Metaphorical Meaning of Some Sanskrit Terms

Abhimanyu: other name for Saubhadra. Abhimanyu comes from abhi, which means to destroy, and manyu, which means all evil and vicious qualities in human beings. Aditi: a (no) + diti (duality). Adityas : divine illumination arising from unity with the indwelling Self. ahamkara: ego. The scriptures define ahamkara as abhimanatmika ahamkara—“This egoistic faculty claims that ‘I am the doer, I am, I am.’” It is the third of the antar karana chatustaya, the four internal instruments. Airavata (Indra’s elephant): extreme attachment to sense of touch; mind Ananta (Vishnu’s snake): divine light in pituitary; white (milk), gold (ananta) and blue (Vishnu); vayu añjali: comes from anj, to get illumination. antar karana chatustaya: the four internal instruments: anuçásana which means the directive or the discipline or teachings. The realized master teaches the disciples to discipline the mind and senses and directs them in the path of perception of the inner reality. anuraga: means “extreme desire”. árati: a means all-pervading God and rati, means devotion towards the Lord. argala: wooden bar used to lock doors from the inside in ancient India. Metaphorically, to go inside the body-house (as in argala stotra, 23 verses from the Márkandeya Purána by Vyasa, extolling the Divine Mother as the destroyer of demons. Customarily recited before the Caòæi Saptaçati. Arjuna: a—“no,” rajju—“rope,” the symbol of bondage, and na—“no.” Although he is free, he thinks he is in bondage. Also from arj, “to earn”. artha: artha (money) and Paramartha (God) are both necessary for a man in the world. But without Paramartha there is no life. With the same effort used to earn money you should pursue God realization. Ashutosh (another name of Shiva) meaning, “Who is quickly satisfied”. ashvattha: açvattha comes from a (not) + çva (for tomorrow) + tha (to remain): the human body. Ashvatthama is an immortal soldier and the son of the fickle person Dronacharya. Ashvatthama means to have a disposition of being constantly on the go, or relentless like a machine that is constantly running. One desire after another comes from an endless chain without real satisfaction being obtained. Asita: a (no) + sita (in bondage) Asti, eldest wife of king Kamsa. Her name means “existence”, i.e. the power of God is within. atha: the word atha has six meanings: mangala (auspiciousness), prousma (question), karyarambha (initiation), anatara (thereafter) adhikar (qualification/right), pratijna (promise), relating to the six chakras from the muladhara (bottom center) to the ajña (soul-center). b) buddhi (intellect)

Bakasura was a giant bird that would swallow young children in Vrindavan. Shri Krishna tore off its bills when he was but three years old. Bhárata: bha (divine illumination) + rata (engrossed). India; name of Arjuna, or Dhritarashtra. bharyanie is usually translated as “wife”, but its real metaphorical meaning is “breath.” In Sanskrit it is said bharayeti iti bharya—“the wife, i.e. breath, is maintaining the whole body.” Bhima means “ferocious and powerful.” Bhima is the son of Vayu (air, wind). The breath in each human being is the son of air. Bhishma means firm determination of mind. He promised not to marry and never to enjoy sexual pleasure. It is good, but due to his extreme pride, he committed some mistakes. Bhrigu: Bh^gu comes from bhraj, to roast (i.e. the samskaras through meditation) Bhurishrava: son of Somadatta. Bhurishrava means hesitation and is derived from bhuri and shrava. Bhuri means many, and shrava means to hear. Bhurishrava was a great warrior on the side of Kaurava, but he was fickle-minded. Brahmacari: comes from brahmani charati iti brahmachari, which means that “he who revels in Brahman is a brahmachari.” brahmahari: from brahma vicáraòa, to be in God-consciousness. Brahmacáriòi is the second name of Durga in the nava durga. brahmana: one who always remains merged in kutastha. Brihaspati: B^haspati comes from b^hati (speech) + pati (Lord): Lord of speech, or air. buddhi: intellect. The scriptures define buddhi as nischayatmika buddhi—“the intellect (buddhi) is the deciding faculty of man.” Buddhi discriminates between what is good and what is bad, and decides what should be done. It is the second of the antar karana chatustaya, the four internal instruments. c) ahamkara (ego) chandra: in the Puruäa Súkta, a Vedic hymn, it is said candramámanaso játaà: the moon is born from the cosmic mind of God. Chandraghanta: candra (moon) and ghanta (bell). Third name of Durga in the nava durga. Chekitana: a spiritual warrior on the side of Pandava. Cekitana comes from cekit, which means within a short time and is also the name of a small cricket-like insect, and tan, which means the divine sound and the various melodies which are the inaudible talk of God. Chitraratha: Citraratha comes from citra (colorful) + ratha (chariot), name of the king of the gandharvas: in the body-chariot, one perceives divine colors and sounds. chitta: memory. The Scriptures say that chitta is anusandhanatmika or smaranatmika—“The investigating faculty or the faculty of memory is chitta”. This chitta is born out of human experience through the mind and the mind becomes activated from memory or chitta. Chitta is the computerized memory of the brain. Chitta can be compared to the ocean, and the mind is compared to the waves. It is the fourth of the antar karana chatustaya, the four internal instruments. chora kothari: “the secret chamber”. If the mind is always fixed on the divine sound constantly and enjoy being in the secret chamber. d) chitta (mind stuff/memory) daitya: demon; inner propensities, thoughts Daksha: one who is adept, efficient. Dakäa symbolizes the mind. damayatám (rulers) and daòæa (power, restraint) both come from dama (to control, restrain)

Damodara, a nickname given by Yashoda to Shri Krishna, which means “very big belly”. Dasharatha: Daçaratha comes from daça (ten doors) + ratha (chariot): human body. deha: body. It is derived from dahyati, “that which is constantly burning”. The body is constantly burning with desires and attachments. Devadutta. Cousin of Buddha. His name literally means, ‘the gift of God’. Devala: (a.k.a. Ashtavakra): deva (vacuum) + lam (bija of earth) devarshi: devaräi comes from deva (he who roams in vacuum) + ^äi (man of right vision) Dhanamjaya: dhanam (wealth, i.e. delusion) + jaya (victory). Dhana: 6 negative qualities: fear of birth, death, happiness, sorrow, hunger and thirst) Dharma: explained as dhárayati yáà sáà dharma, “that which supports is dharma”. Religion, righteousness. True meaning: breath. Dharmakshetra: another name for the battlefield of Kurukshetra. It comes from dharma, which means spirituality, and kshetra, field. Dhrishtadyumna: he is the brother of Draupadi and the son of Drupada. Dh^äóa means “obstinacy, restlessness”, and dyumna means the power to control the obstinacy which comes from the external world. Dhrishtaketu: a great warrior on the side of Pandava. Dhrishtaketu comes from dh^äóan ketava yaà saà. Dhrishtan means without head, having only a body, while ketu is a dragon's tail. So Dhristhaketu is always seeking his head. Dhritarashtra: dh^ta, “to hold, to control” and raätra, “the kingdom”. Dhritam raätra yena sa dhritaraätra: “The one who wants to rule the kingdom is Dhritarashtra.” Dronacharya comes from the word druban, which means something that rolls this way and that, like water on the leaf of a lotus. It is restlessness. Drupada is a king, as well as the father-in-law of the Pandavas, father of Draupadi, Dhrishtadyumna, and Shikhandin. His name is short for druta pada, which means you are to walk quickly and to finish your duty. A more specific meaning is that you should meditate and complete your technique to realize the superconsciousness within you without wasting time. Duhshasana. Prefix duà means “with difficulty”, the root verb äas, “to control, to discipline, to administrate”, and the suffix anat “one”. Thus Duàäasana symbolizes anger. He is dominant in the eyes (red, blood-shot eyes). Durga: durge durgati náçinyai namaà: one who relieves you from all difficulties (durgati) Duryodhana: yodh: “to fight”, with prefix duà: “difficult” and suffix anat: “one who”. In the Gita it is said yahi shatru mahabaho kama-rupa dura sadam: “O mighty-armed, fight with your greatest enemy, rupa (desire)”. Thus Duryodhana is the symbol of kama, desire, passion. Dwiti-Krishna: dwiti means “second.” Arjuna was thus known as the second Krishna. dyuta (dice): illumination Garuda: Garuæa is the king of eagles, and Viäòu’s mount. He is one who can digest even poison. ghanta (bell) represents the náda or divine primordial sound, dírghapraòavanáda, anáhata náda. gomamse traditionally is translated as “beef”. But metaphorically it breaks down into go + mam + sa. Go means “the whole universe”, mam “to me”, and sa means He, the Supreme Almighty Lord. Hence gomamse means “He, who is abiding in the whole universe, is taking me to God.”

Gopis: gopis in their bodies in Brindavan are always waiting for the manifestation of prana krishna (Krishna as the self). Govinda: go means “universe”, vin means “joy, energy”, and da means “to give”. Hence Govinda is “One who gives joy in the whole universe.” A name of Krishna. Gudakesha: Guæákeça is another name of Arjuna, derived from guæáka (“sloth, idleness, sleep”), and íça (“controller, master”): conqueror of sleep; constant alertness. Arjuna never sleeps. guru: gu is derived from guhyat guhayatar satta—the formless, hidden and invisible power of God, and ru is derived from tat rupam prakasayati iti—the visible beauty and luster of any living being. 49 types of breaths are ru, for material enjoyment, and one type is gu, for extreme calmness. When you attain the breathless stage of nirvikalpa samadhi, you have killed the guru—you are beyond the 50 types of breath, you have entered into heaven. Hari: ha + ra + i. Hakara pingala varna: “the syllable ha means that there is no sense of the body.” Further it is said that sarva varna varottamam “It (ha) is the supreme letter.” Rakara teja varna sat: “The syllable ra is the power of God in the body.” Ikara shakti dayaka: “The letter i is the life of God given in you”. So ha + ra + i is Hari, who is inhaling your breath. Hari comes from harati avidyam iti harià, “he who dispels darkness of ignorance”. According to Lahiri Mahasaya, Hari means “one who steals”. When the jiva stage is stolen from you, the resulting stillness is Hari. himálayá: hima (cold) and álaya (house, place): from the midpoint of the eyebrows to the fontanel, i.e. the north of the body. Hrishikesha: one of Krishna’s 108 names. H^äikeça is derived from h^äika, which means the senses in the body, and íça, which means soul, Lord, Master. i: it is çakti dáyaka—that which gives life, energy: the breath (praòa) in the body (see Shiva). Janardana: Janárdana, a name of Krishna, is both the creator (janayati iti) and the destroyer (ardati iti). Jayadratha: derived from jaya, which means win, and drath, which means to bluff with eloquent words. Jayadratha is the brother-in-law of Duryodhana. He was always bluffing many persons with his falsehoods, and people were convinced by his exaggerations. jiva: paça baddha bhavet jiva paçamukta sadáçiváà—one who is in bondage is jiva and one who is free from bondage is Shiva. See Shiva. K^äòa comes from the meanings of krishi and na. Krishi means cultivated land, (each human body is a cultivated land) and na, the power of God, soul, our invisible body. According to Lahiri Mahasaya, Krishna comes from the root krish - meaning “to cultivate” and na means “to negate”. The union of the two results in still breath - prana krishna. Those who practice it are Gopis and prana Krishna manifests in them. K^pa was the brother-in-law of Drona, the guru of both the Pandavas and Kauravas. Kripa means kindness and affection with attachment to something bad. k^pa, the guru’s grace is derived from two words: kri, which means “to do”, and pa meaning “to get” or “to achieve”. This kripa is of three kinds: käatriya: one who works without expecting results. kálarátrí: kála means time, limitation or death; rátrí means night. Seventh name of Durga in the nava durga.

Kálí: the Divine Mother who helps to overcome the fear of kála (time, limitation or death.) Kamadhenu (wish-fulfilling cow): soul in the body. Kamalapattrákäa: Kamalapattrákäa comes from kamala, which is made of káma (desire) + ala (to decorate). Literally, “Desire–fulfilling-eyed”, “Lotus petal-eyed”, i.e. Krishna Kapila: copper color (meditator perceives copper color) Karna means “ears”. Famous for his generosity. Ears are always eager to receive, to hear. Two things we always want to hear: praise of self, and blame of others. Kartikeya: Kártikeya is the six-faced god, fruit of çiva-párvati viváha (union of Shiva and Parvati), representing the äadripu (six inner enemies) to conquer. He is also known as kumara, skanda, subrahmanya, äanmukha. Worshipped as devasenápati (commander in chief of the gods), the one who killed tárakásura. Kashiraja: a great spiritual king as well as a great warrior. Kashiraja is derived from kashyate, which means illuminate, and rajyam, which means divine light. Katyáyani: ka (head) + ati (extreme) + áyani (movement). If one keep the mind upward, you are katyáyani . She was worshipped by the gopis (milkmaids) in Vrindavan to realize Krishna. Sixth name of Durga in the nava durga. Kaurava: kuru rava: creating desires. Kuru means “to do”, and rava is the cry or the disposition for the delusion of human beings. Keshava: Keçava comes from ka (Brahma) + íça (Shiva) + va (Vishnu) : total aspect of God. Also ka (in the head) + íça (lord) + va (abode). kiriti: kiríóí comes from kiríóa: gold diadem, crown (i.e. who has come to fontanel) Kúämanda: Ka is head, uäa is warmth, and anda egg. Human head is like an egg—warmth is energy of the Mother. Fourth name of Durga in the nava durga. Kunti: “to call,” “to invite,” “to invoke” or “to pray.” Kunti means “One who prays and loves God.” Kuntibhoja: comes from kunti, which means pinpointed attention in the soul, and bhoj, which means enjoying divine bliss. Kurukshetra: contains kuru and käetra. Kuru means "to do"—to do work. Käetra means field. Every human being is a work field. But the dweller of the body field is the soul, Krishna. Kurupravira: kuru (action, kriya) + pravira (perfect, efficient, best) Kurushreshtha: Kuruçreäóha comes from kuru (action) + çreäóha (the best) : one who does the best action (Arjuna) Madri: mada means “vanity” or “ego.” Mahágouri: mahá (great) and gouri (mountain-born, light). Eighth name of Durga in the nava durga. makara (alligator): ma (time) + kara (act): to do right act at right time. manas: the mind, the doubting faculty in man. The scriptures say: samsayatmika manah—“the mind always doubts.” The mind loves confusion and the mind lives in confusion. The mind cannot decide what is good and what is bad. It is the first of the antar karana chatustaya, the four internal instruments. mantra: mana trayati iti mantra, “the mind that makes you free from the world, that is mantra”. margasirsha: márgaçíräa comes from márga (passage) + çíräa (climax of spiritual evolution): sahasrara Marichi: light of the person by which ego is destroyed; feeble breath

Mayadeví, mother of Buddha. Her name literally means ‘the Lady of maya and illusion’. Mendhasura, meaning ???, is the name of the demon killed by Shri Krishna when he was five years old, by allowing to be swallowed by the demon and then bursting out of its stomach. This is commemorated to this day by the Dola Purnima (Purnima means full moon day) celebration, also known as Holi (the festival of color), in March, one day before the full-moon day. Mendhasura is a demonic power still remains in every human being. Meru: me (to project) + ru (brilliance) mouna (silence): control over the tongue naga (snake): udan vayu nakshatra: nakäatra is that which is beyond destruction, i.e. the light of the stars. Comes from na (no) + käi (decaying) + atra (here) Nakula: comes from na—“no” and kula—“bank of river” or “shore.” Nakula means “Boundless or endless flow of water.” Narada: naram dadáti iti – one who gives knowledge and bliss. Nara: bliss state + da: to give. Narada moves in the vacuum. Narayana: Kutastha is nara or water. Ayana is to reside. Purusha in kutastha is purushottama. When one goes through the door of kutastha he realizes purushottama. navadurga: worship of the nine names of Mother Durga, to purify the navadvára (nine doors of the body-house) and nullify the negative influence of the navagrahá (nine planets). Nava means nine, but also new. nirodhah: made of the prefix ni (completely) and rudh (to close). Nirodha means confinement, locking up, enclosing, covering up, restraint, check, suppression, control or elimination. nirvana means liberation. Its derivation is from the prefix nir which means, ‘nothing, devoid of, free’, and vana which means ‘arrow’, ‘waves’, and ‘breath’. Nirvana is the end of the battle. It means to have no need for arrows. niti: níti means mortality, self-regulated life Ordinarily, people believe that the word atha means to remember God, who brings all auspiciousness in the beginning of any work. So, it is invocation to God. But this auspiciousness is really associated with the muladhara (root) chakra. Through the practice of yoga, one should bring auspiciousness into life. pañca koçi parikrama: to go around the five sheathed body by Kriya is pañca koçi parikrama. Pandu: Páòæu comes from páòæa: asti yasya sa páòæu. Panda means knowledge. Pandu is divine knowledge Paramtapa: Paramtapa comes from parám tápayati ití paramtapaà, “one who destroys all enemies is called Paramtapa” Partha: Pártha means son of P^thá, which comes from p^th: to distinguish Pavaka (a.k.a. Anala, one of the eight Vasus): purifying fire Pitri: pita (ancestor). Comes from “pa”: one who maintains (i.e. breath). In the Upanishads it is said: pita ha vai pranaà: the vital breath is the ancestors. Prahlada: pra (perfect) + hlada (joy) : paravastha prana vishnu: pranaà viäòuà means the vital breath present in every cell is Vishnu pranipata: “humble reverence” to God, guru and scriptures. Humility is the only way to eliminate ego. práòáyáma: práòa and ayáma (movement, restraint, control)

Prapti, youngest wife of king Kamsa, whose name means “one who has immense desire for worldly things”. Purodhas (a.k.a. Purohita): “who always wants good for creation” i.e. a priest. Purujit: a great king. Purujit is derived from puran and jayati. Puran means whole body sense and intellectual sense, and jayati means one who can conquer everything. purusha: puryam shete iti: “The one who is resting in the house.” Putana: a demoness employed by Kamsa to try to kill Shri Krishna. Her name comes from puta, which means “purity”, and na, which means “no”. Rahula, son of Buddha, meaning “bondage”. Rasapurnima, from rasa “nectar, transformation” and purnima, “full moon”, is a festival occurring on the full-moon day in the month of August-September, commemorating the transformation of Radha into Krishna in the forest of Vrindavan. Ravi: ram (fire, illumination) + vam (vacuum) + ing (shakti): divine illumination in vacuum or inner sky Rudra: práòa. The yogic Scriptures say, ye rudraà te khalu práòaà, “the rudras are none but the pranas” Sahadeva: saha means “with,” deva means “vacuum.” Sama Veda : sa (white illumination) + ama (black): perceiving black and white light – balance and harmony. samadhi: sama is derived from samahita, meaning “balanced”, “complete”, “pure”, or even “dissolved”. Dhi refers to intellect, memory and inner reasoning. Samadhi is a state of inner calmness which is born out of sincere practice. samdhya: samyak (“completely” or “perfectly”)+ dhyana (“meditation”): the time when day turns into night, i.e. evening is the perfect time for meditation. Samjaya: king Dhritarashtra’s minister and messenger. His name is short for samyak jaya, which means “thorough control”. samprajñata: made of sam (derived from samyak, “completely” or “perfectly”); pra (“clearly”); and jña (“to know”). Thus the meaning is: knowing clearly and completely. sananda samadhi: sa means “with”, ananda means joy, bliss. The sublimated mind is more absorbed in the intellect. One experiences bodylessness and joy. Here the mind itself is the object of meditation. Sananda samadhi, the third level of the four samadhis described in the Yoga Sutra 1:17, is experiencing bliss alone. sasmita samadhi: sa means “with”, asmita means pure ego. When meditation is more concentrated and ripe, then one experiences the state of “I am, I am…” i.e. aham asmi, which is known as asmita, pure ego’s existence. Sasmita samadhi, the fourth level of the four samadhis described in the Yoga Sutra 1:17, is to go beyond body and all experiences, the state of subtle ego. sati: sat (truth) and i (energy)—one who directs all energy towards Truth. The spiritual urge for perfection in every human being. Saubhadra: the son of Arjuna and Subhadra (Krishna’s sister), i.e. Krishna’s nephew. See also Abhimanyu. savicara: sa means “with”, vicara means reflection, deliberation, investigation and discrimination. Vicarana means “to roam”. The mind and thought is absorbed in the source of the knowledge. Savicara samadhi, the second level of the four samadhis described in the Yoga Sutra 1:17, is analyzing what you saw, undaunted by maya. When

the mind is free from any vicara or discrimination, it is nirvicara samadhi (as explained in Sutra 44). savija: sa means “with”, vija means “cause”. Corresponds to the last two stages of samadhi (sananda and sasmita) described in the Yoga Sutra 1:17. savitarka: sa means “with”, vitarka means “reasoning” or “inference through questioning”. Tarka is the logical reasoning to keep the mind always in a balanced state. Savitarka samadhi, the first level of the four samadhis described in the Yoga Sutra 1:17, is that which you experience. The state of independence of reasoning is known as nirvitarka which is explained in Sutras 42 and 43. savyasácin: ambidextrous; control over ida and pingala; well established in jñana and karma Shailaputri: çila (stone) and putri (daughter): first name of Durga in the nava durga, as daughter of Parvatha, the Himalayan mountains. Shaivya: a great spiritual warrior on the side of Pandava. Shaivya means one who is just like Shiva. Shankara: çankara comes from çam (auspiciousness) + kara (bestower) Shiva: paça baddha bhavet jiva paçamukta sadáçiváà—one who is in bondage is jiva and one who is free from bondage is Shiva. If the i is removed from çiva, it becomes çava (corpse). See jiva. Shuddhodana, father of Buddha. His name literally means ‘one who lives on pure food’. shudra: one who serves the three other varnas (classes or castes): the brahmanas, käatriyas, and vaiçyas. He is çudra who deviated away from Kriya. Siddhi dhátri: Siddhi dhatri comes from siddhi (success, perfection) + dátri (giver). Ninth (and last) name of Durga in the nava durga. Skandamata: Skandamáta means the mother of Skanda. Fifth name of Durga in the nava durga. sthavaranam himalaya: sthavaranam himálaya comes from stha (establishment) + vara (best) : best establishment. Hima (cold) + alaya (house): cranium Sukracharya: Sukrácharya (a.k.a. Uçaná) comes from sukra (semen, vitality, strength) + acarya (teacher). Suyodhana, the name by which Yudhisthira called his evil cousin Duryodhana, which means “completely good,” because Yudhisthira always saw good in every one. Tarakasura: táraka (stars) and asura (demon). The millions of desires and thoughts and propensities are like the millions of stars in the cosmos. If you have no control over them, you are a tárakásura. The fifth meaning of atha is "qualification". When one crosses the propensities of the heart centers and reaches the neck center and transcends above, one is in the state of a qualified spiritual aspirant; to perceive, conceive and realize yoga. The fourth meaning of atha is "thereafter". When one crosses the nabhi chakra and comes to the heart center with purity and love, then he wants to know atha kim. What is after this? This is the state of self-enquiry. The second meaning of atha is "question". The general explanation of this "atha" starts with the question, "What is yoga?" The entire book explains the yoga in its every aspect. Here, atha is also used in the second chakra, svadhisthana, with a question: "Do people really want God-consciousness in daily life or not? The sixth meaning of atha is "promise" or pratijna. When one really goes to the sixth center he enjoys peace, bliss and joy, calmness and love and promises not to be deviated from this state.

The third meaning of atha is karyarambha, i.e. "initiation of effort". By this, the explanation of yoga is started from the first aphorism. The real meaning is that the navel center is the center of energy, which is called nabhi chakra. Spiritual practice starts from this center. triputi: “triple phenomena” – like the seer, the seen and seeing. Uchchaihshravas: Indra’s horse. Uccaiàçravas represents udan vayu. upanayana: comes from upa, “near”, and nayan, “to take”, literally to take the child near the guru. uttishtha: uttiäóha comes from ut (above) + tiäóha (to be established) vaiçya: one who does work with expectation of results. vajra (thunderbolt): breath; strong determination and will power Varuna: Varuòa represents the rasa tattva (water principle) Vasava : vasa + ava: one who lives in vacuum i.e. the king of the gods, Indra. vasu: illumination. Vasudeva: According to Lahiri Mahasaya, Vasudeva = vasu (vasana; i.e. desires or tendencies) + deva (Lord). Give up vasanas (tendencies) and you will be Vasudeva (God). Vásudeva: comes from vasu (hidden jewel) + deva (brilliance): all-perceiving consciousness, Krishna. Son of Vasudeva. Vasuki: vasu (jewel) + ka (head) : one who sees self-effulgent light in head. vicara: reflection, deliberation, investigation and discrimination. Vicarana means “to roam”. The mind and thought is absorbed in the source of the knowledge. See savicara. Vikarna: a soldier of the Kaurava army. Vikarna means one who is a strong believer, is malicious, and is addicted to improper works. This disbelief, resulting from the biological force, is the main hindrance to obtaining purity and truth. Vinita: Vinitá was the father of Garuæa: humility Virata: a great warrior and king on the side of Pandava, who hosted the Pandavas incognito for one year in his palace. Virata comes from vigata and rata. Vigata means that which is completely free and rata means the kingdom (body)—one who is free from body sense, free from everything. Vishnu: comes from viäòati praviçyati iti, “he who penetrates and manifests everywhere”. vitarka: means “reasoning” or “inference through questioning”. Tarka is the logical reasoning to keep the mind always in a balanced state. (See savitarka). Vittesha: Vitteäa comes from vitta (wealth) + íça (lord): another name of Kubera. Vrindavan: the place where Shri Krishna lived until the age of ten years eight months. Vri comes from vrajadham, which means to perceive Krishna in the whole body and to merge with the Divinity. Vrishni: V^äòi comes from v^ä, “desire”: one who has control; to radiate illumination. vritti: wave, flow. Chitta vritti is the flow of thought, one wave after the other, the play of memory. Vritti nirodha means restraint and control of vritti. Vritti laya means complete dissolution of vritti. In vritti-laya, there is no rise of vritti. Vritti-vilaya, or complete dissolution of vritti, is possible only at the time of death. Yajña: yajña (fire ceremony) means prana yajña. By prana yajña the fickle prana is oblated into the still prana by prana karma (Kriya Yoga). Yama: self-discipline, restraint (earth center) Yashodhara, surrogate mother of Krishna. Yaçodhara literally means ‘in the river of fame’.

yoga: widely used in various subjects like spiritual practice, physical exercise, mathematics, astrology, astronomy, ayurveda. “Yoga” also means an opportunity. It has up to 31 different meanings. But the spiritual meaning can be correlated with the word "yoke": to unite or to be in the state of union: union of body and soul, of the individual self with the supreme Self. Yudhamanyu: a spiritual and powerful warrior on the side of Pandava. Yudhamanyu is derived from yudha, which means to fight constantly and to subdue; and manyu, which means sin, evil, malice and all other evil qualities which keep human beings far from Godrealization. Yudhiäthira: yudhi, “in the battle”, and sthira, “calm, undisturbed”. Yuyudhana: relative and disciple of Krishna, also known as Satyaki. Yuyudhana means one who has the greatest desire for soul culture and deepest regard for God and guru.

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