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Sakurai - Modern Quantum Mechanics Rev Ed- Solutions Manual

Sakurai - Modern Quantum Mechanics Rev Ed- Solutions Manual

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Modern

Quantum .Mechanics

... Solutions Manual

11 Sakurai

Late, University of California, Los Angeles

. San Fu Tuan, Editor'

University of Hawaii. Manoa

THE BENJAMIN/CUMMINGS:':: '0"'BLISHING COMPANY, INC.

Menlo Park, California- Reading, Massachusetts _

Don Mills, Ontario" Wokingham .• U. K. - Amsterdam- Sydney' .... Singapore • Tokyo" Mexico City • Bogota - Santiago -San Juan

.,

.,

.,.

_.,.

Cupyrighl e 1985 by Addis0I1.Wcslcy Publishing Co .. TIJeAdvanced Book Program. J5() OrKIge Pa.rkway .. R e 'tIw()orJ City. CA 94065

All riglus reserved. No ll:1rl or this puhlication may be reproduced.

stored in lit retrieval syslcm. or lransmiued. in any rorm or by any means. eleclronic, mechanical. pholncnpying. rccording. OT otherwise". without the priur wriuen permission uf the pub1isher. Prinled in the United States

or America. Published simulla'ncou.o:!y in Canada.

ISBN 0-8053-7502-3

4 5 6 7 MQ 95949392

I \

~ ----~--~-----------------------

Contents

1 Fundamental Concepts 2 Quantum Dynamics

3 Theory of Angular Momentum

4 Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics 5 Approximation Methods

6 Identical Particles

7 Scattering Theory

1 18 45 63 69

104 109

Chapter 1

1. [AB,C;)j = ABeD - CDAB .. ABeD + ACBO _ ACBD _< ACDB + ACDS + cADa _ CADB _

(DAB ~ A{C,B}D - AC(O,B) + {C,A}OB - C{D,A}B.

2. (a):\ = ao + [a2_0t' tr(X) :: 2ao because treat) = 0.' Next evaluate tr(ukX) = treE atakat) ~ [ at201k ; Zak (where we have used

. 1

tr(e,a.) = tr(~(o.aj + a.a"») = 26 .. ). Hence ao ~ tr(X), ak ~

~ J' '~ J .J. l.J

!.z tr(ckx).

(b) ao ~(Xll + X2Z)>> wh~le ak can be explicitly evaluated froID ~ ::: ~' cr(O'kX}

with:X::: [Xijl 'and i.j ... 1,2. TIle result is "r :z ~(X12 + X21), aZ =<.~(-X21 +

3.

aa +aa +O'a ""

x x y y z z

(a a -1a \

z x y

a +La -a )

x Y z

...... 1+12

dec (a.a) ; _ ~ •

"

T,";i.thout. loss of generality. choose n:llong positive z-direetion, then

.... A

exp(±icr.n~/2) = l cos ¢/2 !

coi ./2 + 1sin ./2, then

10 sin ~/2. and if B is defined to be B = z

I * , 2)

a B B (a -La ) B

( z X y

~ (a +1a )B*2 -a s*a

x y z;

Since B*B = CO'S2 ,/2 + sin2 ~/2 =1. det [exp(l" ~/2);.! x z

++

exp(ia ~/2)a.a exp(-!o ./2)

Z 'z

exo(-icr d}/2)J=

. z

(a 2 + a 2 +'a 2) = _I~I. 2, that is determinant is

z; x Y'

1

[II <a"jYX]a">. Since a" is a dummy summation -va~1able. relahel a" ::r a', a

2

Modern Qua~tum Mechanics _ Solutions

invariant onder specified operation. Next ue note

'= ( a' a'-iO)
z .x y
.... -,
o_a
\ a'+ia' . I "
-a
x ':I z {a -1a )(cosc +

. x y .

iSin1:) \

)

-is1n$)

-_a z

4.

·hence a' -== a • at :;: a COsll + a sinlj\. a' ~ a cos¢- - a si.r..¢. This is a

z zx x Y" Y Y X

counter-clock:lo'ise rotat.ion, about z+axd s .throllgh a:igle '$ in x -y plane.

(a)

Note tr(XY) es [, <ar!XYja'>;:r [ <a'j'Xla"><a"J'YLa'> 'by

a a',a" "

closure pr-opert.y) ... a~r:a" <a"lyla'><a' !Xla"> ,(by re<>.c:-c:-angement)

- ,

henc,- ~r(rn '" tr(YX).

(b) <Oi.y)ta'ja">'" <a'l[(xy)t]tla">::: '<2:~lXY!an> 0:: <Xta'I'i[a"> => <ytxt a.', I ali>. Therefore (Xl') t =- yt!{t.

[f (A) J 2 -I.. ' •

2! '" •• ~ .) I c>

(e) Take-exp,[if(A)]la> = '2

~ (1 + If(a) _ [f~~)l +

(1 .;- if (A)

••••••• ) I a>

.. exp(if(a)]la>. where

asSume that Ala> a ala>. Therefore exp[if(A)] =

t:exp [if (c) J jc:> <a I. where closure property of the. eOtl!pl~te set. a

{Ic.>} has been used.

.,.. 'III: -+ I .. - ...

<x'la'>·<>::" a'>". .. <a'lx!> x

a' If'

<;"Ia'> = ~, <;t"la'><a' I;'>"" <~ttl;rr> ..

5. (a) 10;><131 c t, z, la'><a' la><ela"><a"l=a r, 'ar" la'><a"l x a a

«a'Ic:><a"jB>*). Hence la><BI "" [<a(1)!a><a(j)/B>*}. -£.::'ere

Modern Quantum Mechanics

Solutions

expression. inside square bracket is the (i.j) matrix eie'ment. '(b) ja> '" isz = M/2> =: 1+;, ,Is> '" fsx =: K/Z>··= ~~(1+> + i->l.

Hence

__ 1.( <+I'a><+/ B; /C:><$/

. : <-la><+ls!

., I 0><-/ B~).

. , ,

. "'. ,

<-10.><-/6> "

(1 1)

=: 1//2 .

'. 0 a ,

Given AI i> '" a.) i> and AI j > ",' a '/ j >', The normalized s~ate' vee tor / i> +

1. . J

Ij> is of form' lw: '" ~~[Ii> + /.j,>J.. Hence AI~> =(1/12)[.1111> +

a,lj>J where a" a. are real p-umbers if A is Hermitian; but for a. # a,

J 1. J 1. J

clearly r.h.s. is a state vector distinct from 10/>. However under the

I '
condit:.ion that Ii> and I i- are degenerate (Le. al = aj =: a) • then AI:+» =:

a [ (1/12') ( / 1> + l r> J "a f'1/!> and lIP> or /i>+ / j> is also an eigenket of A.

7.

" .

(a) Let IE;> E: ria">} and Ala'> = a'la' ~ Then since~, (A

,product over all eigenvalues, and Ir,:> =: ~, la'><a'I(> must

a')II';> is a

therefore sa~isfy'y, (A-a')/t;> = O.

Hence· IT, '(A-a') is the null

a "

opet'cltor.

(b)

n a"1a'

(A-a") .Ia'> =z II

(a'-a") a"1."

(.1'-.1") 1.11> ... I 1

(a I -a") a. >.

(A-an)

Hence 8/ t> =: a"~a I. (a I ~a") 1£;>, ". I a' ><a" I ~>. The

operator therefore projects out of ket,I~>, its.

la'> Component.

J

a,n:!:i</2 {S~ - a')·i:!:> .. o •. This verifies "(a) above; For case (0)

""e have

a '" (S +¥/2)/'6.. 9_ .. -(S' -i4/2)/,{ and S_ • ':1.12(1+><+\-1: -> x

+:z z ¥"

<-I) ;.!hile ket I~>' '"' !+><+If;> + !-><-I(>. Hence e+IE;> ,.. <+\£;>1+> and e 1(> a <~I(>I-> and 6± are the proje~tion operators of 1(> to I~>

states.

8. The arthon.ormality property is <+1+> - <-1-> • 1. <+1-> .. <-1+> ... O.

Hence using the explicit r,epresentations of S1 in 'terms of linear col!!binations of bra-ket products. 'W'e obtain by e1emellta.ry calculation

9. Let; "" n1 + n 1 + n k. then n ". sinScosa. n • sinBsina. n -

" x y z: X y . z

cesS and S.n = sin8cosa S + sinSsina S + cosS S. Also due to

x y z ' .

completeness property of the ket space Is.~;+> - al+> + bl-> where.'lal2 +

jbl2 ~ I (normalization).. ~nerefore the relation S~nIS.~;+> a

ou 2) l's .n"; +> [taking advan tag e

I 1M

<-I + -><+1), 5y & -z<-I+><-I

leads to :-

of explicit representations S~ - ~(1+> x "

+ I-><+!>; SZ ~ ~(I+><+I - 1-><-1)]

(sinecos~ - is1nSsina)b + cosS a - a

(sinecosa. -I- is in Ss ina.) a - eosB b - b.

"Together v1th the normzlizati6n condition lal2 + 1bl2 - l~ we find •

19 " ia ..

a "" cos(S/2)e a and b • sin(S/2)e . b. From equation (la) ~e have

sinB e-i~ a :: ~,;;:..::..--=-__,..,.~ (I-cos B)

i(ab-8 ) i(1

• hence e a - e .

Choose e a - O. the.!! eb - a.. and ....

. "

Modern Qu'antu!I1 Mec.hanics - Solutions 5

10. H = a(11)'''11''- 12><21 + ji><21' + 12><11). Let 11> '" (;). 12> ~ (~) • <11 = (1.0) and <2j = (0,1), Hc.an be explicitly vd.tten using

outer product of matrices as

H = a C J.

The eigenvalues and corresponding eigenkets a~e obtained from

(H - ),1) X ... 0 where X '" (:~) are eigenvectors and x are 'corresponding

This leads

eigenvalues determined from secular equation det (H,- AI) = O.

'(1 )

to X = ±l:2a, and Xz : {±12 - l)xl, heoce X = xl =12 _ i and

by normalization

1

Thus eigenvectors and.eigenvalues are

l~l> 11> + (12 - 1) !2> A'" l:2a
:::. h(2 - 12)
,
llj/z> 11> - (12+1)12> ,\::: -l2a
:: Iz (2 + 12) 11. Rewrite H as H = ~(Hll + H22)( 11,,<1!. + 12><21) + ~(Hll -' Hn)'( 11>' x

<11 - 12><21>, + H12 (11)<:21 + ! 2><11). where the three operator t ertas on

r.h.s. behave like r. sz. and Sx respectively. Not~ that ~(Hll + H22) is

simply t~~ "center of' gravity"of the cvo levels. Because the identity·

operator I remains the same under any change of basiS, We ignore the

~(Hll + H22) term for the Dloment. Compare nov with the spin ~ problem [p r ob Lem 9 above]. S.n '"' ~ nxCj+><-1 + 1-><+1> + ~ 0y(-11+> x <-1+11-><+1> + ~ 0z<I+><+I-I-><-I). The analogy is: (l</2)nx -I> R1r

, ,. ".

~ny -+ a (a=~), ~nz -+ l.s(Hu-Hn). So ooe of the energy e Lgenke t s is cos(B/2) 11> +'51n(6/2) 12> where 2,· analogous to tan-1(nx/nz)' is given by B ;; tan-1[ 2H12 .. 1- CHll-P.ZZ)

The other energy eigenket can be w-ritten down by the orthogonali::.y requirement

(or by Le t t i.ng 6->-S+"1T) .. s -si:1(e/2) 11> + cos(B/Z) Iz>. 'The 'energy eige:walues can

be obtained by diaganalizing

But they.can also be obtained by comparing with the spin ~ problem:

~ 2 * 2 2

(~nx) + (~nz) = H./4 ~ eigen~alu~ H/2.

so by analogy the eigenva1.ue in our case .is (11; (HU -Hn) 2 + Hi z] \ ' \.Ie l!JUs.t, still

add, to this the center of gravity energy. The final ansvar is 4(HU +H2Z) :t [~(Hli -H2Z) 2 + H~2 )~~

where ± is the analogue of parallel (anti-patallel) spin direction to n. For

H12 = 0, we get B~ 0 or rr.

12.

a very reasonable result.

-+ -1-' Y'I- =(COS(r!2»)

~ere S.n n;+> = "2[n.;+> and In;+> = cos(y/2) 1+> + sin('t/2) 1-> 51n(y/Z)

T ..

_ ..

is easily seen thac the

e Lganke t, of Sx belonging' to eigenvalue +¥/2. is ~ (i ) .

.. fl' (cos(y/2)) 12

getti~g +¥/2 when S is measurea 1s-2~(1.1) c{ ( /2)

x I \ __ n 'f

Thus (a) probability of

l+sioy

"" --2- .....

2

'" <5 > - x

_ ~ r y (0 1)(COs(y/2»)

(b) <sx> - 2(cosZ' sin2) 1 0 sinCy/Z)

cS >2 : W2/4 _ (K2/4)sin2y = (KZ/4)cos2y. x

. 2

Hence «5 -<5 » > x x

'ri .

'"' -sin),. 2

Answers are entirely reaSOn-

able for y .. O,1f (paral.lel and anti-parallel, to QZ),'and far y ='ff/2 (along OX).

r A _ W14411

. AfdlI'I!Ij£W

<w .

Hodern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 7

13. Choosjng the S~·~iagonal basis, the firsc measurement corie~ponds to the operator M(+) .. 1+><+1. The second measurement 1s expressed by the oper acor M(+;r.)

= 1+;n><+;n!. where I+;n> =- cos(s/2)1+> + sin(B/2-) 1-> with a = O. Therefore

M(+;n)

The final measurement corresponds to the operator M(-J = 1-><-1. and the total measurem~nt ~ ~ M(-)M(+;n)M(+) = 1-><-I{cos2(S/2)i+><+1 + cos~sin~(I+><-1 + I-><+!) + s~n2(d/2)1-><~I}I+><+1 = cos~sin~!-><+I.· The intensity of the final

Sz "" -'fa/2 beam, when the Sz t: ~/2 beam surviving tnefirst measurement is normalized to unity, is thus cos2(a/2)sin2(S/2) "" (sin2S)/4. To maximize S = -~/2

z

final beam, set B .. rr/2. i.e. along OX. and intensity 1s ~.

14. (a) The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of 3x) matrix representation

(0 1 0)

A = (1/12) 1 0 1 '

010

can be obtained by solving decCA - ~Il = 0 and normalized. eigenvectors

2 2 2 .

where [A-U [x = 0 and xl +x2+x3 = 1. . The eigenvalues are +1, O. -1 and the

and the corresponding eigenvectors are respectively

There is no degeneracy. (b) These are the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Jx = ~ for a spin 1 particle.

15. Yes! Proof uses completeness and or thcno rmal.Lcy .of {ja'.b'>}. hence

[A. Bl= t . E la" b"~<a" b"j·CAB-BA)la'b'><a' b'j"

.• a' .. b' a".b"· '. ..,

but (AB-BA)la',b'> = (a'b'-b'a')la'",'b'> = O. hence {A,al ... O. An alternative

'. , ~.

".

"

... ,_ .. _._-_._-_ . .:---------_._-----_.-

a',b"M .u I possible because

{laf.b'>} form a compl~te orthonormal set. Then [A.Blla:. .. 0 because [A.Bl!a'.b'> "'0, but s Lnc e 10.> i!3 arbicrat"y, (A.,B] ." 0 must hold as an ~e:-~ eqtJ...a!:ictl.

16. {A,B} <2 AE+BA '" O. This implies thar: <a"!V •• Bl!a'> .. <a."IA1lla·:> + <£;"!BA!.s':;.

.. (a"+a')<a"!B!a':> - Q. In general a"+a' ., O. so <a"!B!a'> mus~ vanish fo!' a" •

a. I as .... ell as <1/' 1- a'. hence it is not possible to have a. simultaneous e1ge.nket

of A and B. The "trivialu'case.'is when aIT+a' .. O. then <a"IBls1:> , 0 necessarily,

and simultaneous eigeoke.t of A and B uould appear to be possible. 'But note

Ala'.b'> '" a'!at.b'>. B!a'.b''> - b'la',b'>'" (AB+BA)la',b'>" (a'b' + b'a')la.',b'>

-

'" O. Hence a' • O. or b' .. 0, or a' • b' • O. 'I'hu~ nontrivia.l si.ru-...Iltaneous ei-

genkets are possible but at the cost that _the eigenvalues: of One or the otr:er

(or both) of operators A and B a re zero. '

t7. ~ degener&cy implies I n> defined by H 1-:;.> ... R In>, is unfque. i.'1!. only one energy

n '

eigenstate vhen En is given. Nov [ApH} .. 0 "~ [~~ B] {n> ""'0 or H{Ir.!n» -

= E CA, In». 1. e .J> .... In> is an energy eigenket ",1th eigenvalue E. The non-aeg-

n ~ L n

cne.r acy _assUlIIption then implies ~! n> is proportional to .1 n> I viz.- ~ 10.>'" all n>

and !i.ke....-ise ~ln> ... a211l>~ But .... e are given that: [Al!~] '" O. hence ~Azlu> .; A2~ln> or <112.210.> fo. a2Q1.ln>, and this is clearly impossible. hence euergy eigenstates are. in general, degenerate. Note bov~ver tb.1s proof faUs if ~In> '" 0

, .... 2

For B - P 12m + V (r). Land. L both commute. vith H and (L _ ,L 1

, x ,2. 'X%

? D. so energy eige¥tates are usually degenerate _<2£+1 fold'degener.acy) .. The except10n is for S-state (t-O, m1- 0) where L%,Iu,.!.-O.mt-O> - O. hence there need

not be degeneracy io this case.

18. (3.) This is salved in (1.4.56) and (1.4.57) of text.. Basically ve set. A - -<ela>/<sIS>"in"_«al+ )*<61).(10:" +,}.ls>j ~ O. and obtain Schvan inequality"

'Modern guantUtll Mechanic:! - Solutions 9

, 2 2

(b) The generalized uncertainty 'relation (1.4.59) is' «AA) >«A3) > ~1<A.At1a>12

'. '2" 2 . 2

where according co (1.~.6 3) 1<6AAs>1 - Itl< (A.B}lol + JcI<{6A,AB}>1 • Fr.C1Il

(1.4.50) we knOIoi that t..A • A - <'11.> and 6B • B - <8> &nd MIa.> • ).ABIa.>··u . .t1ven.· An elemeo:tary calculation Leads to [A.B) • [t.A.AB1. hence <0.1 [A,Blla,> - <0.1 x [6A.6B]ja.> - l.*<aIABABla> - l.<a!eBt.Bla>. Choose next A to be purely imaginary; <aIrA.Blia> --2l.<al(AB)2!a> while ItI<aj[A.Blla>!2 - (l.121<01(68)2Io.>12. It is

also evident that for A imaginary <al{AA,6Blla>,- O. therefore from (1.4.63) and the recognit.1otl that <al(6.A)2Ia><o.l(A8)2Ia> - 1."12,<0.1(68)210.>12, we have equaI

lity in the generalized uncertainty relation (1.4 .• 59).

(c) Sinc.e Ax - x - <x>, we may express <xlIAxla> &3 fdx"<'-x'11"><x"lu1a> - Jdx"o(x'-x·1)x"<x"[a> - fdx"~(xt-xtl)<x><x"la> where normalization <xlix"> • 6(x'-x") is chosen. For 6p • P - <p> where p .. -il\~x~ we have <x'l.apla'> .. fdx"<x'lx"><x"!6p!a> and <x"lpla.>" -iK~x,,<xllla>. Hence <x'!Apla>'" fdx"6(x'-xf1)

x (-t;O! ,,<x"la> - <p'>fdx"f5(x'-xfl)<xtl!a>. ax

2 -Ja: 1<~>xn (x"-<x»2

<x"la> - (21fd) exp[ - --;-- I

, 4<1'

and' <x I lAp 1(1). We. find

<xllAxla> .. A<x'IApla>

2

were· A - -lid '"6. an imaginar:. number.

(a.) It 1.s, clea~ that <aISxla>- ;" ;,<a.lan>'<~"lsxlat><&'la>-i,l<a{a'>12<A'ISxla'> .... here. {la.'>} is a complete set of base kets. Since S .. ~2(1+><-I+l-><+1>t evi-

. J:

dently s2 .. ~2 <1+'><+1+1-><-1>. Take"!a> - ,1+> thea <+ls21+> .. ~2/4 and <+ls' 1+>

x 4 x x

U~e next explicit expression for

in above integral forms for <x'I6xIa.>

- O. Therefore.

'2 22'

<+1(65 )21+> .. <+Is 1+> - <+15 1+>· _. ~ /4.

x x x

1~ ,'2 l2

Also from Sy .. -zc-I+><-I+I-><+I>. ve have 5y .. 4 <I+><+I+}-><-I). hence it:can

be readily shown that <+ls21+> .. ~2/4 and <+Is t+> .. O. Therefore <+I(~S )21+>

y y, y

,.," .

. ".

----.--'-- . .._....,.~"' .... - .. ---'~--. --' ..

x

'"'1. ..... ~ I ~

y.

~ ... ,-, J - J.i'I~ ana c hu s <+1 x

x 'I z

[Sx,5yJI+> = i~<+lszl+> ~ 1M2/2. The generdlized uncertainty relation is therefore verified for the equality case.

(b) from

, ~ . - e i Lc . 81 .

In.+> - C05Z ~> + e s~n2 -> ~t follows for B ~ n/2 and a =

!2~(1+> +j-». Simple calculatiQn.s lead to <8 '+15 Is .+> ==

x' x x '

y,,/2 and

o we have

Is .+> =

x'

<5 :+152Is ;+> = MI;4, thereEor~ <5 ;+1 (6S }21S ;+> = O. Again [5 ,5 I ~ i~S •

x xx x x x xy z

hence <5 ;+Is Is ;+> = 0 and <5 '+1(65 )2[5 '+><5 '+1(6S )~IS .+> = ltl<5 >+1 x

x z" x ' x x ' x ' y x " x'

[Sx·Syllsx;+>IZ, both sides of generalized uncertainty re16tion being zero.

[Note explicit <5 ;+ls.13 ~+> == !~«+I+<-I)[~(I+><+I-I-><-I)"]!!..:(I+>+I->)' == 0 if

x z x 2.< 2 Z'"'

'We use systematicallY'orthonormality conditions <:t:!:!:> .. 1. <~I+> = 0.]

, . 1

20. T<:!:ke the normalized linear combination! > := al+> + (l-a2)'1eiBI_>.where CI. Is real

2 \Ii 2 2 2

and I C11 .:: 1. Than elementary calculations yield < I (6S,,) 1 > '4 [1-4(1 (I-a ) x

coslS] and < 1(6S )2i > = *2(1_4aZ(l_a2)sinZS). The product

y <~

I . 2 '. '2 \(4. 2 2 4 ' 2 2 .' 2

< (liSx) t >< I (lISy) 1 > = -I-P1-4a (I-a )+4(1 (l-~ ) s i,n 2S}.

2 . ~4 2 2 2

Xaxirnum''ftrr sin 28 is when S = rr/4. and r.h.s. oecomcs 16[1-20; (I-a )1 • :;:e. is

clear that a2 = ~ is a minimum. and the maximum value ~4/16 is re~ched ""hen (12 2

O. or ct:1. Hence the linear ! combination f' that maximizes uncertainty product

ei_'If/4!_>. 1

is or ~ +>.

That! ]+> does no.t violate uncertainty relation has beer.

h/4j

proved in Problem 19(a) above. For the e . -> case, ""e note that the phase fac-

irr/4 ! 1 j

tor e cancels out in the scalar product. and <-IS -> = <- S -> "" 0 while

x y

~ ?

<_1521_> ~ <_[S2[_> = M2/4., Agai~ <-I[S ,S ]1-> = <-[iMS [-> = iH(~M/2) = -iK~/2.'

x y x y z

Hence explicitly we have <-'jU1Sx}ZI-><-[(6Sy)Zl-> ",J{4/16 = ltlc-I(Sx,Sy]I->j,2,

again no violation.

-"""""'---------------------------~---- ..

;o: • .jern QuantUl1l Mechanics - So1utions 11

21. This is the rigid vall potentia:_ ')r;._. -diJDcr.s1on.al box"L c.f. (A.2.3) a.nd.

.(A.2.4) of Appendix A. The' \lave ".::: '-OOS and eoergyeigec.atates 'are 'r(x) •

-IfTi sin(nlrX/a). D-1. 2. 3 ••••• , ... :- - ," .~ 1(2n2Tl/2ma2• 0-1 18 ground state 0.>1 are

the excited etates. Next note t.h,.·

2 2 2 ., 2 2

.< (6.;;:) > .. <x ;> - <x> • <. J '"" • <p > - <p>

• ' )(a d p2 .. _1.I2a2/ .... r:?· i ld vall 1&1

vn e r e: p.- lax an ,,<1..... - ~·vr r' g potent. lfe have

,2 2 6a ,2 1 2 ( /.

<x > • - x S n n~x a:_

a .

,<x> ..

2 a 2

a b xsin (nlfX/a)d;~ "':--./1

2 2 r/ sin (nr.x) (-)!?;r~'.' ': z, i (on)d,x ~~(oT)2
<p ;>- - ;S Q'a -
a a - a
2 fa n'II"X)(a . ·~)dx 0
<p> • sin{-;-) (tax) (;~.-; • •
a 0 " . 2 2 82 2 2 l{2 2

Therefore the uocertainty product <i: :') >«top) > - -2 (l/6 - 1/0 Y I-zenT) .-

. a

)(2 2

2 [(nu) /6 - 1]; for ground state ~-:: for exc~ted states 0>1.

Assume tha~ the ice pick 1s equ1val~. ~ to a mass point • attached to a light rod

of length L the other end of wh1ch .s; ::'.1.lanc::ed on .. fixed bard anrf_ee. For small angle a departure of pick fro":; .:;; ct1c.al, the torque eq,~ti.oa ,is 1DL 2d2e/dt2 19JL:. . -r,;Jf. t

• mg6L, and solution aCt) • ae . , »c • l"be unc::ertainty relaU.Qu at

taO with tJ. • La • (8+b)!.. Ap a l.J:x!';' _f d t .. 19]L(a-b)t& - IaIgL'(a-b) 18 AxAp - Mil

(best ve can do and rf\a11:ed for Cz;;.:· , - .. ar. packet).

. 2

Nov 6xAp - l'2 impl~e3 a •

'b2 + }(/(2m{gL3)l::i). 'l'he displacement .. .: l..1t.er tUe t 1a a1D.1a1%ed by making .. and b as small as posdble. So set x . .tr~/(~[gL3)~). b -0 (actuaUy irrele-

vaot for ~ »I-':../g). Displacement b(.v,· .c s oO.t1cea.ble when e beccnaes ,as large as ef .. ow/lOO -:: 20. We have Sf • ae~';; "~ aad taking for definiteness a -

. I, 3 '. \ 1 3]~

+t1\/(2m[gL ll::i). tf -1i:7i{ InBf +'il::~!·· .-~..!- )]. Use L- 10 oa, 'Ill - 100 gil. and

g - 980 cm/sec::2• \Ie have tf• 3.4 aU-'

J..J:_ t.u.al..ly thia' number is very insensitive

------------------' ... -

to m and Sf' For any reasonable value. we get tf ~ 3 sec.

23. (a) The characteristic equation dc.t(B-AIl '" D. leads to (A-b)2(Hb) == O. Hence

A~ ±b and A=b is ~ two-fold degenerate eigenvalue.

(b) Straightfor..1ard tnatrb::multiplication gives

" (ab 0 0)

AB::::: 0 0 iab "" EA, hence [A,B1 = 0

o -iab 0

(c) The eigenvectors (eigenkets) of B, together with [A.B] = O. yield simultan-

eous eigenvectors of A'and B.

Let 1. be eigenvalues of B. and corresponding l.

eigenvector~ are

u1 = (j). where Bui'"liul, i-1.2.3.

For A1=b. we have bui "" 0 than

For. the degenerate 1

gonal to u • hence

2 2

have bU1 '" bUr and

...,

But u~ must be ortho-

12"'b. we 2

U ::It O.

1

o. u; '" I, u; '" i. and

Therefore we choose

the

normalized

u2 • HD '~~<I2>+iJ3> ). where 12> • m and 13> - m

, 3 1 2

Fo r nondegenaca te A3 .,. -b. again u must be or thogonal to u and u , therefore

3 3 3

u1 = 0 and relation iuZ ~ -u3

~ 3 can be satisfied by choosing u2 =

13.

• u3 == -~.

To-

gether with ~ormaliz3tion we have

"3 = ~{O - h<l 2>-i! 3» •

i '1"12 2

In this new set u (1"1,2,3). evidently Au =au ,"-Au - -au.

Au3 ,= _au3 ,and there

Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions'

13

is CYo fold-degeneracy·w.r.c. eigenvalue -a of Operator A.

:24. (a) Therotacion matrix [c.f. O.2.!t4)1 acting on a two-component spinor can be

-+... ~ e.. a

;..rritte:1 as exp [-ia.naI2I "" 1:. C052 - ~C. n s~n2 For clockwise rotation about:

I --- ~ 1

X-exis through -n/2, we have 6 = -~ 2, hence exp[-io.n6/2J = 24(1+iox).

(b) If we transform from base kets in 5 representation to eigenkets of S as

Z y

base kets. i.e. rotate by angle -~/2 about ,x-axis, S 'is transformed into z

[This can be seen by noting char. if {Ie>} is S basis while {J~} is S basis,

y z

than transformation is

<c"IS [c '> "" 1:. <c"lb'><b'js Jb"><b"lc'>.J

I Z b I, b" . Z J

25. Given <b'!A!b"> 1s real., rake another basis {Jc>}, then '/e.1> .. ~I!b'><brlc'>,

hence <c' JAlcH>= ( t,<c'lb'><b'I)A( S,,<b"lc">lb"» = b,i:b,,<c'lb'><b"/c"> x

' , .

<b ' I A I b">. It 1s not necessary that <c ' I b ' > and <b" I c "> be real. Take the

and \:. cases of for 5 and Ie'> z

S y

! +; wh il e 1 b"» '" (~) = !_>

( 1/12) ,

= -1//2 ~ Isy;->, Hence

problem 24 above. Here I b' >' .. ( ;) '", <= (1/12.) '" is i+> ;..rhile for S !c">

i/12. y Y

<c ' !b'> = 1/12 = <c"lb'>, but <c"jb"> .. i/12 '" -<:c' Ib"> are imaginary.

26. Fr ora problems 9 and 19. we have Isx;p' =, ~~d.p+I-». Le. Q= 0, B =Tf/2 in

Is. ~ ;+>. Now Is ;-> corresponds to axis of quantizat ion in the -x direction. x

.~:. ~~(!+>-l-» • u = ("11 "12) be
i.e. o.='II,B "" Tr/2, hence Is "-> = Let the trans-
)c' U2l !.i22
formation matrix between S diagonal basis and S diagonal basis, Le.
z x U12)(I+» = U j r>

U22 1->

than evidently Uu "" U12 :; 1/12 while U2l zzi/l2, and U2"2 == -1/12.

Take Is ;+>

, x

.l.... !'lout: L U \{UeU I. UJ.lI, necn.a(ll.Ca - So iu t10ns

• U11l+> + ~121~> ~ li<&IS~;+>la> while Isx;-> - u211+> + u221-> a t<bjS%;->!b> \lith a.b - "".-. Ta.k.e' thege.oeral fons U • Ilb{r}><a(r)!.than utr> .. ~lb(r» X <a,(r)!:c.>. Identify \.:1;;' or \b> vith Ib(r» and <a.(r)lr> ... i~h <a\S ;+>or <bls ;->.

x , X

ve gee that U ~an indeed oe expressed as U. r\b(r»<a(r}l.

r '

27. (s.) Matrix'element' <b"if(A)\b'> '"' i,<b"!f(A}la'><a'lb'.>- ~I f(a';<b"la'><a'Jb'>-

where <a'lb'> (likewise <billa'» 'is an element of the transformation mat'd.x from.

~ 1 -+ 1-+ ....

the a' basis to the b' basis. (b) The matrix element <pI! F(r) p'> • Jdr'F(r') x

<p" 1-;'><;' Ip,>· Note that <~, Ip'> - (l/(21t}(}3/21eiP.-:' Ii. t!)is implies tl.at

+, -+It ., 1'1&

<p"IFa)\p'> ... (i/(21r}()3]/d~'F(;-')ei(p -p ).r

Suppose Fa) is spherically symmetric - r(r), than (choosing ~-axis along p '-pit)

<p"IF(r)lp'!to "'(2~;)3 _i1 d(cosS) (r,2dr'F(rt)etqr'Cos9/lt

vhere q - \pl_p"l. Integrate out the cose integraelon our.h.s. ve have

<p"jF(r)jp"'> '" 1 2 {'r'sin(qr'/ll)F(r')drl

211'~ q, .

28. ,(a.) [X.F(P'lt)]c.~ - ~: ~: - ~;. * ' but ax/apx';' 0, hen~e [x.F(px)]cl S dFnpX'

x x

(b) No..,

-a exp(::'p a/~).

x

(c) Using (b), ve have

{x.exp(ipxa/M)]lxt> • -Q exp(1Pxa/lllx'>.

Hence x.exp(ip a/Vt) Ix'>- eXp(ip a/Vt)xl·x'> ... -sexp(ip at&) Ix'> • and t.hence

x ~x x

x] exp (1p a/~)-I x I » .. (x '-a)( exp(ip a/~ll Xl:. 1. This e1genva1tte equation implies

x " x

that exp(ip a/Vt)lx'> is an eigenstate of coordinate operator x. vith. ~orrespond-

x '

ing eigenvalue (x'-a).

... ...

29. (a) ~e assume that G(p) and F(x) can be expressed as a power series

... I: n m' t... n lD L

G(p) g o.m,tanmlPiPjPk ' F(x) - ~,i,£bnmtXiXj~'

Modern Quantuo Mechanics - Solutions 15

. .', n III 1. n-l m 1

An. eleme.ntary'calculatiou··Ylelds· {xI" PiP/'k] • j!ii<Pl Pl'lc. (use [x1' ABCl •

n III 1'0-1 =. t,

(xi,A]BC + A(X1"B]C + (AB)[x1,CI) and [Pt" xlxj~l • -.ni}{x1 Xj~' Where the re-

o . 0-1 0 0-1

lationship3 [xi,Pi] .. ni){P1 and (P1'xl] .. -ni)(x1 can be easllyproved by

Qathe~tical induction.

.. ,

Using the series form. for G(p) and F(x} ve get at. once

J;

i~

I

i

I

. ~ +

[xi,G(p)] .. iKaG/apt and [P1''F(x)] - -ij{Hldx1".

(b) [xl ,p2]. [x2,pp1 .. [x2,p)p + p[x2,p]. but frOID (a) [P.x·2) .. -2iKx. 80 (-x:p2] 2' 2

.. 2i\<xp + 2Up~ - 21.l({x.p}. The classical P.B. fur [x IP ] 16 evaluated via

2 2 ax2a 2 ax2a 2

(x .p lei" -_ ~ - - ~ - 2x(2p) -·4xp. Since 10 the classi~l limit (x.p}

ax <lP. 3p .ax '

i 2 ~ '2 2)

• 2xp. we have [x .? ]QH • ip(x,p cl'

Ca) (xi.T(l)] ... 1)(<lr(1)/3P1 .. 1* exp(-lp.!/i<) .. U{(':'U1/){)exp(-ip.!1l0 ..

Pi . ,

- tiT(r), (b) Noting .that <xi> • <a.lx'11a> where, la> is a general state ket.,

take exp r es s Lon <alrt(!)[xi.T(t)lla>" <ajrt<+)!.1TCi)la.> ~ .1.1,- ~ut we'~note that

<alrt(t)(xi,T(i)) 1<1> .. <alrtXiTla> ., <a.lTtTx1Ia>. hence

r

..

<x > - <xi> + 1". and. therefore <~> . 1 ted -' <i> + ! ..

i translated. t~an$ a '

Given [;.T(~')] .. d~1 or ~r(~') - d;', + r(d~')~. and, [;.r(~I)} .. 0 or pT(~r) ,. nd~')p. ~e study <alrt (ih');T(~') 10.>· substituting as we did in problem 30.

-+- t.... + ... +) It.... ... +1

We find <x> 1 d" <air (dx') (dx'+ T(dx')x a>. Nov r (dx') - 1 + iX.dx •

trans ate

,

i

t ...,. ... ...

hence T (d.x') dx I • dx 1 to first order in small quan.tity dX'.

....

Bence <x> translated

... + ... + ++ .. It+ .....

'" dx.' + <x> , Usiag pT(dxl) .. TCdx')p, we Uod. <P>translated - <a lT C4x')pT(dx')x

-+ -+-

Hence <p> 1 ' ed .. <p>.

trans at

Use of <xlla> ..

122

~ ~ exp(1kx' - Xl /2d ), we find by elementary calculation'

d 'IT

-----------------------_ .. __ ..

The odd term of integrand vanishes, and <p_>

I

~ ~ 2 2 ~kd~~

[~k/dTI 1~ exp(-x' Id )dx' = ~

dT[

== Xk.

)o{2 -i-ce 2 .2 . 2 4· 2 2 2' 2 2 2 2

'" - ~ La, exp{-x t« ) [x Id -k . ..: lId - 2ikxld [dx '" i!. /2d + I{ k • again drop-

ping odd terms in integrand.

~

(b) <pIa> == ~ l ~xp[- (p-Mk)2d2/2;{2J• The'expectat1on'value <p> using momen:um

){'1rr>f;

Space wave function is then' +00

<p> = L; <0 I p>p<p.l a>dp

Change variable to q = p-~k. we have <p>

~ i- ,2 2 2 '

(d/~rr)/ (q+~k)exp[-q d I~ Jdq, and

_..,

dropping the odd iritegration contribution

Similarly'

2 +:0 4: 2 . 2 2 2

<p >=/ (d/Krr)p exp[-(p-;{k) d /K ]dp

_<I>

and changing v'ariable to q "" p-fik (hence p2 '" q2 + 2q){k + j(2k2). we have <p2> ~ (d/«n~)f~(q2+2;{kq+ft2k2)exp[_q2d2/~2]dq

- ...

= (d/Kn4:)[;{J;;JZd3 + K/rr ;{2k2JdJ '" K2J2dZ + ;{Zk2.

33. (a) To prove (1) <p'lxla> = i4p,<p'la>, let us note that

<p ' !x!p">

'" I~P' jxlxl~<xllp'''>dx' ,= !X"<:p'lx'><x' Ipll>dx'

!'

• • (. ") Iy"

= [1/(2~y,,)J/dx'x'e-~x • p -p .

, I (' ") IV

(1/(2lTy,,)]ldx'e-l.X • P -P fl,

But 6(p'_p")

hence <p'lxlp">· ... iy,,~p,05(P'-p")' Express now <:p'lxla> = fdp"<p'lxlp"><p"Ia.> = Jdp"ii\tp,O{p'-PIl)<p" 1('1> = 'iK~pt<p' la>.'

Mod~rn Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 17

For (ii~ ~e perform an analogous procedure. ~rite

<Bixin> fdp'<slp'><p'lxla>, = fdP'<Blp'>i~~p.<p'IQ>

.. a .

= fdp'~a(P')iK~ ,t (pi).

. ,.p a

(b) Consider momentum eigemket wich eigenvalue p'. ,TIlen pip'> .. p'!p'>. Now

conside. the ke t !p',;:> '" exp[ix,::/Kl!p'>. Is this;. momentum eigenket and if

yes what is the value? To see this lec's operate vith P. than

pip'.::> = p(exp(ix2/K])!p'> - {exp(ix=/~)p + [Po exp(ix::/~)J}lpl> and [P, exp(ix2/;() l '" -i;(a(exp[ix2/XD/ax ,;. -ii1 (E/IOexp [1x2/ii.) • So pip' ,::>= exp(ix;:/K)p'!p'> + ':exp(ix::/H)/p'> - (p' + ::)exp(ix2/Hl!p'> ~ (pi + Eljp',E>.

Hence /p',;:> is eigenket of ~ with eigenvalue p' +:: and operator exp(ix=/~)

is momentum tranSlation operator and x is the generator of momentum transla-

tions.

" .~

, ..... ,

C:,apter 2

1. Hamiltonian H '" wSz' The Heisenberg a qu a t Lon s of ,motion are:

s (l/iiO(Sx:. HI (w/i\() (Sx' S ) -wS
x_, z Y
S = (l/HD [S • H] = (w/iiO [Sy' 5z) '" +WSx
y y
.
5 '" O.
z
-wS . is
Hence S + is '" + 'iwS == ilJl(5x:+i51) and Sx '" -wS - iwS
x y y x y y x +. t

-iw(S -is) so (5 ±is) ~ (S ±is) e-~w and we have finally S,.(t) :

x y' x y t x y t=o

S (O)CDswt - Sy(O)sinwt, S (t) = S (O)coswt + Sx(O)sinwt, S (t) ~ S (0).

x y y z z

2. The Hamiltonian is obviously not'Hermitian. PhYSically, the particle can go

from state 2 to. state 1 but not from state 1 to state 2. Because H is not Herm-

Lt Lan the time evolution operator is not; unitary. Sinr:e unitar1ty is important

for probability conservation, ve suspect that p;robability' conservation is

violated.

To. illustrate this point, set Hil D H22 = 0 for simplicity. For the time evolution operator we get. as usual, U(t. to=O) .. ~!: O-itH/)(N)N where U is ac-

tually not unitary. But HZ

11>

<2j1> <21 = O. hence Hn = 0 fo~ n > 1.

This means that U(t,to=O) = 1 - (HH12/l{) It> <21 even "for a :::"nite tim.e interval. Now the most general initial state, is Ctll> + e2l2>. At a later time. we

have f1 - (itH12/¥)!1> <21](c1ll> + c2!2» = elll> + c212> - (itH12/~)c211>. Hence the probability'for being faund in 11> is ICl-(itHlZ/~)C212 and the probability for being £pund in 12> is Ic212. But the total probability is

ICtl2 - 2 Im(clc;)H12t/~ + IC212Ri2t2/~2 + !c212 ~ Ic112 + jc212 in general,

and in fact <0, t =0 [o , t =0> ;. <0. t =0; t la. t =0: c>, sq. probability con-

a 0 0 ' 0

servation is violated!

3.

At time Q, A and S ;( .... S.~ ~(Sina a +cosB O'z)'
t '" n "" sinB x + cosS z. ,"" 2: a, and IS
x
The eigenvalue equation at t "" 0 s·~I~> "" ~l~> whet'e !1jJ> "" ( :) leads to" 18

......... - .. -- .. ---..._- ...... ~---~,,----- .......... --~ ... ~ ...... ' .-",

Modern Quantum ~Iechanics - Solutions lq

acOsS + bsinB ,= a. and a normalized eigenstate of form

(1)

The Hamil tonian H ::: -t '. a .. (g i.lB/2) 0 B is that under ccns fde rat Iou ,

. 5 S Z

(a) The time de~endenc.e of ~(r.) is go v er ned by H!\jI> =0 ii;<a/atlljl> or

-iw (A(t») :::

-8 (c)

f A(t») a {'at

, \S(t)

(2) ,

where w = gs1.1BB/2iL This leads to t'WD equations -iwA(t) = a/ac[A(c) J and +iwB(c) ::: alae [B(t) 1. thus ACe) = A(O)e-iwt and BCt) .. B(O)e+iwt• Compare with

(1) above. we have

( ~ ~ iwt )

(l+cosB) 12 Je-

::::

[sin6/2~(1+cosa)~Je+iwt .

'(3)

'We have ~itten A(O) = A and B(O) = B). Hence probability of finding the elec-

* (2 2 (2iwt -21wt] L

tron in Sx = K/Z state is 0lCt1 '" ~ A +B +AB e + e ) .. -:;z(1+sinScas2wt).

(0) < 5 ;:0:::: <I/I(t)15 IIJI(t», .. ' (A*(t), B*(t»~(O l)(A(t»)= ~'(A*(t)B(t:) +

'x x 1 0 B(t)

S*(t)A(t» = (i\/2).sln6cosZwt.

, (c) In case (i) !3-+e, Ct~al = _~ and < Sx ;:0 ... 0; in case (ii) - a~a:l "" ~(l+cos2wt)-

= cos2wt while < s > -+' ~(cos2wt - ~). These answers are eminently sensible x

s mce for 6 ".~ 0 n is along the z-:axis t hence there is equal probability of being

found in 1 Sx'+> (i.e. a~a.l) and in' Is;;:;;-> (i.e. 'a.~a.2) - both being ~. Yet < Sx )0

20 Modere quantum Mechanics - Solutions

.. 0 as the c La s s Lc'a l, ana.logue 'JOuld also be reasonable for An electron pointed

spin-wise 1~ the z-direction. For B • T/2 (1.e. n along OX)~ at twO e~al - 1. and < Sx > ... )ill are entirely .reasonable in terms of initial state. requirements.

4. First .... ork out; x(t) and pet) in the Heisenberg picture. Evidently i "'(l/i}{)(::t, pl/2mJ ... p/m. and P "(l/U<)(p. pl/2m] .. O. So pet) .. p(O) and is independent of time, ..mile x(t) .. x(O) -{- (p(O)/n)t. Hence {x(t),.x(O)] - (t/m)[x(O). p(O)]

ea l"'/.t/m .•

S. {H. x ] .. {p2/2m + voo , x ] - -i.,'rJ..p/m. therefore [[B,x1. x] .. _y.l/m. Take the

expectation value of £IN,x], x ] v.r.t. an energy eigenket ·Ia">, ve have <afflltxxl.;;.">-l<a"lxHxlatl>i-<a"lxxHlll"> .. -v..2/m.

(1)

Use next Hla"> .. E "Ia"> and <a"IH - E .,<a" 1 , (1) becomes

a a.

(2a)

(20)

Noy using closure property, ve have <a"lxRxla">- t t <a"lxRla '><a t Ixla"> .. a

2

- ~, I <a" 'xl a I > I . Equation (2b) becomes

r.l<a"lx!a,>!i (E ,-En) e _2,2m•

a a a

(3)

6.. Let it - -p2/2m + V (stL· and 'W'e compute [~·P. Rl through the folloying steps.

[:t.p, H] .. {;t.p, PZ12m. + V(i)] .. (1/2mH~'p, ;2] + [;.P'. V(~)] - (l/2m) i;j '!

. . .....

[1 (xlIP!, v(st)] + [xi' V(l)]pi) • (112m) 1~j {xi.PjPjlP"1 + 1::1. xi{?i' Vex)]

'": (l/2m) i:j«(Xi,Pj]PjP1 + Pj[Xi,Pj]Pi) + ti Xi(Pi! V(~)J - (112m) i~j CUioijPli :,"'Pj(1'!(o1j)Pi) + t1 xi<-U(3V/C'Ixi) .. 1l< (p2/m -1.9v(i)1. : Hence <[~·P. Hl> ...

!h-Iem Quantuni Mechanics - Solutions 21

= iF( «p/.>/m ". <x.9v(x»1 .. ii( dldt <i.p:> (using Heisenberg equat Lon of motion

for x" is"). The cond t t ion for quantum mechanical analogue o-f the· vir ial theorem

- .. ...

is dicit <x'p> = 0, i.e. the expectation value of X'p for a stationary state is

independent of t.

7 "

2 2 2

To compute «~x) > ~ <x > - <x>

first note that state ket is fixed in the.

H~isenberg·picture, hence <x(t» '" <t=olx(t)!t=O> ~ 0 be~ause <xeO» ~ <p(O» '"

o and x Ct ) = x(O) + (p(O)/.m)t from problem 4 above .• Next we compute [x(t)]2 = [x(0)}2 + (t/~)[x(O)p(O)+p(O}x(O)] + (t2/m2)[p(O)]2.

Because <x(O» = <p(O» ~ 0, hence 6x '" x(O) - <x(O» ~ A(O) while tp = peO) -

<p (0) > ee ' p (0) • From problem 18 (b) of Chapter 1, the minimum uncertainty wave packet e a c Ls f Le s x(O) I t=O> ,. Ap(O) I t"'O_> where A is a purely imaginary number.

It is then evident that c(x(O)p(O) ~ p(O)x(O»> = (l/A)<X(O)x(O» + (l/i*)<xZ(O»

:::: O. So «6X)2>t:::: <x2>t D <t=O!(x(o)2It=>o> + (t2/m2)<t=O!(p(o»Zlt=O> -

c(~x)2>t=O + (t2/m2)«6P)2>t=O :::: c(~x)2>t=O: (~2t2/4m2«6x)2>t=O)' This agrees

with expansion of wave packet calculated using wave mechanf.cs ,

B. (a) H "" la'>6<alt[ + I.a">o<a'i ::: a (~ ~) as is evident s Ince <alIBla'> -

<a'·'IH la"> "" D. while <a'IH[all> - <a"IHla'> "" 6. Now HI~> ~ EI",> and the secu-

lar equation is det [H - E1J .. 0, Le .• E c .to are the energy eigenvalues. The

corresponding eigenkets satisfy (with ! 1jI>" (~) )

(~ ~) (:) ~:to (:) , and IAIZ + [BIZ ~ 1 (normalization).

Obviously ~2 (i) for E'" +6 and ~2 (-i) for E'" -6 are appropriate eigenket so-

lutians,

(b) As a function of time we write IIjI(t)~ .. (~~~n· )- and HIl/J(t» .. 1l1d/dtlljl(t»

22 ~!odern QU<lntum Mechanics - Solutions

reads (~ ~)(~~~~)= i~d/dt (~~~~).or oSet)

i}(dA(t)/d:: and :,!.'t) '" iJ{dB(t)/dt.

+ A2s inwt, B (r ) = B1 COSwt: + B2 sinwt are, the simple harmonic :;,::. ~'.ltions ioli t h w ::::

6/M. It is evident that la'> '" 1~(t=O); ~ (~) h~nce Al .. I, ~. ~ C and from

(coswt)

normalization B2 = 1. A2 '" O. So Iw(t) > = , t. •

Slnw

(c) We need to evaluate Ica"!y(t»12 .... here <alii == (0,1). Evit;!e.:t.cly probability is sin2wt:

(d) The H",miltonian. H '" .s(~ ~) '" Jx for a spin ~ system if 6 '" '1./2. hen>:e 11iJ(t»

= (co. swt. ) ( 1 )

describes the evolution of a spino'!:' in time, initially in state ~

Sl.nwt _

and hence an eigenstate of J z

9. (a) Let the normal ized energy eigenkets be vritten as IE> .. !R::'<R IE> + I L><L IE>.

~o .... HjE>,= EIE> therefore 6(IL><RI + jR><LI)IE> = EIE> or 6(IL><RIE::' + !R><L!E» ::: E(!R:><R!E> + IL><LI£». Due to the linear independence of IL> and IR> , we

have 6<RjE> .. E<Ll£> and 6<LIE> = EeRIE>. ~ow due to normalization condit~on I<RIE>j2 +1<LIE>!2 = 1. we have 62 : E20r 6 '" tE (these define the tiolO level sy s t:em eigenvalues). Take 6= +E, and <R I E> = <L! F.> ::.1/12. than I +E> "" ~2 ( I R> , + IL> ); for 6. =: -E. take <RIE> :: -<L/E> '" 1//2 and I-E> =- ~2(IR> -IL».

(D) Suppose at t=O, Ja>= IR>~Rla>

+ IL><Lla> = la. t=t =0>. o

The evolution of

-iHt/~

state vector la. ~o=O; t> is such that e 10>

From part (a)

J l"

0, t '=0; c> , o

.... e have IR> =: ~2(I+E> + I-E» and IL> =: ~2(I+E> - ,I-E», .therefore e -iH't/'\II!a> =: e -iHt/ii «R! a> I R> +<L I c> I L»

= ~2 <R 1 a>: -iHt/~ (j +E>+I-E» + J2 <L 1 a> e -iHtf1( 1 +E.>-I ~E» • {lJ

But e-iHt/}{I:!:E> ~. e+i6t/~I±E>, herice from (1) we have

~bJern Quantum Mechanics. Solutions 23

I ~iHt/KI ~

a. 't =0; t> ; e a ~

o '

(2)

Rearrange r.h.s. of (2) "back to the {IR>.IL>} basis, we have

la. to~O; t> =«Rla>cos6t/K - 1<Llo>5i06[/")IR> +( <L.I o>cos6t/M. - 1<RI 0>5inot/iO I L>

(3)

(c) Suppose at t=O, la>~ jR> with certainty. than from (3) we have <Lla> = 0

and <Ria> '" 1 (normalization). We need the development of It> as a function of time, th,is corresponds ce [a, to=O; t> = cost. t Iii j R> - isin6t/\{ jL> and <LI a, to"'O; c>

= -isinll.t/\{. The transition ~rObabilitY is 1<11o•to=0;c>]2 = sin2~t/~.

Cd) I~ the SchrBdinger picture the base kets IR> and IL> remain stationary in _ , time and the state vector obeys i~ d/dtla.to=O; t> = H!a,to=O; t>. Write

jo..;::,:;=OO; t > :: 0R(t)IR>'+ (l..L(t)!L> and using H "" 6(IL><Rl+!R><Ll), the SchrCld1nger equation leads to coupled equations iMdoR(t)/dt ~ ll.0L(t) and i~d~(t)/dt '" 6aR(t)

where aRCt) "" <R!aJto~O; t> and ~Ct) = <L!o Ito~O; t>. 801utions of the coupled equati.ons can be obtained by noting that d2/dt2(aR.L(t)]+ (~2/~2)~.L(t) '" 0,

hence

0L(t)=AcoS6t/* +Bsinll.t/~, aR{t)=Ccos6t/~ +DsinAt/~ At t '" 010> .. <R[a>iR> + <L!a>]L> "" aR(O)]R> + ~(O)IL> I hence aRCO) ,.. C ..

(4)

<RIa> aud ~(O) '" A - <Lla>. Next the normalization condition at t. with to=O <a,to=O" t!a t =0' t> - 1 give

I • 0 •

Solution of (5) is poss.ible with 0 '" -i<Llo> and B .. -i<Rl,,>, hence (4) far ~ (t) and ~ (t) gives the coefficients of I t> and, I R> in (3) of (b).

(e) The la~k of Hcrmiticity here is same as in problem 2, ~eplacing H • H1Z!1><2!

24 Harlem Quantum Mechz.;-d.cs - Solutions

by H -= c.IL><p.I. We find again Hn '" 0 for 0>1, ·ar:.d U(t,to"'O) a 1 ., itf::./y.. \L><R!

even fer a finite time interval. The initial state is <~la>!R> + <Lln>tL>; at

a later time t 1o1e have (1 - it6/~.lL><R!)«R!C1>IR>+ <Lla>IL». hence probabilicy for being found in I L> is I <L I c> - (itli/iO <R I c> 12 and ir: I R> is I <R! a> 12. but

I<Llo> - (itM}{)<Rla>12 + t<Rla>12". I<Lla>12 + I<Rla>12. Thus probability cou-

servation is violated.

10. H '" p2/2m + ~ m:/x2 for che one dimens-ional simple harmonic o sc Ll.La to r ,

(a) In toe Heisenberg pic.ture. the operators x and p obey the Heisenberg equatio!ls

of motion: dp/dt ... (l/i¥) [~~ H] ~ -mw2x, dx/dt .. (1/i*) [x~ E] ... p/m.. This im-

plies x = -w2x and p = ~2p with tne initial conditions x(O) ~ Xo and p(O) ~ Po

~(O) D po/m.and pOCO) - __ ~,.,2xo' Th 1 i ( ) ( / )

A ~ e so ut ons are x t ~ xocoswt + '?o mw siowt,

'p(t) = Pocoswt - ~~xosinwt which give H s p2(t)/2m + ~ mw2x2(t) 3'p~/2m + ~ mw2x~,

1. e. H is time independent. Dynamical variables x and pare time-dependent in the Heisenberg picture. At t ... 0, ~he Heisenberg and Schr8dinger pictures

c~Cide. thus ~(O) ::0 xS(O) _~ Xo (with xS(t) • xS(O» and PR(O) u PS(O) ". Po (with PS(t) = ps(O) and we note the time-independence of 'dynamical variables

If

in the Schrodinger picture.

The relationship bet ..... een the Heisenberg and Schr8dinger pictures is x..(t) '" n

eiRtIYlxse-iHt/~ with Xs ~ Xo and PH(t) • ~iHt/~pse-iHt/~ with Ps - Po' Using

(2.3.48) - (2.3.50). one knows x..(t) ... x coswt +(p !tIl'.Il)sinwt. Also.

n 0 0 '

e iHt l'ip oe -iHt!}!. = Po ~ (it/}{) [H. p oj + (121;2 /2 !\{2)~H2 [H, po] )

+ (i3t3/3!~3)[H.(H,(H.poJJl + •.. = p _(t2w2)p -tmw2x + t3mw4xo ~ •••••

o ~ 0 - 0 3!

PaCt) 3 Pocoswt - mwxosinwt.

(b) At t:=O, the general state vectors for both pictures are equal: !a>!{ = [a>s ...

--,_ .. - .. -- ---, .. -.-- ---- -------:.;___:__::--~:-- _._--

Modern guantu.lJI. Mechanics .. Solutions 25

!a.t".,z». e.~.lo.t-O> .. to ~(O)ln>. At trO. lo..t>I1" la,t ... O> .. Encn(O)jo.> i.e.

I iR~NI 1wC·+l-<'

t i.:Il.e .independent I wile Ih t> S ... e - ... a. t-O> ttl cn (0) e - n ~,t! n> and is

t h ua t ~ de p e ndea t • ('We have us edS ... )\w (~) -nich is t i.me -1.o.Q ependen t in

beth p i.e cures) • Wecaa z e cas t I a ,t> S as .!a ,t> S .. to: cDC e) ! a> ".dth en (t) .. cn(O)e-1w(n¥s)t. Als.~ ne;te U(a/3t!a.t>S .. R!a.t>s wh~ch 'is the Sc.hr6dio.ger equa-

.'

t.10o. fc:::- the Schr8d.1nger state vector. Remarks; Cu(t) CaD. be determined in the

t -1w(n+'1)C.·

tiro pictures by (a) cn (t)- <~. o.~ t>S .. ~ (0) e • t.he Sc:.brBdinger p Lc tura

W"ich ba.se k.e.ts In> time independent, and (b) cn(t) ... <n~tlo..t:>H A<n!e-iRt/)\!a.t>e;

(O·) " -iw(n-M)t h R i'" 1 ..... b. b k ,. iB.t/tll

... en.e . , t ee se:ll.·erg. p cture • .;.t . aseets n. t> - e ... II n> which

are ti.me-depende!1t~

11 • For a a ne-climeos 10nal S HO po ten t ia.l B .. P 2 12m + ~ 1l¥.o.I2x2, henc e i ... (17 UI.) [x , H 1 - .. p/m. andp -(l/i\{)[p,R] .. (1/il()(mw2/2)[p~x2] .. (tW2/21)i)(-2:U<x1 .. -!1U2x.Seoce

x + "';; '" 0. and solution is:x(t) ... Ac.o~t + BsilllAt. At. t""-O. x(O) '"' A while xCt)'"

-A;:.;ceswt+Bwcoswt leads to i(O) .. &I and thus p(O) '!" l1li)3·; Thus in the H.eiaenbe.rg

picture x(t) .. X(O)COSIMt + (p(O)/l3!I)einwt.

OUT state vector 111>- e.-lpa/lito> at: t.o.O; for 'C>O ve have in t-he Re.1senberg pl~t~re <;x(t» '" <a!x(t)!a>. We note that

eip (0) a/¥:x (0) e -ip (O)a/lf. ... elp (0) afi([x(O) ,.e-ip(O) all1] + e -ip (0) al'ii.::c: (0) r

.. x(O) + a. whUe e:ip(o)a/lip(O)e-iP(O)afl{ .. p(O). 'lIenee

<x(t» - <allt(t) Ill> - <OIe.1P""/)(:.(t)~-1pafl{{.o>

.. <0 leiP (0) a"'£ x(O)co~t+(p (0) !rw) sinwt 1 e -ipa/¥. I 0>.

Since <o\x(O) \0> '" <ojp(O) \0>·. D. 'lJe obtain :for <x(t» .. accsct ,

12.. Ca) The \lave: function 111 problem 11 take.s fo·rm. <x I I.a> - <x II e -ipal~ 10>. Since: eipa1i£lx I> '" !x'-a>(henee <x'·!e-ipafl{ • <x'-a!>.,w have <x" lu> .. <xl-aIO:;.. Henc~ <r.::: a> "" 1i ~:-x~ exp [-. (x 1':'a) 2/2x~) •

\.

(b) The ground state wave function is

<x flo>

'1j; -~ X' 2

:: 'IT - X axp [- - 2 1

o 2x 1

o

The p robab Ll.Lt y of finding 10.> in the. ground state is

p :: f<alx'><x'lo>dx'=(l/w~xO)L: cxp[-{(x'-a)2+x'2}/2x~] ex' = e-a2/2x~

P Ls time independent and ~"ence does not. change fot t>O.

13. (a) From the given in'formation. W'e can W'!'ite

x "" fl72mw (a+a 7)', P ::: i ~mw/2 (at -a) xjn> = ~/Zmw(;nln-l>+/n+l!n+l» and pin>

(1) = i/~mw/2(/~+1Irt+l>-~ln-l».

Remember also that ata = N where N is number operator and Min> ~ nln> while

<min> =0 •

tnn

= ~/2~Jmw(~o , +In+10 +1)' likewise

m.n-... m,n

Therefore <mlxln>

<ml pi n> = (mwi}2) 12~/mw{ In+16 , +l-rna 1)' Computation of <1:11 (x,p} In> ""

. m,n m,n-

<mlxpln> +- <mjpxln> is obtained by using (1) and <mIx :: 1i'/2tllW(/~<m-ll+/m+l<m+ll)

as well as <m!p::: -ilUmw72(/m+l~m+ll-lJi<m-11) (sign change comes from complex

conjuga;:':'on when passing to dual space]. The, calculation is then straight-

~orwar'd 'leading to <m.i {x.p} In> ""-i){(ln(m+l) 0m+l ,n_l-fm(n+l )om-l.n+l)' For <mlx2In> = <mjxxln>, try evaluate the scalar product <mix and xln>. the answer

is <mlx2In> = (~/2mw){in(n-l)o 2+(2n+1)0 +/(n+1) (n+2) 5 n+2}' Likewise

m.n- m,n . m,

<mlpZln> = <mjppln> and we evaluate the scalar product <ml? and pin>, the

answer Ls <ml p21 n> '" - \!.nlWZ Un(n-l) a 2-(2n+1) 5 +/(n+1) (n+2) 0, n+2}.

m,n- m,n m,

(b) Viri;U theorem states <p'zim> .. <;t·9'V>, hence in one dimenvon we have <pZ/rp ::: <xdv/dx>. For the SHO, H = pZ/2m + Vex) ::: p2/Zm ~ mw2x~ therefore xdV/dx

mw2xZ• No ... <p2/m:> =: !<nlp2In> .. ~W2(2n+l) = ~w(n~) ..... hile <xdV/dx> = IOCIj2<x2>

m .

14.

rnw2;(

=_2Irt!l (20+1) = ~!.IJ(n~). Therefore the viria1 theorem is verified.

L • , '111 ! ., X I /1.1

(a) <x'ip'> ,.. (21T~)-~el.P x i'I o r <p'lx'> :: (2lT\i)-~e-~p (1, hence <p'lxla>

--_ .. _."

Mocern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 27

~ fdx'<p'lxlx'><x'la> ~ Idx' x'<p'!x'><x'!a>. Note that explicitly we have ifD/ap'[(21T'lO-'ie-iP'x'/}{1 = x'<p'Jx':>. Hence <p'lxlll> Dfdx'i!(a/dp,«'p'lx'><x'la»

= i}O/ap I <p ' I a> where 'we assume that:. differentiation and' integration can be

interchanged.

(0) For H ."" p2/2m + ~ mw2x2• the s ca r e vector I "s .satisfies in Schr/jdinger picture

(1)

In the mowentum representation. we have

(2)

and thus

(3)

.,where in (3) we have used identity <p'lxxi >S'" i\!ta/ap' <P'JxJ > '" _~2a2 <pll >$'

- S apl2

For the SHO problem there 1s a complete syuunetrybetween x and p. So the _p2/2p2

energy eigenfunctions in -momentum space mus't, be of the form e 0 Hn (p/po)

srzt: e-x2/2X~, srr+

up to normalization (po : r~mw) in analogy_with Hn(~/~o) (xo ~ ,~/mw)

in position space.

From (2.3.45a). we have x(t) :::> x(O)coswt + (p(O)/TrtIl)sinLtlt. and x(t)x(O) '" [x:(O)]2coswt;:. (p(O)x(O)IIllW)sinwt. Simple harlllOnic osci1.lator (SHO) ground state is f~om. (2.3.30) <x'lo> = (l/Tf!z:x~)exp(- ~(xI/Xo)Zl. xo'" -/Y1/rrtU.- Th~n

C~t) ~ <olx(t)x(O)lo>

. '" Jf<O!x,'><x'j[CxCO»Zcoswc + (p(O)x(O)/mw)sinwtllxlT><x1110> dxdx' '"' f<O\x'><x' IO>xl2coswt dx' + (, inwt/mw)<olp(O)x(O) 10>.

The term <O! p CO)x (0) 10> vanishes (c. f. _problem 13 with m"'Ul!>'Q ,or by explicit evaluation in Ix'> representation). Hence C(t) 1s given by

C(t) = coswt_Z(x'2/Tf~o)exp[-(x:/Xo)2] dx' - (~/2mw)coswt.

* ' ,

b2a.(zilTJ:LJ or <x> - 1:5: hK/!IX.ICa,*b+bfta). 'Without 106s of generality choose. .!l,b to

28 Hodern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

16. (a.) Let linurcombi.n..a.tion be !a>" alO> + hI1>. Then <x> - (a'f:<O!+b:l«ll)x(alo> +b!l» or x ~ a*a<Olx!O> + a*b<O!xj1> + b*aellxIO> + b*b<llxll>. From p:~ble~ *

13 \ole have emjxln> - los 12'/.l~(lDo l+ln+16 0+1)" hence ex> ... a bh'i.IT:IJJ"';-

m,n- m, ' 2

be real and nOrcla11zed such that. a2+b2 - 1. then <x>"_ r'z~7~alf=i{l. Maximum

of ex> then requires dex>/da ... 0 or a • +1/12 and likewise b • +1//2. Bence <x'max - ~/2K/mw aodup. to a common phase la>. ~2(IO>+!l».

(b) The state vector in Schr8dinger representation evolves for t>O as Ia..to; t> '" U(t.to)'Q~to> ~ere U(t.t.o) '" e-iH(t-Co)/){ and H - pl/2m + ~ ~2:t2 1s indzpendent. of tilne. Taking io...o, we have la,t> .. e-1.Ht/){(IO>+ll»//2s b~t: since {In>} are energy eigenkets \lith energy eigenvalues En .. l<w(~. ve vrite la.:~> _ (e-iwt/2!O> + e-3~wt/211»/!2 as the s~ate vector far c>O ~ the SchrSdinger

picture.

(i) l~ tneSchr8d1nger picture

<a ttl x I c:. t> .,. ~(eiwt/2<O I +e3:iJJl.t/2<11 )x(e -:it.Ilt/21 O>+e -3iwt./2,1> )

.. 1:1 «Ojxlo>+e-1kJt<olxll>+ei(llt<ljxIO>+<llxll»'

~ ~ (e-iwt ~/2H/~ + eiwt ~{2~7mw) m ~{2K7~ coswt.

(ii) In the. Rein>auberg picture 11:1> .. <[0>+11»/12, x(t) ... x(O)coswt+ P~)Sinwt, 'hence <x> '" <c:(x(t)la> - ~{coS(a)t<oix(O)lo> + s~t<olp(O)lO> + C05(4t.<olx(o) 11>

, . p •

+ s1!lwt: alp (0) 1'1> + c.oS{JJt<llx(O) 10> + si.ru.Jt IIp(O) 10>, + coswt:<llx(O)! 1> +

. m:ll' 'nil

sinwt ellp(O)'\l>}. The evalu.atio~ of <nlx(D) 1m> and <n!p(O) 1m> have been given IrW

1n problem 13, and give for <c:!x(t)la> - ~(~»a ~ ~'2K/~co~t ~s in (1). (c) We evaluate «6x)2>t in the Schrodinger p'icture for definiteness. nere < (Ax)2> .. <x,2; - <X,.2 t '

~~0dern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 29

- h cas",t 12-.J./ . f (b'

.... 1.1:. < x > = 2 _" 1TI;.,J r r orn , I'

i:",t- ,? I 2 I 2

+e -'ll;x:-jO:.>+<lj:< \1:». Use again the expression for <m\x In> from p r ob Leu

13. i.e. <O!x2jO> = ~/2mw, ~llxZll> = 3~/2rnwt <0Ix211> = <1\x210> = O. Therefore <x2> = <:l,t!;,)la,t> = ~(2f{/m:u) :: ,\(/0:..1, and

«~x)2> = ~(1-cos2wt/2). mw

17. If we- .... ork in the Schr~dinger picture, than <0 I e Lkx I 0> '" _Z ~~ (x) eik.."<1jJo (x) dx

where ¢o'Cx) == (lJla)hIO~ exp[-m.:..Jx2/2\(]. First Yle note f rc:., __ .r ob Lem 13 that <0Ix2Io> = i\!Zm:u, therefore exp[-k2<ol:x2jo>/1] ;; exp[-k2ft/4I1lUl). Now explicitly <oleikxlo>

. !'<:J ikx-1Jli;JX2/~ .., (ax2..rbx+c)-

= (rnLJ/-:dol) z e • dx , this can be eva Luat.ed by noting that. _i.e - - dx

:: /;'/a e\02-4ac)/4a exp[-k2<0!x21o>/2j.

18. (a) Take alA> =: exp(-!·;...12/,2] a exp[Xa'] 10> os exp[-iAI2/2] a'i: (},n/n!)(at)nlo>;

f'FO

but wekooT,J that (at)kln> "" l(n+l)(n+2) .•... (n+k)ln+k> hence (a!)kID> == Ik!!k>

..:. 1 • '-1>..12/2 co n

and a(a')~IO>= ik! alk~ =!kik:lk-l>. Thus aIA>= e n~lX !OlnTln-l> a

n!

= e-l.)..12i2.! .An+1(/n+1/1(0+1)!)ln>. But (n+1)!/(n+1):: !'l.!. hence

n=o

arA> '" e-I>.12/2 r (Xn+1//nT) in> '" >.e-lxI2/2 'f (An/;;-r) In>.

n=o. _ n=o

-IAI2/2 ~at! >..at ~ ~

The r.h.s. of (1) is >..e. e 0> by noting that e 10> =n.l:,o().al)u/n! 10>

_IAI2/z Xat

Hence with IX>=e l e 10>, we have indeed alA~ =~IA> with

(1)

CD n. r-r

r ). In>/tn! n=o

). in general a

complex number. For normalizaCi,on we fi.nd

-lxI2. A*~ Aat _1112 ).*a co n '

=> e <ole' e. 10>= e , <ole n~oA In>/1iiT

2

=> e-IA! <01 [ E (XnllOT)().*a)m/m! In> •

n=o m=o

(2)

but alIlln> '" In(n~1) ••••• (n-1It'l-1)!n-m>. hence (2) contributesQY orthonormality

of states only when n-m == O. i.e.

.. !..

P(>"'.n)

The. caxi.mu= value is oh-

Therefore I A> is a normalized coherent state.

2 '2 , , ' t

(b) «b:) ,. '" <x ,. - <x>'- • X" IitlztrlLl,)(a,+a). tlhere alA> ""I.\.> and <.\lai" Wi <AiA!~

So <x> co <"Ixl).> .. ,l'M2mw«l.{(a+af)!A». rli/2DX1l(l.H."').' and <x>2 a(;{/2..ak.J)().2+ 1.*2+2AA*) .. (~/2mw)(~+A*)2. N~ x2 .. xx .. (~/2mw}(at2+a~aat+atal s (~/2mw)(at2 +a2+2ata+ll. hence <x2> - O!./2l::!r..l)().*2+l.2+21.*A+l] - O{f2!1l£l1)[ (J,*+1.)2+l}. Like. .... ise <p>2 u -(~mw/2)[A*-1.12 and <p~ - (~mw/2)[1-(A*_A)2J, using p m 1~(at-a). lienee «6p)2> - <p2> - <p>2. ~/2, and «6x)2> - ~/2mw ~nd «8x)2>~(6p)2>_ ~2/4.

(c) Write I).>"" e-j>..12/2 1: . C)..°/rnf) In> - 'f f(n)ln>. hence fen) -IAI2/2(>..n)

0"0 n=o ,'" e ..,..., • rn.~

Therefore if (n) 12 - e- t J.12111 2n In! and is a po~sson. dis tribu tion

Nov r(n+l) ... n!,

taL'1ed by ncting that In' f (11) 12 ... - p, i 2 + oln! 1)..121- lnr (n+L) , and ;01n I f (n), 1 2 .. In 1.1.12 - -k1nr Cr.-H) :" ,0. The 13tter equation defines nt:.aX; vhere for larg~ :1,.

Inr(n+l) '" ~~.~ n.

fience nmax or I ).1 2. •

an

1

-ip1./}{

(d) The translation operator e Iwere p is momentum.opr:::rator' and ! just the

displace.mene dist.aaee. can be rew-ritcen as ,

-ip.t/l(' t/TJJlJl/2'1.(af-a) f./ml/2~at-I..Irru./Z~a -~(-t2)(tnwi2\O(at.al

e -e -e e e

-1«_12) (llXIl/2il.)[at .a]1/1JX1l72~a t -!/~/2Rl -1.~~ t/trJ.JJ/2iLaf -1./T!XJJ/2~a

.. e ~ , e e. 1- e .. e e .

Note e-lla~ .. d2~alO> .. 10:>; because a 10> "" O. Hence

2 '

e-ipt./}(lo> .. e.-IAI /2 eAatlo>, .... here A .. .t~72.}{"-

A+B A ~ 4[A~BJ '

CUe have used her~ the identity e - e e e • true for any pair of opera-

tors A and B that commute vitb [A.S]. e.f. R. 3. Clauber, Phys. Rev. 84. 399

(1951).]

M'" IPS ilWb4-A;IA~ .J ,stkJ . .42 $ I M.M, "

J. 3!Jk€

$j #4* .. ,,3 .;4 q •

~odernguaQtum. Mechanics - Solutions 31

19.

t t . '.

'o;"e knoW" th.a,.t ra!"a!] ... 1 and [3+.a_1 ... Ia+,a_l." 0 (since o6cillat.o"[s are 1nde-

Xl t t t. t t t . t. t

. pendeot),then [32:.J+] - "2 (4+8+3+a_ 8_a:_3+4_ ". 8+a_3+a-t:+ a+8. ... 8._&_ ) ..

H2 tt t t t.. t t t HZ t' t t

2" (a+3+£;+3_ ... 8;-3_4+3_ ... 3+&_(a+3+- 1) + a_8_a+,,_ ) .... 2 (3+3+ ... 8 ... a ...... 8+4++ 1

t t HZ t·. t H2. t

+ 4_4_)3+&_ "':2 ([a_,8 ... ] + 1)3+8_ ... 2" (2)a+8 ...... MJ+. Similarly [Jz."...1- ... )(J_ •

.... 2 2· 2 2· "2 .... 2 . 2 .,

4CHi J ... J + J + J ... J J -\(.1 + J is such that (J ,J ] ... J+J J - ~J + J.)

x y z + ... z z . z: .... z. Z .l.

2 3' .

- JzJ+J_+ KJz ... Jz ... [J+J_.Jz] ... [.T+.JzlJ_ + J+(J_,Jzl ~. -}U+J ... + }(J+J_ ... O.

2 . 2 tt )(2 t t HZ ~ t Explic.itly J+3_ - )iJz + Jz '" H 8+3_8_8+ ... 2" (a+3+ -a_a ... ) + 4" (a~a+a+a+ ...

t t tt t t 2. t t i£2 t t )(2 tt

3+a+3 ... 3_ ... a_4_a+;;.+ + 8_&_o5_a) ... )( 3+3+(1+8._8._) ... 2: (a+3+ - a a ) +'4 (8+8+3+3,..

_ t t t t· j{Z t t t )(2 t .. t .

-':3+a+3 ... 3_ +3_a_3_3_) ... 2: 3+3+(1+3_8_ + ~ 3+3+) + i a_a_{l~ a_a_) ...

~2

"2 N(N/2 + 1).

20. In the region x;>O, .• obeys. the same dHferex;.tial equation as tbe. two-s.1ded bar-

monic oscillator; howe.ver" the only acceptable solutions are ·those t.hat vanish

a.t the. orig1n~ The.refore, the. eigenvalues' are those of the ordinary .harmonic· oscUlato~ belonging ... ~b ·",ave functions of odd parity. Now the pari.ty of the

SHOvave fun.ctions a.lteruates nt.h increasi.n.g U'I st3rtingrlth all evell-par1ty

ground 5t.a.te~ Hence.,

.E .. (4a+3)lW/2 • (4n+3)KIkImiZ w:tth nmO,l,Z ..

(a) Cround stat.e energy - 3K.,Ik"f;/2 for 11 .. 0 ..

I 1 2d.· l(r-' 2

(b) From (2.3.31). <x I ··1;> • '1 f2H Xo (x' -xo dx t) (1/1t I'Xo) e.xp [-4 (x ' /7:.0) 1

( ... rhe r e "'0 :: /){/D.!l). Hence tl (2/12 x~/211"1()xlexp[~(x'h::o)2] and. <x2> •

,

i

'2\...

Now,

~ (x) ~ A sin (nvX/L). n _ 1.2.3 •••••.

n n

PIX,t)d. - ',lx,.)!2dx 1 •• he pr~'bilit. that the pa.t'el •••••• ili

the "ave f~nc tio. H., t) ... y be found b. tvee. Yo and x+dx. th.ref or. 1n 0 f or the p.rtiele to be 'x.c tly at x - LIZ for t-O. Hx. 0) _ 4, (x-LIZ) wi>

2 - 1 ~ia normali;ation. Tho o1gou"alue. corresponding to .0 (x) are E. - 02• 2K 212mL 2. 0 • 1,2.3

and by the expansion Postulate ~(x.t) - b Cne-!Ent/~Vn(X).

the tranSition amplitude: c is then given by n

Co - ~ .:lx)tCx,O)dx - £L AoSlnlo.x/L)6('_L/2)dx

(

n-l Hence c. "(-1 )L-A (for n Odd)- and c - a (fo~ e even). l'lterefa.n ('elac,

n . n n

probabilities are p - Ie /2 -_ JA /20 dd. aad (2) reads (USing (3»

n n D.O

t(x.t) - ,tadd A:e~C-1Cn2.2/L2)~t/2~J .i'(.r./L) (-l)~

(

""'ere in tact far normalized to (x) in (1). A. - I27L (inde!'endent of a);

22. Our 'SchrHdinger equatiou i. 1-¥.2/a.'dZ+/WcZ- _ "'I'd+ _ -E9 (1.e. £>0 hence o

-E<O i. bound a!:ate ........ 87). Intenate above equation_f,.". -t to +e, 'Del let

'f; -to 0, 'Ole have

For XFO.

(1)

(2)

Substitute these solut10 •• 10to (1). "e have (_H2/Z~' (-C2'OEIH2, ~ -C2'OE/K2, ~J _ _ Vo .. 0 ot' E. "~m/2K2.

This 1 ••• Un!QU'.a1ue!on. nOeXC!t •• 'oOuad

'ol states 3:

~Iodern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 33

expected.

:. Using the result of problem 22, where 2m.EI;{Z <10 ),2m2/K4 in our notation, we have 'V (x • t=O) = Aexp [ -mAl:It IlK 2 J • The normal iia t ion is then 2A 2 b exp [ -2m).. x fio( 2 J dx ..

• , I

1 or 2A2[X2/2mAJ = 1 and hence A = (mA/~-)~. From (2.5.7) and (2.5.15). we have

~(x.t>O) = _z dx'~(xr.O)K(x.x';t)

= (mA/X2}~(m/2~i~t)~_Z exp[-mAlxrl/~2]exp[i(x-x')2m/2XC]dxl where we have used ~(x'.O) a (mA/~2)~p[-mAlxII/M21.

classically allowed (E > V)

I

;~turning

I .

l

I. (a)

E-- ......

classically f~rbidden (V > E)

The' energy spectrum is continuous.

Aside fro~ normalization, the wave functions

are:-

1 :t (ilK) "/x ,!zm(E-)..x I )dx'

Classically allowed region: ~ e .

(E -AX)

1 -(11M) IX IZm(Axl-E)dx'

classically forbidden region: e

(Ax- E)l1

These expressions are not valid near Xzxl ... E/.\ (classical turning point). The sketch of energy eigenfunction specified by E looks as follow

I I I I

,! /

.. ,

.... ._ .. J

I'·· ---...:..___

I ,

I

I

I

highly 1amped for large x

faster oscillation

Xl - Et>.. (classical turning point)

, , .. -- .. "''O'-''<1111CS - So Lu t i o n s

(b) The most important ch arig e is that the energy spectrum is now d Ls c.r e t e , and

the wave functions are:

III

R· 1-' 1 +(l/iorxl2",CAx--E)dx'

eg10n • --~~~~ e

(>..x-E)

I

II

M'~

V"'i-.lxl

1

Region II:

'" (E-AX)

25. The electron is confined to the interior of a hollow cyli~drical shell. where

using cylindrical coordinates (o,e. z) the boundary conditions are:-

.CPa,a,z) = .(Ob,e,z) = $(o,a. 0) = .(o,9,L) = 0

(a) Inside the cylindrical shell. the Schrl::Jdinger equation in cylindrical coord-

inates

1 ::12 d 2$

+ -;Z-a~2 + ~J .. E\II :0 -IEIIJI (bound states).

Using the method of separation of variables. '" R(p)Q(8)Z(z) and

IjJ{p,9.z)

are the energy eigenfunctions where m is an integer (to preserve single-valued

.) .

K = 10.2 - 2m IE I tv.2 •. and with x = KP. R(x) '" AJ (x) + BN (x) satisfies

em· m

Bessel equa.tion

d2R 1_ dR + . 2 2

~ + (l-m Ix )R = 0

tix'" x dx

Impose next the boundary conditions; IjJ (0, e .0) :: O· implies E=-F, hence Z(z) ~

,

No~ ~ will not vanish at z = L unless 0; is complex.

so wr i t e a .., ik and Z (z) = 2Eisinkz, thenc.e Z (L) = 0 if and only if kL = 1.Tr (i is non zero integer). Since 0;2<0. 1<' is also imaginary. Vanishing of solution

at 0 = 0a and P = Pb leads to

'!odern Quantum :'!echanics - So lutions

':JJ

~nd eliminat!ng AlB W~ h~ve J (Kob)N (~O ) '_ N (Kob)] (Kp ) ~ O. Now a2 ~ _~2

m iI1 a m m a

- _l2~2/L2 = <2 + 2mlEi/~2. theiefore E ; ("2/2me)[K2 + ~2~2/L21 _ if we' write

K ;",_ \:-.r,'. t h e nth root of the transcendental equation Jm(k;:nnPb)Nm{kmnt>a) -

E_ ; O{2/2m~)[k2 + (~:r/L)21 r 2,= 1.2.3 •...•

~ ~.n ron ' m== 0, 1 • 2. . . . ,

(b) In the field free re~ion between D <pcp of cylindrical. shell, we can have a b

-+

case Cd) abov~ with A

~ = 0 and (-iftV)2/2m ~ ~ E~ • or the gauge-invariant

form ('-'iti' :p

0) !_(~Q

2m ~

Vf (With WxA _'" -S

e-+A) 24, - E-" d.' _+ief/Kc~ d -A-

- ~ ~ - ~. ~ - e ~ an ~

. - 0). So to find solution with field coupling terms (APO) , we find the solution

.... +ief/'f,.c -+

~ with A = 0 and then multiply by phase factor e , where fer,t) =

r -+ "1'''' "

f dr'·Aer',t). Let us choose a gauge in which Az = Ap= o. Aa = (G/p)8 with G

a constant, Then d;' = o'd81§ and fC?t) = 18p'd8IG/P' ~ Ga. and ~' z eie6G/~c~.

o .

~o ... G can be determined using, Stoke' s theorem that f (~xA) • d'S .;. f c A. d! 'where C

2 . contour inside ,cylindrical shell. We have Bp 11' a

~' ;;:: eieeBP;/2~Cw = eiBa~

is a closed

= 21\'G. and hence

(1)

= R(p)eiB8Q(6)Z(Z).

It is evident that the solution 1jI' (by symmetry) is of form 1jI'

ise

Except for Q(6) = e Q(a), the forms of R(p) and Z(z) are the same as in part

(a) of problem but ""'ith a different separation constant for Rep). Now Q!I(e) + lll.2Q(8) ;;:: D, hence ~"(8) "_ 2i6~' + (m2_62)~ to O. The separated equation for R

and ~ reads

2'" '"

p d (pdR/dp) + 1 ~ _ 2~B ~ + p2(k2+2mE/j(2) '" O.

R dp ~ de2 Q de

Again as in part (a) we have 1(2 "" ZmeE/)!.2 - k2 .. ZmeE/}(2 - 2,.2-rr2/L2 or writing

k yn

"lU\,.I<;;rn l.{uantUl1! Mechanics _ Solt.:tiol'ls

where kyn is the nth root of transcendental equation

o ~ J (k Pb)N (k p) - N Ck p)J (k 0)

Y y n y yn a .' Y· yn b y yn a

the magnetic field.

..,. ene cgy e igenvalues are influe.nced by Beven ehough ehe e1 ec tron never "touches"

(c) The ground state of B~O case is

~2· 2 2 2

E101 = ~rkOl + ~ /L J

with JoCkOlPb)NoCkOl"a) "".NO.CkOlPb)JO(kOlPa)' while forn ;. a

}(2 . 2 2 2

E .. - [k + ~ /t J

ground 2me yn

where Y is not necessarily an· integer. Rovever if we require the ground state

26.

;C2 a2

• • exp[iS(x,t)/~J and H • i~a./at, where H·~ - 2m 'x2 + Vex). Thus

-(~2/2m)r fK(~;~~)] + V(X}~B i*[~:~~J ~hich simplifies to

- ~[~::~ 1"- (~:;) (~:!Nl + Vex). - iK[~~~ .1.

(1)

energy to be unchanged 1n the presence of B. then

,2 ~ m2 - a2 ~ O. m integer, and

±m • eBp2/ZKc ~p2B ,.. 2~NHc/e.

a a

where N .. :tm,.. O,!1.:!:Z.:!::3 •..•••.

1 2

If 11" ]( + 0 in .0 .... sense, (1) reduces to 2m(as/3,,) + Vex) • _ aSlat and this

1 2

is the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. For Vex) _ 0 we have 2mcaS/3x) • _ as/at and

~ 1 2

seek a solu t10n of separable fer", S (x , t) a· X (x) ... T ( t) • Then 2m( ax/ a x) •

- ,x/at = n(a constant), so TCt) • -at + const and XCx) • 12an x + const. Hence

'(x,t) • exp[1Cl2am x -a')/~J, a plane wave wave function. Our procedure works because S is linearly dependent on x (i.e. a2S/ax2. 0) .

.. ..,. *± 2*

2) e . From (2.4.16). the flux j (x, t) • (-1*/2111)(" v" _ Cv" H J, and the vave function

~lodern Quantum Mechanics - $olutions 37

for a hydrogen atom is ~

In spherical ~oordinates:

+ - 1 a ellrsin8 aql

" -

hence 3" = (mJmrsin6)1'P1-~9' and thus J vanishes for mf. '" O. For mt,. O. j>O

~ . 7" ~

if ~~>O and J<O if mt<O, where J>O means that J h~~ the same direction as e~

(i.e. in the direction of increasing $) while 1<0 means that J has the opposite

28.

direction to e$(i.e. in the direction of decreaSing ~).

1 '" ip'(x"·-x') ip,2(t-t)

From (2. 5.1~) we have K(x", t; x ", t,) = 2r.~ J.. dp 'exp[)t - - 2ro.ii. 0].

rne expo~ent can be written after completion of the sq~are as the following

2 p'(x"-x')2m -~ (p' - (t-to)}

m(x"-x') 2 + 1m(xll-x,)2

= -i(t-CC>[p' - J -

2tN("'- (t-to) 2*(t - co)'

Then with C '" p'-m(x"-x')/(t-to)' d~' '" dp.'·, 'IoIe have

1 - im ( x "-x I ) 2 2

K(xll,t;x',to) = 2r.)( exp ] 2}{(t-t ) ] _!"'dE;exp{-i(t-toH; /2mf{] o

m ~ im(x"-x ') 2

"" {2li~i(t-t )} exp[ 2~(t-t ) 1

o 0

hence we have established (2.5.16). The three dimensional generaLization is

evidently

~

.. -+ (m.} [0 (-+n-+,)2/21/( )"

K(x",t;X'.CO)= 2}{"t.-) exp!.m.x-x Jl.\t-toJ

IT l.l - .... 0

P(Ea,) ~ exp[-BEa,l/Z. hence the ground state energy (c.f. (1.4.6» 1 az

U ~ r E ,peE ,) ~ E, E ,exp[-6E ,]/z = - -z ~ .

a' a a a a a o~

For a particle in a one dimensional box (with periodic boundary condition), dar

L L 1 . 028 2L b -p2e!2m

= ~2 k = ~2 p , hence Z = E, exp[-eE .] -+ (L/211"'6) exp[-~2 [dp -(p) e dp,

"IT lii~ . a· a -- m "-11""

.. (L/n)\) lEI e -p2e/ZmdP. Let u2 ... p28/2m. p a 12m/a u , dp ;z 12m/a du, then Z ,. o

Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

The grot.r!ld sea t e

energy for a particle in a 'one dimension.al "box" is

1 dZ 1 ,~-. -3/2

- Z dB lit - (LJ~)(mJZ1Tt)!.:£ (L/ii),m/21T (4,)6 '" 1/26.

(Note in thermodynamics B '" 11k!, hence ground state energy • kT/2, an entirely reasonable result).

( ) (+11 -1>, ) ,

30. Analogous to 2.5.26 for K x ,t;x ,to' we expect ,

K(p", t;p",tl) .. 1:, <pIT \a '>,<a '!p'>exp[ -1E ,(t-to)/'rl}

o a a

- i' <p" I exp [-iRt/}{~ I a '><a' ! exp[ +ii1to/f(1Ip'>~ <p" • tip' • to>; For a free particle. R .. p2/2m, hence

-+ 14- ""I to2t I I 2' ' I .....

<p" t t pit to> '" ~,<p exp[ -~] a '><a I exp[lp to/2~] P t> •

31.

. (a) The. classical Lagrangian for a SHa is L '" ~ mi2 - ~ ~2x2. The. ~lassical

. 't .2 2 2

action 1s S(t.to) '" f dt (~nIX - ~ tIrJ.l x.). For a finite time interval lit -

o " 2

t -t 1 and 6.x .. x -x 1" we have S(n.n-l) ;; .6c·!{ (x -x )2/At2' .~i(Xn+Xn-l) }

n n- n n- 2 0 ~-l 2

S(n,n-l)

(1)

Where terms of order ~c and (Ax)2At have been neglected.

(b) The transition amplitude obtained from (1) is

(2)

From (2.5.18) .and (2.5.26)

<x t Ix 1', t '1>- K(x ,t;x lot 1)

[l n n- n- Il n n- n-

(3)

- l~.u721Tii(sin(WAt:)ey.p[ {imw/2V-sin(wtot)}{ (x~+X~_l)eos(wAt) - 2xnXo.-l} 1 •.

Up to order (6t)2. we have s1n(w6t) - wAtt (X;~_l)cos(w6t) - 2xnxn_1 ;

'he classical limit of (2) is sWeh that as Mis ~ small '. the Probi<bili ty amplitude

tube bet~eea "1'1 aad "2t2 enClosing.'he claSSical path.

also a term v[

~e S.h~nger o.tion prinCiPle States that 'he ~lloWing condition determines the

tr'nsfor~tiDn func'ion , . ..

e~t21~tl' in ter.s of a given quantum meChanical ta-

in gOing iroQ initial State Xltl to f4na1 state X t

"- 2 2'

Ihe correSPonding FeY_a exp ress ion for ex 2 e 21 "1 t1• r c. E. Finkels tein (1973), P.!44j is

0)

(2)

describe the claSSical limit for (1) (which has a "ell-ordered exponent inStead

On the Other hand. to

of a sum oVer paths), is to cOllsider first the operator Hamilton-Jacobi equation

,~o Modern Quantum Mech.?:nics - Solutions

, (cof. Finkelstein (1973), p.166)

<lw '

H(-;- ..•.• x , .•. ) + alAnt "" O.

C'.X

(3)

, . '.

Since wZ1 sat~sfi~s (3). which arises from a variation of the final state

(and is similar to t.he SchrCldlnge,r picture). it isse-an that the. correspondence.

limit of w~l is S. Le. the proLJ.bility amplitude (1) approaches the consider.2.tion of all possible pat!ls as in the Feynman path integral case (2). Thus in

the classical limit, (1) and (2) become equal provided they both are modulated

by the factor LIN (N ~'total ,number of individual steps in going from xltl 07- xztz)·

33.

l' (i; t)

(........) i (k' r-w c) i ( .... p • r/'K -<LIt) ""e ~ .• • where&_. '"

Take the plane wave, IjJ r. t :::r e =e ' K

-+ .... ...... ""..... .

Also r '" vt, hence cfi (r , t ) '" p. r/;!. -ex!»; Le t us ex.ailUne aga.in

Fig. 2.5 of text. like be.fore the gravity-induced phase change associated .... ith

AB and also with CD are pr esent; , but the effe·cts cancel as we ccrap ar'e the 1;.'\',)'0

alternative paths. Hence we are 'concerned with ·the phase changes a'SD andb~AG' and thei,r' difference. Because we are concerned .... ith a tirne-indepen<!ent potent.ial -+2

the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy is constant, ~.e. p/2m + mgz

'" E. but the difference in height between level BD and level AC implies a slight

....

diffe.renee in p, or 1(. As a result there is an ac:cumulati.on of phase differences

due to 1(' difference. Along ACt A~AC .. PACl'.l/)!. - wil/vAC while along ED MBD '" PBDt1/K - U:l'.l!vBD, whe!'e PAC ~ mvAC' PRD =II1VBD, and [from pZ/2m + mgz ,. const1 f

we have

vBD '" (2/lU)~[tl1V~c/2 - mgl'.2Sino]~.

The accumul.at.Lon of phase diffet:ence is A~I:I !A~BD - 6.~AC!;;: !~.tl(vBD-vAC) I ..

2 .... '

::z (til. gtl2.2k sino) /,ft,2 where PAC" mv AC ... 1/1/:':.

34. (a) To verify (2.6.25). L,e. {TIi,Jlj] == (i){e/c) E:;LjkBk' we note. that TIi" Pi-"'-Ai!c

_ . .,~.~,.;...~ _"_ -- ... - -. --_ .... ,

Modern Quantum. Mechanics _. Solutions 41

-eAj/c] - -e[Pi,Aj!c] - e[At!c,Pjl. FroQ problem 29 of Chapte~ 1 we bdve (Pi' Fe;:)} - ·-i){ilF/dxi• hence setting F; A(~) ... e have [J!1.ITjJ .. (1l<e./c)'1j:C\..

To verify (2.6.27), with H • (p_eA/c)2 + e1. let us note that from. (2.6.22)

-+ .,.. T . 2'" 2 1 .... e .7 ....

ye have dx/dt - (p-eA/c)/m.. hence d x/dt • -(dp/dt - -aA/dt). Now dp/dt.

m c

....

ii[p. HI, hence explicitly dp/dt - -e9, + ~(:~'A) and dA/dt • al/at + ~A.R]

- Q.1 d:;;/dt + aA13t.. Thus dd- (p-4/c) - -e~; + ~(dd~·1.) - ~'A d"i:/dt _ ~ aA or

t etc cat

....

d.. -to :r 1 a A e"" -+ T

d-(P-e..r.../ c) "" -e (vq. + -:;-) + -[ dx/dt x (9XA)].

t Cat C

By sy;xmtetrizadon this' can be

.... -:to 1.... ':t ':t .... '

vritten as dIl/dt • e[~ + tc<dx/dt x is - .IS x dx/dt }] and hence (2.6.27).

(1-) To verify ilp/at + "Q.j - 0 (the continuity equation) with j - ~ I III (V *9",) - III

e 71 ,2 .• j}( *+ :to it e 7\ 12

;c A ~I ... hien can De written as ° - 2im[~ v~ - ~v~ ] - ;c A, • Let us work

ill Coulomb gauge 9·A - a (because of gauge invariance this 1s nolos3 of general-

1ty)~ we find

Voj - 2~[~*(92w)-~(92'*)1 - :CC,*A·V, + V,*·t.).

(1)

This can be simplified further by using the t1me-dependent SchrBdinger equation

i)£a,/3t - {-\\22v2, + le)(l:~)* + ezt22 2V + +~} (2)

. III !tIC 2m. c .

.- 22 • 2* .

. . -i){"4l. lat • ~-L 9" ¥* - !eX(lo~), + eZA • + .",*}

• 2m II1C 2m2t:2

Froill (2) and (3) ve may eliminate V·-V2* - HV2i(1*) in (1). the result is

~ .... * * a'*

9·J - -(~ a~/at + Va~ /at)~ -1t<+ ,,) - -ap/at.

35. Tak.e Ho ,. p2/2m + H:-). then R • (p-eA/c)2/2m. + +(r). Now (p-eA/c.)2 - p2 - {2t°P

(.3)

42 Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutio~$

~p.A] + ~~ A2, and ~e note that t.p can be ~ritten as

c c

40

-..,.. _,._.. -I- B ......

A;p - ~(Bxr).p • ~'(rxp)

gauge 9·1 '"

~

along z - direction.

Thus in Coulomb e2B2 ? 2

+ s=z(x~y ). mc

0, we have

_ eBLz 2mc

H <:: H o

Hence we are led to the correct expression for the interaction of the orbital magnetic moment (e/2~c)t with the magnetic field B. There is also the quadratic Zeeman effect contribution. proportional to B2Cx2+y2) in H which contributes to the "diamagnetic susceptibility1! X appearing as an energy shift = 4 XB2.

(a) (p -eA I e , p -eA leJ .. - ~[p A 1 + ~[p I A ] .. ie\(aA /ax - aA..,/ay) =

x x y y c x' y c. y x c -7 h

36.

ie\(B/c.

Hence (IT • IT I = ieKB/c.

x y .

(b) From the relation tn .rr J "" ieKB/c. it is suggestive that ~e define X. = x y

-cIT len, then [x,n ] c irl. (just like [x,p] .. Un . The Hamiltonian then reads

y x

(1)

~here p is same as IT because A "" O. Compare Eq.(l) ~ith the one-dimensional

z z z

simple harmonic oscillator

2 2 2

HSHO .. P IZm. + IIDJ x /2 (2)

for ~hich we know E = Kw(n~). So evidently the subst1tutio~ w "leal/me, we n

immediately get the energy eigenvalues of (1).

(Note: 11 and X satisfy the same x

r

commutation relations as p and Yo for the harmonic oscillator problem.) We must

still add translational kinetic. energy in the z-direction. The eigenvalues of final answer is Ek ~.~2k2/2m + KleB!(n~),

.n me

Pz' Mk, are continuous. So the

where n = 0.1,2, •••••••

Modern Q\.!antum Mechanics - Solutions 43

Consider the paths CD and <%l • and the tva vave functions *1 and 1/12 where

B '" O. Then 1j12=ei°tPl since by symmetry jtP212=, 1't'1!2 for B = O. If B is turned

on in a region (dr.1'JJ1 above) of length 1, the neutrons 'Will cross the above

length in a time T given by

'I = tIt and p ;:;: rnJ../T .. Vd~.

Therefore T = m~k/~, and is the time in which the external B-field is acting on

the part:'cle.

No'.l Le t us focus our at ten tion on pa th @; the Hamil tonian 1s H = p2/2m for 2a, 2c regions

o

H '""

2 ~ ~

H' '" P 12m + ~n~O'B for 2b region

where ~= -e~/2mc.

Now1+'2b is related to iPZa via the time evolution op~rator -viz: ¢2b =e-iHT/1I\j;2a'

Furt.hermore W2d (wave function at screen via path @) is given by

where t is the time of transit along CD from 2b to 2d.

2 Noting that p 12m =

){2/2mi(2, we find exp'[-iH'T/iiJ c exp[-(,iT/f{){l\2/2m1{2 + gnll;'!}]' Be (and remind that T ~ m~ll*). ye find

z

..;.

Choose next B

a.nd

lP2d

-iH t/}{-i41

: e C e W2a,

(1)

A change in B,

.produces the g wo _m.l)._~B/V\_1 = n z

~ (1 G)h'O

)l2 \ a -1

For path· @we see

r.lJ1d

whe re "ld is "ave func t10n at Screen via pa tn <D and t is the time 0 f t r.OSit

(2)

from Ib to 1d. From Eqs. (1) and (2) We see that ~xima occur for 4 •• 2'(:.e.

no "effect" on phase in region 4a to 2b), therefore

(3)

34t:z bAt 4. Il""l:\!:>i4>tl. 1 41%£ -:.IS IN Ii_. 1.;;.1 6

Chapter J

1. The secular equation is det(~y-~I) = O. where eigenfunction ~ ; (:) satisfies equation [0 -AI1~ = O. Roots' of secular equation are !1, hence [0' -A!J~ ~ 0

y , y

leads to ala = -i(A=+l). ala = +i(A=-I). Also from no~11zation we have JaJ2

2 1 ( ,) 1 (i)

+ 181 '" I, hence Ij+ ~ 72-~ (for ..\=+1) and 1/1 .:::. 72 1 (fot" A=-1). S'ow 5y ...

~~ay and we know that Sy1P+ ... ~/Z $+ (and Sy$_ = -~/2 ~_). The general situa-

tion is rep=esented by an electron in sPin-s~ate (~), hence the probability that electron will be found in ~+ with eigenvalue +K/Z when Sy 1s measured is

2 K 2 1 'z 2 n. 2 *

1<lp)Syl(:»! =;; (7z) l+ia+SI = 8 [1-ZIm(a8 )]

if(~) is normalized.

...... ... -+- -1 >;I A(At)-l • than UUt = A(At)-IA-IAt
2. (a) Write U as U '" (a + 10' .a)(a - ia.a)
0 0
t .... ~ t +
::1 A(AA )-!.A' '" t, 2 2 ZA ::z 1. Likewise U U '" 1. therefore U is unitary.
2
a +al+aZ+a3
a (a,o+iaJ Now since A z::

~al-a2

" t-l t 2 2 2 2

it is evident that det(A ) = l/det(A ) '" 1/(ao+al+aZ+a3). Thus det U ~

t -1 t -1

det[A(A) -] = detA det(A) '" I, therefore U is unimodular ..

(b)

Compare with (3.3.7) and (3.3.10), we rind angle and axis of rotation appropriate for U as co4 OIl (a! - -;',2)/a. sin~ = 2aol-;'[/a. nx '" -~l/I;I ~ ny :: -a/lal. and nz ;: -a3/1~1.

45

40 :"lodern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

3. The coup Led r ep r e sen c a t.Lcn has: Ill> '" 1++>. 110> c ~4(I+-> + 1-+», 11-1>=

I I 1, 1_"4 .... 2 42 42

-->. and 00> a 2~( +->_ -+» "'hile 81.82 ::: (S -51-52)/2. We are interested

. th 'f ti f th . b (e-) (e+) h . h

a.n e sp xn unc on a e system g:i..Ven . y x+ x_ ence a.n t e +- contri-

bucion arising£rom 110> and 100>. So we are interested in the piece of Hamilt-

onian

The eigenvalue equation is OOlf! =0 E1j.r ..... here E satisfies de t [(H)-E.!.1 = O. We have E+ = - ~(AM2)±~[ (A¥h 2+4(eB){/mc/l~ "" - !.t;A¥2(l + 2/cos8), where tane ." 2eB/mc.Al{.

For 1p= (~) • the eigenvalue equation leads to normalized eigenvectors

(8) (.8)

cos- s~n-

W+::: .; for E+ and $_ ." 26, for E_

s1nz -cosZ

(a) In the Case A-+D, eB/mc F 0 we have' 8= '11' /2, hence *+ = (i~:1) for E+ =

t (1//2 )

+eB~/mc and ~_::: =1/12 for E_ : _ eB~/mc.

However the spin function of sys-

- ~

tem is xie )x~e') and 1+->= ~4110> + ~4IOO> which corresponds to *+ with E+

= +eB~/mc as the respective eigenvector and eigenvalue.

(b) In the case eB/mc4{l. Ai-D, we have 8--<-0. Hence IJI+ := (~) f~r E+ :0 +AYt2/4 and ~ .. (~l) for E_ = -3A¥.2/4• Our spin function 1 +-) .... ~'1 (i) is not there-

fore an eigenvector corresponding to.a definite energy eigenvalue. The expect-

4.

ation value can be computed by noting that <+-IHI+-> = ~[<l~IHIIO> + <ooIRllo> + <lO!Hloo>' + <ooIHloo>] = ~[A;\2/4 _ 3A)(2/4] = _ J.cA~2.

Choose a representa.tion in which 52, and S 'ire diagonal, so s2Is,m> a z.

s(s+1)~2Is,m> and S 15.m> = ~ls,m>. Using ladder operations S+ ; S +1S , S ':

z X y

S -is where s+_ls.m> = [s(s+l)-m(m±l)]~;{!s.m±l>. we have for s = 1 (spin 1 par-

x y

Modern Quantum Mechanics -Solutions 47

cide)

5 = x

[ "'t.

)I. 0 1 0 I

2~ 1 0 IJ' 01 0

[~ ~ ~

° a J

[0-1 01

5 ~ ~~ i O-i •

y Z a i 0

s ~ -J{r~ ~ ~J ' 'S2"" 2'rf' z I~ 0-1

..

= S (54 - X2I) :; O. (b) S (5 , + 'l!.I) (5 - \it) =

z- z x x x

(a) S (5 + 'l!.I) (S - 'li.I)

z z z

S (S2 - XZI) = (~3/212)x[Ol x x

where (01 is the null matrix.- This r e sul t is phy-

sically reasonable. since same quantity 15 considered with quantization axis

S instead of S •

x z

5.

-? i ,+' .....

The Heisenberg equation DE motion is dK/dt :: ~(H. KI. Substitute K and H into

.-+ . i 2 - •• 2 2 .......... .....

this equation. we have ZaK/dt => K[K1/l1+"'-Z!I2+K3/I3' Klel+K2e2+K3e3]' Take the

first comp-onent for definiteness, .... e have 2dK1/dt = ~[K~/I'2+K;/I3. K1l. Now

2 'l{, -} r} v.-

[KZ/IZ' Kll = i. KZ,[KZ.KI) • and since ,K1,KZ := -i~K3 (true for a rotating

2

system of axis). we have O~;/I2,KIJ = 1\(/IZ {K2,K3} and similarly [K;!I). K1] :=

-V./I {K K} S dK /d = 12 - 1J {K K} d - 11 1 'K /.-1 - I1..:..It(K K}

1." 3 '1' 3' 0 1 t 21Z1) 2' 3 • an SJ.ID ar y d 2.,.1: - 21311 3"1'

The correspondencel~mit gives KiKj = KjKi and K1 = Iiwi, hence dKi/dt =

= Ii~i' Then the Heisenberg equation of motion for K. reduces to !i~i ~ (Ij-Ik)wjwk (i.j,k cyclic permutation of 1,2.3) - that is the Euler's equation of motion.

6. If U ~epresents the rotation with Euler ang~es a,S,y, then U must satisfy for infinitesimal rotation angle dc.f. (3.1.7) II (E:)U (c ) - U -(f:)U (~) = U (0:2)

x y y ~ z

-1.

and represent

1G3E:

=- e •

infinitesimal rotation~ around x,y~z axes respectively.· In terms of Euler ang-

noaern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

Ie rotation Ux(E) = e-iG3rr/2eiG2EeiG3w/2, etc. where ve have used (3.3.19). Ex-

d iG1E iG2£ d iG)C2 1

pan e • e • an e in terms, of Tay or series in U (£)U (£)-U (£)U (e)

x y y x

2 2

= U (c ) - 1,: and compare coefficients of £: on both sides. z

iG3• and similarly (G2.G3] # iGI and [G),GIl = iG2, i.e. [Gi,GjJ = iEijkGko

..p

Compare with commutation relatior.s for J.·viz:- (Ji,Jj] = i~eijk!k' ve find

Gi ,; J 1/)('

7.

A d _1 -.1."

i are unrotate operators ~hile U -~U are operators under rotation. So U AKU

= t ~iAt is the connecting equation between unrotated operators and operators

8.

, -

obtaioed ~fter rotation. The operators after rotation are just c0mbinations of

_1

unrotated operators. From U ~~U '" Ak ... t ~.tAi' we obtain for matrix elements

<mIA_lln>'" E lL q<mjA In>. But this is the same as vec toz transformation v: ,.. E

-1<. t -1<_ i K i

~iVi' hence <ml~ln> transforms like a vector.

We are given that V(~)(a.B,Y) is such that (c.f. (~.3.21)

( -i(a+y) /2 S -i(a-y) 12 . B)

(k) e cosZ -e . SJ.ni .

V 2 (a.8,Y)"

iCo.-y) /2 . a - i(~+Y) /2 B e SJ.ni ,e cos 2

(1)

but this is equivalent to (c.f. (3.2.45»

oo 1(-1>- '") "_ (cos~ - in:z:sine~

V (;;9) c e- 2 a.n a _

(-in +n ) a1n-2 x y

e )-

(-in -n )sin-

x y 2

e a

cosz + ~nzsin2

(2)

A (~) -

corresponding to rotation about some axis n through an angle e', Since V (r,;9)

is equivalent to V(~) (o:,B.y)", we have Tr V(ls,) (il;9) ... Tr v<~) (0.,8.-';). thence 2COS~ = 2co~~cos(a~) or e • 2cos-l[cos~cos(aiY)]

9. (a) A general state in spin ~ system can be Yritten as (suitably normalized)

I a 10./21 a -10./2,

a> III cosZe +> + sinie ->.

Then <Sx> ;:: <a I S)a> ~ ~<a I (1+><-1 + 1-><+1) I a>

;{ B -ia/2 I e ia/2 I] I

= -{cos-e .. <- +sin-e <+ a>

22" 2

Tr p "" 1 or (a+d) ~ 1.

(4)

Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 49

i'I 8 -ia/2 . e -ia/2 . B +io/2 B +io/2J j{. B

:. z(cosz:e 51nie + sl.0Ze cosie = 2s~n COSt.l. Similarly <Sz> =

~cosa and <S ~ = - ~2sinBsina. If we know <$ >. <$ > we can obtain Sand COSa.

2 y x z

However to know the .sign of s i.nc and hence specify a we need to know sign

«5 » but not y

(b) Let p "" (:

the magnitude of <$ >.

b y

d ) be the density matrix

in the S basis.

Z

The ensemble average

of an operator 0 is [0] "" Tr[pO]. We have

(5 ] }{ Tr[(~ ~)(~ ~)] i{
= 2: "" 2(b+c)
x
[S J ;i Tr{(~ b)(O-i) i~
". - d i 0 ] .. -(b-c)
y 2 2
(5 ] "" !i Trf(a b)(l 0)] )'i
"" -(a-d)
z 2 " c d 0-1 2 (1)

(2)

(3)

and the no~alization condition is:

Solving Eqs. (1)-(4), we obtain for elements of the density matrix

a=~[l+[S 1/~]. bc.~[{S 1-i[5 11. c= 5[[5 J+i[S 11. d= ~[1-2[S ]/~J.

z n x y n x y z

10. (a) Take (3.4.8) at time t, the density operator p(c) reads

pet) "" ~ w.lo..,t><o.,tl.

~ 1 ~ 1

In the Schr8dinger picture lai,t> : U(t,t )la .• t >~ then

o ~ 0

p{:::) '" Li w.U(t,t ) [c .• t ><a .• t !UtCt.t ) :; U(t,t )(Liw.la •• t ><ai.t !)x

~ 0 ~ a 100 a 1 ~ a 0

ut(t,t ) = U(t.t )p(t )Ut(t.t )

coo a

2 (b) o (z )

= D(c.t )pet )Ut(t,t )U(t,t )p(t )Uf(t,t ) = Uet,t )p2(t )Ut(t.t ).

a 0 00· 0 0 0 a 0

have a pure ensemble (hence idempotent (3.4.13» I.e. ,,2(t ) == pCt ).

a 0

= U(t,t }p(t )Ut(t.t ) = pet) and is also idempotent hence we have a

o 0 0

At. t=O we

2 But p (r)

pure ensemble at time t also.

11. From (3.4.9) we see that the det1sity matrix of an ensetnble of spin 1 systems has

form

MO<1er-n (Jl.Iantum ctec.hanics - Solutions

(2. b C.),

P = b* d e

\ c* e* f

where a,d,f are real, and b.~.e complex. i.e. 9 independent variables. However

since Tr p '" 1 (3 .. 4.11), '-''2 have a+d+f

1. and only 8 independent parameters

are needed to characterize the density matrix. If we knov [s 1, (S J. !S J, !"Ie

x y z

2 need five more independen~ quan t Lz Le s , They are: [S S 1. [S s 1, [S S 1> r S I;

x y' y z z x' x

[S2]. Note [5 S J, [S S J, and r s S J may not be real, hovevs r the. extra coad t-

yx y y z z x

t Lcris (over 3) are not independent of [SxJ• [SyJ. (Sz~.

Physically [5 ] ere

X,Y,z

related to measurement of 'dipole mo~ents of the particles and to completely char-

acterize a spin 1 system we need-the five compQnents of the quadrupole tenso~.

12. Rotated state is given by

URU ,m""j> = (1 - iJyelK - (J~h2 /2f{2 ...... ) lj .m.:j>.

Probability amplitude for being found in the original state is

2

We must evaluate the expectation values of J • J , where from J = (J -J )/2i

Y Y Y +-

ve have.J2 = _~(J2+J2_J J -J J J. Evidently <J >. . = 0 and from (3.5.39) and'

y + - + - - + Y J,m=J

(3.5.40) «J )2>. . = !t<j.m=jlJ J Ij,m=j>'= 2j"~2/4 •. So

Y J,m=J + -

<j,m=jIURlj,m~j> = 1 (2j~2/2~24)£2 + .

Hence probability to order f;2 '= !<j,m=j!URlj,m=j>l2 = 1 - !"ijf;2.

Alternative solution:

Calculate the probabilit~ amplitude for being found in states other than j=m. !'

To order e;{in the amplitude) only m=j-l state gets populated. UR!j,m=j> =

!j,m'='j> - (i/'n)Jyc!j,m=j> :: !j,m.:j> ,- ¥'1II\j,m=j-l>. The probability fer being

. 2 I (f

found in the original state is reduced by c j Z. So the answer or our pro-

·blem) is 1

13. Looking at the matrix elements we have

Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 51

(G1,Gjltn" !CiGtGjGiltn II (Gt)lm(Cj)mn - (Gj)lm(Gt)mn.

2 2

= - ~ [£itm£jmn - £jimeimn1 = - ~ (tmi1£mnj- emjtemnil

?

- - ~-[(OinCij - °1jOtn) - (OjnOt1 - 0jiCtn))

= ~2(OuOjn - ~inOjl) ~ j\2£kij'ktn =- i'ri.eijkC-iitek1.rl)

== i){E:. "k(Gl.)"

1.) ...... n ,

t

U GiU ~here U is made up of the eigenvectors

o f G3• The explicit form of G3 (from (CiJ jk = -i~(;ijk .... he re- j and kare the rov and column indices) is

(0 -1 0) G3 = i)l. \1 0 0

000

and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are obtained from' equation (G3-AI)?;\.: 0

.... here A is a root of -lc3-AII = O. The eigenvalues and orthonormal eigenvectors

can be

readily seen to be

~=O. to iD ; ~.

..

r ..

+

1 = 2~

Hence

1 (1

U = 2~ 0

-1

i 0)

o 12 •

i 0

ar;_G this unit.ary matrix transforms the Cartesian space representation of the angular momentum operator, Le. t. to ies sphericai basis representation. j (j""l).

Since the G's and JIS satisfy the s~ Lie algebra (and they both form. a group),

they are just different representations of the rotation group (irreducible).

Therefore, the J's and G's are related via a rotation in the group space. This

finite rotation can be obtained from compounding the infinitesimal rotation

52 Hcde~n quantum Hech~nics - Solutions

14.

-i(J J -J J ) "Y)'X.

+ iJ J -1J J + J2 • J2 + J2

y x x y y ~ y

SO J2 - J2 + J+J - ~J •

2: - :t

(b) we have on the one hand <jmIJ+,J_ljt:l> • Ic_l2, Yhile using J+J __ 32_J2+*J ? Z

ve have' on the other hand <jm!J+J_ljm>- (j(j+l)_m2+myY;,2. So le_12,. {j (j+l) _

2 2 0 2

m + m];( - (j+m) (j-tlri-l)K. and by convention \Ie choose c: ... lej+m) C-m+l) j(.

Thus J_!jm> - c_lj.m-l> (or J_lfIjm .. c_'lIj,m-l)'

15.

-+

Rewrite the 'W2Ive function in sp-he-rical c.oo-rdinates, i.e. ~(x) .. rf(r) (sinecoa, +

sine3in~'+ 3cos9).

) iofl -H +i~

(a Since Y 11 «sin6e • Y 1-1 ... sin6e • YIO c cose. while e- .. cos~ :!: 1sio.'t

it: is evident that v(;) is an eigenfunction of t2 vi.th 1. - 1.

(b) 'Let us vrite

(it; -1+)

sine· e 2-: + 3c.osG

(1)

The 0 probability for the partic.leto be found in the m1..' - 0 state is 9/(9+1+1) .. 9/11 - Po' Similarly the probabilities for particle to be: found in the state =t - 1 is !l - 1/11, and in Bta~e mL • -1 is P-1 .. l/lla

(e) The proc~dure for finding the potential V(r) is firs.t to substitute the ~&Ve.

function into Schr8d1nger e<tuation, and then' use the fact that the \move function. is the eigenfunct:ion of t} a Nov our 't(~) - R(r)F(S.+). while the Schr8dinger equation is (_1l2/2m.)V2" + VCr) ... E",." In spbe.rica1 coordinates

2 1 3 2.!:J!. i 1 a e4.! 1 a 2~ ,

V VB i2ar(r dr' + r2[S'i'neae(sin ae) ,+ S:!.n2@d~Z 1

~ [ ~ 1_(r23R) _ 1(1+1)R(r)lF(e.~)

or ar ar rZ

(2)

where in (2) we have used (346a28) and the fact thatF(e •• ) is a linear cotObin.a.-

tion of spherical harmonics (c.f .. (1)).. Henee for 1'. 1. the SchrBdinger equat-

_~2 1 a 23R 2

ion leads to -(-2 -(r -) - -ZR} + V(r)R(r)- ER(r). and therefore

2m r 3r 3r r . ,

......... ' .. ~ ~ . - .. ~' ,-,,~ , -~ ~." ~

Hodern Quantum Mechanics - Soluti.ons S3

2 2 )(2 1 d2

VCr) = E - ~ /mr + 2m rR dr2(rR) (3)

-i

From Lt "" Lx.!iLy' 'We have Lx .. ~(L++L_) and Ly = 2"(L+-L_), and from (3.5.39)

1

and (3.5.40) L;tlt.lll> :: c:,_(.t,Ill)lt.m=l> "" 'r\(.2.(.2.+1)-m(ro:!:l»)'1lt,m.!1>. Hence <Lx> =<

<lml4_(L++L )Ilm> '" 0 since <tmltm'> :: 6 ,. Similarly <L :> ;: <.trolL Itm> :. O.

, - mm y y

Now <L;> ;: <f.ml1(CL+L+ + L+L_ + L_L+ + L_ L_) !.2.m>. But L+L_I !l.m> :: c_(1.,m) x

c+(i.m-l)ltlll> and L_L+I.2.m> = c+(t.m)c_(t,m+l)!f.m> while <hdL+L+I.tm>;; <.tmJL_L_I.l!.m> "" 0 since states of different m values are orthogonal. Hence <L2;:-

X

= ~<imIL+L_ + L_L+!im> '" 1t£c_.(t,m)c+(t,m-l) + c+(£.,m)c_(1.m+l)} .. ~{c:(t.m.) +

2 ';{2. )\2 2 2

c+O .. ,m)} = 4{2.(2.+l)-m(m-l)+1(f.+l)-m(tn+l)} ;; 2 {1(1+1)-m}. Similarly <Ly> ""

<tmi-~(L+L+ - L+L_ - L_L+ + L_L_) I £.m>: l«tml (L+L_+L_L+) 11m> = <L;> •

Semicla.ssical· interpretation: We know that t219..m> .. ;\21(1+1) 11m> , L 2llm> z

2 2 . "2 2 2 2,

= ~ III 11m>. Thus <L > - l(t+l)~ and <L > = m-~2. In the classical corresz

+2 2 2 2 .

pondence L '"' L. + L + L expresses itself in terms of the corresponding expecx y z

tation values, and indeed <L2> + <L2> + <L2> = ~H2(t(1+1)-m2) + ~~2(t(t+l)_m2)

x y z

2 2 2-).2

+ m ~ = i(t+l)~ = <L >.

Since (c.f. (3.6.13» L:t = -i){e!1$[::l:i;s - cotOi~]~ and we may deduce as usual.

U/2 r-;-;:

that y~.~(e,~) ~ e' ~S1ne from L+Y~,~(6.$) ~ O.

(a)

Apply L to Yl1 gives

- ~.'1

-i", a i4>/2 rrrrz: iiJI/2 rrrrz:

Y~J_~(e.9) ~ e [-ias(e ~s1n6) .-·cot9(i/Z)e (sinS]

:: e-i./2(sinaJ-~cose .

(b) From 0 ~ (-i~e - cotO~t)y~._~(e.$). we solve for Y~._~(e.~) in form y~.~ ~ e-i$/2f(8) and obtain solution for fee) from defining differential equation.

-iip/2 . -~

The answer is Y~._~ a: e (sine).

Comparing (a) and (b) lead to contradictory results.. So this is another ar-

gumant; against half integer t for orbital. angular IOOmenr-.Jm.

<j',m'Ix. Ij.m> ·{(j+m)(j-m)~jl j 1«5, •

- • - = ,m

(3)

54 ~od~~ ~Jant~rn: Hech4nics - Solutions

18. From (3.6.46) and (3.6.48). we have

V(R)j.£..,tc> .. E, !l,m:'><1,mIIV(R)!i:,m '> - E, t?.,m'>D(~)(R)

m ~ mm

vhere m ~ 0 initially. So the probability for finding 11.m'> is given ,by (c.!. (3.6.51»

lV~;! «l""O,S'rBO) 12 .. 1 (4v/2!+l)~'(eD8,~.O) \2.

From table for ~-2 (c.f. Appendix A), the probabilities are

22 322 3 I;,

m' ... O: !(~cos B-1) ;, mt ... :'!:!: 2eos Ssin 8; m'-±2: asin S.

It is easy to check that the totalprobab1l1ty (summed over mt) is unity as

expected.

19.

t t

Here K+ = a+8_,and.K_. a+a_" Rence in the Sch~~nger scheme

K+ln.pn_> ... i(u++l) (0_+1) In~r+l.n_+l>. K_lny.n_>" 'n+n_IU+-l.n_-l:... (1) Let j .. (n++n_)/Z and m'" (n+-n_)/2. and 10+"0_> + ,Ij,m>. Than (I)ean be 1'1!-

T:rritten as

i.e. K+, K_ are the. raising and lowering_ opf!rators for j '" (!'t++n_)/2 ,..mere o++tl_ corresponds to the total nUI!l:ber of spin ~ "particles". The nOtrVl!:.nishing

matrix elements of i:::!: are from. (2)

<j' ,m' IK+I j ~m> "'/(j+m+l) (j-m+l)6 j 1 .j+I !Sm',m •

20. We are t.o add angular mo~nta': jl - 1.and j2 - 1 to form :J. .. 2.1,0 states. Express all nine {j,m} elgenkets in terms of ljlj2.~m2~' The simplest statec are jl-l,m1"±1; j2"'1.m2-!'1. i.e. Ij-2~m-2>" 1++> and like'lo7ise Ij-2.m-2> .. \->. Using the ladder operator method we have J _ ... J1._ EB J 2- and (setting;\· 1 for convenience) fr01!1 (3.5.40) J_lj ,m> - I(j+m) (j-m+l) Ij .m-I>. So J_!jl:!2,moo2' oz l4!j-2.tI?l> - (J1_ GJ .12_) !jl .. l,j2-1; ~-1.m2.1> - 1210+> + 12{+o>. Le.

t;a.i MPUt£1k=

£. & t4iJbu:. .. 40 a ,.. 4 lab U •

-. i'

~odern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 55

Ij~2,m~1' 0 h(I(}!-' + I-Kl') .. No~ J_ij02,m~1' ~ I6lj-2,moO' 0 (J1_ (l) J2_) ,

[ h (10+' + 1 +0') I 0 1-+' + 2! 00' + 1+-,. Hence 1 j02 ,moQ' 0 ~"( 1-+'+2100'+1+-,). ,Also J_i j=2, m=Q>=: 161 j~2 ,m==-1>= h,( 121-0>+212/ 0->+212)-0>+121 0-». therefore Ij~2.m=-1> = i~(I-o>+[o-».

For the j=1 states, let us recognize that Ill> :: alO+> +bl+O> With normalizat ion 1 a 12+ I b 12 c 1. Since <21111 > ~ 0 by orthogonality, we have a+b cO. Choosing out" phase convention to be,real, we can write Ill> '" ~4.([+O> -10+». Applying next J c J1_ Ell J2_ to the two sides respectively, we have 110> ~ hq.._,

1-+» and similarly 11-1> = i~(:o-> - 1-0».

Finally we may write !j;O.m=O> = al+-·> + sloo> + yl-+>, determine a.B.y by nor-....alization lul2 + !e12 + hl2 == 1 and Orthogonality to jj=l,m=O> and jj=2,m=-O>. ChOOSing I), B, r to be real we have I j:==0 ,111=0> :: ~~ (1-1-> _ /00> + 1-+».

21. (a) Recall (3.5.50) and 0.5.51) that d~~3(B) = <jm!VCa=:o.s.Y=O)!jrnl;:. '" <J'mJ/OCR)IJ·m'> where VtCR)J OCR) ","1:, O(l~*(R)T(~) (from (3.l0.22a» and recogni-

Z q oq q ,

zing that Jz is a first rank tensor with q~O. i.e. T61~ we have

~<jm' J07 (R)J OCR) Ijm'>:: ~ ~j .<jru' lot (R)J !jm><jml-O(R) [jmf>

n Z n m--J z

j . 12

== mE_j[<jm!V(R)[jm'> ID. (1)

Similarly since only q' == 0 contributes. We have

I 0

= (4~/2t+l)1 y (e==S,~=O)m' = m'cosS. o

(2)

So finally from (1) and (2), we have i .ld(j)(B)/2m ~ m'coss.

m=-J 1'lIIIl'

Check for j=~, we have from (3.5.52) d(~)

(3)

[ S""

= COS!

sin- 2

For m' => l:i case,

rn Quantum Mechanics - Solutio~s

l.h.s.

28, 2e

of (3) = ~cos 2 + (-~)sin 2 ~ 4cosB ~ r.h.s: of (3); for m'

8 2 2S

of (3) "" !.s(-sin2) ... (-~)cos 2: "" -4cosB "" r.h.s. of (3).

-~ case,

l.h.s.

(b) From (3.5,51). with ~=l. we note d~~~(B) = <jm'le-iBJyljrn>. Now

~ . m21 d (j ) (Q) ! 2 = ~ 2., I - i SJ I" > . 1 i BJ· I' ,

~ p - m--~-J"m <Jm e y)tn <)00, e Y Jm >

OO=-J m'm .

jr <' 'I -i8J J21" > • I iSJ '1"' <' I I -i8J J2 i8J I" I>

m=>-j Jm: e Y z Jm <Jm e Y Jm >= Jm e y ze Y Jm .

= <jm'IV(R)J;Vt(R)!jm'> (4)

If ~e eX,amine t~e rotational properties of J2 using the spherical (ir~educi, z

ble) tensor language, we find J2 = !(J2 + y(2» ,~ere 12 is a scalar under rota-

z 3 0

tion and y~2) is a spherical tensor of rank 2. Hence V(R)J;vt(R) = ~jZ +

~V(R)y~2)V~R) with V(L\.)y~2)Vt(R) ::: k'~_2D~~~Y~~). Therefore (4) can be

1 .m2!d(j)(S)!2::: 1"("+1) + 1 ~ <J'm'IV(2)y(Z)I '00'>

00=-) ootm 3J J 3 k'=-2 k'o k' J •

recast as

(5)

In the last term on r.h.s. of (5). only k'=O contributes and V(2) 00

22.

(from (3.6.53), (3.5.50), and (3.5.51). Hence Lm2\d(j)C6)12 = !'('+1) + !<"m'!V(2)(332_j2)I'm'>

O1=-J m'm3J J 3 J 00 zJ·

;; j (~+1)Sin26 + 01;2 (3cos26 - 1)

have Jy = 2i(J+ - J_). then using (3.5.4~) we derive easily

<joo' I Jy I jm> "" ~i[ {j (j+l)-m(m+l) <jm '1 j .m+l>-/j (j+l)-m(m-l) <jm' I j • m-l> J

(a) We

and therefore for m and ro' =-·+1,0.-1 and j=l one finds th~ matrix form for <j:l,m'IJ !j=l.m> as clepict,ed in (3.5.54).

y

(b) Unlike the j=~ case. for j=l and in fact ve have (J /~)2m+l = y

• [J(j=1)12 is independent of 1 and J(j=l).

on.LY Y _ _ y.

(J I~) and (J 1~)2n = (J 1~)2 where m and n are

y y y

-iJ sIll

the exponential e y in power series

+ E (-iJ allO 2m+l

m=o~ ,

positive integers. By expansion of

,

e-iJ elK = [ <-iJy8/H)2n

Y . n=o ' (2.n) !

_- .. _------

a 3M z.

pta.

D* .

, . _g h a

j i

at -

23.

24.

~~dern Quantum Mechanics

Solutions

57

.. ( "8)2n( l)n ( )2oH· III

_ 1 +. (J 1'/1.)2 r + . - -i(J ''It) t +6 . (-1) .

'I 0-1 (2n) ! y m·o (2m+l) :

(J ,,,,)l(l-eosS) - 1(J 1~)s1ua •

y y

- 1 -

(c) Insert the 3x3 matrix form for Jy from (a). i.e. (3.5.54). into the exponent131 of part (b) above. ve fin~

1+cos8 -sin6/fi. .
dU-1)(8) -iJ ~/}i 1.
- .. e. y - sinB/1i . c'osa
l-cosS sine/Ii 1+Cos8
2 2 . ;.

vhich 1s (3.5.57). '

j ~j ,<(1282 T 21 jlDIl.><j~ I J; IJ'm tn' ><j 'm'n' 10.1£11 Y1>· <0.282""2! j"~ I Ct1 f\ y 1> (1)

where TJe note that <jmnIJ;lj'm'n" .. n20nnt&jj'&IlQ" tr.e loh.s. o·f (1) 1s

therefore j.£.n n2vJwn(Q262Y2)vJm:(Ct161Yl)··

(Solution courtesy of Professor Thomas Fulton)

We viI! represent states as in (3.7.15).

For S - 0: , - -2~[1+-> - I-+>J.

tot.

(a) Since B Dlakes no measurement there are equal probabll1t1e,8 for measuring 51: to be ~/2 and -~/2. The same is true for slx because there 1s no preferred

spatial direction.

(b) New B measures s2% - ~/2. (1) Since S1% + 82% • O. A must obtain -~/2. No~ 82% r~s p1c~ed the second piece of • vhich is ~ -1-+>. therefore a1zi-I-+>} •

~i-+>. (ll) Since we kno-", .that B1zY - (-l!/2)tr we cannot. predict Su because [sl ~s. ] .p 0 and li-> - !2~r Ii+> - li->] ..as itL .(3.9.3) yield equal probabilities

x J.%

for sl.x ,.. "11/2 and --;"/2.
25. C~OSB -125106 l-cos:)(Vi1») (V(ll"
L s : d (l)V(l) • ~ nsin6 . 2cosS -l:2s108 Vel) • vhl) (1)
q qq 1 q' 0 ~l)'
l-cosa /i'sinS - ,1+c.osi3 v~l) v_ • of (V ,V .V ), we have x y z

-cosS V 112 - iV lIZ - sinS

x y

-sinB V + cosS V

x z

(2)

nUUC'Ln i.,Iuantum Mechanics - Solutions

Rewrite r.h.s. 'in terms

cosj3 V 112 - iV 112 + sioB V 1/2

x y z

+ Vi = V cosS + V sinS,

x x z

-(V'+iV')//2 - ~21~COSB V

x y x

-iv 112 - sinB V 1/2 V(l) I =: VI ::: -sinS V + V cosB. and v(l) t =(V'-iV')/12 ==

y Z • 0 z x z x y

V' ::: V • V + Vi = V cosS - V sinS.

Y Y z z z x

But a rotation through a~gle B about y-axis le.cis to V x

Therefore vii)! =

~osB V /12 - iV lIZ + sinB.V 112. Thus- the r.h.s. of (2) indeed gives r.h.s. of

x Y .z

(1) ..... hich, are just the expectations from the transformation properties of V x,y,z

under rotations about the y-axis.

26. (a) Let us take (3.10.27) where X(k1) and Z (k2) are in-educible spherica.l tensors

ql ' q2

of rank kl and k2 respectively. Then r(k)= L [<klk2;QlQ2Iklk2;kq>x(kl)ZCk2)

q ql Q2' ql q2

hence

is a spherical (irreducible) tensor of rank k. For our problem kl = kZ Z k _ 1,

T(l).., (1) (1) (1)
1: [<ll;Qlq2111;lq>U V
q ql q2 ql qz
From (1) • we have ,.(1)", 11 (_u(l)v(l) + u(1)y(1» T(l) "" !: (u(l)v(l)_ U(l)V(l) )
--1 2~ -10 o -1 • 0 2~ 1 -1 -1 1 In terms of U and. V , ~e have

x·,y.z x.,y,z

T(l) = 4[-(U -iU )V + (V -iV )U J
-1 x y z x y z
- ~
T(l) \[0 v - U V ] (2)
0 2 x y y :x: T1(1) = ~[-(U +iU)V + (V +iV )U J ' x y z . x y z

(b) For kl = k2 ::: I., k "",2. we have

T(2)= E r <11iQlQ211l;2q>u(1)v(1)

Q Ql,Q2 . Ql q2

(3 )

.'.~-+.-, ~.- -"-~.- __ ...... _, ...... "'_'_J •• ~ ............ ...;- • ."!!~ ... ,._~,_ ............ _.---.. __ ,~,

~odern ~antum Mechanics - Solutions 59

FroM (3). we find 'I~i) .. u2i)v~~). T2i) .. ~(?~i)v~l) + u~l)v:;» '. T~2) • ~~(U~i)vii) +' 2U~1)v;1) + U~~)V2~». ri2) .. ~(Ul~)v~l) + u~l)v~~». and r?)

- u(l)v(l) In terms of U aad V ,~e have

~l +1 • x,y.% X.Y,z

T(2). ~(U -1U )(V -iV ). r(2) .. ~[(U -iU)V + U (V -1V )1.

-2 x y x y -1 x y % Z X Y

T(2) .. __ l __ (_(U -iU )(V +1V ) + 4DzV - (U +1U )(V -tv }J.

o 2/6 x y x y ;:; x Y x 'J

(4)

TI(2) .. -l.:1(U +iU)V + U (V +iV)l. Tz(2)". 1j_(U +iu )(V +iV )

x yz 4X y X Y X Y

(Remark: (3) is similar to Y~ -mimz <11imlIll2111j2m>~1~2 for spherical har&ouies)

21. (a) According to (3.10.31). the Wigner-Eckart: theorem for our probl~ where R (1) .. .;. .k,(xtiy) and R (1) .. :t fol'U three components of a spherical teDsor of

!l 2."71 0

rank 1, reads

'( (1'

'(1) <~l;~qltl;l'm'><n'l'l R ',II,n1>

<u' l' 111 I I R In t OIl> .. - - - - - - - (1)

• I q" t

121. + 1

where the "double barn matrix element is. indepelldent of : and a I. Since. <1l;lil<t111j1'ml> .. 0 unless lD,' • m+q and it "IL2:11,L, .therefore <n" • .t!m'IR~l)1

Furt.hermore. s1.l:c:e "We are dealing vith a central. force potent1.a.l. the ·In~t.z> are eigenstatea of Up (parity opera.tor). Rence tJp!ll~1.,m> - (-lr!.ln,.t.m.> and U-1R(l)U .. _R(1) and we have -<n'.L'.m'IR(l)ln,I..m>. (-1)lC-1)1.'<o.'.L'.m'l

p p

a(l)lu,l,m> or 1+L' - odd. Co:bioe with Clebsch-Gordan selection rule frOM (1).

'We bave

<n'.L"m'IR~l)ln.t.m> 3 O. unless ='cm+q. £' - It~ll.

Again, from (1). ve have

<n' • ! r ,"lD.J ' I R ~ ~) I tl·~ 1, ml'> sa < 11 j 111, •• H 1 f..l it r'll.j , >

<0.' .1.' m' !R<,lJI'1l. • m > <11:mZ,Oltl;1'm..':>

• 'J 2 a .~. 2 . ~~

(2)

(.3)

vhere 1',m' satisfy selection rule (2).

(b) :J'"e nev wave function 11(;) .. Ro! (r)~(e. ~) .' We have

(l) ! '" m '~_ (2) ....J'i'! 3-.

<o.'.1.'.m' I. R_,_ ..... n , z , -:> .. fR (r) v ",I..) CR 'I.,., (r) Y----(" J')d

' -r- ._, • ... u ' £ ' 'I. I. t· 0 ~ 'II _! 1 J 0 ! ""n! .- t ". v X

(4)

<n'.L'.m'la(1)jn.1.m>u (4"13)~ L'/(2L71)3/4~(21i+l)<11;OOltl;!IO>

q n· n , .I. •

-3 (21.+1)1;: .

<tl.,omqIL'm'> - r ' L<f.loOO/.2.1o!10><tl.mq!£"m':> t..( ~t (5)

n'llol.'t(21.'+1)-:I: ~ • • • r... _

'vhe~e q - ~lpO. We have thus the selection rule

<n'.tf•Ill'/R(l)/n.L.m> ..

. q ,

vhic:h is identical to pa.rt (a).

(6)

Also note from (5) ~e have atoQce the ratio

28.

equality (3) where £~ u It!l!, ~' - m1!1. mZ' +2 15 ~~2-l2!2ixy)

(a) Frotr:l(3.10.17). Y:2 "" (32r) . 2 •

r

the ...... e, .. 1 r2T}~ .tv-2 ~'l+2) 2

-... ry - "15 " ... 2 - 2 r.

a spherical (irreducible) tensor of rank 2.

- 2 2

First bote that yO .. (~\:I:! (3% -!' ). hence

2 16'!i' r2

Q - e <c oj ,j I '16.15 r 2y; I a ,j • J ~ • Nov apply the 1l1gne~ECJpr< th.c~"",. (J.1O. 31) •

we have

Q = er16~)~<j2;jOlj2;jj><ajllrly21Iaj>

' 5 lij + 1

(1)

2 2 8~ ~

By the same to ken use of ~-E theorem on e<c ,J ,m' I (x -y ) I.,j .",.. j > _ • (IT) x

'I 2( 2 -2) I

<a,j,m r Yi + Y2 a,j.m-j> leads to

~ .. _-- --- .. ~-

. . - ~. _, .....

29.

Modern guantu= Hechan1c$ - Solutlon3 61

. 2

.. e/81f!15(2j+l)<j2;j-Z\j2;jmt><aj! Ir Yzllaj_>.

Substitu~e <oj Ilr~2I1aj> of (1) ·!.uto (2), we hav';

(3)

- 2 2 2 2

In expression for Hi I we recognize that S .. ~'(S+ + S + {S .S }) and S -

nt. x - + - y

_~(S2 + 52 _ (S+,5 }) with 5+ - S ~1S_ ~d {S+.S } .. 2(52 - 52). Tnus

+ - - _ x y - z

2 -. 2 72 2 2 2

R .. eq _ {(a-4I) ~(S2 + 52 '+ 2(5'2 _ 52)} +(3-:~) {2 rs -5::)-5+-5)

into 2s(s-1»){2 rxz 0 + - z W 0 4

+(d2~) S2]

az2 0 Z

Using v2¢ = 0, we can write

Hi = A(3SZ - 52) + 8(5+2 + 52)

nt. z -.

(1)

eQ 2 / z eQ {( 2 I 2 ( 2 . 2

were A D 4s(s-1)j{2(a·-+ dZ )0 and :& .. 8s(s-1)}{Z _3 + ax )0 -. a ~ray )o)·

From (1) we note that Hint. acts on states of definite la~m> where 5-3/2 as fo110ws:-

2 ~2 . 2 2 I

Hint.lom>" A(lSz - ~ ) Ism> + 8(5+ + S_)Ism>

2 2 1 S Al\ 2 . ,......._---.--=---.--=-=--:---~=---~~ 2

D 3Am}( I sm>- 4"" I sm>+ B/(s-m) (s+m+l) (s-lIl-l) (a+ra+2) " I s,ur+Z>

+ B/(s+m.)(s-(m.-l»(s+m-l) (s-(m-2}) }(21s~m-2>.

(2)

In the m.tI1' a 3/2.-1/2 and m.m' .• 1/2. -3/2 basis" the aatri.:.t Hint. using (2) can be written in block form as

-. .

3A 21315 a 0

H~' • ZIJB -3A 0 0 ){2.

~nt.

o 0 -3A ZI:3B

o 0

(3)

(4)

u~agonalizing each block of (3). we see that ~!~2 ~ ±(12B2 + 9A2)~ ~2 are the energy eigenvalues f.or both m.m' ~ 3/2. -1/2 and m.m' .. 1/2. ,-3/2 basis. The

eigenstates (~;) can be determined for each 2xZ matrix block as

Hence for m,m' .. 3/2. -1/2 we have oZ/al = (A+-3A)/2I3s. while for m.m' =

1/2 we have a/a1·= (A±+3A)/2.I3B. The energy eigenstates are

(5".J)

2I3BI3/2,3/2> + (A_! -3A) 13/2.-1/2~ 2I3BI3/2,-3/2> + (A! + 3A) 13/2.+1/2>.

(Sa)

Note from (Sa) and (Sb). there Exists a t .... o-fold degeneracy. namely there exist:;

two states corresponding to each value of A(A+ and A_).

,

i j' "_ ~ ..

\. .... - __." i

'\' \,1 o'

J '

. ~ / \

.

V'JV, .~. ,,:~ " .

)

\ C"J~' '1' .... -

\0

, .... '_"

.... ,

',-,

If 1)0.1 , •. Z _,iSS ii_$2i! , ,££S & 1 kZ12

,_ ;£5i£;:- £ £JAm L SCi "--~-Z:--'[-- -_., '

: :La.

Chapter 4

1. (a) Assume these ,particles can be distinguished., in other .... ords they are nonidentical particles. Since the three particles d~ not interact. so the Hamilt-

~2+2 ~2~i ~2~2

onian operator H = - 2;:1 - 2;(2 - ~3 + V(l.2,3) canb~separated. thus the

energy for particle 1 i? E(i) - (~2~2/2~2)j~l' n~j where nij are non-zero integers. and the total energy for the system is E = E(1\E(2)+E(3) :; 'ri.2rr~ ~ niJ·•

2mL i .j:;l

state is the state .... ith all indices nij = 1. and

~2w2 2 l2~2rr2

Toe second lowest energy will be EZ ,a 2mLZ(2 +t+·······+1) = 2mLt

8 times

~2'!T2 ? ,?2

The third lo .... est energy .... ill be E3:; 2mLZ(2-T- +1+ •..•. +1) ~

1 times

Obviously the lowest energy

9",2 2 E=~

1 2mL2•

Degeneracy. For energy El• we have only ~ spatial wave function, because all indices are 1. For energy E2, we have 9 spatial wave funct Lons , The reason is that the nine indices (nij) vith i.j ~ 1,2,3 a~e such that each ,of them has an equal chance to be 2, while ot~ers equal to 1. So the number of distinct

possibilities is(9_i~!1! • 9. Evidently for

9'

we have {9-2)!2! .. 36 distinct

E3 23 a 8 spin wave functions, they

spatial .... ave functions. In addit,lon we have

are 1+++>.I+t->.I+-+>.I+-->.I-i+>.I-+->.I--+>. and 1--->. So in short El has degeneracy lx~ • 8, E2 has degeneracy 9x8 - 72, while E3 has degeneracy 36x8 •

288.

(b) For'four non-identical spin-~ particles system. we have total energy E~2T.2 4 32th

2mL2 1~l' j~l nij vhe~e i refe'rs to the i particle while j refers to the three

dimensional space index. Therefore El- lZ~2w2/2mL2 - 6~2~2/mL2 and again the'

degeneracy for spatial wave function 1s 1. EZ• 15~2~2/2mL2 and the number of

12! 2 2 2

distinct spatial wave function is "'(""1~2';;;-~1~)""!""'1""! .. 12'. E3 - 9~ w 1m!. • and the num-

63

64 Hod~rn Quantu~ Mechanics -- Solutions

12 :

ber of distinct s?a.t1al \.lave function is (l2-2)!2! .. 66. At the same ti::ne. .... e

have 24 .. 16 spin wave funct:ions 1++++>.1+++->.1++-+>.1++-->. etc. Hence the

three lo .... est energy levels have degeneracies 16xl'- 16 for El, 16x12 _ 192 for E2• and 16x66 ~ 1056 for £3'

2. (a) T~(~) ... H~~)~ Td,Tdl!(~) - V(rld!+d) and rdTdIH~) • T~r~(rld') -~C-k!+d!). so [Td',Td'.]"'(x) ,-0. "Since ~(~) is arbitrary, we have' rTd',T<ttl - O. They

commute.

(b) V (,;" ~) does not commute with 0 (0.' • ¢I'). This is easily seen by taldng the

case n - x. 0.' - Y .... here .... e know the rotation around x-axis does not commute

""ieh the ro~a1:i.on around y-axis.

• + + +.~

(c) T! and n do not commute. n~(x) - ~(-x) while Tdn~(x) - *(-XTa). On the other

hand, Tdi'(~) - v(;:+d) while nrd'¥(~) - ",(-~-d,> ;. Tci rr*(~). Hence (n,rd] .;. O.

(d) nV(a •• )*(~) - n,(~') - (I(_~f) where ~f • tJ(ii,.)~. On the other hand. O(fi.,)n~(~) - V(nt.)~(-~) - v(-1'). So rrV(6.')'(;) - V(d,.)n~(~) and since *(~)

is arbitrary. ve have [n.V(n.,)} - O. They commute.

3. {A,B} - AB+BA - O. Suppose it 1s possible. than there exist.s lat.b'> such that

-+ AB!a'.b';JI .. -BAla:b'>' or .'b' - -bla' .. thua.1 • 0 or b',- O. :If A - P and B"

.. } -1+ ...

n. than {p,n • 0 [because n pn· -pl. hence momentum eigenstate is usually'

...

not parity eigensrate. except for pI - a state.

4.

(1)

(a) For 1=0, only j~~ (upper sign) is possible, so from (1) we have

(2)

Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 65

(b)

( .

coss

Sina.1O)

(3)

Compare with yj,m 1.

in (1). we see that m must be ~,1 .must be 1. Take lO\ler s Lgn in (1)" hence j ..

Yj~'1,IJ~ -r 1=1

Conclusion: Apart from -r, "Ie get y{.m with t changed (1=0 + 1=1) and j.m both unchanged from Eqo(2)o

(e) The result obtained in (b) is ~ot surprising:.S.~ is scalar (spherical ten-

sor of rank 0) under- totation, hence by Wigner-Eckart theorem it cannot change j and mo But under space inversion S·~ is odd. SO S.~ t:onnects even parity

\lith odd parity, and we note 1=0 and 1=1 have opposite parity.

5. Sop 1s invariant under rotations but change s sign under parity. So it is pseudo-

scalar.

. 3 ....

NO\l since 6 (x) is scalar, so the ent~re V is pseudo scalar. This means

V must connect t odd with 1 even but cannot change j,m. From elementary first

order perturbation theory we have

C _ <n I .2. r , j , •. m· ! V In. i, j • m>·

n'l'j'm' Enij - En1t'j'

(1)

\lhere I' = !!l (note however I~il ~2 is impossible' because j must remain the same) and m\"'lll. j".j. I't is DlOre difficult to evaluate <n',,,"',j',m'IVln • .t,j,m>. The wave function for In.l,j,~ can be written as R yj.~~,m vhere yj,m is

nLj 1 .t

"

the spin angular ,function and for low Z, Rni.j has no depeo.aence on j. So

<n' .2.' • j , am' I V In, 2.,j , m> becomes

~~-, -- - •• --~ !It" '" ,AI" ... ---- - ... ......_ ... ----

66

Hodern Quantum'Mechan,ics

Solutions

>S Afd3x Rn't'J,(r)y{:"'t'!!.s.m (6(3)(;)S.(-ilf~)+(-i';{~)'-;6(3)(~)}

J" .. ~ +1.: m

• R (r)Y "'-'"

n!j' 1

(2)

-l-

where (-iWV) in the second term of (2) operates on the wave function to th~ left.

Because of o(3)(~) function, the matrix ele.:nent vanish02s unless Rn't'j,(r) or

Rntj(r) is finite at th~ origin.

This, impl1-E!s t hat '.J'emust have $1 or P. for

os' ~

6.

!n,t,j.m> to-obce In non-vanishing contributions to Cn'2,'j'm' •

.... ... ,-+ -+ I'd.

(a) The plane wave is $(~,t') _ ei(p.x/V--wt). hence 1jI*(i,-t) =r e-i\..p.x ,_+.ut) =

-f>o -+

ei(-P.x!i<-wt) and is a plane wave with momentum direction reversed (-p).

... -1y/2 (1) , +i,,{/2 (0)

(b) From (3.2..52) with C1=Y. we have x+(n) .. t;os_a/2 e 0 +sinS/2 e 1 .

*. ... 1'(/2 (1) -iy/2 (0\ * a iY_ (0 -1\/'\

x+(n) = cosB/2 e a + sinS/2 e 1)' thus -ioZx+(n)=cosi e 2 1 0)\0)

S -.!l_ (0 -1)(0) 8 iy (0) a -iy (-1)

, +SinZe 2 1 0 1 .. cosie 2 -1 +s1nie 2 _ »r But by explicit c a.Lcu La t fon

is the two component eigenspinor·with the spin direction reversed.

7. (a) is proved in (4.4.59) and (4.4.60) of text. (b) The wave function of a p l.aae

.... -).

~ave e1p.x/¥ can be complex without ........

-ip. x/l'<

it is degenerate with e •

8. In momentum space la> • fd3p' !p,>.<p, 10.> where <p'la> .. H;'.) is the ,momentum

violating time reversal ihvariance, because

/ ,_

space '.J'ave function for la>. Apply': e to la> (using sip'') 111 I_pI» OJ'a have

1 3 I -+ 4- I " -Ie 3 I.... .... I *

o a> = fd p' -p'><p' a> = fd p' p'><-p' a>

vhere <-p'la>* is the momentum space wave function for ala>. So ~*(-p') is the

momentum space wave funetion for the' time reversed state.

+,-+,

.... 1 ~ 3 -ip.x

Alternat.ive method: The momentum space wave function <I>(p')=l(Z;"i[)J2 fd x'e )!. V.

1 3 +, +, /\l

h 1 j d b - .A.*(+') [ ]- fd3x'eiP..x "·I.*(+xl). Ti

w en camp ex eon ugate t ecomes y P ... _ (2-n}{) _ 2 't' nus

.-._.._. . .--.....- •• '_4 .-' ~~. _.--,-- • --

momentum space 'Ja,ve function for' tia:le: rev~t'sed state ~It(_p') is

......

... *(_-.) • _1_ 3/2 (fd3x' e-1p'.x·/}("*(~')1 . Y P (2ftK) ,

vhere v* (x ") is th'e position space wave function for time reversed .3t.~te.

9. . (a.) Let e be 'ehe time reversal operator than I a> • DCR) [j .m> behaves under time reversal as follows: ~Ia> - aV(R)IJ.m> - ee-1J.ne/Klj.m> - ee-ij.ne/~a-lelj.m>.

But eje-1• -J and a changes 1 -+ -1. therefore [e.D(R)] ."0 and we ha.ve ala>eO(R)!j.m>. O(R)elj,ttI>. (-l)OV(R)IJ.-m> ..... here -We have used (4.4.78).

(b) Consider the matrix element <j,';"m'!eD(R)lj.m> - <j.-m'l (;"l)tnv(R) Ij.-m> - (-l)mv~~._IIl(R). But <j._mtl aV(R)lj.m> - t .. <j.-ml le!J.t.1">·<j,IIl"!V(R) iJ.m>*" _

m" .. (j ) m' * (j" "\

E" (-1) 6 , "V It (R) - (-1) D I J (R) also (remember S contains complex

III -m ,-Ill m ,m m .m

conjugation). Comparir,g the two expressions for <j .-m'ISV(R)!j ,m>, .... e have

(-1)mv(j~ (R)· (_l)m'D*~j) (R) or (_l)m-m'V{j~ (R) - V*O) (R).

-111 I -m . m • III -Ill I -m· m t ,111

, .

(e) From part (a) we have aiel> - (-l)mo(R)lj.~> -v(R)alj.m>.

hence V(R)elj.=> - O(R)(12m)lj.-m> or elj,m> _ 12mlj._m>.

2

but i • (-i),

Remarks: The above discussion 1s for j integer. For j.~ iilteger we need to pro-

ceed vith (4.4.73) vith 1'l • +1 to obtain consistency with (4.4 •. 72.a.).

.... -+ + +. [ I

10. ' Under time reversal p .... -P, r .... e , then H,e - 0 imt'11es invariance. under time.

reversal., Let l~> be an energy ~1genke~, than Hela>-aa!a>-ES!a>. Hence ala> 1s also an eigenkec of H with same energy as Ia>. By the non degenerate assumption

've have ala> - I~> - ei61a> where 6 1s

.... 1:1"1..... -16 1 ..... 1 15 I~I -

-<a ~ a> ~ -e <a Lla>e - -<a ~ a~.

"7 ..... 1 ?- -l .....

real. Consider <al~la> - <a e~a la> u

Hence <altla>- O.

If ~a(~) - <~Ia> Dl:m <~ll.m><llmla> ~ l;m <nll.m> F1m(r) 31;m Ftm(r)~(e.~) • .. here \ole have used (3.6.22) and (3.6.23), than <iIGla> - eH<~la> and thus ~ (-;) a

-16 ..... J'" -16 *( ..... ) -10 *( )[vm( »)* -1c5[ * ()( ) 1Il..-1D. ( )1

• e <xla> - e ~a X - e 1;. FLm r l. a,t =e : .t.~IIlF1.111 r -1 If. a"

_ ..... _- ....... VL ... .:::.

,. e-lO {,":n F:._m(r)(-lrnr~(-et.)l. where we have.usecl (3.6.38). Compare the coefficient of Y~(6a~) for the two forms of ~a(;) we have

F 'r) ~ <_l)me-iop* (r)

.t,m' 1.-m

11.

Hamil tonian. for a spin-one sys tem is H - AS 2 + S (52 - S2). This Pt'ob!em is simi-

: x· y

lar to problem 29 in Chapter 3. Here

s - (~/rz)(~ ~ ~)\. s • (VtII2)(~-~-~) . s .)( .(~ g g)', .

x 0 lOY 0 i 0 Z 0 0-1

(A 0 B \

R - 1:(2 0·0 0)

BOA

The "b Lock ' matrix that needs t.o be diagon.ali%ed is of form.(~ !). Hence eigenvalues of Hare E -, ~2(A±B). 0 and the eigenvectors are" (in" terms ofl 8,8%» ~~<ll,l> + 11.-1». ~~(11.1> - (1.-1». and (1.0>.

,

Assume that H 1s Hermitian than A,S are real, and sas-1 • ASS a-1es a-1 +"

% %

-1 . -1 -"! -L ( )2 r( )2 ( 2]

B[aS e as e - GS a -sse J. A -s +!~ -s - -S) • R. Hence Ramilt-

x x y y . % x y

onian is invariant under time revl'!'t"sal. Since from (4.4.78) a!j,m> ... (-l)D:llj.-'Cl>.

, 1 1

~e h~ve er~~(ll.1> + 11.-1»] - - 2~(ll.1> + 11.-1». e[~(ll,1> - 11.-1»] _

+ h<ll. 1> - (1,-1», aI1,0>.- 11.0> •

. '

--_

Chapter 5

1. (a) The first order correction is via (5.1.J7) just <OlbxjO> = O. The second

order ~orreccion for the ertergy 1s (c.f. (5.1.42) and (5.1.43» ~E = - r l<nloxlo>[2 = _b2r/<nlxIO>12

n E -E n E -2 •

nOn 0

lNhere E ;;: (n+~) Xt.J. Now <n I x I 0> n

-b2/2"",2io the energy shift. and the energy of the ground state becomes E(o)

2 -2

~){w + ~E z ~;(w - b /ZfIXJJ •

(b) The Schr~dinger equation for this problem 1s -XZ d2rv (~lD',1/x2 -+- bx)1Ir "" E(o)ljI.

2m dx2 +

Le t x I = x+b/1IlW 2• than above equaC'ion can be reduced to

2 2 .

-X d w +L- .. 2(,2 (b/mw2) 2]." = E(o).r.

2m dx 72. "2WW x - 't' 'Y

that is

_~2 d2• + ~2x,2. = (E(O) + t2/2mW2) •.

2m dxr2 .

This is again a SHO equation with E I ... E: (0) + 02 I 2 !lUI,) 2 • For low~st energy value E' = "K';' •. hence E (0) = "Kw - b 2/2",,2 Which is exactly the Same as the percurba-

tion result in (a).

2. From (5.1.44) ~ith k ++ n and A +g. we have

(0) r In(o)>v

I k> = / k >+ g .Jk () -nk- + .....••.•

nr E 0 _ E(o) .

k n

Using orthonormality of Ik(o» and In(o» we have

<k/k> a 1 + g2 4'~kI2( ) 2 + •...•.•.. nflt(~O)_EnO )

and

j<klk(O»12 /<k/k>J2

2 IV 12 J

• 1 - g tk~k ( ) 2 + O{g ) n~ (E(O)_E 0 )

k n

69,

---"'.' ,-#--...1:. ••

n

3. Solvi~g the Schrodicger equation for the unperturbed system, we can easily find

the energy eigenfunctions. They a~e ~G - IZ/LI27L sin~x/L ainwy/L ~ i:iO~~3i~

(1) 2 ~x 2wy (2) 2 2".-.( TV

for ground state, and '(Je1 - Ls~in---c- or (lel - LS~ sin--t for the first

IV

1 ':

I ~ j"

t ~

~ ",

L--

..,.-.~ ......... -........ _-

~rc1ted state. So obviously the zeroth order eigenfunction for

2 '!fx."lY

is just ~G .., Lg~~ • ~ith the first order energy shift of

L .L 4 '2 2 / 2 (0) 2

~ b 1.2 ).xysin wx/L sin TI1 L dxcly - ~L • i.e. ~E • )'L /4.

the ground state

For the first

excited state, there is deger.eracy and the pertllrbati.on in general lift the de-

geoeracy. 'We need to constl0lct the perturbation mAt-rix by evaluating <~ (11) \ vll ~ (11) > .. 4"2 rL rt. xysinZtrx/L sin221rY IL dxdy • ~l. 2

e' e L 0 '0

get a • .1/12.. b • ±l/ficmd

Hence energy shifts for the first excited state are

(n'4+45/81)).1.2 2 (w4-45/81HL2

: 0.281L and ;

4y4 4.4

'<lith corresponding zeroth order energy eigenfunctions

Hodern quantum Mechanics - Solutions 71

respec.tively.

4.

(a) State vector ror energy eigenstate 1s characterized by In tU >, and wave funcx y

tion is given by ~ (x)~~_(y) vbere ~ (x) and V (y) are individually wave func-

nx 7 D.x n., ..

tions for one dimensional SHO. The energy for the isotropic tvo d~ensional os-

cillator is just the sum of the energies for one dimensional oscillators, i.e.

E = ~ (n +~. + n +~). The three lowe.st-lying 5 ta.tes are (n J 0. ) .. (0 10) ,

nxn.y x Y,' x y

(1,0), (0.1) with energies ~, 2~t 2~, respectively. Evidently the first ex-

cited states are doubly degenerate.

(b) The first order energy shift is clearly zero for the ground state (0.0), since <O,ojxyjo,O> • a because in <olxIO> (and <olyIO» n (u·) must ch~ge by ooe

x 'f .

un Lc , For the first: excit.ed states ve use the formalism. of degeoe,rate perturba-

tion theory by diagonalizing V ~ omw2xy. In the (1.0) and (0,1) basis

V . 6..,2( 0 X1oJ'Ol) \ xOIY10 0

and hence behaves like ax. }iy same method as proble:a 3 above. we get %eroth order energy e.igenkets ~(IIO>+lol» with .6(1) • ~.)Caa and ~(IIO>-IOl» witb to(l) __ l.:!:o~. So to summ.arue ve have gt'~nd state 10,0> ntb energy E co 1W (no first order shift) and first excited states ~(llO>+IOl» with E ~ (2+612)~ and

~(IIO>-I01» with E ~ (2-612)~.

2

(c) Now ~2(x2+y2)/2 + <Ol!r..l2xy - ~ [(l+o)(x+y)2/2 + (14)(x-y}2/21• Let us rota-

te coorcii:,.',ates by 450, than X :: (x+y)//2 , Y :: (x-y)ll2. So

Z 2 "-2 2 ·2 2

H - PX/2m + py/2m + m[~ (1+6)]X /2 + m[~ (1-&)]1 /2

and is effectively again a tva dimeu$1onal sao with ~ replaced by 1.[!5~ in the

72 Modern Quantum' Mechanics - Solutions

(X. Y) system. The exact energy for t.he ground !.otate is ~~t.l/l+6 + ~}(..,h-6 • ~.., + 0(62). There is therefore no change in energy if only terms linear in 6

are kept. The exact energy for (n ,n ) ~ (1,0) is ~w/1+6(1~) + ~t.l/1-6 ~ • x y

2 . .

}\w(2+6/2) + 0(6 ); similarly for (n ,n ) EO (0.1). by letting 0: "+ -6, ue have x y

exact energy ~w(2-6/2) + 0(62). Ignoring 0(62) cont~ibut10ns. the results are

the same as in (b).

2 2 2 '~'l" 2 2

5. The Hamil con Lan for the. sys!: em is H If: H + ~E1ll4) X • P 12m + ~ \. T(. CluJ Y. • hence

o x

Vko '" <k!V!O>- <kI1E:mW2X2Io> ..: <klx2Io>. So our task is to evaluate <k!x1jO>

or ~c. Since from (2.3.24}" x : IK/Zmw(3 + at) vhere z and at satisfy ~!n>c_\n-l> and atln> - c+\n+l>. then xlO> - 1K72~ (aIO> + atIO» ,_ ~72mw!1> uhile x2Io>'" (IM2mw)2(a + a.t)ll>'" CLiO> + c2I2>. So Vko c: <k\x2Io> >:: cloko + c2ck1,

sad only V and V are relevant to ()ur discussion. Explicit evaluation of c1

00 20

and c2 (remembering that (at /12) i 1> .. 12> from (2.3.21». ,,.oe have c1 '" 'ri,/2rtJ1.JJ.

2 22M. e;mw2

c2 .. Y..IZ/2rrol. Thus V 00 .. ~E:mw <o! x to> - c1 CIIIW /2 -r.;;;; -2- - cYtw/4 J and V 20 ..

2 I 21 2)(fi cmw2 r.::

~ ~Emw <2.x 0> M C £mw'/2 ~ ------- a E~w/2r2.

. 2 2~ 2

6. Con~lder our symmetric rectangular double-well po~eutia1. as divided into three

regions: (I) -a-b<x<-s.; (II) -~x,+a; and (III) a<x<a+b. TJe have t.he s)'1l!mI!tric"

+Csin(ka(x-a-b)). All of Vhichsatisfy Schr8dinger's equa~ons and the appropriate boundary conditions.

k =12111& 1v.,2. 1c. ./2mB 1't.2• leg. "",12m,(V -s ) 1'1-.2• Ie: .12m(V -E ) 1'1..2

s s ,a a 0 sao a

...mere because 'We assume V »E.E. C .. II: .. a:. Hatching solutions and deri-

"0 a. s s a

vatives at each boundary we have Asink b - Bcosh~a. Csink b • -DsL~hca and

s a

~odern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 73

Ak cosk b = -B~sinh~a. Ck cosk 0 3 +OKcoshKa. Therefore we have the eigenvalue

s s a a

conditions

tank b/k = - cothKa/~ • tank b/k = - tanh~a/K.

5 s a a

(1)

Since Vo » Ea,s' .... e expect the energy levels to be approximately those of a particle in a box (one dimenSional, with infinite walls) in regions (1) and

(III) .

Hence "caok b c tan(n+£ ) a tanE : £ _~ k b -rr. and (1) can

a,s a,s a,s a,s a,s

be rewritten as

(k b-l1') /k = -co t hxa I K I (k b-rr) I k = - t anhxa/x ,

s s 3 a

(2)

From (2) we have ks = b+co~hKaIK ' ka = b+ta:hKalK • and the lo .... est lying staces

2 2 ~211'2 -? 2 2 2 2 2 -

are Es = )\ k/2m ." z:m-(b+cothlCa/l::) .. and Ea ::: )\ ka12m :=0 )\ it (b+t anhxa/x ) - /2;:)..

K2ITZ -2 -2

So 6E = Ea - Es = ~{(l+tanhlCa/Kb) (l+coth~a/Kb)}. (Note the method

u sed he r e , ac tual1y Hlus t rate s the symme t r ic d.ouble well potent 1al discussed in

Chapter 4. section 2).

7. Here V= -ezIEI. and the perturbed ground state ket 11,0.0>1 and unperturbed ground state ket 11,0.0> in the !n,f..m> notation are" relc:ted by

[ + ~ !EI(-e)<n,t.,mlz[1.0.0>!n,t,m>

11.0.0>' = 1.0,0> ~" " " "

nlm ElDD - Balm

where EIOO and Enim. are unperturbed energies (actually independent of m). Take

expectation value of ez

«1,0,0\+ ,E, ,<-e)IEI<l,o.O!:ln',t',m'><n'.t'.m'l)ez(ll,O,O>

n i m E100 - ~n'f.'m'

+ [ nf.m

-eIEI<nf.m[zlloo>ln~m» = E100 - En.?m

_2eI ~ 1_<-=1..::.0,;:_O.J..lz~ln~t,;-:;m;_> .... 1_2_IE!, (t:::l,m=O in·our case) (1)

n~m EIOO-Entm

that clOO!zllOO> = O.

;.;here ..,e have used the fact

Also from (5.1.63). (5.1.67),

and (5.1. 68) we have for the energy shift of the ground state- computed to second

order

I

\

j

1

!

J

i

1+12 _2e2 t l<lOOlzln!m>12

~ ~ ~a E • ~ ~ - - -

nlm E100 - Entm

(2)

74 Kodern Qua:":tuIII Mechanics - Solutions

Hence from (1) •• e have induced dipole moment aiEl. where a 1s the sa.me c:r. 'IoIhic.h appears in 6· 4ol"E12 of (2)~-

8.

(a) <n ... 2.t"1,m-a!xln",z.t-O.m-O> .. O. because x is rank. 1 tensor (k"'l.q"'tl) and 1 -1

behaves like Y1 - Y1 • so III value must change.

(0) <n:z2,L"l,m:o.O\pz!n .. 2.tcOolll-O> - 0, since Pz - IK{z,H] we get <Pz> .. im./'It )(

(E210-EZOO)<n"Z.!"'l,m-O!zln=2.t-O.m."O>, but EZlO - EZOO ~ 0 by "accidental de-

gene racy" (25 - 2p degeneracy).

(c) From (3.7.64). we note that jj=9/2,m-7/2,t ... 4> is represented by

j=4¥ 7/2 (14+7/2+1.'.2 y~~Z-1/2)

y '1. ""(1/19)

1=4 ';4-7/2-.:-1/2. y7l2+1/2 ~

·1"'4

hence <L > B (/S/9)23K + (1119) 24i4 .. (28/9);{. ,

z

(Alternative method: Use <L > - mK - <5 > yith S - !m¥/(21+1) (c.f. (5.3.31»

:l; % Z

for j • L:!:~.)

(d) To

- +

eV41uate <sing1et.m=O\(s(e )_ See »!triP1et.m-O>. first note

z z

- -{- - +

(s(e )_S(e »Itriolet.m-O> - (s(e )_S(e »~2 (It> _I~> + + 1+> If> ~\

z z - z Z ")-, e e e- e r"

.. (~}{ - (~)K)~(lr>e-I~>e+)'+ «-!.sM) - (~}{»~(I':'>·e,..;lt>ei.J "" ~l~[lt> ·I~> + - I"':> _It> +1 .. ){lsinglet ... O>.

2~ e- e e e

I -

I -

I:

1-, I-

i :

1

l'

1

(e) Ground state of "2 molecule! For nhomopolarOf binding. the space l'art is symmetric, hence spin part is in singlet state. Thus

<5 S > _ ~(S2 _ S2 _ $2) __ ~'2.(3/4)~2 • _ ~~2

1· 2 tot. 1 2 4

lJhere expectation value of <52 > gives zero for a spin singlet. state. tot.

9.

~odern Quantum ~echanics - Solutions 7S

Ca) <n,l=1.m=!1.0!vln.l=1,m-~1,O>. ~

2 . 2 2 . 2 ( 2 i41 -2i¢) 12

L s~n 3cos2? = L Sln a e + e .

",222 Z 2 .2

x -y : r sin S(cos $ - SLn 9) =

So t~e perturbation connects m =

!l with

~ = +1. The type of non vanishing V-matrix elements are of fo~

I I = AJSi~2a~~i¢e+2i.sin28eti.dn fr2R~1 rZdr

between m = +1 to m = -1 and m

-1 to m = +1 respectively. Hence perturbation

matrix

ar.d evidently che "correct" zeroth order energy eigenstates that diagonalize the

perturbation is

1

Z!.:z[!n,z.=l,m=+l> 1; In,1=l.m=-1>1

(1)

(b) tJe are dealing with states whose angular dependence are spherical harmonics.

m m* ~.-m

Under time reversal: Y2, -+ Y1 "" (-1) 19., I hence 0In.l=l.m=:tl> = -!n,i=l,m=+l>,

Therefore (1) evidently go into itself (up to a phase factor or sign) under

time reversal.

LO.

This problem is rather similar to problem 3 above with

L.replaced by a. H =< _ 'rI.~2 +

o 2m

For (a)

the Hamiltonian of the unperturbed system is H • where o

V. and by

using the method of separation of variables. we can easily find the energy eigen-

values and eigenfunctions

11211'2 2 2

E ... z.:;:7(n + n ). ljin(x,y) "" sinen lTx/a)sin(n Try/a)

n ma X y x y

(1)

where n J n are non-zero integers. Thus the three lowest st-ates correspond to x y

n =n =1- n =2 n:1 and

x y • x • Y

h u22, l . h

ave El = n IT ,ma W1t

5~2rr2/2ma2 with ~2(x.y)

n =1 n =2' and n =2, n =2 respectively. and from (1) we

x'y' x y .

~ (x.y) = (2/a)sin(~)s1n(~) and nondegenerate. E2 =

1 a a

-= (l/a)sin(21TX)sin(2!Z.) or (2/a)sin(~)sin(2lTY) and hence

a a a a

76 Modern Quantum M~chanics - Solutions

( / • 2TTX 2rry

2 a) S l.n (--) sin (--) and non--

a a

degenerate.

(b) For (1) the first order energy shift is liEn = cnlVlln> ~ l<nlxyln> ~ A, hence the energy shift is linear in .l.. in otherwords proportional to ).. For (U) liE)

= <3!;"'xy!3> "" (~)2>.. JaJa xSin2(2n-x)ysin2(21TY.)dxdy = ltAa2• The energy shifts for

a 0 0 a a

degenerate state. £2 are given from problem 3 as nEil) = 0.28).a2 and nEil) ~

.2 2 2

O.22Aa • while that for ncndegene.ra ee E1 is AEI '" !t;Xa == O. 25).a. (iii) The en-

ergy level diagrams for unperturbe, d levels (E ) and perturbed levels E +nE E'

n n n n

look as follows:

2 ,r------- E3 0: £) + O. 251a

, ,

£] ----------'--:---------:..-.E?)' ~ E2 + 0.28).a2 E2--__;.,---....L~--------- \_E?" .. £2 + O.22.l.aZ _-----Ei:o E1 + 0.251a2

El-------~-~-------·---

unperturbed- levels

perturbed levels

11. (a) The energy eigenvalues E1 and E2 are found from secular equation

\ E~-E

)..~

therefore E1,2 c (Eo+Eo)/2 + ~-EOYZI4 + )..2h2-. To find the eigenfunctions,

1 2 -. 1 2

\oTe loT'tite !j.tl,2 =(~1.2), t~en H~ = E1fI-gives E~al,2 + /..6 =~El.2aJ,2 and thus up to

normalization

wiLh E1,2 as given above. Note also that this problem'is completely analogous to problem 11 of Chapter 1. if .... e make the substitution E~ +-+ HI1, E~ +-+ H22t

. ~ -.., ' ..... ~--~

Modern quantum Mechanics - Solutions 77

and ~~ ~ HiZ" Hence an al~~rnative ~ay to parametrize W1,2 in normalized form

is

:: (cos ~)

I~l 2

sin ~

(b) For H as given.

H 0 .. (EO~ 0) ( 0 )..6 )

E~ , V = AA 0 '

hp.oee VII = VZ2 .. 0, so first ot'der energy shifts vanish in time-independent pe::-

tu=bation theory, and we must go to second..-order. Here second order shifts are

6(2) "" 1

Iv2112 01:. E~-E~

to (2) 2

o (2) 0 (2)

in agreement ~ith perturbation results El + 61 ' and EZ + llZ

(c) Now suppose E~ ~ E~ = EO. Then H - EO(~ ~) +AA(~ ~). Since the perturbation term is proportional to ax, .... e kno", right a .... ay that the eigenfunctions are

o 0 0 0

Note '1 :::II ¢l1 + 412, Wz .. <1>2 - $1' i.e. linear combinat1.ons of degenerate states.

From <a), we have if E~ E~ = EO, than E1,2 - EO "d and .1,2 = (':) "'deb agrees

with (e).

1Z. Using the sec.ular equation method, we diagonalize the perturbed Hamiltonian ma-

78 Hedern ~Jantum Mechanics - Solutions

trix to obtain the exact energy eigenvalues. The secu l ar equation reads (EI-A)«E~-\)(E2-A) -lbIZ) + a«\-E1)a*) = 0 .

Evidently E1 ; A is one solution. and the other (E1+E2)\ + E1E2 _!a!2 -lbl2 = 0, i.e. A+ = £1 +

Formally non-desenerate second order perturbation theory (5.1.42). translated

2 2 "" la12+1b12

into our notation. reads Al.~~al I(E1-£2)' 62 =Ibl /(E1-E2) and AJ _. --

E2- E1

bence energy levels are E1+A1, El+~2' and E2+63 respectively. The non-degenerate second order perturbation'results are unjustified because degeneracy is ~ot re-

moved to first order.

I

Use degenerate perturbation theory a la Gottfried (1966) (see p. 397, for de-

tails). We have here a degenerate two level subspace (E1 twice and E2), hence to second order in degenerate perturbation theory the energy shifts are given by

i. e.

which agrees with the exact solution 2bove where we

13. The Hamiltonian is H =: p2/2m - e2fT: + ee:z. where e£z is the perturbation pote.nt-

ial. In terns of the 2S~ a.nd 2P~ levels of hydrogen. our Hamiltonian can be r e-

presented as ( 5

E2 +<sle£zl$>+o H :;;

<p le£zI5>

<sle£zjp> ) E~ +<pjee:zlp>

(1)

where <5 is the Lamb shift. and E~

EP are the unperturbed energies for 2<: and

, 2 ~

'~odern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 79

2Pl respectively. It is evident (from parity selection rule) that <s 1 eez;s> '"

~ <plle~z!,s'> :::: e~<sltlp>,r·yji~.myj~~.~

~p!~(Zlp> ; 0, ~hile cs!eez!p> ; ~ ~ cosBdn. Us-

, . tQo [=1

ing (3.7.64). we have <sle£.zlp> : cPle£z]s> = +l3e£.ao for m = ~~. Hence (1) be-

comes

(2)

We diagonalize (2) to obtain eigenvalues A, where we recognize that ES - EP =

2 2

E2• this gives

~ • E2 +6/2 ~ [(5/2)2

~ 2 2 2-~ + je <:: a J

o

EZ+6/2 is ±[(6/2)2+3e2E:2a~1~.

(3)

The energy shift from the mean

Hence liE =< -liE

S P

= [(6/2)2+3e2£2a21~ ~ a

02

2 2 2)

~ 2222 2222\

-2(1 + 6e £. a /6 ] for eta «6, and ((o/2) +3e c a )~ 000

lJe£a (1 + o

24e e: ao

for ee:ao »0. Note for eeao « 6 the shift from E; + 6

is quadratic in e, while for eca »6 the dominant shift is linear in E. o

w"he teas parity res tric ts < s I ec Z I s > ::> < pi ee zip> :::: O. tme rever sal invariance

of our Hamiltonian places no similar restriction. Nevertheless (c. f. (4.4.84»

-+-

it imposes the restriction that expectation value <x> (hence <x> as a special

case) vanishes when taken with respect to eigenstates of j.m. For example jj,m>

of our problem need not be parity eigenkets. and could be c IS1> + c Ip1>' yet

. s"S p~

it remains true that <j .ml~1 j ,m> = 0 under time reversal lnvariance - Le. no

-+ ...

pressed as V = +e£.r '" reEcOSa. Assuming E: is small. we can use perturbation

, electric dipole moment.

-+ ...

14.. Let the electric field be in z-direction. i.e. E = £k, so the potential is ex-

less mt~m~, 1=1'+1 or 1=£'-1, and we have non-va~ishinb matrix element~ <321Jvj

311>, <32-1IvIJl-l>, <320Iv!310>, <310Ivj320>, <311jvI32l>, <31-1Iv[32-1>, <3101 VI3DO>, <30olvI3l0>. As a first step let us calculate these non-vanishing matr~ elements, remembering that ~n.£.m =R[liY~i 'Where Y~ is given by (A.5.6) and Rnt(r)

.by (A.5.J). Straigh:forward evaluation leads to

<321IVI3l1>=<311IvI321>=~32-1IvI31_1>=<31_1IvI32_1>= _ 27£a e/2 o

<320IvI3l0> =<310jvI320>= -91:3£a e

a

<310 I V 1300> =< 300 I V 1310>= -916£<1;0 e. 2

Diagonalizing the (9x9) V-matrix ( r (2mt+l)::: 9). we have the lnatrix equaDl£."'O

tion (with eigenvalues A= eca r) a

r a a 0 0 0 o 0 0 Al
a r 0 0 a a a a 0 AZ
a a r 0 o 0 b 0 0 A3
a 0 a r o 0 0 a a A4 0 (1)
..
000 0 rOO 0 0 A5
a a 0 0 a r a 0 a A6
o 0 b a oar 0 c A7
o 0 0 a 0 a 0 r 0 AS
o 0 000 (\ c a r Ag where a ::: 27/2, b ::: 913, c = 916. and secular equation is r3[r2_a2)2[r2_b2_c2] ~ o i.e. r~O. r=ta. r=±(b2+c2)~. Substitute r=O into Eq. (1) gives AZ=A4=A6=A7=Ae

=0. A3b+C.A9 = 0, no information on Al and AS' So for t"'O, 'We can choose three combinations for AI' A3, AS' Ago They are A1=1. Ai"'"O (i~l). i.e. 1j!3ZZ; As=l. Ai == 0 (i#s), i. e. ·1j!32-2: Ai = a (i1-3, 9). A3 = 12/3. A9 "" -/1/'$, i. e. (12/31P320 _ 11/31j!300)' Here our notation is A1·· ... AS correspond to t=Z, mt=Z,l.0.-1,-2; A6,

To summarize:

For r=O, 6E",O, wave functions are ~322.1./132-2./2/3tP320 - /l/31.jJ300' (2)

Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 81

r=a, ~E == 27e£ao/2j wave functions

(3)

For r= -a = -27/2, i.e. ~ = - 27e€ao/2. we find froQ Eq.(l) A1;AScO• A3~A7= A9 == 0 and ei~~er A2;A6=1/12. A4=Aa=O or A2zA6=O, A4=Aa=1/12. i.e.

1 .

2~(1P321+rp311)

r==-a, liE = -27ecao/2; wave functions {l i~(W32-l+1jt3l-l)

(4)

Finally. for r=±(b2+c2)~ = ±919. i.e. A ~ !9Ige£ao' we find Al=AS=A2=A4=A6= Aa=O. For r~+9/9i A3~1/16. A7= -1/1:2. A9=1/i3. i.e.

1 1

~!jI310+ ~ljJ300]

(5)

and for r=-9I9, A3;;;1/I6, A7=1/fi, A9=1/1l, Le.

2 2 ~ M 111

.r~-(b +c ) J ~E.-9tgeEao; wave function is {6~~J20+ 2~W310+ 3~~300J

(6)

1S.

-r+ ... -+

For electric dipole V = -~ .E where u = u o. The Coulomb field of the nucleus

e e e

may be written

-r A

tten as: c.r :::

there are selection rules governing which matrix elements of V are non-zero.

a

For Amt=O the matrix elements of Y1 are needed. These v8.nish unless tot"':!:l. For

lImt=±l. 61 is also :!:l. This is expected since r is a vector operator and connects states of different parity. The radial contribution 1s .proport1on.al to:

~ dV 2 ~ .

r R o~d R '0 It' dr := - f R oR 1~ .dr , One may verify that for 1.-1.' ... :tl, this

b Ukr n ~ 0 n~ n N

integral vanLshes for n=n'.

Hodern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

The ground state of Nd has n=J (degeneracy n =9). But from the above, We

knew that 60,0 therefore the effects of this perturbation V on the energy 1evols

are seen in second order. Hixings will OCcur between 3s and 4p States and simi_ larly between 4s .nd 3p, 3d and 4p etc. Using eigenstates of L2, L , 52, 5 ,

z z

the following expression for <3s/vI4p> is true for hi ~ o.

%

'= ~ ['OR R drC4'!f)'1 r+lr2f-!/-:!(2)\osex(2)\osedCCOSS)d<fJ

-e 0 30 41 3 -1 0 4n 4n 4n

Z 1 ~ ~ .. . Z1 ~

= (=;)(3) 6 R30R41dr = (-e)(3) IR

equation and u(r) satisfies (c.f. (A.5.s)) - )0(2 d2u

2m dr7 ~ V(r)u = Eu (for t~o S-states).

(1)

So the second (loweSt) order shift in the Js state of Na would be : (using (5.2.18»

lI3s

16. (a) Th is is the cen tr al force problem wi th spherically symme t ric po '<0 t ial V (r) .

As usual. let ~(r) = cu(r)/r where W(r) satisfies the usual radial Schr8dinger

Multiply (1) by u I - du/dr. we have
}{21d(u,)2 Id(uVu) 1 dV 2 E d(uZ)
- 2tD 2dr + 2dr - 2' ~ "" 2' dr (2)

Integrate (2) from 0 to ... on both sides, we have

2 "" . 'O <J>

M 2 ""dV 2 E 2'

- --(u') I + ~(uVu)1 -~r ~d dr = Z-u I .

4m a 0 0 r 0

,

(3)

But lim u(r) = 0, and lim u(r) "" 0, therefore (3) gives

2 00

- L(ul)21 '- !.cJO> !!!.2dr =: O.

4m 0 ~o dr~

(4)

Modern Quantum Me.chanics - Solution.s 83

fro~ u(r) - r~(r)/Ct ve get u'(r) • ~(.)/c + ryf(r)/c. where at _ the right hand

side functions are well behaved and must va~1sb as r+-. Thu~ (4) gives

and therefore

(5)

2

(b) For the hydrogen atom VCr) a -e Ir ao.d for

the ~round state (from (A.6.7»).Me

2 2

ao .. )( Imee is the Bohr radius

• 2e3~J/2/M3. and

have RIO (n) • (2/ a 3/2) e -p/2 I where 'p _ 27:1 a and

o ' 0

(c s f , (A.6.J)'). ~O(O) - 2Ia!/2 a 21(y.2/me2)3/2

<~V/dr- - e24wf- 1 2R2 ()d 4~e2.4 ,~ -9d ~ ~ - "0 r2 r 10 r c-- aJ 0 e r

o

and since dr - a dp/2, we have <dV/dr> _ 8~e2/a2

a Q

m

Therefore ~<dV/dr> ~

I RIO (0) [2. 'Hence rE:!ation (5) is verified.

For

2

the three dimension~ harmonic Osc~ator VCr) - ~kr • the gro~nd state

is 0 ~n -n 20, and wave function. - X (~)y (y}Z (z) 13 such that

xyz 000 _ .

2 2 2 2 2 2

X (x)~N H (ax)e~ x • Y (Y)·N R (ay)e~ Y , Z (Z)-N R (az)e~ %

000 000 000

vhe::e

~~ 2 It; I 12 66

N S4(a/'1I) and a· (mk/l< ) • So;(O), _ N Ii (0), 'ltlhlle

o .00

6 +- 2 :2 2 -a.2r2

<dV!dr> - N r H (ax)H (Qy)B (az)[krJe dxdydz_

0--000

From (A.4.5) we see that H (') - I, hence Iv(O)J2 _ N6• while' <dV/dr> z N6 f~krx

o 0, 0 ~

_a2r2 2 6 - 3 -a2r2 6 1, 6 2 m

e r dr(4v) - N (4T)k/ r e dr - N (4w)k---Z 4 - N (2v)K Im~ -Thus (p. 2)x

o 0 0 a 0 ..;lilt

<dV/dr> .. N6 21111(0)[2 for the three dimensional-i.sotropic harmonic oscillator o

also.

(a) Rotate the systeril in such a way that the zl_ax1.s is along the maguetic field

(3)

84 Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

B, ~e then have H - AL2+(B2+c2)~LzT ~here in the 'y-z plane the dog1e e

be t· ... e en

Oz and Oz' 1s given by tane • c/E. We'then have eigenkets It m'~ wi-'

. , ~n eigenva_

lues

E == At (t+l)t{ Z + '(BZ+e2) ~m 'K

(1) . 0)

vhere It.m'> = V(~/2.e.o)lt.m> = f8lt,m>V ,(~/Z.8.0). When B» C. "e

m"--.r,. rom w treat

H ~ AL2 + BL as the unperturbed Hamiltonian, and CL as the p t b

o z y er ur ation, than

unperturbed', eigenvalues E{o) and eigenkets are AI\ 2q.H1)+Bmi\ and It m> r _

t,m .' esp.:Ct_

ively. Hence to second order in perturbatio~

E(2)""A$2g_(t+l)+Bm)( + ~l'.:jICLyl!~m> + C\.E.m,l<t',mtIL].?",ll',>12 E(o)Y_ E(o}

#t.m 1,m t',m'

(Z)

~ l_( - ) (2)

Use next Ly Zi~L+,L_ and (3.5.41), becomes

From the exact solution (1), we may expand for B » C to get·

2 c2

E = At(t+l)~ + Bm'~ + 2B~m' + .......•.

(4)

Hence in ~his approximation (B » C). the second-order perturbed energy (3) r e - pr~duces the exact solution for m'~.

2 2

(b) We consider <n'ilm;'m~!oln£.m.£.ms> where 0 '" 3z -r, xy. N'otr! that the opera-

2 Z 2 0

Now 3z -r ~ (3cos 6-1) ~ Y2'

hence <£.:m;'I'i~lt.mt> must satisfy 6m!= mt,-m.r.= O. and -2~at=i'''';'i~ +Z. HO!Jeve!' 16£.! j 1 because of parity conservation. Summary: 6ms = ro~ - rns = 0, ~mt 2 mtt

-ro ~O. 61- O,±2.(Actually we have also the constraint !+tl~ 2.) 2.

·2 2 Z 2 ~ Z

Consider next 0 =xy. now Y2 « (x+iy) • Y; a: (x-iy) • hence Y2

I 2 -2 I

So <J.lm~ (YZ-YZ ) tm2,> satisfies 6mt"",Z.-2;6.2.=o tl remains forbidden by parity

conservation, hence 6i~O.t2.

Summary: 11m = m'-m "Q.6m~ ... :!:2.6f."O,:t2 (H,t')2).

- s s s ..

t t

• t

• t

Remarks: The above selectio.n rules are different from those for dipole radia.-

Modern guantum Mechanicm - Solutions 85

tions which require 6m8 .. Ot6tn1.-0.:H• 61.nO .. !1. "Which is not. surprising since for instance 3z2_r2 relates to quadrupole radiation.

18. The perturbation Bam.Utonia.Jl (see (5.3.25» is e2A2/2m. ~2·. e?s2(,;r?ry2)/SIII. c.l,

e r, e

..mere we have used' Ax .. ~BYt Ay • !.:lBx, Az ... 0 and noted that the perturbation

. 2 2

is spin independent (hence okay to ignore spin). So ve ~3t evaluate <x +s :>

2 2 2 ~ 2 2

for the ground state. Now by s)'lllQetry <x +y > ... 3<r' > because <x > _ <y > '"

2 2 2 2 2

<z > and <x +y +z > ... <r >. So the inteBral to be

&~ound-state of hydrogen atom is 4Tf(1/wa3)e-2r/ao o

evaluated relacive to tbe r2r2dr ... ~3 (a /2) 54!. Renee ao 0

222

am:' X .. - e a 12m c , the negative sign is because the induced dipole moment bas o e

opposite sign for diamagnetism.

19. In this problem. we work out the quadratic Zeeman effect with the belp o·f vector ~oteQt1al A - ~BX; for uniform magnetic. field B ~ B e (we notice i - 9xA). Uso z:

ing the Lorent: gauge v.l • O. tben {p,A] • -1~q.! • 0 or l.t - p.! for particle

t:Omentum p. Then t.: III ~(!x;).p - ~a;;-xp - ~agt. ... ~BoLz' 1.2• ~(Bx-;). (B)t.~) •

!t(s212 _ (B'.;)2) .. ~2(x2+y2) I and . the total Er.am.Utonian v1l1 be o

p2 eR 2 2 2 2 2 2

.. -2·· - ~2 + e B (x +r )/8m c - Ze

=e mec z: 0 e r

-eB e2B2 2 2

'W'ith the perturbation te't'm V - let cL: + Sill g2 (r sin IJ). For zero aogular IIIOme.ll-

e e

1" e-r2 E: - -(p .- ";'A)

2m c

e

+

tum 1aO (S-state), \Ie have L - 0, Lz .. O. and in this simple case~ for all atomic

electron ~.Il the n-l ground state afan atom. w:1.th atomic number Z~ the energy

86 Mod(",rn Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

, . "

in ... hich f( - KIm e is the electron Compton wavelength and 2 -= ¥,2/m e2 ~ th

e. e . 0 e·s e .

.Bohr acoei<=. radius artd CL .. e2/y..c ;; 11137 is the fine struc.ture cona t anz ,

Th~

NalJ' for the hel ium B tom the resul t would be (vice cha t we obtained for at'. at-

omic electron in (1) with effective atomic number Z .. '2-5/16 ;; 1.7:

6~1) ... 2" 1 ~3B21 -: 23.7«:JB2 •

el~t-O (2Z)2~ e 0 Z:1.7 e 0

For one mole of helium the energy change is N 6K...~1) 0 where N :: 6.022x1023,

o ~e.mt~ 0

(2)

:nole (the Avogadro t s number). Thus the magnetic: susceptibility per mole of he-

11um~

XRe, is going to be

N 6E__(1) ':n -In: B2

o tie m -0 He a

• .. .t

"(3)

Expressed in

then

(4)

The experimental result is -1.88xlO-6c:m3/m.ole vhic:h is iJ:l fairly good agree-

ment with our per-curnation ·calculation.

20.

(_K2/2m)/~e-Blxld22 e-s1x1dx +'f+-e-2elxl(~2x2/2)dx

g... - dx ..-

--"'--~-------=~f-+--e--~2~~I-x~I~-------------------

--

..

~2

vhere the term - -. -(-28) in numerator i~ the contribution frgm the first ceriv~- 2m

tive at x=O. So H - ~2B2/2m + ~2/4a2, and oR/as -0 implies 2K2S/2m _ ~2/2a3

2 rz: . - ;( 2 l!¥IJ 1%1(/12)( ,1 1 rz ){ w rz

c 0 or B a mwl(2~~ Hence (H)min D272 ~+ 4mw s, ~w(2{2 + 4) ~ --2--' •

vhere (}{w/2) is the true anergy.

21.

Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 87

2 2 2 2'

The equation d ~/dx + (.\.-Ixl)~ ::. a can be wdtten as -d ~/dx +Ixl<+>"'.\.~ and

hence is like Schr~dinger equation H~ m .\.~ with K2/2m ~ i. Let us set c=l and

worry about normalization later, than

-1 for O<x<a dljJ/dx == {

+1 for -a<x<O

<IjII!j1> a 2 3, f from (5.4 ;2) •
= 21 (a-x) dx = 20 3. There ore we have
0
x <,p H 1/1> 2a+2a4/12 3 a
~ .. = -2 + 2; (1)
<IJ< 1fi> 2a3/J c Hence dA/da = 0 implies (3/03)(-2) + \ = 0 at a ~ 241/3 = 2X31/3, and)" < 3/4x32/3 + 2x31/3/4 = 1.081. So the true A must be lower than 1.081 which 1s

not bad compared to exact value 1.019 for such a crude trial function. Note

normalization of '4J is taken care of via <w' tp> in denominator of (1).

22. Here Vet) =Foxcoswt. and we set wlo~ (E1-EO)/~ =WD· From (5.6.17) we see that

c (t)~l up to first order. while a

F t I! lw t' iwt" -lwt' c1(t) a (-i/M)~O l <1 x O>e 10 [e + e . ldt'

o iCwo+w) t i (w -w) t

I I I (e - 1 e 0 - 1

= -(Fa 2;0<1 x 0> (w +w)· + CUI -w) J.

a . a

( 1)

Let us compute x in the SchrHdinger picture, than

( 01 i'w t/2 + 1< 11 J'iw t/Z) '10> -iw t/2

ex>S = < e 0 c1< e a x~ e 0

1< I I iw t ( I I -iw t = c1(t)<1 x O>e 0 + c1 t)~O x l>e 0

F 2 -i(w +w)t iw t iw t i(w -w)t -iw t

= _(_ )I<l!xlo>! [eo e 0 -e 0 + e a ~ a

2~ (w +w) ( )

a W -w

o

-iw t

- e 0 J

+ coco (complex conjugate)

(2)

.... here v e have used (1) and the constancy of F in arrivins at' (2). Since <11,,10>, o

= O!./2mw ) \ (2) becomes a

(b) Take. (5.6.17) again.. we see to first order the nth excited state 13 C;l) (t) .... (-l/n){,t. eiL.lnot'vno(t')dt'

(3)

88 Hodem Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

<x~ S

. -

!O(coswt - cosw t)

III 22:>-

.wo - w

(3)

Thie is more or less "'hat you expect classically.

coswt - co se t :: o

- F -l 2 ; -o-t

III Z •

Treating-F 1m as a classical o

uniform acceleration a. <x>S· • ~at2 is the classical .r~ctilinear motion starting from rest, hoyever procedure breaks down for w ~ woo

-tit ". -tIt

(a) For a force F(c) - Fe. we have -dV/dx - Fe.

o 0

23.

Again from (5.6.17). c(o)(t) "" i , and' W :: (El-EO)/¥. .. w, 'While

o . 10

hence V - -v X -tIT

"0 e , .

c(l)(t) ... 1

(-i/~)fte1wtle-t'/Tdt'<1Ixlo>F

a . 0

iwt-t/t 1

- (-i/~)[e{iw _l/~)]<llxlo>Fo

(1)

_Renee

-2t/T ' -tiT

12[1+e -(2coswt)e lIr 12ot/2tD1d).

g w2 + (1/1)2 0

Note that as t -+.... 1 cil.~ (t) 12 is independent of e , This Is reasonable since

(2)

for sufficiently large t. the perturbation is no longer 011.

.

where ~no - (En-Eo),", and n~2.

However V (e I) would contain multiplicative no

factor <nlxIO> vhich vanishes for Q~2 •. Nevertheless for <n'\xln>-1K72mw(/Qo ,

n ,0.-1

+(n+lo, 1). we know that <2Ixll> ml:2(~/2mw)~ ~lle <11:10> -1.K/2mw~ Thus to

n ,n-+-

_"

second order

(4)

give.s a non-vanishing contribution, sinc.e V21 and V10 axe Ilon-va.nishing (W21 .. I

(E2-El)J~)· Thus there is a finite probability to find the oscillator in its •

second excited scace E2, and the argument can be pursued to even higher order I

• •

24.

~odern Quantum-Mechanics - Solutions 89

terms and corresponding higher order excited states.

The initial state is 10>, so from

(5.6.17). we have

C -iCE -E )t.'/ii.

(-i/~)b eon <nIH'(x,t')!O>dt'.

(1)

c(O)(t) '" 6 • c(l)(t)

n no n

~ext we note that

<n!H'(x.t)!O> ~ Ae-t!~nlx2IO>

(2)

and from (2.3.24). we have :x:2Io> '" ~O{jmw)(a+a+)(a+a+)IO>: Since -aiD> '" 0, a+IO> = jl>. all> = 10>. atl1> =1212>. thus x2lo> = (r\!2row)[jO> +1212>1. and

We see that if n # C or n ~ 2, c(l)(t) n

of (1) vanishes because <njx2!0> vanishes in (2). Only the fol1o~ing coefficients are relevant to our discussion; C~O);:l. c~O)=o. c~l) ;:: (-i/}{)6t(~/2t!1:ll) x

t I I, iA -t/, (. _ (1)

Ae- dt' = 2:IlW(e .. - 1), ..,h1ch for tIt »1, gives Co '"

After a long time duration of perturbation, the state becomes [see (5.5.4)

and (5.6.1)1

!;jJ> '" [1 _ LA..,/2mw}e-klt/2!O> _ 112A . e-i5wt/Z-IZ>

2nt.1 (liT -Ziw)

(3)

2 3 -

(Remark: higher order terms like A • A ••....• are ignored.) So the probability

for the system to be transmitted to the second excited state is

_ 1A!2 I lA]2,2 ~ !A12

Pz - Z 2 2 2 {l+ 22+ 2 2 2 2 2 J.

2m w (lIT +4w ) 4mw In W (4ul +lh )

(4)

The["e is no probability for transition to other states such as 11> .13>, .

25.

ACOSWtJ

'"" H

E(o) 0

2

+ V(t)

(a) tet,us write 11> .. (~) and 12> "" (i). A general state is

!o,t> = cl(t)exp[-iEiO)tJ~l 11> + c2(t:~exp[-iE~o)tJ'eil 12> .

90 Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions

with cl(O) : 1, and cZ(O) "" O. Now this problem can be solved exactly, but we

are told to proceed via time-dependent perturbation theory. Take (5.6.17) -

(5.6.19) of text, we have (for n~2)

c~l)(t) "" _ ~l ~t exp[iw21t']coswt' dt'

== C-i/'t.))..( 4[exp(itw21+w]t' + ey.p(i(w21-w1t')]dt'

• . i ( w ~-w) t /2 ° . I i ('Jl -w) t 12 "

= (-~)[e 21 sln(wZ1+w)t 2 ~ e 21. s1n(w21-w)t/2].

\\ (w21+w) (w21-w)

Now Ic~1)(t)12 is the transition probability which becomes

Sin2(WZl-w)t/2

+ 2

(wn -w)

ICZ(1)Ct)j2 = xZ ~:

(b) 51-'nce w21 "" (EZ(o)- ;;"l(o)/t.i, to t + 0 Id d " h

~_ II we see nao wZ1_w = wou correspon to van~s.-

ing denominators in our perturbation expression for Ic~l)(t)IZ above. and hence a breakdow-rl of the approximation scheme.

26.

Perturbation potential "added is -F(t)x.

The ground state energy E ~ 4~w and the o

first e.xcited state has ene::gy E1 =: \1w(l+'~) where

=w.

From

(5.6.17), we have

(1)

The integral r may be evaluated using complex varlable theory. Since w>O~ ye

close contour in upper half t-plane (Im(e»O) with no contribution from semi-

circle as It I +~. The pole a~-t=+iT gives through the merhod of reSidues, con-

-w"'(" tribution I = (n/~)e

Since <1Ixlo> .. 1i{/2mw (me; I " 1 + /0+16 , +1) =

n ,n- n ,n

~/2lDW for n~O,nJ=l. we have putting .everything together

(1) () i F _ t M/2 (IT) -w-r;

c1 m = ~ ~n mw ~ e •

(2)

f d i h f1 i d IC1(1)C-)12 -_n2m2~o2w,e-2W~

Probability fer being oun n t erst exc te state. is - _ ~

---~ .. -,.~ .. ------

----.-----.~------~--------

Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 91

"Challenge .f o r experts".' Yes, it is re.asonab l,e , If the perturbation is

. . 1

turned on very slo~ly, and then turned off very slowly (as in the t»- case), W

the oscillator can be visualized to be in the ground state all the time. This

is because the only effect of the applied force·(uniform in space) is just a

very r~ow change in the equilibrium point of the oscillator; at each instant of

ti~e. you can solve the time-independent Schrgdinger equation for the ground

state.

This problem can also be attacked semiclassically. The action integral ~pdq

(related to (n-;J--:i:)'rl) is lIadiabati,cally invariant". This means that there is no

sudden quantum jump as long as the external parameters change very slowly.

27. (a) Again from (5.6.17), c(l)(t) = (-i/~)ft<fIV(t')li>eiWfi(t'-to)dt', and using o

fact that 6(x-ct') = !6(x/C-t') we have

c '

= (-iA/~C)f+=dX<flx><xli>eiwfix/c e-iwfito

-.ao 'I

und.n t exea ting phase f ac tor

as to ~ -=, and t~. So probability for finding system in state If> is given

(1) 2 r A I 2 '" * 1w . x I c 2

by Ie (t.) I :: ~21 L"uf(x).ui (x)e h dx] with wfi - (Ef-Ei) Iii.

(b) 6(x-ct) pulse ~an be regarded as superposition of harmonic perturbation of form eiwx/ce-iwt with w:>O (absorption) as well as w<O (emission). Our result

in (a) shows. thaI;- the tcavelling pulse can ·give up energy )\w "" Ef-E1. so that

the particle gets excited to state If>. The fann of Ic(1)12 shows that. only that

part of the harmonic perturbation with the "right" frequency is relevant, just 1;;

as expected from energy conservation. Note t.hat the space integral IU.fuidx x

eiWfi is identical to the case where only one frequency cOmtlonellt (tlmonochroma-

92 Modero Quantum Mechanics - Solution9

tic vave") is preseot.

28. To fira t cr de r Ls +25 t:ransition is forbidden sin.ce the matrix element of per turbation is <200!z!lOQ::> .. a by parity. Likevise. since z is proportioua.l to a aph-

erical tensor of rank 1. the only Is + 2p transition which is nlloved. to chis

(first) order, is when 6m - O.

.,

-tiT

'With potential energy V a:-eE ze for t>O. ve have for the only non vanish-

o

ing transition amplitude is (see (5.6.17»

Therefore to this first order ve have selection ,rule 61- 1. ~m - C. By simple

integration. (l) can be rewritten as

e(l)(t) ... _C_ieE/t{);210Iz!lOO>(e[iCaJ-lltlt - 1)(-1w - lIt) (w2 + lIT?)

(2)

From. (2) we have probability

Ic(1)(t)12 ::II e2i;I<210~zllO~>12[1+e.-Ztlt_ 2e-t/"t'(coswt)1.

1{ (Ill +lh; )

(3)

After a long time t » .(essentially set t + ~), ve have

Ic(1)(~)12 _ ~ 1<210IzI100>12

~2 (w2 + l/T2)

;+1 ~ 2 0 0 ~15/2

were <210{%1100> ... 2'11'_1 d(cose) 6 r drR21Ylrcose~oYo - '- ao' and III -

35

(4)

Z 2 2

(E2 -E1 )/~ B 3e /Sa ~ (vith a 3 ~ /me ).

ps 0 0

29. First we observe that

=

1/4 for triplet {

-3/4 for single.t

Therefore eigenkets of H are triplet; and 6inglet~ and eigenvalues are

E _ 6 for triplet

{-3t. for singlet

30.

Modern Quantum Mechanics - Solutions 93

(a) At t=O, !+.,..> = ~~(!1..0> +10.0» .... here 11,0> is a 'triplet lIFO state and 10.0>

is a singlet state. For a later time

l~;r> = ~~(ll.0>e-i6t/~ + IO.O>e+3i6t/~)

'.

where !1,0> = ~~( 1-+->+1-+» and 10.0> .: ~~( 1+->-1-+». So

I I -lc.c/K' + 3iC.t/;i! 2

~ e e =

1<-+lo;t>12 = ~le-iC.t/K _ e3i6t:MjZ ==

and obviously 1<--++la;t>!2 =,I<--lo;t>12 =< o.

2 ! <+-10; t > I

~ + ~c')s(4tt/,O ~ - ~cos(4c.t/}{)

(1)

(b) Use first order perturbation theory

• c,i:)(t) = (-i/i'I)6t<+-1~2 Sl·SZ!+->dt', c2.!.)(t) = (-=i)~t<-+14g2 ~1.S21+->dr:' where we note that <+-1 == ~~<1.01 + ~~<O.OI' <-+-1.= ~~d,O!- ~~<O.OI and simi-

larly for the dual corresponding (DC) kees.

Hence c~~) (t) :: '- i~t(1_3)/Z == iat; c(1)(t) = e(l)(t) ; 0 becaus~ 51.52

-- -H-

(1) i6.t '

c-+ (t) == - ~(1+3)/Z == -i2c.t/M. Note that

connects only states of the same m values.

tot.

Probability for I+-> is !1+i6t/*12 "" 1 + t.2t2/K2, this does not quite agree

(0) , 2 2

with c, also gi ...... es t:. t "term.

"t- '2 2

t:. t with exact treatment up to O(~).

with exact treatment because c~2) interfering "t-

Probability for 1-+> 1s 4c.1.t 2 /'11,2 which agrees

Note expansion of exact results from (1) gives '

2 1 1662t2 2

1<-+-lo;t>1 7;; 1 - '2 \{2 .1<-+-la;t>1

(2)

Hence validity of first order perturbation theory ·for I+-> is never' s at.Ls.f Led ,

for I-+-> validity is quesl:ionable when t » KIt:. since lowest order expansion in

(2) gives a poor approximation to the exact answer.

(a) From

(5.5.17) for a two c.hannel problem we ,have

( 0 yeiwteiw12t)(C1)

-iI.&lt 1w21t a '

ye e c.2 .

(1)

(2)

'74 M.oaern Qu~ntum Mechanics - SOlUtiOl~S

:lnto (1) t ve have upon simplification

(3)

It is ,straightforward to see from (3) that

Bence for instance

.. ~ .

(4)

Since cZeO) • 0, we must have"from (2)

c2(t) a: e-i(w-U)Zl)t/2sin{(y2/112 + '(1Il-uJ21/14J~t} (6)

Again ft:am (1) I we have s:bice c1 (0) .. 1, that i}(c2! t .. o "'y. Rence

( ) .. x. -1(w-w21)t/2 in{['iz +(tLI-w21)21!.,{t}

<:2 t 2 2 2 '..joe s)( •

iXr~ /~ +(1Il-W21) 14J 4

(7)

and

(8)

(9)

and using (7) it is ea~y to verify that

IC1(t)12.a 1 - Ic2(t)j2 2

with IC2(t~1 given by (B).

(b) Perturbation approach. let us use (S.6.17) •. tnan

(10)

Modern Qua~tum Mechanics - Solutions 95

(12)

5in2 [_(IJJ-vJ21) t 1 2

Compare (1~) with exact result (8). we see that y2 in denominator (a~ well as

"I

the y~ in th~ radical sign) is missing in the perturbation expression. However.

2S long..is ;.;-w21i »2hln. the perturbation result is justifiable. Whenw;:

I (L): 2 d· 'h 11

~21> c2 : can excee un~ty even W1t sma y.

(1)

As for c1, we have cl = 0

( '11·(1) _ 0) I' 12 -I (0)12 - 1

since ~i'lcl - • so ,c1 = c1 -.

If the perturbation potential V is constant in time. then the second term in Eq.

(5.6.36) will be rapidly oscillating and gives no contribution to the transition

probability.

Howeve r , if the perturbation is' assumed to be slowly time-depEmdent. 1. e. V

V 'It

.... e t

where Il is small, the rapid oscillating term does give some non-vanishing

contribu!;ion. which grows linearly in time: With V ..... Vent• (5.6.36) becomes

( 2 ) , 2 i r + tit I . It+ 11

C (t) '" (~) l:: V V, (t dt 'e "'mnt 11 l dt"e1wmitnt:

n rt m nm ml. -&. --

'2 I iw i't+2nt

rtd I iw .t + nt e n ~ V V i

&. t e n~ = c nm m

En-Ei-2in~ . m E -E -in~ m :!..

.. V, V . = '" urn rn~

WeE -E,-i~~)(E -E.-2in~)

m a, n 1.

+ iw - ,t+2nt 1

c n1. -

(1)

V V , [ nm m~

m E E, -in~

III 1.

E - E. _ 2inn n 1.

w~en n~, the first term above (in (1) is exactly the first term in (5.6.36).

On the other hand, the second term has a coefficient eiwnit - 1 E - E. n 1

(2)

1 Lm

w .+0 nl.

+ (i/rt)t

which is linea= in time when wni+ O.

Ic(2}(t)12 h • ~ d d

Th-at . as a quao.rat .... c epen ence

n

96 Hodeen Quantam Mechanics - Solu~ions

on time is not disturbing (c.L (5.6.26) and subsequent discussion). Hence a

non vanishing contribution to the t r ans Lt Lon probability from the second term in

(5.6.36) is realizable since the total transition rate rt (t) is defined to be +n .

r. (t) = ~ crlc(a)12).

l+n' dt a n

(3)

32. Our Hamil t on Lan 1s

(1)

The four unperturbed states of positronium are

w~ = ~4n+->+I-+>J ~ ¢~l = !--> ~~ = ~~(l+->-I-+>l

(triplet)

(2)

(singlet).

Th . d i h' ......... A[......... ... \ 2

e unperturbed energy levels must be determ~ne , ~2t Ho = AS1,S2 = 2 (Sl+SZj

:-S~ - S~], h,ence Ho~~l.O = ~2[2-3/4-3/41o/il.O = ~ willa, while Ho!P~ ,. C~2/2)x

a -3M2 0

[O-3/4-3/4]11Jo::: -4- 1¥0 So unperturbed energy LeveLs are

::: ~2/4 (triplet state), E(o) ::: - 3AK2/4 (Singlet state). a

(3)

therefore the first order energy level shifts are zero. Because the matrix ele-

ments of V between degener~te states are all vanishingJ there 1s no problem about

using non-degenerate perturbation theory in this case. We next com.pute the.first

order corrections to the unperturbed states.

we see

that there is no mixing of the S '" ~1 states vith the S

z z

(5.1. 53a). the

:: a states. p

are given by

Using

(4)

vher e <1i,ollvl'''o> '" ~d.ol·s _ S2 1,,,°> = eB tl. H i (3) h

.. .,. .,. ---..,. 1 't' ~ ence us ng t we ave

o mec 1 z Z 0 mec

Mod'ern Quantum Mechanic.s - Solutions 97

(5)

Also from (S.1.5Jb). we have

liE = (eS\'I")2(_I/AK2), ~El == (eB~)2(1/Al\2).

o mr: me

e e

(6)

Therefore to second order in perturbation theory 2

E1(.:v=tl) = A:ia2/4. E1(m=O) =.~ £1+4(eB/lIlecAl{)21•

f.i,. 2, 2

Eo = - ~ [3+4(eB/mec~) ].

'(7)

Assuming t~('\ Ei.~ld B to be weak; the term [1+4(eB/llIecAf{)2]~ may be approx~mated 2

by 1+2(eB/m cAli) in the" exact expression for energy, than we see that exac c exe "

pression for the m = a energy levels yields the second order results found above.

(b) We may write

this new time dependent perturbation as a' iwt

e mec (SIB' - 52B,) e

(8)

V I (r )

where w is the angular frequency of the energy difference. To determine which

direction to orient H' the matrix elements of (Slj ._ S2j) with j=x.y,z between
will examined. were Z~('J? 0 and Z~(~o 0
Xl and Xo be Xl :: + a, $ ) Xc :; + - \II 't are
1 1 .L 0 a 0 <l.o i- t:he general forms of mixture bet'Ween the t'Wo m=oO states.

Let u.S use S x

[1+><-1 + 1-><+1] representation. than from (2)

o )( 1 I I 0 \i 1 .

SlxiJio '" '2 lCr'1t -->- ++>]. S2xlPo = 2x2~[ 1*>-1->].

(9)

hence

(S S )~o - t (.-1 ~+l)

lx - 2x ~o - 2~ ~l - Yl '

(10)

also

(11)

and thus

. 0

(51 - S~ )$1 = O.

x .lX

(12)

From (:LO) and (12), 'We see that by orthonormality of 1fI ~ states ~ <Xo! (SIx -S 2.x) x

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