law always gives a remedy. “The law never works an injury.” 3 Bouv. Inst. n. No one is restrained from using several defences. “It is better to recede than to proceed in evil. “The pig does not skin himself. “No man is bound to accuse himself. 22 Vin.” Nemo Cogitur rem suam vendere. Ab. FIFTH AMENDMENT—RIGHT OF DEFENSE Nemo admittendus est inhabilitare seipsum. One may not do an act to himself. 66. Melius est recurrere quam malo currere. Lex semper dabit remedium. Nemo tenetur armare adversarum contra se. etiam justo pretio. 2 Inst. 176. 2411. Majus est delictum seipsum occidare quam alium. n.” Lex nemini operatur inquum.” Sed vide Eminent Domain. it is a greater crime to kill one's self than another. Cent. 304. “The law always gives a remedy. Lex nemini facit injuriam. No one is bound to arm his adversary. “No one is bound to sell his property. nemini facit injuriam. 22. Co. Inst. 2411. No man is presumed to do anything against nature. 154. Jenk. 40 Nemo tenetur sssseipsum accusare.” 4 Inst. “The Law does wrong to no one. Litt. or does him a wrong.EFFECT OF LAW Lex semper dabit remedium. Nemo prohibetur pluribus defensionibus uti. even for a just price.

IMPRISONMENT FOR A DEBT EVEN FOR THE SHORTEST TIME. Co. & Stu. Law is a rule of right. Appendix A. Litt. Malum non praesumitur. An evil custom is to be abolished. Nihil quod inconveniens est licitum est. TRUTH MUST PREVIAL IN COURT Nihil possumus contra veritatem. FULLY DISCHARGES THE DEBT Minima paena corporalis est major qualibet pecuniari . 1600. Evil is not presumed. 7th Ed. (1999). 220.” Dig 8. The law forces no one to do vain or useless things. c. 1653: Lex non cogit ad impossibilia. No one is bound to do what is impossible. “No one can have a servitude over his own property. Lex non intendi aliquid impossibile. BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY. Malus usus est abolendus. Page 12 of 21 . 2.IMPOSSIBILITY A l'impossible nul n'est tenu. Inst. 601. at p. We can do nothing against truth. Dial. Nothing inconvenient is lawful. The smallest bodily punishment is greater than any pecuniary one. n. Nulli enim res sua servit jure servitutis. among which I found. 141. 72. No one is bound to an impossibility. Nemo tenetur ad impossibile. 1615-1701 lists legal maxims. 17 Mass. 2. The law does not intend anything impossible. 26. Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu inutilia peragenda. 2 Bov. pp. 2 Inst. Inst. 1 Bouv. 6. n. Doct. 4 Co. Lex est norma recti. 443. The law does not compel to impossible ends.

Dig. the worse. Wing. Max. 88. Lex punit mendacium. 17. A mandate of an illegal thing is void. Page 13 of 21 . 74. what is illegal ought not to be admitted. non debet esse negatum. 1856. is a betrayer of the truth. and not merely apparent. 3 Buls. ut inde veniat bonum. proditor est verilatis. 5 Rep. 1. Rei turpis nullum mandatum est. Litt. “What is proved by the record. 11 Co. but it must be true and legal reason. pg. 313. Non faciat malum. Reason may be alleged when the law is defective. He who does not willingly speak the truth. sed vera et legalis et non apparens. is a wrong. The more common the evil. From the words of the law there must be no departure. Ipsae legis cupiunt ut jure regantur. 268. ought not to be denied. “The law punishes falsehood. Broom's Max. Ratio potest allegari deficiente lege. 3. Co. 6 Co. Qui non libere veritatem pronunciat. Under pretext of legality. Qnicquid est contra normam recti est injuria. Whatever is against the rule of right. 174. Co. Litt. 25.Praetextu liciti non debet admitti illicitum. Facta sunt potentiora verbis. Perspicua vera non sunt probanda. Facts are more powerful than words. Factum negantis nulla probatio. Quod per recordum probatum. 6. Litt. 119. 16. You are not to do evil that good may come of it. Plain truths need not be proved.” A verbis legis non est recedendum. Negative facts are not proof.” Bouviers Law Dictionary. The laws themselves require that they should be governed by right. 191. 62. Malum quo communius eo pejus. 10 Co.

“He does not appear to have retained his consent. Page 14 of 21 . There is no obligation to do impossible things." 3. if he have changed anything through the means of a party threatening. Ratio in jure aequitas integra. Litt. Co. 287. 320. 232. Reason is not confined to any place.) "In propria causa nemo judex----No one can be judge in his own cause. 1. BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY. Ratio non clauditur loco." 2.” 2 Co. 6th Ed. the reason of the law being changed. Reg. Reason is the soul of the law. (13th Reprint 1998). 97. Inst." REASON MUST BE IN THE LAW Ratio est legis anima. seu defalto. p. Co.Nemo punitur sine injuria facto.) "Nemo debet esse judex in propria causa----No one should be judge in his own case. Nothing against reason is lawful. Non videtur consensum retinuisse si quis ex praescripto minantis aliquid immutavit. 4 Co. Ratio et auctoritas duo clarisima mundi limina. the law is also changed.) "Nemo debet esse judex in propria sua causa----No man can be judge in his own cause. Ratio est radius divini luminis. Litt. Inst. The reason of the law is the soul of the law. 33. Reason and authority are the two brightest lights in the world. mutata legis ratione mutatur et lex. Nihil quod est contra rationem est licitum.” Bacon’s Max. Reason is a ray of divine light. 756 reads: Impossibilium nulla obligatio est [pronunciation omitted]. Ratio legis est anima legis. “No one is punished unless for some wrong act or default. Reason in law is perfect equity.

Lex est ratio summa. The law commands not useles things. Solemnitas juris sunt observandae. Lex nemini facit injuriam. Lex non deficit in justitia exibenda. 96. Litt. 2 Buls. Lex non praecipit inutilia. The law is the more praised when it is consonant to reason.LAW Lex semper dabit remedium.” Bouviers Law Dictionary. Saepe viatorim nova non vetus orbita fallit. a private law.” Jenk. Jenk. not the old one. 12 Co. A Privilegium est quasi privata lex. R. The law always gives a remedy. The law intends not anything impossible. as it were. because useless labor is foolish. The law does wrong to no one. Co. et contraria prohibet. Cent. 4 Co. 1856. Co. Regula pro lege. Law is the dictate of reason. Lex semper intendit quod convenit ratione. Often it is the new road. n. Inst. 34. The law does not fail in showing justice. Co. the maxim rules. Lex non cogit ad impossibilia. we must act by the law of nature. 197. Lex plus laudatur quando ratione probatur. pg. Lex est dictamen rationis. 8. Page 15 of 21 . “The solemnities of law are to be observed. Liberum corpus aestimationem non recipit. si deficit lex. Legibus sumptis disinentibus. 78. 3 Bouv. quae jubet quae sunt utilia et necessaria. 89. 117. When laws imposed by the state fail. A privilege is. Hob. 13. lege naturae utendum est. 65. 2411. Litt.Cent. The law always intends what is agreeable to reason. 319. Law is the perfection of reason. 298. which deceives the traveller. Litt. which commands what is useful and necessary and forbids the contrary. 2 Roll. The body of a freeman does not admit of valuation. Lex non intendit aliquid impossibile. quia inutilis labor stultus. Inst. “In default of the law. The forces not to impossibilities.

Power should be strictly interpreted. pg. 268.” Bouvier’s Law Dictionary. 3 Co. metus ad omnes perveniat. Co. 7 co. the common law is to be preferred. Human laws are born. non praecedere. 454. Statuta pro publico commodo late interpretantur. When the common law and statute law concur. 71. Fiat justitia ruat caelum. you will wander without a guide. 550. Statutes made for the public good ought to be liberally construed. 52. Le contrat fait la loi. Reg. Bacon's Max. Inst. From the words of the law there must be no departure. A person may not be punished differently than according to what the sentence enjoins. Cent. Power should follow justice. 5 Rep. Sequi debet potentia justitiam. a wide or broad construction. 2 Co. quam secundum quod se habet condemnatio. 227. 1856. vivunt et moriuntur. live and die. Si a jure discedas vagus eris. causes a dread to all. and everything will be in a state of uncertainty to every one. but unlawful. The contract makes the law. STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF THE LAW Potestas stricte interpretatur. not precede it. Jenk. Litt. Lawful commands receive a strict interpretation. Mandata licita recipiunt strictam interpretationem.Leges humanae nascuntur. 25. Max. Inst. 217. If you depart from the law. Wing. 4 Co. “A punishment inflicted on a few. et erunt omnia omnibus incerta. sed illicita latam et extensam. 21. Potestas strict interpretatur. Page 16 of 21 . 25. “Power ought to be strictly interpreted. Non alio modo puniatur aliquis. Broom's Max. Ab. Let justice be done. though the heavens should fall. 16. Paena ad paucos.” 22 Vin. A verbis legis non est recedendum. 119.

The “corpus delecti” of a crime is the body. whereas the mens rea (guilty mind) involves the intent factor. a guilty or wrongful purpose. Edwards. and public law.. Punishments should rather be softened than aggravated. THREE (3) ELEMENTS OF EVERY CRIME: “Every” crime must have all three of these following elements in which to be a crime under law. [Blacks Law Dictionary. 438. Litt. foundation or substance of the crime. ut inde veniat bonum. Guilty knowledge and wilfulness. Greenbaum. 358 N. Not two of the three. 118 P. 287.Non faciat malum. 985] 2.) Corpus Delecti -. that is. 58. 161.) Actus reus -. 1.” A wrongful deed which renders the actor criminally liable if combined with mens rea. United States v. Not one of the three—but all three. vis et injuria. State.“An element of criminal responsibility: a guilty mind.g.W. which ordinarily includes two elements. 6th Ed. The actus reus is the physical aspect of a crime. 138 F2d 437. Force and wrong are greatly contrary to peace. immoral in its nature and injurious in its consequences.2d 921. 516. p. 45 N.M. Such are most or all of the offenses cognizable Page 17 of 21 . 344] Act malum in se (See malum in se) [REAL CRIME] “A wrong in itself. 36] 3. [Blacks Law Dictionary. An act is said to be malum in se when it is inherently and essentially7 evil. State v. C. 220.) Mens Rea -. the corpse of a murdered man. 377 S.“The body of a crime. 6th Ed. the charred remains of a house burned down. upon principals of natural. 3 Co. (Failure to provide 99. Paenae potius molliendae quam exasperendae sunt. the objective proof or substantial fact that a crime has been committed. 11 Co. The body (material substance) upon which a crime has been committed.C. Father is usually poor and financially debilitated. See Model Penal Code Section 2.2d 280. 6th Ed. or Father does not owe as either a crime or great dishonor has been committed against him).J. the act and the criminal agency of the act.“The guilty act. 74.E. p. Co. State v.. without any regard to the fact of its being noticed or punished by the law of the state. Grindstaff v. [Blacks Law. a criminal intent. an act or case involving illegality from the very nature of the transaction. In a derivative sense.02. Inst. 49 Ohio St.2d 1051.2d 31. e. 214 Tenn. You are not to do evil that good may come of it. Paci sunt maxime contraria.9% of the time does not meet this requirement (Father is either forced or driven out of child’s life.N. Shedoudy. 926. See also Criminal (Criminal Intent). moral. 1055.A.

larceny. I cannot do by proxy. but becomes so because its commission is expressly forbidden by positive law. an act which is not inherently immoral. neque placent. non debent trahi in consequentiam. “It is dangerous to introduce new and dangerous things. non potest tractu temporis convalescere. Qui non propulsat injuriam quando potest. necque recta videntur. 959] Act malum prohibitum (See Malum prohibitum). “What is done contrary to the custom of our ancestors. [Blacks Law Dictionary. He who is silent appears to consent. etc. 960] OLD LAW—NOT NEW LAW IS TO BE PREFERRED AND PROTECTED Quae praeter consuetudinem et morem majorum fiunt. Quod initio vitiosum est. Cent.” 4 Co.at common law (without the denouncement of a statute. pg. 78. nec per alium.. a thing which is wrong because [it is] prohibited. “Things introducted contrary to the reason of the law. infert. 271. SILENCE—NOT RESPONDING TO ATTACKS BY GOVERNMENT Qui tacet consentire videtur. 4 Co. 50. 29. as murder. What I cannot do in person. 32." Dig. Cent. induces it. “When the common law and the stature law concur. 71.Litt. Quod per me non possum. Page 18 of 21 . 24. Jenk. 75. an act involving an illegality resulting from positive law. 379.” 12 Co. 6th Ed.” 4 Co. [Blacks Law Dictionary. 17. neither pleases nor appears right. Periculosum est res novas et inusitatas inducere.. [A CRIME JUST BECAUSE GOVERNMENT MAKES IT A CRIME] “A wrong prohibited.” Co. He who does not repel a wrong when he can. 6th Ed. the common law is to be preferred. ought not to be drawn into precedents. Quae contra ratioonem juris introducta sunt. Jenk. "Time cannot render valid an act void in its origin. p. Compare Malum Prohibitum.

101. 23. “If the principal be taken away. ratio autem generalis. Nihil simul inventum est et perfectum. Semper necessitas probandi incumbit qui agit. Forma legalis forma essentialis. Sensus verborum est anima legis. 72. When the words of a statute are special. Inst. Statutum generaliter est intelligendum quaudo verva statuti sunt specialia. 230. Nothing is invented and perfected at the same moment. 1 Co. 12 Co. but the reason of it general. When form is not observed a nullity of the act is inferred. than to consent to it. The end of a thing is to be attended to. Co. inferiur adnullatio actus. Firmior et potentior est operatio legis quam dispositio hominis. It is better to suffer every wrong or ill. 100. Forma non observata. 176. Co. The end puts an end to litigation. 10 Co. 102. 2. 10 Co. Page 19 of 21 .Litt.Melius est recurrere quam malo currere. 5 Co. Finis rei attendendus est. Finis finem litibus imponit. The origin of a thing ought to be inquired into. Sublato principali tollitur adjunctum. 3 Co. Legal form is essential form. Inst. 4 Inst. 7. Sublato fundamento cadit opus. Litt.” Co. 3 Co. The claimant is always bound to prove: the burden of proof lies on him. 99. Melius est omnia mala pati quam malo concentire. The meaning of words is the spirit of the law. the structure or work fall.” Bouviers Law Dictionary. 389. It is better to recede than to proceed in evil. pg. 78. 1856. 51. 3 Inst. Litt. PROCEEDURE OF LAW Origo rei inspici debet. “Remove the foundation. The disposition of law is firmer and more powerful than the will of man. the adjunct is also taken away. it is to be understood generally.

will not be construed to the prejudice of any person in whom there was no laches. Praetextu liciti non debet admitti illicitum. Better is the condition of the defendant.Action founded on the duties or obligations arising on the relation analogous to that of guardian and ward. Actore non probante reus absolvitur -. 29.When the plaintiff does not prove his case the defendant is acquitted (or absolved). It is very natural that an obligation should not be dissolved but by the same principles which were observed in contracting it. Under pretext of legality. 32] Actus Dei nemini facit injuriam -. 122.” Page 20 of 21 . nor policy prevent. 12 Co.Actio tutelae -. The class of civil law personal actions which were adjudged only by the strict law. and in which the judge was limited to the precise language of the formula. 6th Ed. 32] Actio stricti juris -. 6th Ed. 3 Co. it is inferred that the act is annulled. 100. quo colligatum est.The principal part of everything is in the beginning. 1175] REBUTTAL TO THOSE WHO SAY “I’M ONLY DOING MY JOB. 7.. and had no discretionary power to regard and bona fides of the transaction. p. Every will is consummated by death.Comm. qu m eo genere quidque dissolvere. than that of the plaintiff. 50. which no industry can avoid. pg. 1 Bl. Inst. 2 Co.The act of God does injury to no one. Cujusque rei potissima pars principium est-. p. Potior est conditio defendentis. [Blacks Law 6th Ed. See 1 Co. When the form is not observed. Dig. 35. what is illegal ought not to be admitted.An action of strict right. infertur adnullatio actus. Omne testamentum morte consummatum est. Nihil tam naturale est. Non observata forma. [Blacks Law. [Blacks Law. 359. 17. A thing which is inevitable by the act of God.

9 co. 59. Better is the condition of the possessor. commands. Potest quis renunciare pro se. 3 Co. 45. 1. Ab. Privatorum conventio juri publico non derogat. Pacta privata juri publico derogare non possunt.Qui potest et debet vetare. 20 Vin. 7 Co. where no better title appears. Inst. He who does not forbid what he can forbid. PROPERTY Prohibetur ne quis faciat in suo quod nocere possit alieno. He who can and ought to forbid. for himself and his heirs. n. 278. Page 21 of 21 . 41. 305. Private contracts cannot derogate from the public law. See 1 Bouv. the whole is taken away. Qui non prohibit quod prohibere potest assentire videtur. juri quod pro se introductum est. seems to assent. 83. a right which was introduced for his own benefit. An integral part being taken away. tollitur totum. Dig. Possession is a good title. 23. A man may relinquish. 17. 50. It is prohibited to do on one's own property that which may injure another's. Potior est conditio possidentis. jubet. and does not. Private agreements cannot derogate from public law. Parte quacumque integranta sublata. 2 Inst. et suis.

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