ORGANIZATION OF NURSING EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION Introduction: Nursing is a carrier that combines scientific principles and technical skills to achieve

the quality care. For the nurse to be effective in the dynamic complex health care system and to help client to achieve the outcome , nurses need to be knowledgeable , resourceful and able to work well with other health care practioners. This goal is achieved through nursing education. The quality of the educational programme depends to a large extend on the organizational framework wit in which it operates, and a nursing educational institution, can operate effectively only if it is properly organized. and has the support of proper administration and of an interested controlling authority. Steps in the organization of nursing educational administration 1. Formulation of board of management 2. Formulation of philosophy of College Of Nursing 3. Obtaining permission from state government 4. Obtaining permission from INC 5. Obtaining permission from University 6. Preparing infrastructure and other facilities 7. Selection , recruitment , appointment of faculty 8. Selection, recruitment , appointment of students 9. Curriculum development and administration 10. Periodic credentialing and accreditation of the College 11. Extra curricular/ co curricular activities 12. Student organization 13. Maintenance of record and reports Selection, recruitment , appointment of students: Recruitment and Selection Admission policies:
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In relation to the Academic Qualifications In relation to personal and social fitness Others

Recruitment:After policies for admission have been agreed upon , the next step is to recruit the students. Recruitment is a continuous activity which is carried out both for the profession in general and for the individual schools of nursing. •

General recruitment for nursing Recruitment for individual institutions

At this stage she will be influenced by her parents, teachers or friends or by past experience of nursing care and by the image of nursing she has build up. Some of the ways of general recruitment include • • • • Talks and plays in radio Films on nursing By making available in public , school and club libraries biographies and fiction on nursing subjects By publishing articles in the journals

Recruitment for individual institutions After the student chooses the nursing profession , the next decision to be made is where to go for necessary preparation, and this is where the individual school will reap the benefit of having an active recruitment programme. Some of the methods which locally used are: • Holding open days in the hospital and educational institution

Arranging for prize – giving and “capping ceremonies” to which students may invite parents and the issue and receipt of the application form are an administrative responsibility. • • • • • friends Arranging talk by the staff of the educational institution in local schools, youth clubs and other community organizations Displaying suitable posters in the institution, in the hospital and other appropriate place Publishing articles , notices, reports and pictures of the institutional activities in the local press Publication of the institutional brochure

Selection: The methods used for the selection of the students should be as objective as possible and should have proved themselves to be value and successful in identifying the kind of students wanted. Some suggestions relating to selection procedures are:

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The institution should have clearly defined selection policies Application form Selection committee

Application form: The information contained in the application form and the reports received in connection with them should be systematically tabulated and filed Selection committee The members of the selection committee should include: • • • • • • • • The head of the nursing institution The senior tutor A representative of the local controlling authority(hospital) Any or all of the following A representative from the nursing division of the state( if applicable) A physician A school teacher and possibly An educational psychologist

“Budget is a concrete precise picture of the total operation of an enterprise in monitory terms.” H.M .Donovan. How to make a budget for the nursing institution
1. Find out the actual budget for the previous year 2. Estimate the financial budget for the next year

Budget for 2010-2011 2009- 2010 Actual budget 2010-2011 estimated budget

Income

Expenditure

Income

expenditure

Income • • • • Invested fund, Tuition fees based on number of student admission, Textbook Uniform, etc…

Expenditure Indirect • • • • Provision for general administration Duty expense Laundry expense Telephone expense etc

Direct • • • • • • • • • • Instructional Non -instructional Resident for the staff Recreational Clerical expense Salaries Maintenance and repair Purchase of uniform Health programmes supplies Library ( book acquisition, periodical subscription, textbook purchase, other library equipments)

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Recreational equipments School equipments (class room and lab repairs) Supplies and equipments for library , lab, classroom, Scholarship for the students, professional development of the faculty Contingency fund for educational tours, professional activities

Normally controlling body takes the full responsibility for administering some of the item mentioned above , such as salary , stipend , equipment , linen, household supplies and transport. But there are others for which it is essential that the staff should be directly responsible if the objectives is to be achieved. This need not necessarily involve them in the actual payment of the bills , but it does mean that they must advise the amount of budget required, should know the amount sanctioned, and should have full control over how the money provided will spent

The library for the purchase of books , journals and daily newspapers , for binding of journals, for stationary , such as index card , label etc Incidental teaching equipment for teaching aids such as charts, films or slides, posters, paints etc Office supplies for stationary , including stencils, registers, typewriter ribbons , files etc External lecturers for the payment of fees in accordance with the policy of the controlling body Contingencies as mentioned in the above list

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Curriculum development and administration Curriculum Is defined as the systematic arrangement of the sum total of selected experiences planned by the school for a defined group of students to attain the aims of a particular educational programme.” Steps in the development of the curriculum According to Ralph Tylor; 1. The establishment of the educational purpose \ objectives of the institution 2. The selection of the learning experiences which will achieve the purpose 3. The effective organization of the selected learning experiences 4. Planned and continuing evaluation The establishment of the educational purpose\e objectives of the institution: Educational objectives are the desired change in behavior as a result of specific teaching learning activity or specific teacher learner activity.

Determination of the aims\ objectives: Determination of the aims\ objectives should be based on the following factors • The statement of the schools philosophy • The social and health needs of the people • The kind of students that is expected to be recruited and her specific needs • The level of the professional competence to be attained • The role of the nurse to play in the society • The statutory minimum requirements • The teaching, physical and clinical resources available Formulation of the purpose\ objectives: The purposes are the overall goals of the total educational programme and should be formulated as a broad statement of one to two sentences. The objectives which are derived from the purposes should be more specific and should be stated in such a way that they will be a guide , in the construction of curriculum and selection of the learning experiences. Selection of the learning experiences which will achieve the purpose: The selection of the learning experience , broadly speaking , deciding on what will be the content of the curriculum. A learning experience is something in which the student actively participates and which result in a change in the behavior.The kind of learning experience which the student require will depend on the objectives of the curriculum. The effective organization of the selected learning experiences: The steps include • • • • • • Grouping Learning experiences under subject heading Preparation of master plan for the curriculum Placement of learning experiences in the total curriculum Preparation of the correlation chart Organization of clinical experiences Types of teaching system have to be followed

Grouping Learning experiences under subject heading

After selecting the learning experience one has to organize them with an intention to provide optimum experience to the students.

Preparation of master plan for the curriculum Preparation of the master plan helps the teachers in the placement of the subject matter and the clinical experience. it should include: • • • • • • Total duration of the programme Explanation of the different courses Total allotted times in terms of theory and practice Teaching – learning method Scheme of evaluation Details of the student activiies

Placement of learning experiences in the total curriculum • • • • all elements of the curriculum should be related to one another the learning experience should follow principle of sequence , integration, and correlation Preparation of the correlation chart it will help to identify the extend of correlation achieved in the total curriculum in relation to different courses of study and the various subjects and clinical experience offered in the programme

Organization of clinical experiences Proper organization of the clinical experience will help to develop the expertise in the field of nursing Types of teaching system have to be followed • • • complete block or teaching block system partial block system and study day system

Curriculum implementation in NUINS • • The Academic council meeting will be held before commencement of the Academic year The coordinators for undergraduate students will be post graduate teachers only

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In the meeting, the subjects coordinators will be nominated by the Principal & Vice Principal The subject allocation will be done by Principal & vice principal The coordinators will prepare the master plan along with master rotation plan in consultation with the vice principal The subject coordinators will prepare the course plan,unit plan & the clinical rotation plan Allocation of the workload will be done by departmental HOD to her respective department.

Periodic credentialing and accreditation of the College The quality of nurse education is controlled from within the profession through state boards of nursing and national accrediting bodies. These bodies ensure quality in practice by preparing nursing students in:  The contemporary and anticipated needs of health care.  An outcome based competency approach to fitness of practice.  Sound assessment of practice and its integration with theory.  The nature of and standards for the teaching of nursing.  Positioning in relation to possible inter-professional approaches where necessary. Credentialing This is generally defined as the formal recognition of professional or technical competence and attainment of minimum standards by a person to: a. Produce a quality product b. Confer a unique identity c. Protect provider and public d. Control the profession Accreditation • • • This is one of the major quality assurance tool employed in nursing. It is a system of evaluating nurse academic programmes in line with the minimum laid down standards. To ensure quality, the International Council of Nurses established standards that are use by national bodies to inspect nursing education programmes while the National Universities Commission have their own standards for university-based education.

Objectives of the accreditation

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The accreditation process objectives are primarily to evaluate the school or department’s physical structure, organizational structure, funding, library as well as employer rating Ensure that at least minimum academic standards documents are attained, enhanced and maintained. That employer as well as other community members is sure of the level of competency attained by nursing graduates. Prove to the international community that nursing programmes whether basic or university level measure up with international standards of caregivers to service recipients.

Three levels of status Accreditation • • • Full accreditation usually granted to nursing programmes that satisfies the minimum period of three (3) years. Provisional accreditation is given to schools that have met the minimum standards required but are left with a few more things to do. Denied accreditation is for those schools that do not meet the minimum requirements to run a school of nursing.

Periodic Inspection by Indian Nursing Council Indian Nursing Council conducts periodical (after 3 years) inspection of the institution once the institution is found suitable by Indian Nursing Council to monitor the standard of nursing education and the adherence of the norms prescribed by INC. Institution are required to pay annual affiliation fees every year. However, if the institution does not comply to the norms prescribed by Indian Nursing Council for teaching, clinical & physical facilities, the institution will be declared unsuitable. Extra curricular/ co curricular activities/ Student welfare activities Student welfare is an important part of the total educational programme. It broadly covers their physical , mental, and social well being. Such needs of the students will be met partly by the facilities provided in the hostel and partly through an active and adequate student health , guidance and counseling services , and opportunities for recreation and for cultural and religious activities Extra curricular/ co curricular activities/ Student welfare activities
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Student health services Counseling Recreational and cultural activities

Student health services These are designed to permit the students to achieve the maximum benefit from their school experience.To promote good health habits which will be lasting and which they can apply in the practice of nursing , and to give them the required care when they are sick. The health services include:

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Medical examination on admission and routine Health records Student health clinic Health room in the hostel Sickroom for the students

Counseling To give the students the guidance and counsel in her daily living personal problems , adjustment to group living , educational programme and her professional responsibilities should be taken into account Each tutor may act as advisor to a certain number of help the students to identify their problem , to identify what need to be done about them and to work out their own solution with such guidance as is indicated Reports should be maintained on the services provided Recreational and cultural activities: To make it possible for them to continue with the leisure time interests they have already acquired , as far as it is compactable with the objectives of the programme, as well as to guide them in assisting them in developing others- cultural, social and creative past time- in accordance with their preferences There are so many recreational programmes which can be pursued in the nursing educational institutions such as music , dance and drama, reading and creative writing , needle work photography, nature study, gardening and social entertainments such as giving parties , going for picnics and both indoor and outdoor games There should be adequate facilities for recreation like sitting room, reading room, and recreation room and lawn, badminton and tennis courts and space for other out door games Student organization The involvement of the students as an organized group is an important factor in the management of the school and in meeting the objectives of the programme. The two principal ways by which this can be achieved are through student government and by the formation of a unit of the Student Nurses Association Student government overnment by the student usually requires the setting up of a student association of the institution, to function as the officially recognized organization of the students. The council, which would be the executive organ of the student association , should be composed of two or more elected representatives from each class. It should have a president , vice president and secretary and should maintain record for its all meetings The objectives of such student association may include: • The promotion of student welfare

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The development of cooperation and unity To establish and maintain good interpersonal relationship with the staff To the development of a sense of responsibility for the success of the hostel life The development of the ability of organizational technique and committee procedures The promotion of the reputation of the institution

The objectives of such student association may include: • • • • • • • • • • • • SNA The Student Nurses Association is an associate organization of the Trained Nurses Association of India, and has its objectives:

The establishment of the line of communication and association with the student group in the community and in the country as a whole The advancement of professional thinking and action These objectives can be met by the student council through the following functions:Initiating and supporting the student s’ social , cultural and professional activities Assisting with the orientation of the new students Reviewing and requested , the school and hospital procedures and policies and making recommendations in this respect The interpretation and enforcement , where appropriate , of school policies Taking disciplinary action when necessary in accordance with measures agreed by the members The objectives of such student association may include: Receiving , investigating and , in some instances, disposing of complaints relating to the hostel Establishing official channels of communication with the institutional staff in relation to student council matters, and The appointment of representatives to serve on institutional committees, eg: the curriculum and library committees

\To help students to uphold the dignity and ideals of the profession for which they are qualifying To promote a cooperate spirit among students for a common good To furnish nurses in training with advise in their courses of study leading up to professional qualification

• •

• • • • • •

To encourage leadership ability and help students to gain a wide knowledge of the nursing profession in all its different branches and aspects To increase the students social contact and general knowledge in order to help them take their place in the world when they are finishing their training To encourage both professional and recreational meetings, games and sports To encourage both professional and recreational meetings, games and sports To provide a special section in the nursing journal of india for the benefit of student To encourage students to compete for prices in the Student Nurses Exhibitions and to attend national and regional conferences

Maintenance of record and reports Records Records play an important part in a nursing educational programme. Apart from being necessary for the day to day administration of the nursing educational institutions, they provide continuity from the time the institution was established, thus facilitating the evaluation of the programme. Records and the maintaining system may vary from one institution to the other. Types of records to be kept in the nursing institutions: 1. Those concerning the students 2. Those concerning the staff 3. General school records Records concerning the students • • • • • Application forms and other reports called for at the time off recruitment, selection and appointment A record of each student’s clinical experience A progress report showing grades and any other forms of pertinent information A final record giving summary of instruction, clinical experience , grades and other relevant material A health record

Records concerning school staff • • Application form Copy of letter of appointment and any subsequent letter showing the change in the status

• •

Job description Record of staff members’ educational qualification, previous experiences, any short term educational courses attended, membership in professional societies, and professional activities such as contribution of articles to the journal, holding office in associations or organizations, participation in seminars, conferences etc Periodic evaluation or progress report Leave record( vacation, casual, special , or sick leave) Health record

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General school record: These should consist of; • • • • • • • The philosophy, purpose and curriculum of the school Written policies of the school Statement of budget proposals and allotments Letter of agreement with affiliating agencies Minutes of staff meetings Copy of institutional brochure Inventories of stoke

Reports The number and nature of reports will depend on what is required by the controlling body and the nursing councils. The preparation of such reports should be done very carefully and accurately as the data they give is requently used for the purpose of planning and evaluating at state and national level. Reports If the report is submitted on a structured form, the questions asked should be read carefully to avoid delay caused by returning them for clarification. It is important that the report sent promptly as they may be required by the authority calling for them to form part of a more comprehensive report of the schools in the state or country.

The type of information required in an annual report is as follows: • Factual data concerning the students, staff , clinical facilities, physical facilities , administration and the curriculum

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Developments in the school programme since last report Proposals and plans for future development Problems encountered Recommendations

Sample organization chart for an independent school Controlling authority ( Hospital committee, Board, Trust , Medical superintendent\ hospital administration) ↓ Director of nursing service (Principal) ↓ Nursing staff staff ↓ House keeping ↓ House keeping ↓ Teaching and other ↓ Director of nsg education (Nsg supdt)

Bibliography: Basavanthappa B.T Nursing administration. 1st edition. NewDelhi: Jaypee brothers Medical publishers; 2007 WHO. Guide for schools of nursing in India. New Delhi: 1966 Dutta P. Jaiwanti. Nursing Administration and management. 1st edition. NewDelhi: TNAI;2000 http://www.google.co.in/search? hl=en&source=hp&q=organisation+of+nursing+education&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= http://www.nnnet.gov.au/confwatch.htm http://www.indiannursingcouncil.org/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16259099

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