Title:IS Systems Development

Issue:1

Date:29 September 2005

START

Overview

In this section, we shall look at the following subjects: Introduction Methodology Tools

System Development

One of the most difficult questions faced by IS managers when implementing a new system is "Build or buy?" It is very tempting to build a new system, or build home-grown extensions to an existing system.

Before deciding on building your own system, it is said that you should think twice before you decide and think twenty times before you build.

Building a system doesn t only mean putting the pieces together; the system is developed from these pieces. You also need to oversee the development process.

System development is not a one-step process; it has a beginning and an end, together with some development activity in the middle. But even if it is this simple, how does a project start and when is it considered to be finished? Furthermore is there just one monolithic step called "development"?

In fact, there is much more to this simple three-step approach outlined above. There are chapters devoted to this subject in systems/software engineering, and this is one of the favorite subjects of business consultants. Instead of just analyzing the development step, it is preferred to look at the whole picture of system development as a "life cycle" activity.

A System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is the process used for developing a system. A life cycle is a management tool for planning, conducting, and controlling an activity. Software and System life cycles are similar, differing in the details of each activity

Methodology

Unfortunately, the words method and methodology are used interchangeably when describing development methods. Methodology is the science of studying and comparing various methods.

A methodology implements a life cycle by defining activities. Each activity has roles and responsibilities, creates work products, and uses tools and techniques. A methodology should cover the entire life cycle of ssystem development.

We will briefly describe a few of most used system development methods, and just list a few others.

Slam Drunk model Unfortunately, this is the most widely used model in the industry. The approach seems very logical and practical: Instead of "wasting time using scientific methods", write code, debug and develop what the customer wants. To change this way of approach, you have to use psycology, do training and use appropriate software tools.

Baroque model

Each software development phase starts after the previous one finishes. There are three principal phases: Analysis, Design and Coding.

Waterfall model Overlapping phases for interface between phases. The drawback of this approach is that there is no apparent progress in large projects.

Prototyping method Advantage of this method is that the customer will have an idea of what the system will look like. The disadvantage is that the prototypes are supposed to provide feedback to system analysis, but they end up being part of the finished system.

Other notable methodologies for system development are Formal, Spiral, Agile development, Guerilla tactics, extreme programming (XP), etc.

Methodology for System Development is often used to: Justify the cost of a project Make it look a bit academic Pacify management that all is well Justify the existence of consultants What would we do without it?

Any system development should first define its general scope What kind of product will be created? What order of magnitude for time frame and number of resources are available for this effort? (E.g. week, month, year, or $10k, $1M) What is the current state of similar products? What will make this product special?

trade studies. and design phases. version control. software structure. configuration control. Lower CASE Tools focus on later development activities ' detailed design. construction (coding). etc. Computer Aided Software Engineering (or Systems Engineering) tools use an information system (customized database) that is devoted to managing a system development effort. They store project structure in repositories. Beyond just compilers. definition. flow charts. there is another category that tries to encompass a large portion of the SDLC while enforcing a chosen method: CASE Tools. CASE Tools are noted for pretty graphical capabilities . etc. Upper CASE Tools focus on early development activities ' survey. delivery. testing.diagrams. Price for using CASE tools is high in both dollars and time: the learning curve is steep! . generation of documentation. CASE tools may manage design diagrams. code. study. and designs. They also may support prototyping. etc. and perhaps support.Tools Tools used for System Development can broadly be classified as: Life cycle support tools Change management tools Issue tracking tools Source control tools Configuration management tools Debugging tools Testing tools In addition to the tools listed above.

data. Microsoft Visual Studio. and CASE tools JAD and RAD techniques . processes.Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tools are for programmers. and they are mainly used in the "build" phase of development. including hardware. including modeling. growth of e-commerce. testers and integrators. prototyping. and main characteristics of information systems Types of information systems and organizational structures Systems development techniques and tools. we shall look at the following subjects: An introduction to systems analysis and design Business process modeling and why IT professionals must understand a company s business operations Information systems characteristics. IBM Eclipse and Oracle JBuilder. END Title:Introduction to SA&D Issue:2 Date:29 September 2005 START Overview In this section. software. A few of the currenty available IDE tools are Sun Forte. and people Business information systems.

prototyping. and career opportunities of the systems analyst position This section corresponds to chapter 1 of the textbook.Structure of the IT department and typical responsibilities. skills. and CASE tools Describe the systems development life cycle Discuss the role of the information technology department and the systems analysts who work there Introduction Businesses today depend on information more than ever because of: Global competition Intense pressure for quality Information technology can mean the difference between survival and failure Successful business information systems require: The right hardware and software . including modeling. Objectives The objectives of this section are: Discuss the impact of information technology on business operations Define an information system and describe its components and characteristics Identify common types of information systems and explain who uses them Distinguish between structured analysis and object-oriented methodology Explain systems development techniques and tools.

services. During this effort. Then this model may be improved and modified as necessary. inputs (events) and outputs (results) are analyzed and a model is constructed. and include employees. vendors. Application software consists of programs that that process data to produce information. or others who interact with the system Business process modeling is used to represent a company's operation and information needs. or sell goods made by others . People: People who use the system are called users. Data: Data stored in files and databases is a vital component of every system Processes: Processes define the tasks that must be performed by users. and IS staff.A team of talented. an activity referred to as "business process reengineering." Companies may be classified based on their main activities: Production-oriented (industrial ) companies that manufacture & sell goods Service companies that mainly offer information. or end users. It deals with: Business profile Business model Business process reengineering Information System Components are Hardware: The physical layer of the information system Software: System software controls the hardware and software environment and includes the operating system. motivated people who use information technology to achieve business goals IBM summed this up as: Information system professionals need to work closely with managers and users to create a shared business model Business process modeling is used to represent a company s operations and information needs. their sub-processes. managers. customers. processes.

Internet-dependent firms: dot-com (.com) types

Characteristics affecting a business information system s complexity Relationships with other systems are: Boundaries Specialized business needs Size of the company

Types of Information Systems are (a somewhat traditional categorization): Operational systems Management information systems Decision support systems Executive information systems Expert systems Office systems Enterprise computing systems (ERP) Transaction processing systems (TP and OLTP) Business support systems (MIS) Knowledge management systems (KM and DW) User productivity systems Information systems integration

It is said that there are four organizational levels in every company, and their need for information systems vary accordingly: Operational employees: Empowerment Lower management: Operational plans

Middle management: Tactical planning Top management: Strategic planning

Systems Development

Techniques and tools for systems development are discussed below.

Modeling tools: Graphical representation of a concept or process Business model Requirements model Data model Object model Network model Process model

Prototyping tools: Early working version of the system Allows analysis before final decisions are made

Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE) tools: Framework for systems design and analysis Upper CASE tools Lower CASE tools

Joint application development and rapid application development JAD : Team based fact finding techniques RAD : Condense development process

Other systems development tools: Word processing Spreadsheets Presentation software Drawing software

Methodologies

We can safely admit that there are three main categories of systems development methodologies: Structured Analysis Object-oriented analysis Other development methodologies

Structured Analysis is: Process-centered Uses systems development life cycle (SDLC) Developing into a technique known as information engineering

Object-oriented analysis is: Object is a member of a class Class is a collection of similar objects

or (4) Stop development The end product for this phase is the systems requirements document . (3) Modify an existing system. (2) Purchase a commercial package.Objects possess properties Methods change properties of objects and describe object behavior Messages are sent between objects SDLC Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) consists of five phases: Systems planning Systems analysis Systems design Systems implementation Systems operation and support Systems Planning: Purpose is to identify problem s nature/scope Systems request: begins the process & describes desired changes/improvements Systems planning includes preliminary investigation or feasibility study End product is the preliminary investigation report Systems Analysis: Purpose is to learn exactly how the current system operates Fact-finding or requirements determination is used to define all functions of the current system Options are (1) Develop a system in-house.

manual procedures. managers. & application programs Avoid misunderstanding through manager and user involvement End product is system design specification Systems implementation: Construct/deliver information system Prepares functioning. IS staff trained to operate and support the system Post-implementation evaluation performed Systems operation and support: New system supports business operations Maintenance changes correct errors or meet requirements Enhancements increase system capability After several years of operation. systems development guidelines are: Stick to a plan Involve users . inputs. files. document application programs User and manager approval obtained File conversion occurs Users. documented system Write.Systems design: Purpose is to satisfy all documented requirements Identify all outputs. test. systems experience need for extensive changes Systems development life cycle ends with system replacement In short.

Material is arranged as: True/False exercises Fill-in-the-blank type exercises Please note that these exercises are for self-study purposes. True or False? .Identify milestones Establish checkpoints Be flexible Provide accurate and reliable cost and benefit information After this brief overview. you should consider the question "Is being a system analyst a viable future for me?" END Title:Exercises for Chapter 1 Issue:3 Date:29 September 2005 START Overview In this section. some exercises for Chapter 1 of the textbook is provided.

and people to support a company s business objectives. An IBM study confirmed that customer expectations and business needs must be aligned with information systems ' not the other way around. such as a Web-based retailer or a video rental chain. 16. device drivers. A systems analyst builds a business profile by investigating a company s mix of products and services and its ability to use the Internet to conduct business.1. A vertical system is a basic system. System software consists of programs that support users and enable companies to carry out business functions. An alternative to in-house application development is purchasing a software package from an outside vendor that develops and sells information systems. A horizontal system is designed to meet the unique requirements of a specific business or industry. processes. that can be adapted for use in many companies. software. 3. customers. 12. include employees. 13. Systems analysis and design is the process of developing information systems that effectively use hardware. 5. 8. 15. A systems analyst learns about an information system by asking questions about the system and how it supports business operations. data. which perform specific tasks. Production-oriented companies primarily offer information or services. Large and small companies in the same industry have exactly the same information systems requirements. . vendors. information consists of basic facts that are the system s raw material. and utilities. 11. 10. Brick-and-mortar companies conduct business from a Web site instead of from a physical location. In an information system. A business model graphically represents business functions that consist of business processes. 4. 17. 2. In an information system. sometimes called end users. 14. or sell goods produced by others. such as an inventory or payroll program. 6. and others who interact with an information system. 7. 9. Application software controls the computer and includes the operating system. Service-oriented companies primarily manufacture and sell goods. data is information that has been changed into a useful form of output. Users.

A data model describes data structures and design. business support. In a knowledge management system.18. a systems analyst uses various productivity tools to organize and structure the task of developing an information system. 32. transaction processing. 25. An important feature of a business support system is the decision support capability to conduct a what-if analysis. Lower CASE tools support the modeling process and produce a logical design of an information system. 23. Upper CASE tools speed the system development process by generating source code based on a logical model. 28. 20. In a knowledge management system. inference rules consist of a large database that allows users to find information by clicking menus. Most large companies require systems that combine enterprise computing. Middle managers need less detailed information than top managers. but more information than team leaders and supervisors. 30. Knowledge management systems make decisions based on common sense or intuition as humans do. . 33. typing key words. Most IT experts agree that a single. 27. A process model describes system logic and processes that programmers use to develop necessary code modules. or entering text in normal English phrases. the transaction processing (TP) system cannot process the rest of the transaction. Decision support helps users make decisions by creating a business model and applying a set of variables. In addition to CASE tools. including long-term IT plans. 31. 29. the knowledge base consists of logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships. A feature known as data integrity ensures that if any one element of a transaction fails. while joint application development (JAD) is more like a condensed version of the development process. knowledge management. 19. Strategic planning focuses on issues that affect a company s future survival and growth. and user productivity features. best system development strategy exists. 24. 22. Rapid application development (RAD) involves team-based fact-finding techniques. 21. 26.

backup. The interactive model is an alternative model of the system development life cycle that depicts real-world practice and the constant dialog among users. managers. and security. but analysts also can report to a specific user area such as marketing. A systems request can come from a top manager. a department head. Traditionally. Because it describes the processes that transform data into useful information. and systems developers. During the systems operation and support step of the SDLC. 36. 40. built-in processes called methods can change an object s properties. 38. sales. Most analysts believe that.34. enhancements correct errors and adapt to changes in the environment. or the IT department itself. 49. 46. 43. Database administration involves database design. development. IT departments had an application development group composed of systems analysts and programmers who handled information system design. and resolve the same kinds of problems. Traditionally. requirements modeling develops a logical model of business processes the system must support. behavior. In the systems analysis phase of the SDLC. Although the Microsoft process differs from the SDLC phase-oriented approach. deal with the same kinds of issues. 44. 45. Most companies assign systems analysts to the IT department. and implementation. maintenance provides new features and benefits. 42. 35. support. . and user access. 48. security. 41. the system development life cycle (SDLC) is pictured as a waterfall model. and realistic in today s dynamic business environment. Object-oriented (O-O) analysis uses object models to represent data. object-oriented (O-O) methods are less flexible. Network administration includes hardware and software maintenance. Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF) developers do the same kind of planning. 47. A systems design is documented in a systems design specification and presented to management and users for their review and approval. 39. a planning team. management. In object-oriented (O-O) programming. efficient. where the result of each phase flows down into the next phase. or accounting. 37. During the systems operation and support step of the SDLC. structured analysis is called a process-centered technique. compared with structured analysis. and by what means objects affect other objects. ask the same kinds of fact-finding questions.

2. 7. software. Systems analysts use a process called __________ to represent a company s operations and information needs. and manages network accounts. 6. it is called a(n) __________. 11. 10. In a network environment. managers. In many large companies.50. Transaction processing (TP) systems and online transaction processing (OLTP) systems are called __________ because they process data generated by day-to-day business operations. 13. which includes both B2C (Business to Consumer) and B2B (Business to Business). . improve productivity. but it does not show that an individual demonstrates a certain level of knowledge and skill on a standardized test. Fill-in-the-blanks 1. and help managers make decisions. One of the faster-growing business sectors is Internet-based commerce. __________ provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a company. A(n) __________ is a set of related components that produces specific results. and telecommunications systems that support business operations. __________ is a combination of hardware. they engage in __________. 12. commonly called __________. provides security. and IT staff members perform. 15. 5. applications called __________ systems provide cost-effective data access for users and managers throughout a company. 8. That task of changing data into information is called __________. 14. When an information system is vital to a company s operations. Many firms require __________ for information management that is unique to their company or industry. 16. the __________ controls the flow of data. A(n) __________ indicates where one system ends and another system begins. __________ describe the tasks that users. __________ refers to the physical layer of an information system. When companies attempt to simplify operations or reduce costs. 4. 9. Certification guarantees competence or ability. 3. A process known as __________ involves the computer-to-computer transfer of data between companies.

30. implement. and support an information system.17. whether the system is developed in-house or purchased as a package. called CASE tools. 28. 20. 22. Structured analysis uses a series of phases. __________ simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied. to help systems analysts develop and maintain information systems. 21. The purpose of __________ is to create a blueprint for the new system that will satisfy all documented requirements. 31. called the __________. The purpose of the planning phase is to identify clearly the nature and scope of a business opportunity or problem by performing a(n) __________. __________ is a systems development technique that involves the creation of an early working version of an information system or its components. 25. The end product for the systems analysis phase is the __________. . 26. Systems planning usually begins with a formal request. called __________ that define a company s overall mission and goals. 24. Middle managers develop plans to achieve objectives in a process called __________. __________ is a systems development technique that produces a graphical representation of a concept or process that systems developers can analyze. called a(n) __________. Microsoft Corporation offers a systems development methodology called __________ that relies on a set of concepts and models. to plan. 29. and modify. Structured analysis regards processes and data as separate components. but __________ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects. 19. analyze. design. that describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. The systems implementation phase includes an assessment. __________ is a traditional systems development technique that is time-tested and easy to understand. __________ provide employees at all organizational levels with a wide array of tools that can improve quality and job performance. called a(n) __________. __________ is a systems development technique that uses powerful programs. which describes management and user requirements. 32. 18. Top managers develop long-range plans. test. alternative plans and costs. to determine whether the system operates properly and if costs and benefits are within expectations. 27. 23. and recommendations.

35. The __________ develops and maintains a company s information systems. which describes a project that gradually expands and becomes more expensive. The user support function usually is called a(n) __________. . 34. END Title:Preliminary Investigation Issue:4 Date:06 October 2005 START Overview In this section. In providing specific cost estimates at the start of each development phase. we shall look at the following subjects: Overview of Systems Analysis Systems Requirements Preliminary Investigation Systems Planning Objectives Starting new projects Initially evaluating new projects This section corresponds to chapter 2 of the textbook.33. it is important to avoid a(n) __________.

Objectives The objectives of this section are: Describe the strategic planning process. One of the primary method used is SWOT analysis: Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats . and economic feasibility Describe the steps and end product of a preliminary investigation Introduction Systems planning tasks are Examine the systems request Conduct a preliminary investigation Using SDLC and CASE tools to provide a framework Strategic planning is a very importantstep in system development. and why it is important to IT managers Explain the purpose of a mission statement Explain the SDLC as a framework for systems development and business modeling Explain the reasons for information systems projects and the factors that affect such projects Describe the initial review of systems requests and the role of the systems review committee Describe the internal and external factors that affect information systems projects Define operational feasibility. technical feasibility.

IT support and guidance is essential. let us consider how a project gets started. Upper CASE tools are used for: Critical success factors Critical business issues Business rules Requirements engineering Data model Process model Repository: an encyclopedia of the company Information Systems Projects Now. The strategic planning covers: From the strategic plan to business results Vision statement Mission statement Business goals Business objectives Business operations Business results Framework for systems development involves the use of automation to discipline the process. the starting point is a systems request Reasons for systems projects are: Improved service . Usually.

Better performance More information Stronger controls Reduced cost Reasons for systems projects are: Factors affecting projects User requests Top-management directives Existing systems Information technology department The economy Technology Government Software and hardware vendors Competitors Customers Suppliers Request forms are used to start the process. These forms Streamlines the process Ensures consistency Must be easy to understand and use Must include clear instructions . Usually "somebody" is asked to fill a "systems request" forms.

The mandate is to: Evaluate requests Set priorities Assess feasibility Feasibility study uses three main yardsticks: Operational feasibility Technical feasibility Economic feasibility Operational feasibility Is the system a practical and effective approach? Operational feasibility depends on: Management and user support User involvement in planning Impact on performance.Evaluation of Projects Evaluation of systems requests and projects are done by the systems review committee. and company image Reasonable schedules Technical feasibility Does the organization have resources to develop/purchase and operate the system? Technical feasibility depends on: Technical expertise within the organization Availability of necessary equipment . customers.

installation.Hardware and software reliability Adequate performance that will meet specifications Capacity for future needs/projected growth Economic feasibility asks the question "Do the projected benefits outweigh the estimated costs of development. and operation?" Economic feasibility depends on: Costs: one time and continuing costs Benefits: tangible and intangible benefits Timing of various costs and benefits Cost of not developing the system Determining feasibility First step is a determination of feasibility Goal is to identify nonfeasible projects as soon as possible Feasibility can change over time Nonfeasible projects can be resubmitted Initially feasible projects can be rejected later Evaluation criteria used to evaluate systems requests are: Reduce costs Increase revenue Produce more information or better results Serve customers and the organization better Reasonable time frame and lasting results Resources available Necessary or discretionary .

Interaction with managers and users are necessary during this activity. (b) Set project boundaries Constraints identify the conditions. or requirements: (a) Present vs. (b) Internal vs. restrictions. external. Define the project scope and constraints 3. Identify the benefits 4.Tangible or intangible factors Project Necessity depends on discretionary and non-discretionary aspect of projects Necessity of project Possibly no need to review non-discretionary projects in committee Preliminary Investigation The purpose of preliminary investigation is to decide whether to continue the project or not. Understand the problem 2. Objectives for a preliminary investigation are analysed under five steps: 1. future. Estimate the time and costs 5. (c) Mandatory vs. desirable . Report to management Step 1: Understand the problem Identify the true nature of the problem and the reason for the systems request Stated problem may not be the real problem Clear statement defines the investigation scope Step 2: Define the project scope and constraints Project scope: (a) Define the range or extent of the project.

Key elements are: Evaluation of systems request Estimate of costs and benefits Recommendations In this last step (Step 6) results and recommendations are presented to the management. analyzing. if so who to complete it. This is both an oral and a written presentation. if so how many. and what time needed Estimate the cost of gathering. This is the final task in the preliminary investigation. Key elements are: . and reporting the information to management Step 6: Present results and recommendations to management. This is the final task in the preliminary investigation.Step 3: Perform fact finding Analyze organization charts Conduct interviews Observe operations Carry out a user survey Step 4:Determine feasibility Determine operational feasibility Determine technical feasibility Determine economic feasibility Step 5: Estimate time and cost to continue development Determine what information is needed Identify the sources of information Decide whether to use interviews. and what time needed Decide whether to use surveys.

Systems analysts should focus on the smaller. . some exercises for Chapter 2 of the textbook is provided.Evaluation of systems request Estimate of costs and benefits Recommendations END Title:Exercises for Chapter 2 Issue:5 Date:06 October 2005 START Overview In this section. Material is arranged as: True/False exercises Fill-in-the-blank type exercises Please note that these exercises are for self-study purposes. True or False? 1. tactical role of IT as they carry out their day-to-day responsibilities.

In most successful companies. New industries. The strategic plan requires information resources and technology that are supplied by IT professionals. A company develops a mission statement based on the firm s purpose. Top management directives often result from strategic business decisions that require new IT systems. and services will require powerful information systems. 12. 5. no link exists between business operations and information technology. 16.2. that person acts as an individual and consults loosely with users and managers to evaluate requests. . top managers know they need powerful information systems to handle both the problems and opportunities of constant change. 13. IT staff members seldom make recommendations based on their knowledge of business operations and technology trends. Performance limitations result when a system that was designed for a specific hardware configuration becomes obsolete when new hardware is introduced. products. 8. As users rely more heavily on information systems to perform their jobs. it is more likely to see the IT department handling all aspects of systems development. 18. 15. 14. 6. and vision for the future. Systems requests seldom are aimed at improving service to customers or users within a company. 4. and top managers will expect IT departments to support the business enterprise. A company s objectives are translated into day-to-day operations using IT and other resources. Economic activity has little influence on corporate information management. 11. 3. 7. In smaller companies or firms where there is only one person with IT skills. A system must have effective controls to ensure that data is accurate and secure. System controls must be excessive without being effective. values. they are likely to request fewer IT services and support. 9. A CASE tool called System Architect 2001 (S/A 2001) organizes and guides specific tasks in systems development. New approaches. 17. Today. such as joint application development (JAD) and rapid application development (RAD) seldom are seen today. 10.

the IT department receives few systems requests. 28. Before beginning a preliminary investigation. When establishing priorities for systems requests. or expertise becomes available. Costs can be one time or continuing. and can incur various times during project development and use. at the highest costs. it invariably is the best solution. Even if users have difficulty with a new system. 32. When evaluating systems requests. 35. 23.19. priority usually goes to projects that provide the least benefit. In most organizations. Tangible benefits result from an increase in expenses. software. 20. and information systems that interact with customers receive top priority in most firms. 31. 26. a systems review committee can establish priorities less effectively than an individual. . Competition drives many information systems decisions. a systems review committee provides a variety of experience and knowledge in evaluating systems requests. When evaluating systems requests. 36. in the longest period of time. a reduction of $8. it will produce the expected results. a memo or e-mail message should let people know about the investigation and explain the systems analyst s role. Most companies have a mix of software and hardware that must work together to support information systems requirements. Every systems request must pass an initial review to decide whether it deserves further study. If a systems request is technically feasible. 24. In larger companies.000 in network maintenance is an example of an intangible factor. a decrease in revenues. 22. Few nondiscretionary projects are predictable. With a narrower viewpoint. 37. instead of the company relying on a single person. 29. 21. A systems project seldom produces significant changes in company operations. Systems requests that are not currently feasible can be resubmitted as new hardware. 27. enhancing an organization s image and improving customer service are examples of tangible factors. 30. Customer service is vitally important. and one person s bias is more likely to affect the committee s decision. or both. 33. 25. 34. An example of a tangible benefit is a new Web site that enhances a company s image.

a systems request does not reveal the underlying problem. 43. One fact-finding method is to observe the current system in operation. an estimate of costs and benefits. which also are important. 42. all constraints on a system should be identified as early as possible to avoid future problems and surprises.38. but not the formal reporting relationships. and can involve only a narrow cross-section of people. 50. but later find out that the feature is not included. The IT department will make the final decision of a systems request. and the systems analyst s recommendations. an estimate for the overall project should be provided so managers understand the full cost impact and timetable. not to uncover facts. but it is more expensive. strategies. 48. the time and cost estimates section describes the cost of acquiring and installing the system and the total cost of ownership during the system s useful life. weaknesses. Regardless of the type. the purpose of the interview is to convince others that a project is justified. any constraints on the system must be identified. The preliminary investigation report includes an evaluation of the systems request. A survey is more flexible than a series of interview. In addition to time and cost figures for the next system development phase. 2. 49. 39. the systems request summary describes the basis of the systems request. Fill-in-the-blanks 1. and threats. 45. and resources. 44. but only a symptom. 40. A clear definition of project scope and constraints encourages misunderstandings that arise when managers assume that the system will have a certain feature. In performing fact-finding. In a preliminary investigation report. Along with defining the scope of a systems project. Organization charts show the informal alignment of a group. 41. In many cases. . In a preliminary investigation report. 47. __________ is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals. many companies ask a series of broadly worded questions that is called a(n) __________ because it determines a company s strengths. and management s input is a trifling factor. opportunities. During strategic planning. 46. generally takes more time.

17. which rely on computerto-computer data exchange to minimize unnecessary inventory. Many organizations assign responsibility for evaluating systems requests to a group of key managers and users. and constraints that affect the shape of a firm s decisions. such as customers. 6. . 8. a systems analyst or IT manager examines it to determine what IT resources are required for the preliminary investigation. which often result from strategic business decisions. 10. and members of the community. 16. 7. A vital part of every systems project is a(n) __________. a company identifies a set of __________ that will accomplish the mission. employees. services. __________ are the key problems. various levels of user access. and values. 15. are a prime source of major systems projects. __________ are vital objectives that must be achieved for an enterprise to fulfill its mission. 14. A(n) __________ describes a company for its stakeholders and briefly states the company s overall purpose. so unauthorized users cannot easily read the data. opportunities. suppliers. __________ include anyone affect by a company s performance. The starting point for an information systems project is called a(n) __________. 13. System Architect 2001 (S/A 2001) is a CASE tool that organizes all definitions and diagrams into storage areas called __________. stockholders. products. At some point in the systems development process. Many systems project requests come from the __________. 11. To achieve its goals. When a(n) __________ is received. which is a formal way of asking for IT support. __________ from top managers. a(n) __________ is presented that summarizes the project request and a specific recommendation. Electronic data interchange (EDI )enables __________ inventory systems. a company develops a list of specific __________. 18. 12. 4.3. Common controls that ensure data is accurate and secure include passwords. 5. or coding of data. whose staff members make recommendations based on their knowledge of business operations and technology trends. which have a shorter time frame. 9. which is a series of tests that a systems request must meet to see whether it is worthwhile to proceed further. a group that often is called a(n) __________. After preparing a mission statement. and __________.

30. A(n) __________ is a condition that a system must satisfy or an outcome that a system must achieve. it is difficult to assign a dollar value to a(n) __________. In contrast to a tangible factor. When assessing economic feasibility. When assessing costs. A systems request has __________ if the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs involved in acquiring. 21. install. and operate the system. a systems analyst also may want to investigate the current system __________. 35. __________ are benefits that can be measured in dollars. 25. The primary method of obtaining information during the preliminary investigation is the __________. or extent. in a process called __________. Whenever possible. A system that has __________ is one that will be used efficiently after it has been developed. 27. Projects where management has a choice in implementing them are called __________. without specific authorization. 32. installing. __________ are difficult to measure in dollars but also should be identified. as well as acquisition costs. 28. A system request has __________ if the organization has the resources to develop or purchase. A systems analyst conducts a(n) __________ to study a systems request and recommend specific action. 26.19. 33. Because interviews can be time-consuming. such as enhancing an organization s image. Although interviews are an extremely important method of obtaining information. 22. sometimes a systems analyst can obtain information from a larger group by carrying out a(n) __________. 34. . companies usually consider the __________. 29. 31. When assessing economic feasibility. 23. and operating it. which includes ongoing support and maintenance costs. of the project ' being as specific as possible. 20. Determining the __________ means to define the boundaries. an analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on __________. Projects where no choice exists in implementing them are called __________. Projects sometimes expand gradually. which can be assigned an actual or approximate dollar value. 24.

END Title:Requirements Modeling Issue:6 Date:13 October 2005 START Overview In this section. Objectives The objectives of this section are: Explain systems analysis phase activities and the end product of the systems analysis phase . we shall look at the following subjects: Introduction Overview of Systems Analysis Systems Requirements Preliminary Investigation Fact Finding Cross Life Cycle Activities This section corresponds to chapter 3 of the textbook.

including interviews. including outputs. processes. performance.Overview . observation.Describe joint application development (JAD) Describe the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and explain use case diagrams and sequence diagrams Explain how functional decomposition diagrams (FDD) are used during systems development List and describe system requirements. questionnaires. and controls Explain the importance of scalability in system design Define total cost of ownership (TCO) and explain the concept Describe how to conduct a successful interview Explain when and how to use fact-finding techniques. inputs. This phase includes the four activities: Requirements Modeling Data and Process Modeling Object Modeling Transition to Systems Design Requirements Modeling . and build a solid foundation for the systems design phase. sampling. documentation review. and research Develop effective documentation methods to use during systems development Systems Analysis The overall objective of this phase is to understand the proposed project. ensure that it will support business requirements.

You have to help clients design the system they want. Don't just be a problem solver. but a group of users participate during the development lifecycle. analyze the elements. To be successful. systems analyst must have: Critical Thinking Skills : Enable one to recognize the problem. For a detailed description on JAD and related resources. The real problem is typically very different from the one first perceived by the client. see: http://www.Requirements Modeling involves investigation and fact-finding to describe the currents system and define the requirements for the new system. controlled by the IT department Joint Application Development (JAD): Group-oriented technique for fact-finding and requirements modeling Rapid Application Developmet (RAD): Team-oriented methodology for an overall framework for systems development Joint Application Development How do you design a system that clients really want? You can't.edu/hr/is/pubs/jad. look deeper. Don't assume that one person ever knows everything about a problem.utexas. JAD is a methodology where IS department is not the only player in development activities.html . and cpommunicate the results effectively Interpersonal Skills : Important for a systems analyst who must work with people at all organizational levels and balance the conflicting needs o users Systems Development Methods Structured Analysis: Traditional Model.

and that separate JAD's be used for each increment JAD Philosophy The JAD process is based on four simple ideas: People who actually do a job have the best understanding of that job. Information systems and business processes rarely exist in isolation: they transcend the confines of any single system or office and effect work in related departments. People who are trained in information technology have the best understanding of the possibilities of that technology.JAD Definitions Definition: Joint Application Development (JAD) is a management process which helps IS work effectively with users to develop information technology solutions that really work. The best information systems are designed when all of these groups work together on a project as equal partners. Scope: The JAD should cover the complete development life cycle of a system. it is recommended that the project be approached incrementally. Rapid Application Development . design a solution. and monitor the project until it reaches completion. The JAD is usually a 3 to 6 month well-defined project. People working in these related areas have valuable insight on the role of a system within a larger community. For large-scale projects. Purpose: to define the project.

For details.Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a team-based technique that speeds up information systems development and produces a functioning information system. Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. System Requirements Checklist A systems requirement is a characteristic or feature that must be included in an information system to satisfy business requirements and be acceptable to users. Modeling Tools & Techniques Modeling is an effort to enable all stakeholders to better understand the existing or new systems design. refer to part 4 of "systems analyst's toolkit" in the textbook. Outputs Inputs Processes Performance Controls Scalability & TCO . the mostused ones are: Use Case Diagrams Sequence Diagrams Functional Decomposition Diagrams (FDD) is a top-down representation of business functions and processes. Although this method provides standards for 12 different type of diagrams.

What. but still useful during the rest of the life cycle. Facts are the basis for modeling. systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). There are seven techniques to choose from.Scalability means the ability to adjust system capacity as business requirements change in the future. In addition to direct costs. Fact Finding Fact finding is the activity where questions of type "Who. Fact finding is most important during the planning and analysis phases. often use several on any given project. and conclusions about the system are also drawn from these facts. When. Techniques used during Fact Finding and Information Gathering are: Sampling Research and Site Visits Observation of the Work Environment Questionnaires Interviews Sampling . Where and How?" are put forward by the system analyst while performing one of the following activities: Interview Document Review (Investigation) Observation Surveys & Questionnaires Fact finding is the formal process of using various techniques to collect information about system requirements and user preferences.

You should determine what kind of data to collect. The tips are: . the following should be noted: Inputs Outputs Program documentation Data dictionaries User and maintenance manuals If you know a lot about the consistency of data. or watch the existing system being used.Sampling techniques work well for study of an existing system. when. Sampling may be used for large numbers of observations. Observation of the Work Environment Participate in. and how (what forms). A random sample should be truly random. such as: Internet Trade and professional journals Company-specific intranets Government agencies Etc. you can use statistical sampling techniques. It usually comes before interviews and may include: Look for organization chart Investigate project history Look for high level mission or policies Charters for each organization affected Processes and procedures in use In studying existing system documents. not just convenient. should already understand the process being observed somewhat. A stratified sample may be used to avoid odd cases Research and Site Visits Research may be done with various sources.

inflection. Fixed format may include: Multiple choice (Y/N or A/B/C/. or fairness. why. tone.Determine who. don t interrupt Take copious notes. and how Obtain permission from supervisor Inform subject of reason for visit Keep a low profile. and review them Focus on important activities Don t make assumptions Questionnaires Using questionnaires can be efficient for large audiences. Structured interviews tend to use open-ended questions rather than closed-ended ones. They take a lot more time. what. Interview Steps are: Determine the people to interview Establish objectives Develop interview questions . or % or time) The questions prepared for a questionnaire or a interview can be of the following types: Open-ended questions Closed-ended questions Range-of-response questions Interviews Interviews provide more personal information about body language. You need to be well prepared and take good notes. where.. Free format can be used. etc. but are often liked. but it is hard to guarantee responses. They can be structured or unstructured. but it is hard to analyze.) Rating (5-point from strongly agree to disagree) Ranking (importance.

etc) Requirement modelling tools Cross Life Cycle Activities Although there are activities that are considered as discrete and consecutive phases in system development. in writing or orally. and plan future activities. Some of these activities are discussed below: Fact-finding is to help collect information about systems. These are called "cross life cycle activities" . "Dog and pony shows" are presentations made to upper management or sponsors. study. . such as the survey. Documentation is generated to record the work accomplished so far. most important early in life cycle. requirements.Prepare for the interview Conduct the interview Document the interview Evaluate the interview Documentation Vital for success Record the facts and findings Organize Use documentation tools such as: CASE General purpose tools (MS Word. there are many on-going activities that sometimes span the whole SDLC. Presentations are a formal packaging. of some documentation. and user preferences. Excel. These may overlap many (or all) other phases of development. and definition phases.

Process management is the conscious definition and management of the processes used to conduct a project. effort. Material is arranged as: . Recall mention of technical. economic.Estimation and measurement are performed throughout the life cycle. and benefits of some activity within system development. Project management is the deliberate planning and control of a project to achieve the desired goal (creation of a product). END Title:Exercises for Chapter 3 Issue:7 Date:13 October 2005 START Overview In this section. and schedule feasibility. "Earned value" is one way of comparing them. operational. cost. Feasibility analysis is performed early in a project to determine its potential benefits. Estimation is to predict the amount of time. Measurement is to determine the actual value of what was estimated. some exercises for Chapter 3 of the textbook is provided. using standards to define typical work products (deliverables).

. software. systems analysts use FDDs to model business functions and show how they are organized into lower-level processes. During requirements modeling. Modeling and fact-finding are closely related ' fact-finding results translate into models that improve documentation and communication. 4. and IT professionals that work together to gather information. 6. so common business language cannot be used to describe the transactions. 3. JAD participants should remain exposed to the distractions of day-to-day operations. Because it is linked to a specific development methodology. 7. managers. In sequence diagrams. Transaction volume has an insignificant impact on operating costs. 2. and budgets. Whether they meet in a special conference room or at an off-site location. many companies believe that a JAD group produces the best possible definition of the new system. discuss business needs. tasks. and often lead to more fact-finding and modeling. True or False? 1. and define the new system requirements. 8. while the vertical arrows represent messages from one object to another. timetables.True/False exercises Fill-in-the-blank type exercises Please note that these exercises are for self-study purposes. Because of the wide range of input and constant interaction among the participants. 12. When using a JAD approach. the interaction proceeds from left to right. and network bandwidth needed to maintain system performance. along a horizontal timeline. 9. Data storage requirements affect hardware. Systems analysts can draw use case diagrams freehand or use CASE tools that integrate use cases into the overall system design. 11. Large systems projects require little effort to coordinate the people. 5. Use cases depict the system through the eyes of the systems analyst. 10. the company creates a task force of users. systems developers use JAD when group input and interaction is unwanted.

14. After an interview. In the early stages of systems analysis. the systems analyst should summarize the session and seek a confirmation from the other person. 19. Knowledge of a company s formal and informal structures helps a systems analyst determine the people to interview during the systems analysis phase. 28. 22. indirect costs typically are included in IT department budgets and are accounted for in most companies. Careful preparation for an interview is essential because this is an important meeting and not just a casual chat. 18. the sequence of the questions is unimportant. 24. but as the fact-finding process continues. especially at the early stage of the development process. The objectives of an interview depend on the role of the person being interviewed. 23. management should ignore indirect costs that might increase TCO. During the systems analysis phase. In fact-finding. 26. the systems analyst should ask questions in the order in which they were prepared and give the interviewee sufficient time to provide thoughtful answers. interviews focus on specific topics. interviews usually are general. When phrasing interview questions. 17. 16. . 27. the systems analyst talks only to managers or department heads. 20. 21. According to Microsoft. 15. a systems analyst should use leading questions that suggest or favor a particular reply.13. there is no difference between asking what is being done and what could or should be done. The first step in fact-finding is to identify the information needed. If accurate figures are unavailable. Supporters of interviews in a neutral location believe that this is the best location because it makes the interviewee feel more comfortable during the meeting. In fact-finding. Supporters of interviews in the interviewee s office believe this is the best location because it keeps interruptions to a minimum so both people can concentrate fully. During an interview. especially when detailed information is needed. 25. The systems analyst should send a list of essential questions to an interviewee several days before the meeting.

42. and various types of forms. 31. the systems analyst should ignore any possible biases. 39. 40. anonymous responses might provide better information. Personal observation allows a systems analyst to verify statements made in interviews and determine whether procedures really operate as they are described. The Internet is a worthless research tool. Systems documentation is always up to date. the systems analyst should switch to closed-ended questions or questions with a range of responses. 38. 33. Before publishing a form on the Internet. a questionnaire can be a valuable tool. as well as from publishers. Site visits are important when considering the purchase of a software package. 41. or re-phrase the openended questions into those types of questions. 34. Instead of using a paper form for questionnaires. 32. work requests. As users are observed. the systems analyst should remember that normal operations always run as smoothly as the observation indicates.29. however. complaint summaries. the samples might include records. 37. In recording the facts obtained in an interview. Tape recorders are effective tools for an interview. a systems analyst can access information from federal and state governments. Although taking notes during an interview has both advantages and disadvantages. Using the Internet. reports. The interview is less familiar and personal than a questionnaire. 35. If an interviewee s responses to open-ended questions are short or incomplete. 43. In sampling. the accepted view is the note taking should be done extensively. 36. In systems development projects where it is desirable to obtain input from a large number of people. . a systems analyst can create a fill-in form and collect data on the Internet or a company intranet. Personal observations provide no advantages as the development process continues. many people feel uncomfortable when recorders are present. operational logs. the systems analyst should protect it so that users can change the layout but cannot fill it in. universities. When a questionnaire includes sensitive or controversial topics. data entry documents. 44. 45. 30. and libraries around the world.

A common spreadsheet program tool for showing the distribution of questionnaire or sampling results is a line chart called a cablegram. 48. ideas. with a specific role that describes how he or she interacts with the system. which is an overall design blueprint for the new system.46. 7. The __________ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design. 47. facts. 49. Fill-in-the-blanks 1. 9. __________ is a popular systems development technique in which the company creates a task force that works together to gather information. 4. __________ enable a systems analyst to recognize the problem. __________ involves investigation and fact-finding to describe the current system and define the requirements for the new system. and observations is unnecessary for successful systems development. __________ are especially important for a systems analyst who must work with people at all organizational levels and balance the sometimes conflicting needs of users. Many IT professionals use handheld computers to manage calendars. A(n) __________ is a diagram that visually represents the interaction between users and the information system. The end product of the systems analysis phase is a(n) __________. 5. If a questionnaire allows anonymous responses. __________ show the timing of transactions between objects as they occur. A(n) __________ is a top-down representation of business functions and processes. 8. the user becomes a(n) __________. Keeping accurate records of interviews. 50. and telephone lists. . and communicate the results effectively. 6. 3. schedules. analyze the elements. discuss business needs. 2. and define the new system requirements. people might offer less candid responses than they would in an interview. appointments. 10. In a use case diagram. CASE tools can be used at every stage of systems development.

__________ are interview questions that ask the person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or to verify facts. 14. which states that the observation can affect worker productivity. __________ means the ability to adjust system capacity as business requirements change in the future. To obtain a geographically balanced sample of 20 customers from a list of 200 customers. When studying an information system. 22. __________ are interview questions that encourage spontaneous and unstructured responses. To obtain a sample of 20 customers from a list of 200 customers. 15. a systems analyst might use a(n) __________ that selects any 20 customers. __________ are interview questions that limit or restrict the response. 21. the systems analyst concentrates on what is said and notices any nonverbal communication that takes place during an interview. A(n) __________ is a planned meeting during which a systems analyst obtains information from another person.11. systems developers must identify and document indirect expenses that contribute to the __________. 26. A(n) __________ is a document containing a number of standard questions that can be sent to many individuals. 12. The __________ of current operating procedures is a fact-finding technique that gives the systems analyst additional perspective and a better understanding of system procedures. 27. 24. 19. In a process called __________. 25. a systems analyst should collect examples of actual documents using a process called __________. . In some cases. a systems analyst might use a(n) __________ that would select every tenth customer for review. the systems analyst must remain aware of a factor called the __________. a systems analyst must perform __________ to find out how the original system functioned before it was modified. a systems analyst might use a(n) __________ to select five customers from each of four ZIP codes. 23. 16. As people are observed at work. To obtain a sample of 20 customers from a list of 200 customers. __________ can help the systems analyst understand how the current system is supposed to work. 17. 13. 20. 18. A(n) __________ is a characteristic or feature that must be included in an information system to satisfy business requirements and be acceptable to users. In addition to direct costs.

28. 32. and forms. 35. seeking answers to questions. where the objective is to observe a system in use at another location. 31. Using the features of a powerful __________. generate graphs and charts that display the data and show possible patterns. One type of documentation is a(n) __________ with simple statements about what is occurring. and suggestions for improvements. and news about industry trends and developments. Corel Sidekick. and books to obtain background information. apparent problems. END Title:Data and Process Modelling Issue:8 Date:20 October 2005 START . A(n) __________. 30. 34. __________ is an important fact-finding technique that can include reviewing journals. summaries. is a powerful tool for organizing and developing a formal presentation. technical material. such as Microsoft Excel or Corel Quattro Pro. Research can involve __________. a systems analyst can create reports. 33. Using the Internet. such a Microsoft Word or Corel WordPerfect. 29. can help a systems analyst manage tasks and provide a personal calendar and a to-do list. and use statistical functions to tabulate and analyze questionnaire data. with priorities and the capability to check off completed items. such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Corel Presentations. A(n) __________. tables. or Lotus Organizer. __________ are good resources for exchanging information with other professionals. and monitoring discussions of interest. can help a systems analyst track and manage numerical data or financial information. periodicals. A(n) __________. such as Microsoft Outlook.

the data dictionary. decision tables.Overview In this section. Explain how to level and balance a set of data flow diagrams Draw a complete set of data flow diagrams for an information system Describe how a data dictionary is used and what it contains. and decision trees Explain the interaction among data flow diagrams. Data and Process Modeling . from general to specific. Use process description tools. we shall look at the following subjects: Data Modeling Data flow diagrams Data dictionary Process Modeling Process descriptions This section corresponds to chapter 4 of the textbook. and process description Describe the relationship between logical and physical models. including structured English. Objectives The objectives of this section are: Describe data and process modeling concepts and tools Explain how structured analysis describes an information system Describe the symbols used in data flow diagrams and explain the rules for their use Explain the sequence of data flow diagrams.

but is not one! It shows concurrent flows. There are two popular symbol sets for drawing Data Flow Diagrams: Gane and Sarson Yourdon In this course. Data Flow Diagrams use only four basic symbols: Process Data flow Data store External entity .The overall objective of this phase is to construct a logical model which describes the business at hand The logical model shows what the system must do. not how it does it. regardless of the physical implementation. A systems analyst uses visual communication tools (as well as visual design tools) Data Flow Diagrams Data flow diagrams (DFDs) show how data moves through an information system. But does not show details of program logic or processing steps DFDs represent a logical model that shows what a system does. we will be using the Gane and Sarson notation. Data flow diagrams look like a flowchart.

organization. External Entity Symbol External Entity Symbol is a square. Data Flow Symbol Data Flow Symbol is a line with an arrowhead showing direction A path for data to move from one part of the system to another Represents one or more data items At least one data flow must enter and exit each process. Must follow specific rules for connecting DFD symbols. underlying details not shown. . or both Details are shown in a process description In DFDs the process symbol appears as a black box.Process Symbol Process Symbol is a rectangle with rounded corners Documented with process descriptions Receive input data and produces output Output has a different form. or content. or other system that provides data or receives output from the system External entities are called terminators Source (supplies data to the system) Sink (receives data from the system). Data Store Symbol Data Store Symbol is a rectangle open on the right side Data store also is called a data repository Represents data that is retained for later processing Must be connected to a process with a data flow Must have at least one outgoing and incoming data flow. usually shaded Represents a person.

Detailed DFDs Conventions for drawing data flow diagrams are: Each context diagram must fit on one page Process name in the context diagram should be the name of the information system Use unique names within each set of symbols Do not cross lines . They represent the results of fact-finding effort performed by the systems analyst.Entity Examples ---are provided in your book--- Context Diagrams Context Diagrams are top-level view that shows the systems boundaries scope. as shown in the following table: | | |To Process |From |Process |YES |YES |YES |From |Data Store |YES |NO |NO |From |Ext.Data flow connections are possible only between specific elements.Entity |YES |NO |NO | | | | | |To Data Store |To Ext. One process symbol. numbered 0 (zero) is drawn in the center Data flows connect the process to the entities Abbreviated symbols can be used to identify entities.

and data stores at the uppermost level of the system's DFD. major processes. displays more detail than the context diagram. or decomposing Balancing Maintains consistency among an entire set of DFDs. however. data flows. Data Flow Diagrams as subsequent layers show entities. Parent s input and output data flows are preserved on the child .Use abbreviated identifications Use a unique reference number for each process symbol A diagram should have no more than nine process symbols Diagram 0. and data stores. partitioning. Usually it is necessary to show more detail. It shows entities. Other characteristics are: Can contain diverging data flows Exploded (partitioned or decomposed) version of process 0 Diagram 0 is the child of the parent context diagram Also can be called an overview or level 0 diagram Can contain functional primitives Lower-level diagrams are drawn to telescope-in (or zoom-in) to analyse further. Every DFD design must consider Leveling Balancing Data stores Leveling Process of drawing increasingly detailed diagrams. Also called exploding. major processes. data flows.

Data stores Might not appear on higher-level DFDs. Data stores are shown on the the highest-level DFD that has two or more processes using that data store. we shall look at the following subjects: Data Modeling Data flow diagrams Data dictionary . Strategies for developing DFDs Main objective is to ensure that your model is accurate and easy to understand A diagram should have no more than nine process symbols END Title:Data and Process Modelling Issue:9 Date:20 October 2005 START Overview In this section.

and process description Describe the relationship between logical and physical models. from general to specific. including structured English. decision tables. Data Dictionary Data Dictionary is also called data repository Documents specific facts about the system Data flows Data stores Processes . and decision trees Explain the interaction among data flow diagrams. Explain how to level and balance a set of data flow diagrams Draw a complete set of data flow diagrams for an information system Describe how a data dictionary is used and what it contains. the data dictionary. Objectives The objectives of this section are: Describe data and process modeling concepts and tools Explain how structured analysis describes an information system Describe the symbols used in data flow diagrams and explain the rules for their use Explain the sequence of data flow diagrams.Process Modeling Process descriptions This section corresponds to chapter 4 of the textbook. Use process description tools.

Example attributes of a data element are: Name or label Alternate name(s) Type and length Output format Default value Prompt. fields) Documenting the elements All of the items in a DFD is to be documented in the Data Dictionary.External entities Data structures (records) Data elements (data items. During the documentation process. comprehensive information about the system. header or field caption Source Security Responsible user(s) Acceptable values and data validation Derivation formula Description and comments . Documenting the data elements Must document every data element. Various tools are available. The key objective is to provide clear. also called the Data Repository. and Visible Analyst is a popular example. paper-based standard forms or a CASE tool can be used. All major characteristics of the items must be recorded and described.

Documenting the data flows Must document every data flow. Example attributes of a process are: Name or label Alternate name(s) Purpose or description Process number Input data flows . Example attributes of a data flow are: Name or label Alternate name(s) Description Origin Record ' group of data elements Volume and frequency Documenting the data stores Must document every data store. Example attributes of a data store are: Name or label Alternate name(s) Description Input data flows Output data flows Record ' group of data elements Volume and frequency Documenting the processes Must document every process.

using modular design Modular design uses three logical structures Sequence . Example attributes of a record are: Name or label Alternate name(s) Definition or description Record content or composition Data Dictionary Reports Data dictionary serves as a central storehouse for documentation Using this data. Example attributes of a external entity are: Name or label Alternate name(s) Description Input data flows Output data flows Documenting the records Must document every record. you can produce many valuable reports Process Description Tools Modular design Process description documents a functional primitive.Output data flows Process description Documenting the external entities Must document every external entity.

Selection Iteration Process description tools are: Structured English Decision tables Decision trees Structured English Structured English is a subset of standard English. and iteration structures Use indentation for readability Use a limited vocabulary Decision tables Process logic is sometimes best illustrated by a decision table where conditions and actions are listed as rows of a table. Use only standard sequence. and rules. Logic structure is shown horizontally Easy to construct and understand . Shows a logical structure that describes process logic Every logical combination is shown initially Results then can be combined and simplified Programmers can use decision tables in developing code Decision trees A decision tree is a graphical representation that shows a decision table s conditions. selection. used to describe process logic. actions.

major benefit is having a better grasp of the current system functions before making any modifications.Decision table is better in complex situations Logical and Physical models Sequence of models need to be constructed during system analysis. END Title:Exercises for Chapter 4 Issue:10 Date:20 October 2005 . A physical model shows how the systems requirements are implemented. Major disadvantage is added time and cost needed to develop a logical and physical model of the current system. The four models are: Physical model of the current system Logical model of the current system Logical model of the new system Physical model of the new system In the four-model approach. create a logical model of the new system Logical Versus Physical Models Four-model approach is also sometimes pursued. Create a physical model of the current system Develop a logical model of the current system After the current system is understood.

black holes. In a DFD. DFDs use four basic symbols that represent processes. A DFD shows the structure and detailed contents of a data flow. Material is arranged as: True/False exercises Fill-in-the-blank type exercises Please note that these exercises are for self-study purposes. some exercises for Chapter 4 of the textbook is provided. 8. the process name identifies a specific function and consists of a verb (and an adjective. 7. . In a DFD. not what the system does. A data store must be connected to a process with a data flow. DFDs represent a logical model that shows how a system works. if necessary) followed by a singular noun. and gray holes are logically possible in a DFD because a process need not act on an input. at least one data flow must enter and one data flow must exit each process symbol. 2. the physical characteristics of a data store are important because the systems analyst is concerned with a physical model. shown by an incoming data flow. and external entities. 4. In a DFD. When creating a DFD. A DFD shows the detailed contents of a data flow. 3. the general structure and data elements are defined in the data dictionary. data flows. 10. or produce output. 9. 11. Spontaneous generation. 5.START Overview In this section. because a process changes data from one form to another. a process symbol cannot have more than one outgoing data flow. represented by an outgoing data flow. A data flow in a DFD represents one or more data items. True or False? 1. data stores. 6.

The process numbers in diagram 0 suggest that the processes are accomplished in a sequential order. 24. Under the leveling concept. 20. all the connections that flow into and out of process 0 must be retained. Because analysts create DFDs as a series of top-down pictures of an information system. One advantage of using a CASE tool to draw DFDs is that the program will track input and output data flows and alert the systems analyst to improper balancing. which shows more detail. 26. When a context diagram is expanded into DFD diagram 0. DFDs must be balanced properly. diagram 0 represents the highest-level view of an information system. 23. What makes one system more complex than another is the number of components. also called child diagrams. and the lower-level diagram is referred to as the parent diagram. Systems analysts call an external entity that supplies data to a system a sink. the higher-level diagram is called the child diagram. If the same data flows in both directions. external entities. When lower-level diagrams. 17. 29. 15. data stores. 19. and the degree of interaction among its processes. 28. It is necessary to explode all processes down to exactly the same level. 14. and an external entity that receives data from the system a source. A context diagram provides the most specific view of an information system and contains multiple process symbols. the number of levels. 16. 25.12. and data flows. External entities in a DFD show the boundaries of the information system and how the information system interacts with the outside world. 18. 21. it is essential that they be leveled and balanced. The logic for a functional primitive is documented in a process description in the data dictionary. The process name in the context diagram should be the name of the information system. To achieve consistency. . Larger information systems might require an analyst to work through many DFD levels to reach the system s functional primitive processes. are needed to show detail. Data stores must be shown in a context diagram because data stores are external to the system. a double-headed arrow can be used to connect the symbols in diagram 0. followed by the context diagram. 13. When a DFD is exploded. 22. each lower level provides fewer details. 27. which are like black boxes.

Analysts seldom use decision tables. data store. then all the child diagrams for diagram 0. 33. 36. the input data flow is the standard DFD names for the data flow leaving the data source. who are concerned with coding. 43. the default value is the value for the data element if a value otherwise is not entered for it. each logical structure has multiple entry and exit points. and the logic follows the lines in the direction indicated by the arrows. the systems analyst first creates the context diagram. the data dictionary documents the relationships among these components. Every data element must be documented in the data dictionary. In modular design. The data dictionary defines and describes all data elements and meaningful combinations of data elements. In addition to describing each data element. 32. Decision trees show the logic structure in a vertical form that resembles a tree with the roots at the bottom and the branches at the top. If users and other analysts who review a DFD find it correct and simple to follow. as a shorthand notation for the actual code. 45. the primary purpose of structured English is to describe underlying business logic. A primary key can consist of one data element or a combination of two or more data elements. the systems analyst has chosen the proper development strategy. external entity. 42. 41. With a bottom-up strategy for developing DFDs. 35. In developing DFDs. to describe a logical process or ensure that they have not overlooked any logical possibility. In the data dictionary. a rectangle represents a condition or decision. 40. . or structured English. and so on. and process. the main objective is to ensure that the model is accurate and easy to understand. 34. 31. while pseudocode is used mainly by programmers. 44. 39. a diamond shape represents a step or process. Although the techniques are similar. data flow. the data structures and data elements are based on the data stores and data flows.30. 37. In documenting the data stores. 38. In documenting data elements. In modular design. record. then diagram 0. A record is a data structure that contains a set of unrelated data elements that are stored and processed separately.

Processes contain the __________ that transforms the data and produce the required results. but the input obviously is insufficient to generate the output shown. Decision trees and decision tables are considered equivalent. 10. A(n) __________ is used in a DFD to represent a situation in which the system must retain data because one or more processes need to use the stored data at a later time. 2. A decision table is a better way to describe a relatively simple process. External entities are called __________. or both. In a DFD. 3. because they are data origins or final destinations. but in different forms ' a graphic versus a table. 11. 47. Fill-in-the-blanks 1. In a DFD. Most systems development projects have very loose schedules that always allow time to create the current system models. a process appears as a(n) __________. the process is called a(n) __________ process. . In DFDs. and general function of the process are known. where the inputs. a(n) __________ is a path for data to move from one part of the information system to another. A(n) __________ shows how data moves through an information system but does not show program logic or processing steps. form. 8. A(n) __________ is a process that has at least one input and one output. 50.46. 4. but the underlying details are not shown. A physical model shows how a system s requirements are implemented. 49. 48. If a process has no input. The __________ symbol set is a popular version of DFD symbols. Mistakes made early in systems development will affect later SDLC phases and can result in unhappy users and additional costs. and a decision tree is a better way to handle complex combinations of conditions. A(n) __________ process is a process that has no output. 5. 6. 9. outputs. 7. a(n) __________ receives input data and produces output that has a different content.

DFDs follow __________. When documenting records. Documenting data elements includes specification of the data element s __________. data flows. and data stores. these values can be either specifically listed or referenced in a table. diagram 0 is called a(n) __________ view of process 0. data definitions. 27. A(n) __________ is a central storehouse of information about a system s data. To show the detail inside a black box. 18. and process descriptions. some data elements have additional __________. A(n) __________ is a meaningful combination of related data elements that is included in a data flow or retained in a data store. or rules that should be used when constructing DFDs. 19. 13. 22. A(n) __________ is a process that consists of a single function that is not exploded further. or selected from a specified range of values. until the desired degree of detail is reached. a(n) __________ is a data element in a record that uniquely identifies that record. Because diagram 0 is a more detailed or expanded version of process 0 on a context diagram. including input and output data flows. . When documenting data elements. When documenting data elements. __________ maintains consistency among an entire series of diagrams. 14. such as the requirement that the data element be in a specified range. A(n) __________ set of DFDs preserves the input and output data flows of the parent on the child DFD. 15. 16. 26. any name(s) other than the standard data element names are called __________. which is a set of values permitted for the data element. __________ is the process of drawing a series of increasingly detailed diagrams. 17. 21. When documenting data elements. __________ is the maximum number of characters for an alphabetic or character data element or the maximum number of digits and number of decimal places for a numeric data element. 25. 20. a DFD __________ is created that zooms in on the context diagram and shows major processes. 23. 24.12. A(n) __________ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system. A(n) __________ is a top-level view of an information system that shows the system s boundaries and scope.

When the functional primitive is analyzed. 33. A(n) __________ documents the details of a functional primitive. 29. 31. a(n) __________ of the new information system is created that follows from the logical model and involves operational tasks and techniques. The iteration control structure also is called __________. During the systems design phase. 30. which represents a specific set of processing steps and business logic. Modular design is based on combinations of three __________. 32. END Title:Object Modeling Issue:11 Date:27 October 2005 START Overview In this section. 34. A(n) __________ shows a logical structure. 35. we shall look at the following subjects: .28. and rules found in a decision table. the processing steps are broken down into smaller units in a process called __________. __________ is a subset of standard English that describes logical processes clearly and accurately. A(n) __________ is a graphical representation of the conditions. actions. with all possible combinations of conditions and resulting actions.

This approach is simply just another way to view and model the system requirements. Overview of OOA&D.g. and how it differs from the "traditional" methods. Object oriented (OO) methods blend data and process into objects.Unified Modeling Language RUP . and RUP In this section. Goal is to document. and model the information system. or DFD) or data (e.OOA&D . UML. including objects. Earlier analysis methods were focused on process (such as a Data Flow Diagram. analyze. and deal mostly with the following acronyms: OOA&D . attributes. Object modeling can be considered a prerequisite if object-oriented design will be chosen later in the project. let us see what "Object Oriented" is. Phase 2: Systems Analysis. classes.Object-Oriented Analysis and Design UML .Object-Oriented Analysis and Design UML . . and instances This section corresponds to toolkit part 5 of the textbook.Unified Modeling Language RUP . messages. or ERD). we will look at object modeling from a historical perspective. using an Entity Relationship Diagram.Rational Unified Process Object Modeling Define object modeling terms and concepts. step 3. methods. This chapter covers object-oriented analysis of IT systems. and focuses on how those objects interact using methods (passing messages).Rational Unified Process First.

real-time systems) Objective-C (Macintosh) And many.5 spec defines an object as An entity with a well-defined boundary and identity that encapsulates state and behavior. or other techniques. process and data oriented methodologies. 1980) Ada 95 (highly reliable. and state machines. UML 1. procedures. if any Relationships describe which objects are allowed to talk to each other The operations and methods describe the ways objects can interact with each other Common object-oriented languages include the cousins C++. An object is an instance of a class. Lesser known OO languages include Smalltalk (first OO language. macros. Java. objects are a set of data. In other words. which can only be acted on in certain prescribed ways. and applies them using their methods or operations. even more obscure languages Evolution towards object orientation The "Old" way of system analysis had two schools. and changes them using scripts. and C#. behavior is represented by operations. methods. State is represented by attributes and relationships. Objects are characterized by the following: Attributes are the data contained by an object. OOA&D creates objects from classes. Process Oriented Methodology was: Invented in the 1960 s Focuses on using DFD .Traditional design creates entities (data tables).

gained popularity in 1990's. Major objectives of OO were to overcome the inherent problems of previous methodologies. Goal was to establish a development method which: Is able to guide us through analysis. especially in relational database systems. the DFD changes. design. and is the primary method used from the 1980 s to today. Grady Booch. 1. Data Oriented Methodology was: Introduced in 1976. Focuses on using the ERD Doesn t change as often as the DFD Shows business rules through cardinality (0. every time a process is tweaked. It had been slow to be adopted by industry. It has been standardized thru efforts such as UML and CORBA. . and implementation using one consistent paradigm throughout those phases Is less likely to generate errors Contains checks to help eliminate errors Facilitates reuse of designs and code One of the founders of OO Method. It encapsulates data and processes to allow large system development. mostly due to inertia of data and process methods.Weak for projects over 50k lines of code (LOC) Subject to frequent change. which are relevant to your problem: OOA is a method of analysis that examines requirements from the perspectives of the classes and objects. outlines two aspects in his paper in 1995: Emphasis is on finding and describing conceptual objects. with millions of LOC. Object Oriented Methodology. () Works for systems up to about ½ million LOC The "New" way of system analysis. and also due to large installed base of existing methods.

note that OO distinguishes between analysis and design phases: OO Analysis is done with no concern of how it will be implemented OO Design considers implementation issues Also note that there are conceptual objects (analysis) and software objects (design) in OO Methodology. UML came later and was based on the OMT method. UML is the leading language for modeling OOA&D. UML In OO. Rumbaugh) Mainstream Objects (MO) method. (Booch 1995) Like the process and data methodologies.Emphasis is on defining software objects. UML replaced a herd of competing OO methods from the early to mid 1990 s. including corporate-defined OO methods. Ed Yourdon Objectory method (Jacobson) Booch method (Booch) CRC method (Wirfs-Brock) Fusion method (developed by Coleman-HP) But around 1995. During the early phases of OO movement. The results of analysis may be captured (expressed) using modeling. Booch and Schlaer Mellor were also popular. and how they collaborate to fulfill system requirements: OOD is a method of design encompassing the process of OO decomposition and a notation for depicting both logical and physical as well as static and dynamic models of the system. All other methods shared remaining 25% of the market. Modeling depends on having some language to express the concepts.: OMT method (most popular. e. analysis is the process of understanding something. there were many academicians and professionals with their own ideas on implementing OO.g. OMT led with 34-40% of market. . five OO methods shared 75% of the market.

with the latest version being 1. and Jacobson. It was first standardized in 1997. and Jacobson now all work for Rational Software Inc.omg. Booch. The goals of UML are: To model systems using OO concepts To establish an explicit coupling between conceptual and software artifacts (objects) To address the issues of scale inherent in complex mission critical systems To create a modeling language usable by both humans and machines UML not only replaced the methods by Booch. as Grady Booch.5 (March 2003).The three amigos . James Rumbaugh and Ivar Jacobson was then so-called. Their three 1999 books are instant classics: The UML: User Guide The UML: Reference Manual The Unified Software Development Process Today. Rational was bought by IBM. but also borrowed from all of the best ideas from these previous concepts: Fusion (Operation description & message numbering) Embley (Singleton class) Meyer (Pre. (www.and post-conditions) Shlaer and Mellor (Object life cycles) Martin and Odell (Classification) Wirfs-Brock (Responsibilities) Harel (State charts) . Rumbaugh. Rumbaugh. UML is defined by the Object Management Group (www. created UML in 1997-8.org).com) Lately.rational. a worldwide consortium of OO product vendors.

and the Suite DevelopmentStudio. the patient is an object. Rational has lots of white papers if you re interested. place. The product of object-oriented analysis is an object model. event. An object represents a real person. Objects include data and the processes that affect the data. and the appointment is also an object. Its mainstream tools are called the Rational Unified Process.000 words doesn t mean you need to use them all. a method needs a language. as other previous methods. UML has twelve diagrams. By definition. 3000 words are plenty for most occasions. but three types are most commonly used: Use case modeling Class modeling Interaction modeling with patterns Just because English has 600. Terms and Concepts Object-oriented analysis is an approach that sees a system from the viewpoint of the objects themselves. et al (Patterns) UML. the doctor is an object. when a patient makes an appointment to see a doctor. makes extensive use of diagrams and visual design elements. and a process to describe how to use the language. which represents the information system. Remember that Method = Language + Process The Rational Unified Process (RUP or UP) was designed to be used with UML. most of the available UML diagrams are used only for special or in-depth occasions. Similarly.Gamma. The end product is an object model. Rose. The first step is to . and it provides a structure for system development. UP is an iterative process. There are several examples in the text. or transaction that is significant to the information system.

which are characteristics that describe the object. and instances. Other examples of objects are shown in Figures 5-4 to 5-9. sex. classes. or acquire. as shown in Figure 5-10. methods. Methods are like verbs that describe what an object does. and messages for a vehicle object. An object has tasks or functions (methods) that the object performs when it receives a directive (message) to do so. age.understand basic object-oriented terms. Figure 5-1 in the textbook shows examples of attributes. The number of attributes needed depends on the business requirements of the information system and its users. The state of an object is an adjective that describes the object s current status. messages. Attributes are designed during the systems design process. An object can have a specific attribute called a state. Objects can inherit. Methods describe what and how an object does something: A constructor method creates a new instance of an object An update method changes existing data A query method provides information about an object s attributes A destructor method deletes this instance of the object . including objects. attributes. Figure 5-3 in the textbook shows a CHILD object with certain attributes such as name. Attributes are similar to adjectives that describe the characteristics of an object. and hair color. methods. Attributes are characteristics that describe the object. A method defines specific tasks that an object can perform. attributes from other objects. An object has certain attributes.

and semantics. systems analysts sometimes use the term object to refer to a class of objects. shows examples of classes. A Class is defined by UML 1. A class may use a set of interfaces to specify collections of operations it provides to its environment. the TRUCK class. Figures 5-17 to 5-19. relationships. The black box concept is an example of encapsulation: all data and methods are self-contained. END Title:Object Modeling Issue:12 Date:27 October 2005 START . operations. Objects within a class can be grouped into subclasses. A class can belong to a more general category called a superclass. Polymorphism is the concept that the same message to two different objects can produce different results. An example is the CAR class. A class is a group of similar objects. and the SPORT UTILITY VEHICLE class are a group of objects. methods. the MINIVAN class.A message is a command that tells an object to perform a certain method. Usually the meaning can be understood from the context and the way the term is used.5 specification as: A description of a set of objects that share the same attributes. An object belongs to a group or category called a class. Hence a class is a group of similar objects. Although the term object usually refers to a particular instance.

we will evaluate alternatives. we shall look at the following subjects: Object modeling Object relationships Use case modeling This section corresponds to toolkit part 5 of the textbook. and model the information system. which is another way to view and model the system requirements. including dependency. we used structured analysis techniques to develop a data and process model of the proposed system. and prepare for the systems design phase of the SDLC. learn about prototyping. class diagrams. step 3 Objectives The objectives of this section are: Explain how object-oriented analysis can be used to describe an information system Explain relationships among objects. develop the system requirements document. In this chapter. including use cases. analyze. use case diagrams. Describe Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools and techniques.Overview In this section. we will look at object-oriented analysis. Object-oriented methods are used to document. aggregation. In the next chapter. and activity diagrams Explain the advantages of using CASE tools in developing the object model Explain how to organize the object model In Chapter 4. which concludes the systems analysis phase. sequence diagrams. state transition diagrams. Phase 2: Systems Analysis. . association. and inheritance Draw an object relationship diagram.

and the effects of membership in classes. The instructoremployee example in Figure 5-23 is an inheritance type relationship. The employee-department example in Figure 5-22 is an aggregation relationship. Relationships enable objects to communicate and interact. it is stronger than a dependency. Association occurs when certain attributes of one object are determined by its interaction with another object. Relationships range from weakest to strongest. An example is the school bus given in Figure 5-20. Inheritance enables an object to derive one of more of its attributes from another object. superclasses. The fitness-class example in Figure 5-21 is an association relationship. the strongest among relationship types. and subclasses. Aggregation exists when an object forms part of another object. . as follows: Dependency Association Aggregation Inheritance Dependency occurs when one object must be informed about another. how objects respond to changes in other objects. Relationships describe what objects need to know about each other. followed by the object s attributes and methods.UML Objects The UML represents an object as a rectangle with the object name on the top.

. It is used as a guide to develop additional diagrams and documentation. which define attribute types and operations Classes may be arranged in a class hierarchy where one class is derived from an existing class (superclass) A sub-class inherits the attributes and operations from its super class and may add new methods or attributes of its own. Systems analysts use UML to describe and model object-oriented systems. They cannot be understood without reference to their superclasses Designers have a tendency to reuse the inheritance graph created during analysis. Advantages of inheritance are: It is an abstraction mechanism which may be used to classify entities It is a reuse mechanism at both the design and the programming level The inheritance graph is a source of organizational knowledge about domains and systems Problems with Inheritance are: Object classes are not self-contained. Can lead to significant inefficiency The inheritance graphs of analysis.Objects are members of classes.omg. UML uses symbols to represent graphically the various components and relationships within a system UML is mainly used to support object-oriented system analysis and to develop object models.com . More details can be found at www. design and implementation have different functions and should be separately maintained Object relationship diagram provides an overview of the system. Object Management Group (OMG) has adopted the UML as an object modeling standard and is responsible with the future and standardization of UML.

Sequence diagrams show the messages exchanged between objects over a time interval.Use case modeling Use case represents the steps in a specific business function or process. They are the dynamic models of a use case. System boundary shows what is included in the system and what is not included in the system. Use cases can interact with other use cases. A use case description is developed for each use case. which evolves into a physical model and finally becomes a functioning information system. Class diagrams represent a detailed view of a single use case. messages. the following is documented: Name of use-case The actor Description of use-case A step-by-step list of tasks and actions for successful completion A description of alternative courses of action A description of preconditions A description of assumptions Use case diagrams are visual summaries of several related use cases within a system. During this task. Sequence diagrams show the interaction among classes during a specified time period. An actor (external entity) initiates a use case by requesting the system to perform a function or process. They include symbols that represent classes. A class diagram is a logical model. and focuses: Classes that send and receive messages are shown at the top as rectangles . lifelines. Cardinality in class diagrams describes how instances of one class relate to instances of another class.

Activity diagrams show the order in which actions take place and identify the outcome. Organizing the Object Model Organize use cases and use case diagrams so they can be linked to the appropriate class. CASE tools are widely used in object oriented analysis and design. System Architect. They speed up the diagram process. It is much easier to prepare a diagram now than to change the software later. All possible states must be documented in the state transition diagram. System functionality is expressed in terms of object services Shared data areas are eliminated. Rational Rose is examples of such CASE tools. start/end and transitions. and activity diagrams. Power designer. Characteristics of OOD are: Objects are abstractions of real-world or system entities and manage themselves Objects are independent and encapsulate state and representation information. state transition. Objects communicate by message passing Objects may be distributed and may execute sequentially or in parallel . provide a framework for documenting the system components and ensure consistency and provide common links.The lifeline represents the time during which the object is able to interact with others The end of a lifeline is marked with an X A message is sent from one object to another The focus indicates when an object sends or receives a message State transition diagrams are also dynamic models of cases. A state transition diagram includes symbols that represent states. They can display multiple use cases in the form of a grid. sequence. They show how an object changes from one state to another.

where message name is a procedure name. messages are often implemented by procedure calls. A message is the name of the service requested by the calling object. experience and domain knowledge of system designers. There is no 'magic formula' for object identification. In practice. there may be an obvious mapping from real world entities to system objects Conceptually. You are unlikely to get it right first time.Advantages of OOD are: Easier maintenance. Approaches to object identification Use a grammatical approach based on a natural language description of the system Base the identification on tangible things in the application domain Use a behavioral approach and identify objects based on what participates in what behavior Use a scenario-based analysis Nouns in the description give pointers to objects in the system Verbs give pointers to operations associated with objects . Object Identification Identifying objects is the most difficult part of object-oriented design. Copies of the information required to execute the service and the name of a holder for the result of the service are passed between objects. and message information is a parameter list. Object identification is an iterative process. It relies on the skill. Objects may be understood as stand-alone entities Objects are appropriate reusable components For some systems. objects communicate by message passing.

Keeping on top of current trends is vital when technology changes so rapidly.Approach assumes that the designer has common sense knowledge of the application domain as not all objects and services are likely to be mentioned in the description. and then proceed to object-oriented skills. END . "The Office Information Retrieval System (OIRS) is an automatic file clerk which can file documents under some name in one or more indexes. which are easier to learn and apply. One is that experienced systems analysts will expect you to be familiar with this approach and the terminology associated with it. display and maintain document indexes. archive documents and destroy documents. An example is shown below. where objects are identified in bold face. It can be difficult to switch gears to an object-oriented way of thinking if you are accustomed to the structured analysis approach. The system is activated by a request from the user and always returns a message to the user indicating the success or failure of the request." Conclusion There are various lengthy discussions of which method is superior and how one should start. It is better to understand the traditional approach. Others think that an analyst should learn structured analysis first. retrieve documents. you must first understand the traditional structured method. Below is a valid argument: Object-oriented approach: New systems analysts should begin with object-oriented techniques since the future of systems analysis and design seems to be heading in that direction. Structured analysis approach: There are several reasons why structured analysis should be learned first. Some believe that inexperienced analysts should start with object-oriented techniques. especially since some experienced analysts might be hesitant to embrace the object-oriented trend and not be comfortable with working with someone who only knows that approach. Another reason is that in order to fully understand and appreciate the advantages of object-oriented analysis and design.

Although the term object usually refers to a particular instance. an object represents a real person. tested. or transaction.Title:Exercises for Chapter 5 Issue:13 Date: 72 October 2005 START Overview In this section. True or False? 1. . event. systems analysts sometimes use the term to refer to a class of objects. Object-oriented analysis is a popular approach that sees a system from the viewpoint of the objects themselves as they function and interact with the system. or reused as often as necessary. A modular approach wastes money and time. 4. Material is arranged as: True/False exercises Fill-in-the-blank type exercises Please note that these exercises are for self-study purposes. some exercises for toolkit part 5 of the textbook is provided. During the implementation phase of the SDLC. In object-oriented analysis. 5. 3. because the modules cannot be optimized. systems analysts and programmers transform program code modules into objects. 2.

All relationships are equally strong. . In an object-oriented system. After the objects. 14. In 1997. 19. 9. Although the UML can be used to support object-oriented systems analysis and to develop object models. Object-oriented designs typically are implemented with object-oriented programming languages. or acquire. Just as a query can be sent to a database to obtain information. a query method provides information about an object s attributes. working with reusable program modules that have been tested and verified. followed by the object s attributes and name. how objects respond to changes in other objects. By limiting access to internal processes. 15. classes. certain attributes from other objects. The same message to two different objects always produces the same results. The UML uses a set of symbols to represent graphically the various components and relationships within a system. Because all objects in a class have completely different attributes. Relationships describe what objects need to know about each other. those attributes are not assumed through inheritance and must be repeated in each object. 24. and relationships have been identified. 8. objects can inherit. 13. an object prevents its internal code from being altered by another object or process. 22. adopted the UML as an object modeling standard. 18. The UML represents an object as a circle with the object s methods at the top. superclasses. 10. the Object Management Group (OMG). A method is a command that tells an object to perform a certain message. 23.6. an industry group concerned with object-oriented issues and trends. an object relationship diagram can be prepared that will provide an overview of the system. 16. 20. 21. An object can be viewed as a black box that wants and needs outside interference. All objects have only a few attributes. 17. it is used mainly for business process modeling and requirements modeling. 7. 12. A major advantage of object-oriented designs is that systems analysts can save time and avoid errors by using modular objects. and subclasses. A message defines specific tasks that an object can perform. 11. The UML consists of various diagrams that use common symbols and notation. and the effects of membership in classes. and programmers can translate the design into code.

25. An integrated approach makes it more difficult to create, read, and utilize UML diagrams. 26. In a UML diagram, the line from the actor to the use case is called an association because it links a particular actor to a use case. 27. Use cases cannot interact with other use cases. 28. The UML indicates a relationship with an oval that points at the case being used. 29. To create use cases, a systems analyst starts by reviewing the information gathered during the requirements modeling phase to identify the actors and the functions or transactions they initiate. 30. When use cases are identified, the systems analyst tries to divide all the related use cases into multiple use cases. 31. After the system boundary is identified, the systems analyst places the use cases on the use case diagram, adds the actors, and shows the relationships. 32. In structured analysis, entities, data stores, and processes evolve into code modules, data objects, and other system components. 33. Class diagrams are transformed into data structures and program code. 34. The first step in creating a class diagram is to review the use case and identify the classes that participate in the underlying business transactions. 35. In a class diagram, each class appears as a rectangle, with the class name at the top, followed by the class s attributes and methods. 36. In a class diagram, lines show relationships between classes and have labels identifying the action that relates the two classes. 37. The concept of cardinality is unimportant during structured analysis and design. 38. Sequence diagrams include symbols that represent classes, lifelines, messages, and focuses. 39. Classes that send or receive messages are shown at the bottom of a sequence diagram. 40. In a sequence diagram, an O marks the end of the lifeline. 41. In a sequence diagram, a label shows the name of a message and can include additional information about the contents. 42. All possible states must be documented in a state transition diagram. 43. In a state transition diagram, the small oval to the left is the final state.

44. In a state transition diagram, the circle at the right with a hollow border is the initial state, or the point where the object first interacts with the system. 45. Activity diagrams can display multiple use cases in the form of a grid, where classes appear as horizontal arrows and actions are shown as vertical bars. 46. Sequence diagrams, state transition diagrams, and activity diagrams are dynamic modeling tools that can help a systems analyst understand how objects behave and interact with the system. 47. Object modeling requires only one type of diagram to represent the proposed system. 48. CASE tools sacrifice consistency and neglect common links so that once objects are described and used in one part of a design, they cannot be reused without further effort. 49. System Architect 2001 is a typical example of a CASE tool that builds and updates a data repository, called an encyclopedia, as a systems analyst creates the logical model. 50. Using SA/2001, a systems analyst can document the steps in a use case and define the events in a state transition diagram.

Fill-in-the-blanks

1. The end product of object-oriented analysis is a(n) __________, which represents an information system in terms of objects and object-oriented concepts. 2. In object-oriented analysis, a(n) __________ represents a person, place, event, or transaction that is significant to an information system. 3. An object has certain __________, which are characteristics that describe the object. 4. An object has __________, which are tasks or functions that the object performs. 5. An object performs certain tasks or functions when it receives a(n) __________, or command, to do so. 6. In object-oriented analysis, a(n) __________ is a group of similar objects. 7. In object-oriented analysis, a(n) __________ is a specific member of a class. 8. Objects can have a specific attribute called a(n) __________, which describes the object s current status. 9. A method that creates a new instance of an object is called a(n) __________.

10. A method that changes existing data is called a(n) __________. 11. A(n) __________ is any method that provides information about an object s attributes. 12. The concept that a message gives different meanings to different objects is called __________. 13. An object can be viewed as a(n) __________, because a message to the object triggers changes within the object without specifying how the changes must be carried out. 14. The black box concept is an example of __________, which means that all data and methods are self-contained. 15. Objects within a class can be grouped into __________, which are more specific categories within a class. 16. In object-oriented analysis, a class can belong to a more general category called a(n) __________. 17. __________ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functions and transactions required by the system. 18. __________ is a type of relationship that occurs when one object must be informed about another. 19. A(n) __________ relationship is stronger than a dependency and occurs when certain attributes of one object are determined by its interaction with another object. 20. A(n) __________ relationship exists when an object forms part of another object. 21. __________ is a type of relationship that enables an object to derive one or more of its attributes from another object. 22. In use case modeling, a(n) __________ represents the steps in a specific business function or process. 23. An external entity, called a(n) __________, initiates a use case by requesting the system to perform a function or process. 24. When the outcome of one use case is incorporated by another use case, the second case __________ the first case. 25. For each use case, a(n) __________ is developed in the form of a table. 26. A(n) __________ is a visual summary of related use cases within a system or subsystem. 27. In a use case diagram, the __________ shows what is included in the system and what is not included in the system. 28. A(n) __________ represents a detailed view of a single use case, shows the classes that participate in the use case, and documents the relationship among the classes.

a(n) __________ represents the time during which the object above it is able to interact with the other objects in the use case. showing the interaction among classes during a specified time period. 31. we shall look at the following subjects: Data design . A(n) __________ resembles a horizontal flow chart that shows the actions and events as they occur. 30. the __________ indicates when an object sends or receives a message. A class diagram includes a concept called __________. which describes how instances of one class relate to instances of another class. depending on events that affect the object. so systems analysts rely on __________ to speed up the process and provide an overall framework for documenting the system components. 32. A(n) __________ is a dynamic model of a use case. END Title:Data Design Concepts Issue:14 Date:10 November 2005 START Overview In this section. In a sequence diagram.29. 34. 35. Creating diagrams by hand is time consuming and tedious. A(n) __________ diagram shows how an object changes from one state to another. 33. In a sequence diagram.

including entities. their characteristics. Objectives The objectives of this section are: Explain data design concepts and data structures Describe file processing systems and various types of files Describe database systems. files. records. and advantages Define the components of a database management system (DBMS) Explain the concepts of data warehousing and data mining Understand data design terminology. tables. common fields.Data structures Database concepts and terminology Table design This section corresponds to chapter 6 of the textbook. fields. and key fields Introduction Main focus is on data design and management issues necessary to construct the physical model: Develop a physical plan for data organization. and retrieval Review data design concepts and terminology Discuss relationships among data objects Draw entity-relationship diagrams Use normalization concepts to build an effective database design Physical design issues Logical and physical records . storage.

storing and accessing data File-Oriented System Database System File-Oriented System A file contains data about people. or events that interact with the information system A file-oriented system processes files using file processing Database System A database consists of linked data files. access. that form an overall data structure A database management system (DBMS) is a collection of tools. and analyze data in a database File processing can be more efficient and cost less than a DBMS in certain situations. things.Data storage formats and controls Data design concepts to understand before constructing an information system are: How data is structured Characteristics of file-oriented and database systems Data warehousing Data mining Components of a database management system Tthere are two principal methods of designing. and interfaces that enable users to add. manage. features. places. Potential problems in a file-processing environment are: Data redundancy Data integrity . also called tables. update.

or patients Table files Contains reference data used by the information system Relatively permanent Not updated by the information system Transaction files Stores records that contain day-to-day business and operational data An input file that updates a master file Temporary files Work files . students. employees.Rigid data structure Types of files used in a file-oriented information system are: Master files Table files Transaction files Work files Security files History files Master files Stores relatively permanent data about an entity Might include data for customers. sales representatives.

several systems can be built around a single database. Usually.Temporary file created by an information system for a single task Also called scratch files Can contain copies of master file records that are needed temporarily Security files Created and saved for backup and recovery purposes New security files must be created regularly to replace outdated files History files A file copy created and saved for historical or archiving purposes New history files do not replace old files Database Systems A database provides an overall framework that avoids data redundancy and supports a real-time. DBMS Advantages are: Scalability Better support for client/server systems Economy of scale Sharing of data Balancing conflicting requirements Enforcement of standards Controlled redundancy Security . dynamic environment.

A subschema defines only those portions of the database that a particular system or user is allowed access Physical data repository: Contains the transformed data dictionary. Users can specify dimensions . schema. Database administrators Related systems Main components of a DBMS are: Data manipulation language (DML): Controls database operations Schema: This is the complete definition of a database. and analyze data. A specialized query language allows users to specify a task without specifying how the task will be accomplished.Increased programmer productivity Data independence DBMS Components Interfaces Data manipulation language Schema Physical implementation DBMS Interfaces are implemented for: Users: Users work with predefined queries and switchboard commands. combine. and subschemas Data Warehousing A data warehouse is an integrated collection of data that can support management analysis and decision making Stores transaction data in a format that allows users to access.

Data Mining Data mining software looks for meaningful patterns and relationships among data E-commerce uses data mining as a tool to analyze Web visitor behavior and traffic trends Data Design Terminology Data design concepts include the following concepts Entity: a person. or event for which data is collected and maintained Field (attribute): a single characteristic or fact about an entity Record: a collection of fields that describes one instance of an entity File and table: a set of records that contains data about a specific entity Key Fields of a table is used to organize. thing. place. access. and maintain data structures. There are four types of keys: Primary keys Candidate keys Foreign keys Secondary keys Primary keys A field or combination of fields that uniquely and minimally identifies each member of an entity A primary key composed of more than one field is called a multivalued key Candidate keys Any field that could serve as primary key Any field that is not a primary key or candidate key is called a nonkey field .

Secondary keys A field or combination of fields that can be used to access or retrieve records Secondary keys do not need to be unique Foreign keys A field in one file that matches a primary key value in another table A foreign key need not be unique A combination of two or more foreign keys can form a unique primary key value Referential integrity is a set of rules that avoids data inconsistency and quality problems. END Title:Data Design (ERD) Issue:15 Date:10 November 2005 START Overview . The most important contribution is that iy prevents orphaned records in a database. Referential integrity ensures that a foreign key value cannot be entered unless it matches a primary key value in another table.

labeled with a noun. Objectives The objectives of this section are: Explain data relationships and draw an entity-relationship diagram Define cardinality.In this section. Each entity is a rectangle. A relationship has three basic elements . ERD Symbols are standardized throughout the industry. but this is an outdated notetion. we shall look at the following subjects: Data relationships Entity-relationship diagrams Data analysis and normalization This section corresponds to chapter 6 of the textbook. including examples of first. second. and crow s foot notation Explain normalization. Each relationship is a line labeled with a verb. connecting the entities. and third normal form Data Relationships A relationship is a logical link between entities based on how they interact An Entity-relationship diagram (ERD) is a graphical model that shows relationships among system entities. Sometimes a diamond is shown on this line. cardinality notation.

Some examples are: One individual owns many automobiles One customer places many orders One department employs many employees .From-entity To-entity Relation name A relationship has two directions Forward direction: from "From-entity" to "To-entity" Reverse direction: from "To-entity" to "From-entity" A relationship can be of three types (called "Cardinality") One-to-one (1:1) One-to-many (1:M) Many-to-many (M:N) A relationship has optionality: Optional (may/can) Mandatory (must) One-to-one (1:1) relationship exists when exactly one of the second entity occurs for each instance of the first entity. Some examples are: One office manager heads one office One vehicle ID number is assigned to one vehicle One driver drives one delivery truck One faculty member is chairperson of one department One-to-many (1:M) relationship exists when one occurrence of the first entity can be related to many occurrences of the second entity. but each occurrence of the second entity can be associated with only one occurrence of the first entity.

but each order has only one customer An order lists one or more products. An example narrative between five entities mihgt be like: A sales rep serves one or more customers. a relationship has: A name Two directions. and each product can be stored in one or more warehouses A relationship describes how instances of one entity relate to another. and each product is listed on one or more orders A complete ERD shows all system relationships. 1:M.One faculty advisor advises many students Many-to-many (M:N) relationship exists when one instance of the first entity can be related to many instances of the second entity. and each product can be listed in one or more orders A warehouse stores one or more products. but each customer has only one sales rep A customer places one or more orders. M:N Optionality: mandatory vs. optional A recursive relationship is a relationship that exists between different instances of the same entity . and thus two narratives (sentences to describe it) Two entities: from. and each flight has one or more passengers An order lists one or more products. and each class has one or more students registered A passenger buys tickets for one or more flights. and one instance of the second entity can be related to many instances of the first. To summarize above.and toCardinality: 1:1. Some examples are: A student enrolls in one or more classes.

The specific technique is called normalization. Analyze the nature of the interaction 4. flexible.Most CASE and database design products support the drawing of ERDs. Many notations are used. stable. nonredundant. Identify the entities 2. Draw the ERD ERD Drawing Tips Draw from lower right corner to upper left corner Base entities at bottom or right. Determine all significant events or activities for two or more entities 3. Normalization is a data analysis technique that organizes data attributes such that they are grouped to form nonredundant. active entities at top or left "Dead crow flies east" principle Minimize relation line crossings Data analysis and Normalization Data analysis is a process that prepares a data model for implementation as a simple. flexible. main ones being: Rectangle-and-diamond vs rounded corners-and-lines M:N type vs crow's foot Dotted line vs ring UML-adopted symbols Creating an ERD 1. and adaptable database. and adaptive entities. .

the result is many records. the repeating group must be removed Expand the primary key to include the primary key of the repeating group The new primary key is a combination of the original primary key and the key of the repeating group Instead of a single record with a repeating group. then any record in 1 NF is automatically in 2 NF In 2NF. Normalization is a process by which identifies and corrects inherent problems and complexities in record designs. There are three stages of normalization First normal form Second normal form Third normal form First normal form (1NF) Unnormalized records contain a repeating group A repeating group refers to a single record that has multiple values in a particular field Example: multiple product numbers in a single order record A 1NF record cannot have a repeating group To convert an unnormalized record to 1NF. and all nonkey fields must be functionally dependent on the entire primary key .not just part of it Functional dependency means that a value in one field determines a value in another field If the primary key is a single field. and primary keys. a record must be in 1 NF. one for each instance of the repeating group Second normal form (2NF) To be in second normal form.A record design specifies the fields of the primary key for all records in a particular file or table. Record design use a standard method of showing the record structure. all nonkey fields are functionally dependent on the entire primary key . fields.

the entire key. Create the initial ERD 2. . secondary.To convert a 1NF record to 2NF Create a new record design for each field (or combination of fields) in the primary key Place remaining fields with the appropriate record The result will be several records. There is a lot to study abd elaborate on this subject. a record must be in 2NF and no nonkey field is functionally dependent on another nonkey field In 3NF. But more of this is beyond our scope. each with a primary key field (or combination of fields) that determines the values of the other fields in that record Third normal form (3NF) To be in 3NF. Assign all data elements to entities 3. and nothing but the key To convert a 2NF record to 3NF Remove all nonkey fields that depend on another nonkey field and place them in a new record that has the determining field as a primary key Steps in Database Design Four steps in database design 1. taking care to identify all primary. and is the subject of another course. Verify all data dictionary entries ERD & Database Design is complex and challenging. all nonkey fields are functionally dependent on the primary key. and foreign keys 4. Create 3NF designs for all records.

relational. network. Objectives The objectives of this section are: Describe hierarchical. we shall look at the following subjects: Database models Data storage Data control This section corresponds to chapter 6 of the textbook. and object-oriented database models Differentiate between logical and physical records.END Title:Data Design (ERD) Issue:16 Date:10 November 2005 START Overview In this section. and discuss data storage formats and date fields Explain data control measures .

or relations Each row is a tuple (record) and each column is an attribute (field) A common field appears in more than one table and is used to establish relationships Because of its power and flexibility. the relational database model is the predominant design approach . Hierarchical database Data is organized like a family tree or organization chart The parent record can have multiple child records ' child records can only have one parent Pointers link each parent record with each child record Complex and difficult to maintain Network databases More flexible than a hierarchical database Child record can have relationships with more than one parent Complex with many of the same disadvantages as hierarchical models Relational databases Data is organized into two-dimensional tables. object databases.Database models There are three main database models: Hierarchical databases Network databases Relational databases And recently.

or data item) A logical record contains field values that describe a single person.Object-oriented databases Used as a natural extension of the object-oriented analysis process Object Definition Language (ODL) is a design standard set forth by the Object Database Management Group (ODMG) Each object has a unique object identifier The identifier allows the object to interact with other objects and form relationships The Future Object-oriented databases have become more common in the last few years Some pure object-oriented databases are also available Since many organizations are heavily invested in relational databases. . It contains one or more logical records. thing. Oracle 8 & 9) XML-native databases are also gaining popularity Data Storage Physical database design requires an understanding of the diference between logical and physical records. place. as well as data storage formats. or event. A physical record (block) is the smallest unit of data that can be accessed. object-relational databases are a popular transition technology (e. based on a blocking factor.g. Physical data storage units are composed of: Bit Byte (character) Field (data element.

integer. long integer.Data storage formats EBCDIC: mainly IBM and mainframes ASCII: 8-bit character codes Unicode: 16-bit character codes Binary: boolean. two for the month. Other date related topics to consider are Date arithmetic Duration calculations / time length Sorting . floating-point numbers Data types in a database Numeric Character Boolean Date BLOB. Julian dates and absolute dates are easier to use for calculations Choice of date data representation in the database is important. in USA. the format is MM/DD/YY whereas in Europe it is DD/MM/YY. Date Fields International Organization for Standardization (ISO) requires a format of four digits for the year. etc. and two for the day (YYYYMMDD) Julian date is a five-digit number in which the first two digits represent the year and the last three digits represent the day of the year Absolute date is the total number of days from some specific base date. Date format depends on the country of use.

Create a table for each entity. definition. and secure.The so-called "Y2K crisis" was caused by the short-sighted decision of reserving only two digits for the year. . and performance tuning. complete. Create fields for each attribute. One or more database administrators are responsible for the database technology. Database design example Steps for database design can be summarized as: Review the logical data model. Create an index for each primary and secondary key. database design and construction. architecture. Data Control Control must include measures to ensure that data is correct. thus enabling represebting years 1900-1999 by only two bytes/digits. Create an index for each subsetting criterion. security. and management. backup and recovery. System analysts must consider User IDs and Passwords Encryption Backup and recovery procedures Audit log files Audit fields There are two types of administrators that oversee data: A data administrator is responsible for data planning.

Güzelköy was served by a bookmobile from a larger town. sizes. and we record its name and author and its ISBN. and we record his name. Each book checkout form line must involve one and only one book and each book may be borrowed during many book checkouts Sometimes we have more than one copy of the same book. Each book checkout form is for one user and multiple books. and defaults for each attribute. so we write user s ID on top of the form There is a line for every checked out book. Create or combine tables to implement supertype/ subtype structures. A book may not have been checked out. 3. where we record its catalog number.. Every user is given an ID number. As a database design example. and have taken the following interview notes: Güzelköy is a rural village with a population of 500. Until now. Define data types. let us assume that you have volunteered to set up an information system for Güzelköy Public Library.Designate foreign keys for relationships. Now. We track the number of checked out books and fines due for every user. Every book has a condition: good. Evaluate and specify referential integrity constraints. We also record the publisher of the book and the date it was published.. 1. withdrawn. We identify a copy by the catalog no of the book and the copy number. Our library lends books to our users. . We assign every user a borrow limit for number of books he can check out. . damaged. and we should keep track of every individual copy. or a user might have not borrowed any books. Every book is registered with a catalog number. 2. They fill a book checkout form for this. domains. the Güzelköy Village Council has authorized funds for a small public library. Each book checkout form line must be made by one and only one user and each user may have done none or many book checkouts. date it is lent out and date it is due. Each book checkout form is filled for one user. null settings.

and each author may write one or more books Each copy must be of one and only one book. the copy of the book has! We track the checkout status of every copy. Death Date BOOK: Cat No. Condition. The identified entities and their attributes are: USER: User ID. The book does not have a condition. So we put them on a checkout list. User Id. Borrow Limit. Name. We do not write the book s number on the book checkout form. ISBN. Copy No. Date Due Back CHECKOUT LIST: Cat No. Checkout Status BOOK CHECKOUT: Cat No. and each copy may be involved in one or more book checkouts Each book checkout must be made by one and only one user. we send them a notification. we write the copy s number. Date Requested The identified relations are: Each book must be written by one and only one author. and when the book is returned. and each book must have one or more copies . we record the date it is acquired. The book checkout form is for one user and multiple book copies. and each user may have done one or more book checkouts Sometimes users want us to search for specific authors. Date Out. and their books in our library Sometimes users want to borrow books that are already checked out.For every copy of the book. Date Published COPY: Catl No. Country Of Birth. Publisher. Number Checked Out. So we keep track of all authors registered by our library. Author Name. Copy No. Fines Due AUTHOR: Author Name. Birthdate. and each book must have one or more copies Each book checkout must involve one and only one copy. User Id. Each copy must be of one and only one book. Date Acquired.

and each book checkout must be a part of one or more checkout list Each checkout list must contain one and only one user. and can be carried further to illustrate the database design principles outlined in this chapter.Each book checkout must involve one and only one copy. and each user may be waiting for book on one or more checkout list There is another requirement that needs an associative entity: Sometimes there are more than one authors of a book. We should be able to search for a specific author and locate the books that he co-authored as well. some exercises for Chapter 6 of the textbook is provided. END Title:Exercises for Chapter 6 Issue:17 Date:10 November 2005 START Overview In this section. and each user may have done one or more book checkouts Each checkout list must contain one and only one book checkout. and each copy may be involved in one or more book checkouts Each book checkout must be made by one and only one user. Material is arranged as: . This is only the beginning of a real-life scenario.

In a client/server system. One problem in a typical file processing environment is data redundancy. A subschema is a view of a database used by one or more systems or users. processing is distributed throughout an organization. therefore the learning curve for systems analysts. Procedures for security. and users usually is less steep. and recovery are less complicated and critical in a database environment than in a file-oriented system. 3. The rigid data structure of a typical file-processing environment means that retrieving information is quick and efficient. In a file-oriented system. In a typical file processing environment. A file-oriented system consists of linked data files. a history file is created and saved for backup and recovery purposes. A DBMS is less complex than a file processing system. a security file is a file copy created and saved for historical or archiving purposes. . or characteristics. 10. 13. data integrity problems can occur if updates are not applied in every file. A database processes one or more individual files using a method called file processing. 8. 6. 5. which means that data common to two or more information systems is stored in several places. database administrators. True or False? 1. that form an overall data structure. which decreases TCO (Total Cost of Ownership). 11. 9.True/False exercises Fill-in-the-blank type exercises Please note that these exercises are for self-study purposes. The enormous growth in e-commerce has focused attention on data mining as a tool to analyze Web visitor behavior and traffic trends. 12. backup. also called tables. 4. 2. In a file-oriented system. 7. A data warehouse allows users to specify certain dimensions.

Referential integrity can prevent the deletion of a record if the record has a primary key that matches foreign keys in another table. 24.14. but each instance of the second entity can be associated with only one instance of the first entity. Most CASE products support the drawing of ERDs from entities in the data repository. In a database environment. exists when one instance of the first entity can be related to many instances of the second entity. 15. 22. An M:N (many-to-many) relationship is different from 1:1 (one-to-one) or 1:M (one-to-many) relationships because the event or transactions that links the two entities is actually a third entity. and one occurrence of the second entity can be related to many occurrences of the first entity. 23. entity-relationship diagrams depict data or information flows. exists when one occurrence of the first entity can be related to many occurrences of the second entity. an entity can be mandatory. 18. each entity is represented as a diamond. abbreviated M:N. abbreviated 1:M. if any. In an entity-relationship diagram (ERD). or relationship that connects the entities. A many-to-many relationship. and a record in first normal form represents the best design. or optional. 25. Any field that is a primary key or a candidate key is called a nonkey field. 16. that has its own set of attributes and characteristics. 17. for all records in a particular file or table. the primary key is a combination key or a multivalued key. which means that it always is required. 27. 26. 19. A one-to-many relationship. When a primary key is composed of two or more fields. or organized. 20. and a rectangle represents the relation. called an associative entity. The three normal forms constitute a progression in which a record design in third normal form is better than one that is unnormalized. The need for a secondary key arises because a table can have multiple primary keys. 28. 21. tables are shown as two-dimensional structures that consist of vertical columns representing records and horizontal rows for fields. Data in files often can be structured. in a manner that speeds up processing in a fileoriented system. . In a specific relationship. Like data flow diagrams and systems flowcharts. a record in second normal form is better yet. A record design specifies the fields and identifies the primary key.

each occurrence having different values. 40. which is a data storage method used on most mainframe computers. EBCDIC. 42. it transfers the record from the file or table to a buffer. thing. Each object in an OODB (object-oriented database) has a unique object identifier. they can be transformed into a database. 38. 37. Normal forms beyond 3NF exist and often are used in business-oriented systems. 43. When the operating system reads a physical record. An unnormalized record is one that contains a repeating group. Hierarchical and network databases are run on many platforms. fields. After a final ERD and normalized record designs are created. called a bit. 41. the primary key must be condensed to exclude the key of the repeating group. A record design is in third normal form (3NF) if it is in 2NF and a nonkey field is dependent on another nonkey field. but the network model was simpler and did not share the same disadvantages of hierarchical models. place. A logical record consists of one or more physical records. 44. including personal computers. Network databases represented a deterioration in database design. A repeating group is a set of data items that can occur any number of times in a single record. . Designing records is easier if a standard method of showing the record structure. 46. One problem found with records in 1NF is that 1NF records cannot contain inconsistent data. ASCII is an acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. 34. or event. 35. To convert an unnormalized record to 1NF. A logical record contains field values that describe a single person. and then the repeating group must be added. 45. which is similar to a primary key in a relational database. which is a segment of computer memory. is used mostly on minicomputers and personal computers. A record design is in second normal form (2NF) if it is in 1NF and if all fields that are not part of the primary key are dependent on the entire primary key. The smallest unit of data is one binary digit. which means that a single record has multiple occurrences of a particular field. 39. and primary keys is used. which stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. 33. 30. 32. 36. 31.29. while relational databases generally are used on mainframes.

manage. In data design. 5. thing. and relationships. including subschemas. A(n) __________ is an integrated collection of data that can support management analysis and decision making. 8. 11. a(n) __________ is a person. features. is called a(n) __________. A(n) __________. 2. A(n) __________ contains data about people. 9. or events that interact with an information system. 49. Typically. place. A(n) __________ is a collection of tools. __________ software looks for meaningful patterns and relationships among data. 48. . or event for which data is collected and maintained. A well-designed DBMS must provide built-in control and security features. things. places. a(n) __________ is a single characteristic or fact about an entity. and analyze data in a database. 6. 3. allows a user to specify a task without specifying how the task will be accomplished. a DBMS is managed by a person called a(n) __________. In data design. 4. __________. 50. To calculate the number of days between two absolute dates. The complete definition of a database. encryption. The inherent efficiency of high-volume processing on larger computers is called __________. update. an advantage of a DBMS. which is used to access stored data. Compared to character-based coding. Encryption is the process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access to the data. passwords. 10. means that a system can be expanded. and interfaces that enables users to add. who assesses overall requirements and maintains the database for the benefit of the entire organization rather than a single department or user. Fill-in-the-blanks 1. binary storage formats offer less efficient storage of numeric data.47. audit trail files. access. records. including descriptions or all fields. 7. subtract one date from the other. modified. or downsized easily to meet the rapidly changing needs of a business enterprise. and backup and recovery procedures to maintain data.

place. 17. bars. 14. 18. and symbols that indicate possibilities. is flexible and powerful and still is the predominant database model. or thing. In a(n) __________. and maintain data structures. but provides somewhat more flexibility because a child record can have a relationship with more than one parent. 23. A(n) __________ is the smallest unit of data that is accessed by the operating system. 13. is a set of rules that avoids data inconsistency and quality problems. with branches representing parent records and child records. 29. 25. __________ describes how the instances of one entity relate to the instances of another entity. Today. called __________. A(n) __________ resembles a hierarchical design. 26. data is organized like a family tree or organization chart. many systems developers are using __________ design as a natural extension of the objectoriented process. In data design. one order. because it had no related customer. 19. 20. which is an individual fact about a person. 22. A(n) __________ is a relationship that exists when exactly one of the second entity occurs for each instance of the first entity. The __________. 27. A(n) __________ is a logical link between entities based on how they interact. which include circles. 16. __________ are used to organize. One type of validity check. A group of eight bits is called a(n) __________. __________ is a process by which inherent problems and complexities in a record design are identified and corrected. During the systems design phase. a(n) __________ is a set of related fields that describes one instance. or member of an entity. 28. 15. One common method of cardinality notation used to show relationships between entities is called __________ because of the shapes. A field X is __________ on a field Y if the value of X depends on the value of Y. and some IT professionals believe this database model eventually will replace the relational approach. A set of bytes forms a(n) __________. A(n) __________ is a graphical model of an information system that depicts the relationships among system entities. 24. access. 21. such as one customer. an order might be called a(n) __________. . Without referential integrity. which was introduced during the 1970s.12. or one product.

32. __________ is a relatively recent coding method that represents characters as integers. and a series of __________ copies must be retained for a specified period of time. 33. 35. END Title:Transition To Systems Design Issue:18 Date:17 November 2005 START Overview This section corresponds to chapter 5 of the textbook. 34. We will cover the remaining tasks in the systems analysis phase: Build vs Buy decision Evaluation of alternative solutions . Based on industry-wide experience with Y2K issues. among others. To ensure data control. including __________. which record details of all accesses and changes to a file or database. 31. users must furnish a proper __________ and password to access a file or database. most date formats now are based on the model established by the __________. __________. All system files and databases must be backed up regularly.30. can be used to recover changes made since the last backup. a variety of binary storage formats can be chosen for efficient storage of numeric data. When specifying data types using Microsoft Access.

data and process modeling. or . and presentation of the system requirements document to management. which include evaluation of alternative solutions. and the difference between logical and physical design. In previous chapters. Explain the differences between a request for information (RFI). buying a commercial software package. There are three main choices: companies can acquire software by developing an in-house system. design guidelines.Preparation of the system requirements document Presentation to management Objectives The objectives of this section are: Evaluate software alternatives and development strategies Explain advantages and disadvantages of developing in-house software versus purchasing and customizing a software package Describe how companies use outsourcing and user applications List the steps in purchasing and evaluating a software package. preparation of the system requirements document. a systems development team examines software alternatives and selects an overall strategy for the proposed system. Introduction After building the logical model. a request for proposal (RFP) and a request for quotation (RFQ) Describe the system requirements document and the presentation to management at the end of the systems analysis phase Explain the transition from systems analysis to systems design. This chapter describes the remaining activities in the systems analysis phase. prototyping. This chapter also describes the transition to systems design. we looked at requirements modeling. and the use of codes. The main objective of the systems analysis phase is to build a logical model of the new information system. and object modeling.

is the quesion faced when implementing a new system: Shall we buy it or build it? Whatever the answer is. as it is sometimes called. in-house software. Other concept introduced are make or buy (or build or buy). The software package may be purchased or leased from software publishers or vendors. where a commercial application is bought/licensed. Reasons for in-house development are: Satisfy unique requirements Minimize changes in business procedures and policies Meet constraints of existing systems Meet constraints of existing technology Develop internal resources and capabilities . software package. then modified or tailored for your specific needs. and value-added reseller (VAR). and vertical application is specific to a particular industry. the previous steps of planning and analysis is the same. software vendor. Buy vs Build "The Grand Dilemma". It can be a horizontal or a vertical application. In-house software can be developed by the company s IS department or contracted out to a development house.customizing a software package. but three possible choices for software: Build the application Buy a software package off-the-shelf Customize a package according to your needs The make or buy decision is a multi-faceted one. The third alternative is to have "Customized" software. There are not two. but the most important consideration is total cost of ownership (TCO). Many factors influence this decision. The distinction between these is that a horizontal application can be used by many types of businesses.

The service an ASP provides is called application hosting. An application service provider (ASP). or access to applications. customization should be kept to a minimum. is a firm that provides applications. and knowledge management application services. In addition to the three primary acquisition strategies.Reasons for purchasing a software package are: Lower costs Less time to implement Proven reliability and performance benchmarks Less technical development staff Future upgrades provided by the vendor Using other companies as resources Some software can be customized to meet a company s unique needs. and developing end-user applications. business. . Also large firms. The three typical ways to customize a software package are: Purchase a basic package that can be customized to suit your needs Negotiate with software vendor to make enhancements to suit your needs Purchase the package and make your own modifications It should be remembered that in order to maximize the benefits of a software package. three other possibilities include: using an application service provider (ASP). such as SAP and Oracle. have entered the ASP marketplace by offering applications on a rental basis. outsourcing. The software industry is more dynamic and competitive than ever before. and some suggest "software as a service" as a new model for hosting commerce. by charging a usage or subscription fee.

bad ones mostly due to mismanagement of service level contracts. User applications involve standard business software. Decision for selection of a software package will affect the remaining phases of SDLC. User applications can offer a simple. Selecting a software alternative The company now must decide whether to develop the software in-house. which has been configured in a specific manner to enhance user productivity. Wizards. . or select some combination of these solutions. Users employ these application tools that meet their operational needs and on-line tutorials. templates. especially in a company whose volume fluctuates widely. flexible. such as a defense contractor. where companies manage your assets at your facilities. Some companies use IT consulting firms for application development if the company lacks the time or expertise to handle the work on its own. low-cost solution that can guide less experienced users who know what they need to do but do not know how to make it happen. purchase a software package. and user-friendly than before. or information center. Rather than hire extra staff. as well as the systems analyst s participation in the project. It is then imperative to establish a help desk. companies turn to contract personnel firms.Outsourcing is the use of outside companies called service providers to handle a portion of a company s IT workload on a temporary or long-term basis. which supports users when they design their own data entry forms and reports. customize a software package. Another form of outsourcing is systems management or facilities management. Outsourcing is a popular trend. which can supply technical help for a specific period of time at a set rate. and that most companies seek to empower their employees and improve their productivity. Such off-the-shelf application software is more powerful. rather than a formal information system or commercial package. such as Microsoft Office. Outsourcing is prevalent in all industries. Outsourcing also occurs on an in-house basis. User requirements sometimes can be fulfilled by a user application. and Help features enhance their personal productivity. when firms need additional IT people to handle peak workloads on a short-term basis. and there have been good and bad experiences.

On the other hand. and the degree of involvement will decrease furher down in the following list: In-house developed software In-house customization of a software package In-house software developed by contract personnel End-user computing Outsource a customized software package Software vendor customizes software package Software vendor enhances its software package Software package used without modification The systems development process is now at a major fork in the road. the systems design phase of the SDLC can begin. If the company decides to develop the system in-house. if a software package is purchased. Evaluate software package alternatives 4.Systems analyst s involvement depends on which alternative is selected. the same five steps must be followed and the specific changes required must be designed. Install the software package If the company decides to purchase and customize a software package. Step 1. Evaluate the information system requirements Identify the key features of the system . Make the purchase 5. just as for an in-house developed project. a series of five steps must be performed: 1. Evaluate the information system requirements 2. Identify potential software vendors 3.

Estimate volume and future growth Specify any hardware constraints Identify candidate solutions But do not judge the solutions yet

Information system requirements should be evaluated to assess each candidate solution for: Technical feasibility (practical and staffable) Operational feasibility (efect on users) Economic feasibility (is it cost effective?) Schedule feasibility (can it be done on time?)

Resource needs (H/W, network, S/W, training) for each solution has to be defined, and a feasibility assessment document, if necessary, should be prepared. Weights for each factor (relative importance of the feasibility criteria) should be determined to rate or compare the candidate solutions. Then throw out infeasible solutions, make a shortlist if necessary, pick the best solutions and document the recommended solution.

An example volume estimation follows: Estimate the volumes for an online order entry system showing current activity and how future growth would be affected by Web based sales. The activity during the next 12-Month period should be estimated.

The following table is the result, where (A) is the future growth based on existing order entry procedures, and (B) is the future growth assuming new web site is operational. Note the proposed Web site will handle almost twice as many orders while the number of sales reps is reduced by more than half.

| |Customers

|Current Level |36,500

|A

|B |40,150

| |63.875 |

|Daily Orders |Daily Order Lines |Sales Reps |Order Entry Support Staff |Products

|1,435 |7.715 |29 |2 |600

|1,579 |7,893 |32 |4 |650

|2,811 |12.556 |12 |3 |900 | |

| |

|

Step 2; Identify potential software vendors Next step is to contact potential vendors Prepare a request for information (RFI) if necessary Prepare a request for proposal (RFP) or quotation (RFQ)

The most common method of obtaining information you need is to prepare a request for proposal or a request for quotation. The two documents are similar but used in different situations, based on whether or not a specific software product is selected. Figure 6-9 in the textbook shows an example of a page from an RFP.

A request for quotation (RFQ) is used when the specific product or package you want is already known and then you need to obtain price quotations or bids.

Information on potential vendors and systems can be obtained from various sources like industry trade journals or conventions, IT consultants, or newsgroups. In addition to traditional sources, the Internet has become a primary marketplace for all IT products, and you can expect to find descriptive information on the Web about the major vendors and their products.

Systems developers must compare alternatives and select the one best suited to the company s needs. This might include obtaining information about packages through vendor presentations, literature, product documentation, trade publications, Internet research, and companies that perform software testing and evaluation. Other sources of information include existing users, software testing, and benchmarking.

Step 3; Evaluate software package alternatives Object is to compare software packages and select the best alternative Obtain information from many sources Evaluation process: Obtain information from existing users, test the application, benchmark the package if necessary Evaluate vendor himself as well as validating his claims and performance Validation may be through site visits, contacting other clients and other research Evaluate and rank validated proposals Use weights for each factor ' relative importance of the feature

Step 4; Make the purchase Award contract and debrief vendors Software licenses Lease agreements Maintenance agreements

Software licensing can sometimes be quite complex and there may be some restrictions contained in licenses. There are other alternatives to purchasing software, such as leasing. The importance of maintenance and support as part of the overall acquisition strategy cannot be overstressed. The objective of the evaluation and selection process is to obtain the product with the lowest total cost of ownership.

Step 5; Install the software package Installation time depends on size and complexity The installation strategy must be planned well in advance, especially if any disruption of normal business operations is expected. Before using the package, complete all implementation steps like loading, configuring, and testing the software, training users and converting data files to new format.

Companies often use teams that include users who participate in the selection process and feel a sense of ownership in the new system. When is analysis finished? Delaying this decision and extending the analysis phase results in so called "Analysis paralysis". Team approach in evaluation and selection ensures that critical factors are not overlooked and that a sound choice is made. and ambiguities will affect the quality of the finished product. Primary objectives of a team approach are: Eliminate system alternatives that will not work Rank the alternatives that will work Present the viable alternatives to management for a final decision Completion of Systems Analysis is a cruical milestone in systems development. Errors. The system requirements document is similar to a contract that identifies what must be delivered to users. Systems Analyst s Toolkit section of the textbook includes a section with guidelines and suggestions for preparing the written report and the presentation to management. . sometimes also called software requirements specification. and makes a specific recommendation to management. omissions. Essential to have an accurate and understandable system requirements document. contains the requirements for the new system. describes the alternatives that were considered. Deliverables The deliverables of this phase are: (1) System requirements document (2) Presentation to management System requirements document.

while physical design is concerned with how the system meets those requirements. and physical design. The difference between logical design. Using the architect analogy there will be more problems and greater effort required when the overall plan is changed after construction has started. Even though some overlap exists. which in IT terms. Transition to Systems Design The analyst s role in the systems analysis phase is like an architect who consults with the homeowner and develops an overall concept and plan. The design phase should not begin until analysis work is complete. The next step is to create detailed blueprints for the actual construction. and you should return to the analysis phase except only in very limited situations. Develop an in-house system 2. Stop all further work. Presentation to management at the end of the systems analysis phase is one of the most critical milestones in the systems development process. Logical design is concerned with what the system must accomplish. Purchase or customize a software package 4. and processing.Presentation to management is quite important since one of five probable management decisions are expected: 1. . it is much better to finish the analysis phase before moving on to systems design. which defines the functions and features of the system. Systems Analyst s Toolkit section of the textbook has tips that will help design and deliver a successful presentation. output. interfaces. Again. which creates detailed specifications for tasks such as input. should be fully understood. Perform additional systems analysis work 5. Modify the current system 3. is the systems design phase.

rapidly constructed working version of the system. We will cover prototyping and other remaining tasks in the systems analysis phase.END Title:Prototyping and codes Issue:19 Date:17 November 2005 START Overview This section corresponds to chapter 5 of the textbook. this can eliminate problems before the final version. Objectives The objectives of this section are: Explain the importance of prototyping and describe various prototyping methods. tools. and techniques Discuss the systems design process and provide guidelines for system design Create and use appropriate codes during systems design and development Prototyping A prototype is an early. . It is a working model helps users understand the system.

inputs. exception and error handling procedures.Prototyping allows users to examine a model that accurately represents system outputs. or other required functions. But note that generally prototypes are intended only to validate user requirements and is intended to be discarded afterward. A prototype might not be an efficient as a functioning system. Benefits of prototyping are: Users and developers can avoid misunderstandings Developers can create accurate specifications Managers can evaluate a working model Analysts can use a prototype to develop testing and training procedures Prototyping reduces the risk that occur when a finished system fails Potential problems of prototyping are: Rapid pace of development can create quality problems Other system requirements cannot adequately tested Complex prototypes become unwieldy and difficult to manage Limitations of prototypes are: Less efficient than a fully developed system Slower processing speeds and response times May lack security requirements The final version of the system typically demands higher-level performance than the prototype can provide. and processes. The users can test-drive the model and either approve it or request changes. interfaces. . or may have different security requirements.

There are two ways to use prototypes: one evolves into the final version of the information system. designs. System prototyping produces a working model of the information system which evolve later into the targeted system. The RAD team defines. System prototyping tries out ideas using the language of implementation. Design prototyping. analyzes. System prototyping makes it possible to capture user input and approval while continuing to develop the system. working model of the information system) and called design prototyping. omitting critical analysis and design in hopes of getting done sooner. Prototype is built to get user input from seeing something real. produces a user-approved design prototype that documents and benchmarks the features of the finished system Design prototype is done with easy-to-use mock up tool. Rapid application development (RAD) relies heavily on system prototyping. or throwaway prototyping (which benchmarks the features of the finished system) should be fully realized. Prototyping Tools Some of the ptotyping tools available to system designers are: CASE tools Application generators Report generators Screen generators . not the implementation language. Also since real implementation language is usually hard to code quickly and is not flexible. The difference between system prototyping (which involves a full-featured. first attempt gets cast into concrete. or throwaway prototyping. not as a real start on the system coding. the other is discarded after user requirements are validated. and tests prototypes.

such as systems flowcharts. They: Display major process.Fourth-generation languages (4GLs) A fourth-generation environment uses these prototyping tools. and handle data entry procedures In addition to DFDs. object modeling tools. and Interactive software tool Helps design custom interface. They are interactive software tools that has a intuitive and visual design interface. CASE tools. and prototyping. analysts use other modeling tools. input. create screen forms. and output operations Primarily used in physical modeling Various symbols represent data or files in specific physical media Shape of symbol indicates the purpose Lines with arrowheads indicate the flow of data . Application generators are also called code generators. and Develops programs rapidly by translating a logical model directly into 4GL code Event driven languages specify actions that the program must perform when certain events occur Nonprocedural languages does not require the programmer to write a series of instructions Procedural language requires the programmer to create code for each processing step Report generators are also called report writers. and Designs formatted reports rapidly Can create a mock-up report for reviewing before final design Screen generators are also called form generators.

network configuration. maintained. and used System architecture: Determine processing strategies and methods. the systems analyst should become familiar with the logical design. and the estimated development and implementation costs. the anticipated benefits of the system. client/server interaction. The three major systems design steps are: (1) Review system requirements (2) Design the system (3) Present the systems design (1) In reviewing the system requirements.Overview of Systems Design Analysts must understand entire logical design before beginning physical design. and features that enable users to interact with an application Input processes: Determine how data will be input to the system and design necessary source documents Input and output formats and reports: Design the physical layout for each input and output screen and printed report Data: Determine how data will be organized. controls. and internet/intranet interface issues (3) Present the systems design: Create the systems design specification document. in which you describe the proposed system design. updated. commands. (2) Design the system covers five phases: User Interface: Design an overail user interface. including screens. accessed. stored. Systems design objective is to successfully build a system that is: Effective .

This sometimes involves conflicting objectives. Data should be verified when it is entered. so errors are caught immediately. The appropriate design decision is reached by considering and balancing both design tips: simplify the user interface and anticipate future needs. Access for data entry should be controlled and all entries or changes to critical data values should be reported. Examples of data considerations are: Data should be entered into the system where and when it occurs because delays cause data errors. and the organization Must provide flexibility The system must be sufficiently effective. For example. Automated methods of data entry should be used whenever possible. or provide input to the system Anticipate future needs of the users. Systems design considerations center around these three points: User Data Processing User considerations are: Make the system user-friendly Consider where users receive output. the system. there pros and cons of allowing users to enter or change certain data items versus hardcoding the values. Every instance of entry and change to data should be logged and data should be entered into a system only once. .Reliable Maintainable Users must be involved totally in the design process. and maintainable to make users happy. reliable. so that a user-friendly system can be created.

by using a powerful. user-friendly report writer program? They probably will not request as many reports or the same types of reports if they feel they have more control over output. flexible wall or shelf storage units that can be mixed and matched. some companies require users periodically to justify all reports they receive.Data duplication should be avoided. Modular. This approach to information management procedure is similar to zero-based budgeting. Experienced analysts sometimes complain that users request many reports but use only a small portion of the data. Easier use might create more complex programming requirements where more flexibility might increase maintenance needed. At one extreme. or children s Lego toys that can be assembled in an infinite variety of ways. What questions would you ask? What if users could design most of their own reports without assistance from the IT staff. Other IT professionals feel that users . Meeting one user s requirements might make it harder to satisfy another s needs. Examples of processing considerations are: Use a modular design. which assumes no carryovers and requires all expenditures to be re-justified from a zero baseline. processing design is very important to the systems analyst. Why? Suppose you are interviewing users about what reports they want or need. Design goals often conflict. The data design tips primarily relate to the objectives of making an information system effective and reliable. Many IT managers feel that this approach prevents a buildup of unnecessary reports. Design modules that perform a single function. But this is not just an IT problem and it is a situation that occurs generally. or structured. Modular design examples in other areas include plug-in components in modern auto ignition systems. In many offices you see in-boxes filled with reports and stacks of reports sitting on desks. A similar major issue is quality versus cost.

in the systems design phase. Codes serve many useful purposes.. they might be more likely to limit their requests to information they really need. When users are charged for IT services. A systems analyst encounters codes at various times during the SDLC. These codes often are used as key fields when relational databases are designed... Early in the fact-gathering process.433......) Alphabetic codes Category codes (SW826. Later.... the analyst must decide whether to use existing codes or create new ones.431.MIS321. The Systems Analyst s Toolkit in the textbook contains a discussion of various chargeback methods.ANK.. Designing and Using Codes A code is a set of letters or numbers that represents an item of data.LAX.) Block sequence codes (MIS101..should be trained to access data without assistance by the IT staff.) .... the analyst might notice that data is being entered or stored in coded form.) Mnemonic codes (LHR. among which are: Save storage space and costs Reduce data transmission time Decrease data entry time Can reveal or conceal information Can reduce input errors Some types of coding are: Sequence codes (.) Abbreviation codes (IST.432. The answer might depend on how IT charges are allocated.HW615..IZM..JFK.

. Inventory item) Derivation codes (e..Significant digit codes (e. Magazine subscriber) Cipher codes Action codes (Y/N.) Self-checking codes ' check digit There are nine specific guidelines for developing codes: Keep codes concise Allow for expansion Keep codes stable Makes codes unique Use sortable codes Avoid confusing codes Make codes meaningful Use a code for a single purpose Keep codes consistent END Title:Exercises for Chapter 6 Issue:20 Date:17 November 2005 .g.. C/R/U/D.g.

it rents an operational package to customers. Companies often decide to develop software in-house because no commercially available software package can meet their unique business requirements. 7. such as a defense contractor. and develops in-house software. . 4. One outsourcing concern is that a company must turn over internal data to an external service provider and trust the provider to maintain quality. An ASP provides more than a license to use software.START Overview In this section. Material is arranged as: True/False exercises Fill-in-the-blank type exercises Please note that these exercises are for self-study purposes. 2. A company s IT department makes. Outsourcing is especially unattractive to a company whose volume fluctuates widely. 3. 5. builds. A software package that can be used by many different types of organizations is called a vertical application. 6. Upgrades generally are more expensive than buying an entire package or acquiring new software because vendors seldom offer a lower price to current users. whereas a software package is purchased or leased from another firm. A software package developed to handle information requirements for a specific type of business is called a horizontal application. True or False? 1. 8. some exercises for Chapter 5 of the textbook is provided.

Customizing a software package requires a combination of tasks. 20. If user applications access corporate data. 12. When benchmarking. and a systems analyst can expect to find descriptive information on the Web about all major vendors and their products. software license terms and conditions usually can be modified. A company s decision whether to develop software in-house. 10. 15. or select a combination of these solutions affects the remaining SDLC phases and the involvement of a systems analyst. Whenever possible. no controls must be provided to ensure data security or integrity. The Internet is a primary marketplace for all IT products. with features that are more important than others given a higher weight. using a demonstration copy to enter a few sample transactions could be an acceptable test for vertical applications or a large system. decisions about hardware should be made first because hardware is the main element in any system ' it is the part with which people work directly and affects the system s usability. A major advantage of using a consultant is that a systems analyst can tap into broad experience that is difficult for any one company to acquire. purchase a software package. 18. or as an enterprise-wide application. A benchmark measures the time a software package takes to process a certain number of transactions.9. 17. If a software package is customized. 16. For personal computer users. then the task of installing the software package will be less complex and difficult. . 23. 13. Empowerment makes an IT department less productive because it must spend more time responding to the daily concerns of users and less time on high-impact systems development projects that support strategic business goals. Web sites maintained by consultants and software publishers seldom include product references or links to vendors. An RFP can be thought of as a shortened version of an RFQ. because an essential part of the system is being purchased and redesigned. each software package should be matched against the RFP features and the choices ranked. customize a software package. 14. 22. 11. When evaluating software package alternatives. 21. If software will run on a mainframe computer. 19. it probably will be purchased from a retail source. because the RFP refers to a specific product and contains a set of detailed specifications.

A logical design includes the output that must be produced by the system. inputs. if management s decision is to stop all further work then the systems analyst has no additional tasks other than to file all research in an illogical location so that it cannot be retrieved if the project is reopened in the future. 30. 26. accuracy. a prototype greatly helps to ensure that the final product will meet all requirements. Some systems analysts still use systems flowcharts because they are easy to construct and understand. 25. interfaces. . rank the system alternatives that will work. Whatever the reason. but they are more likely to be seen on older. COBOL is a nonprocedural language because the programmer does not write a series of instructions that the program follows from start to finish. Even when it does not evolve into the finished system. and then present the viable alternatives to management for a final decision. 39. the input needed by the system. 36. 27. The primary objective of an evaluation and selection team is to eliminate system alternatives that will not work. and the processes that must be performed by the system without regard to how tasks will be accomplished physically. The system requirement document is the starting point for measuring the performance.24. 28. Modern CASE tools seldom include a screen generator that interacts with the data dictionary. The end product of design prototyping is a full-featured. 33. the development tools are highly interactive. and processes. and completeness of the finished system before entering the systems design phase. 37. a systems analyst should return to the analysis phase only in very limited situations. 38. 34. Prototyping allows users to examine a model that accurately represents system outputs. In a fourth-generation environment. The components of a system are independent. file-oriented designs. 29. the report design easily can be modified at any time in the design process. During systems design. Using a report writer. physical design is concerned with what the system must accomplish. Languages such as C++ and Java are procedural languages that require the programmer to create code for each processing step. Whereas logical design is concerned with how the system will meet requirements. 35. 31. 32. working model of an information system. so the design phase is a series of clearly defined steps.

so they squander storage space and costs. 45. 3. which delivers applications. by charging a usage or subscription fee. or access to applications. Fill-in-the-blanks 1. and when something within the code itself can provide immediate verification that the entry is correct. If a system is designed and implemented well. Most design trade-off decisions that a systems analyst will face come down to the basic conflict of quality versus cost. use a single code to classify two or more related attributes. and increase data entry time. 41. Companies that develop software for sale are called __________. or human mistakes. Often the best design strategy is to come up with several alternatives. 43. implement. When developing a code. Codes often are longer than the data they represent. Codes can be used to simplify output. boost data transmission time. 46. such as input errors. it never will need to be modified. processing errors. A new category of software supplier is the __________. 2. 48. so users can decide what will work best for them. and maintain. Self-checking codes use a check digit to verify the validity of a numeric code. The service that an application service provider (ASP) provides is called __________. A system is reliable if it adequately handles errors. Action codes indicate what action is to be taken with an associated item. 50. 44. 4.40. A guideline to consider in processing design is that design modules that perform multiple functions are easier to understand. 5. 47. The choice between developing in-house software and purchasing software often is called a(n) __________ decision. Codes can reduce data input errors in situations when the coded data is easier to remember and enter than the original source data. input. and data formats. 49. when only certain valid codes are allowed. 42. . hardware failures. A firm that enhances a commercial package by adding custom features and configuring it for a particular industry is called a(n) __________.

controls. terms.6. and makes a specific recommendation to management. In addition to configuring software. The __________ is an Internet bulletin board system that contains thousands of forums. and payments. As part of an acquisition strategy. which allows the vendor to be contacted for assistance when there are system problems or questions. 21. a(n) __________ should be considered. 18. called newsgroups. 10. The __________ of an information system is a plan for the actual implementation of the system. an IT staff can create a(n) __________. Outsourcing strategies can include everything from a temporary arrangement with a payroll service to a long-term contract with a(n) __________ firm that provides IT support for an entire operation. and price quotations or bids need to be obtained. 9. __________ utilize standard business software. 12. the cover every imaginable topic. 16. The __________ contains the requirements for a new system. When software is purchased. 15. describes the alternatives that were considered. a(n) __________ within the IT department is responsible for supporting users. such as Microsoft Office 2000. Typically. When selecting hardware and software. usually it is not owned ' what is bought is a(n) __________ that gives the right to use the software under certain terms and conditions. 13. Rather than hire extra staff. which has been configured in a specific manner to enhance user productivity. . 17. 19. which includes screens. a(n) __________ is a written list of features and specifications given to prospective vendors when a specific product or package to use has not been identified. commands. a(n) __________ describes the time period. companies can get assistance from a(n) __________. 7. 8. A(n) __________ can be given to prospective vendors when the specific product or packaged desired already is known. The __________ of an information system defines the function and features of the system and the relationships among its components. which supplies technical help for a specific period of time at a set rate. and features that enable users to interact more effectively with an application. In most large and medium-sized companies. 14. 20. Outsourcing is the use of outside companies called __________ to handle a portion of a company s IT workload on a temporary or long-term basis. systems analysts often work as a(n) __________ to ensure that critical factors are not overlooked and a sound choice is made. If a software customer decides to lease. 11.

and fourth generation languages (4GLs) provide the framework for rapid. A(n) __________ is a tool for designing formatted reports rapidly. 30. 32.22. 29. 24. reliable. 34. 26. 25. A(n) __________ is a set of letters or numbers that represent a data item. screen generators. application generators. create screen forms. and handle data entry format and procedures. __________ are alphabetic codes that use alphabetic abbreviations. report generators. 33. A(n) __________ is primarily a physical modeling tool that uses various symbols to identify input and output operations. The goal of __________ is to build an information system that is effective. documents. In an approach called __________. ready for implementation. which provides flexibility. Some abbreviation codes are called __________ because they are easy to remember. and reports. 28. A(n) __________ is an interactive software tool that helps to design a custom interface. In combination. __________ are alphabetic codes that identify a group of related items. 23. 27. and show media such as disks. The end product of __________ is a full-featured. 35. after which the prototype is discarded and implementation continues. A(n) __________ is a value that the user enters whenever a query is run. A(n) __________ is an early. and maintainable. enables users to access information easily. A(n) __________ allows computer programs to be developed rapidly by translating a logical model directly into fourth-generation language (4GL) code. systems analysts use prototyping to verify user requirements. working model of an information system. . and costs less. CASE tools. represent data or files. efficient software development. rapidly constructed working version of a proposed information system. 31. called a(n) __________.

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