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Content:
Introduction
Elevator terminology and components Types of elevators Safety features Types of Emergencies

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An elevator (or lift) is a vertical transport vehicle that efficiently moves people or goods between floors of a building.

` There are two types of Elevators:Hydraulic Rope-Geared .

both of which are usually located in a separate room adjacent to the elevator shaft.The hydraulic elevator consists of a cab attached to the top of a hydraulic jack similar to a jack used for a car lift in a service station. The hydraulic jack assembly normally extends below the lowest floor and is operated by a hydraulic pump and reservoir. Hydraulic elevators are the type generally used in single-family residences .

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Hydraulic Found in two types: Plunger type and Roped hydraulic 7 .

The piston is generally not telescopic.Hydraulic . 8 . so there must be a hole in the ground as long as the distance the elevator travels.Plunger type This type is the most common and consists of an elevator car mounted on top of a long hydraulic piston.

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It¶s the right solution for hazard-sensitive and waterfront sites. tis¶ Roped Hydraulic is a cost-effective. 10 .Hydraulic ± Roped hydraulic . O environmentally safe elevator designed for customers seeking an alternative to traditional holed elevators. and for existing building.

The Otis Roped Hydraulic has a plunger (A) located on each side of the car and a sheave (B) controlled by a set of plunger guides (C). The system has an instantaneous safety (F) that is activated by a traction governor (G) and governor tension sheave (H). Ropes (D) are fastened to the top of jack stands (E) and the bottom of the car frame. .

Hydraulic ± Roped hydraulic 12 .

` Two Disadvantages Must Have Enough Room Energy Inefficient .

these types of elevators are moved using cables . Rather than being pushed from below.` ` These are the most popular types of elevators.

Rope-geared elevators are much more efficient and safer.` ` ` Rails are used to guide the elevator Keep elevator and counterweights steady. .

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ELEVATOR HOISTWAY MACHINE CAR /DRIVE SYSTEM CONTROL SYSTEM SAFETY SYSTEM .

18 . The guard is between 21´ and 48´ long.Elevator car The elevator car door travels through the hoistway with the car. This guard protects the passengers from being exposed to the open hoistway under the car if the doors are opened when it is not at the landing. A toe guard is present at the bottom of some cars.

Cross head 19 .

Safety plank 20 .

This guard protects the passengers from being exposed to the open hoistway under the car if the doors are opened when it is not at the landing. The guard is between 21´ and 48´ long. 21 . The elevator car door travels through the hoistway with the car. A toe guard is present at the bottom of some cars.Elevator carcontd.

Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 22 .

Generally serving all floors of the building. 23 .Hoistway The shaft that encompasses the elevator car.

.In high-rise buildings hoistways may be banked. With specific hoistways serving only the lower floors and others serving only middle or upper floors while traveling in a blind hoistway until reaching the floors that it serves. A blind hoistway has no doors on the floors that it does not serve.

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with the bottom of the door running in a slot. .Horizontal operating hoistway doors are generally hung from the top on rollers that run in a track.

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The doors can also be knocked out of their track and fall into the hoistway .Forcing these doors at the middle or at the bottom will cause damage to the doors and their mounting hardware.

They are also interconnected electrically to prevent operation of the elevator if any of the elevator¶s hoistway doors are open.` The hoistway door locking mechanism provides a means to mechanically lock each hoistway door. .

Hoistway door interlock .

Interlock for freight elevator 33 .

Carried on trucks and the squad. permit the unlocking of the hoistway door interlock. .

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but may also be on other selected floors or all floors . These keyholes are usually located at the bottom and top floors.The keyhole on the upper portion of a hoistway door that accepts a hoistway emergency door key and permits unlocking of the hoistway door locking mechanism.

Escutcheo n tube 37 .

Escutcheo n tube .

39 . Photo-electric eyes were problematic and are being phased out.Photo-electric and infrared sensors A sensor between the hoistway and car doors that detects objects in their path and prevents the doors from closing.

Infra-red sensor 40 .

41 . Usually mounted to the safety plank and crosshead. They keep the car in contact with the guide rails and prevent sway.Roller guides A set of three wheels that roll against the guide rails.

Roller guides on Cross head 42 .

Roller guides on Safety plank 43 .

44 .Safeties Emergency braking mechanism that stops the car by wedging into the guide rails when over speeding has occurred. It is activated by the speed governor sensing over speeding of the elevator car.

Safeties 45 .

Safeti es Governor rope 46 .

They are steel with a hemp core to keep them pliable and lubricated.Hoisting cables (or ropes) Used on traction type elevators. 47 . usually attached to the crosshead and extending up into the machine room looping over the sheave on the motor and then down to the counter weights. Hoisting cable are generally 3 to 6 in number.

500lbs and the 5/8´ 23.Hoisting cables (or ropes) These cables are usually 1/2´or 5/8´ in diameter. 48 .000lbs each. The 1/2´cables have a breaking strength of 14. at 900 degrees the wire steel rope contains only about 13% of its original tensile strength. However.

Nickel Babbitt 49 .

Hoisting cables Wedge clamp 50 .

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52 . that guide the elevator car. at the middle of the elevator car. Usually mounted to the sides of the hoistway.Guide rails Tracks in the form of a ³T´ that run the length of the hoistway.

Guide rail Guide rail 53 .

When over-speeding is detected. 54 . the governor grips the cable which applies the safeties that wedge against the guide rails and stops the car.Governor sheave Provided to detect over speeding of the car. Usually a cable is attached to the safeties on the under side of the car. This rope runs down through a pulley at the bottom of the shaft and back up to the machine room and around the governor sheave. called the governor rope.

Governor sheave 55 .

Governor rope 56 .

Governor rope 57 .

Car emergency exit Usually located at the top of the elevator cars. sometimes on the side. Top exits open from outside the car. other times not present. 58 . Side exits are extremely dangerous to use and are no longer being installed. Existing side exits have been disabled by being permanently bolted shut.

Top emergency exit 59 .

Generally containing the electric motors. but could be anywhere. controllers and electrical disconnect to the elevators.Machine room For hydraulic plunger type Usually located in the basement or first floor. oil reservoirs. pumps. 60 .

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Automated Brake System at the top and bottom of the shaft. Centrifugal force causes a brake system to activate. Also has an electromagnetic brake that is activated if the elevator loses power. .` ` ` ` ` More ropes than needed Built-in brake systems Governor prevents the elevator from falling to the bottom of the shaft.

Emergency stop switch ± The red switch inside some cars that cuts off the power to the car except for the lights. Interlocks ± Cuts power to the car if this electrical/mechanical interconnection is broken.Safety features Safeties ± a stopping mechanism for an over speeding car. alarm and communication system. 64 .

Safety features
Seismic switch - A motion sensing device on some elevators installations. If it is activated the elevator will move away from the counter weights to the next landing with its doors open and inoperable. This device overrides phase I and phase II operation unless phase II operation is already in effect.
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Safety features
If this device has been activated it can mean that an unsafe structural condition exists. This device is located in the machine room.

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68 .Safety features Seismic valve for hydraulic elevators .A valve located in the pit close to the jack that is designed to hold pressure if the hydraulic line is broken due to seismic activity.

Seismic valve 69 .

verify that an elevator technician has been notified. 70 . When dispatched on a elevator emergency. Elevator technicians are on call 24hrs a day and can usually respond within an hour.Elevator emergencies In many cases an elevator technician can correct a problem faster than we can initiate a rescue.

Types of emergencies ‡Person trapped in elevator car The 3 most common reasons: ± Power failure ± Malfunction of control components ± Activation of safety equipment 71 .

. its best not to attempt a rescue. it can be used. 72 . Explain the situation to the occupant. Calm and reassure them and let them know that they are not in danger and steps are being taken to remove them safely.Power failure If it¶s going to be short term. If emergency power is available.

73 ..Power failure Some newer elevators will return to the lobby one at a time where the doors will open automatically.

Malfunction of control components Shut off the power to the elevator in the machine room. This will prevent any unexpected movement of the car when the power is restored. 74 ..

Activation of safety equipment.. 75 . it is often indicating a serious malfunction in the hoistway or operating machinery. If one of the elevator¶s safety devices has been activated.

However..Activation of safety equipment. turn off the main power to the elevator in the machine room. 76 . In this situation we should wait for an elevator technician. if we have to perform a rescue. This will help the technician in determining the problem. Leave the power on to the elevator.

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