This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Short Circuit ABC Learn It In an Hour, Use It Anywhere, Memorize No Formula
._. ""'_""": .~. .. _.  __  .. ~=~ . :~ MOON H; YUEN, SENIOR. MEM BER. IEEE
AbstractShort circuit ABCleun it in .nnour, use it anywhere, memorize no formula.. The MYA method Cor IOlving industrial power system short circuits appropriately !its this dexription. Indeed, solving short circuit problems with tile MY A method is as easy as learning the ABC's.
INTRODUCTION
S·HORT CIRCUIT studies are necessary for any power distribution system to determine switchgear rating for protective relaying, and to determine the voltage drop during starting of large motors. One line diagrams are not complete . unless the short circuit values are solved at various strategic points. No substation equipment, motor control centers, breaker panels, etc., can be purchased without knowledge of of the complete short circuit information of the enfire power distribution system.· . .
Knowing how to calculate short circuit problems is a must for. every electrical engineer. To learnit may be easy for some, difficult for others. However, to db the problems. anywhere in or out of the office where the references are not. available may not .be an easy task because the conventional methods of solving short circuits involve too many formulas. To memorize them at all times is impractical for the majOCitY.
WHAT REALLY Is THE MVA METHOD?
: .. :::Basica.lJy, the. MV A method is a modification of the Ohmic method in which the impedance of a circuit is the rum of the impedances of the various components of the circuit. Since, by definition, admittance is the reciprocal of impedance, it follows that the reciprocal of the system admittance is the sum
=. of the reciprocals of the admittances of the components.: Also,
.:':::::by='definition; theadmrrtance of a circuit or component is the
maXimum current or JCVA"llfunit vciltagewhich would flow through the circuit or component to a short circuit or fault
. when_supp'lie_d_fr()IIl~_~ource . of infJ!li~lLcapacity:.·_ Refer to Fig.!.·
1 y=
Zohms
.. :=   .~:~= K~~ ~ ~OOO X CI0!2 X ~ ..
MV As,: = (KV)2 X Y ..
Paper TOD73132, approved by the Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation at the 1973 Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, Houston, Tex., September 1719. Manuscript released for publication October
31,1973. .
The author is: with the Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco, Calif.
INFINITE BUS
he  VIZ
fi Iffv) I sc  y:r I.fjV) V I Z
vlEISC • E2/Z
VASC E2/z
z. 0.01 OHMS ., 13.8 ICV
• 1000 IICVI· 2 I Z
ICVASC MVASC
• ICV 21 Z
FAULT
E • {'Jv
I SC • SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT IN AMPERES
E • LINE TO LINE VOLTAGE IN VOLTS
V • LINE TO NEUTRAL VOLTAGE IN VOLTS '
Z • LI,!E TO NEUTRAL IMPi!DANCE IN OHMS
r.NA SC • SHORT CIRCUIT MVA
Fig. 1. One line diagram.
SYSTEM }
500 MV"
TRANSFORMER }
I50MVA
X • 0.1
13.81CV
MOTOR }
50 MVA
x~ • 0.2 5010.1 •
15010.2 •
MVA U~ • MVAl • MVAZI MVAl + MVA2 • 500. 500/1500 + 1500 • 250
MVA 1+3· 250 + 250 • 500
I sc· 1500. 1000 /'IT. 13.8 • meoo AJoII'S
Fig. 2. Impedance diagram.
Fig. 3. MY A diagram.
Practically, the MV A method is used by separating the circuit into components, calculating each component with its own infinite bus as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Fig. 2 is a typical impedance diagram of a one line diagram. Fig. 3 is an MV A diagram. The conversion from a one . line diagram to an MV A diagram is simple arithmetic. .
Component 1, the system, is normally given a short circuit MVA rating. So, one merely writes down 500, which is its system short circuit MV A. Sometimes, if the system MV A is not available, but its voltage and impedance are given, the short circuit MVA can be calculated with the application of
(3).
Y Zohnu Zpu KV KVAs,:
MVAs,:
MVAs,:
(1)
(2) (3)
(4)
admittance of a circuit impedance in ohms impedance in per unit line to line voltage short circuit KV A short circuit MV A
(13.8)2/0.01 = 19000 (for Fig. 1).
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
Next, for component 2, use (4). The short cir~~t MVA ?f ~ransformer is equal to its own MV A base divided by Its oJ ••• ' per unit impedance. (Use reactance X with the MVA
method.) '. ,
Next, for component 3, ag~ u...<:e (4). The short circuit MVA'contribuHonoFtnemotoi:is:'eqiiaI:£o' its 'own MVA base divided by Tts ownper unit irnpedancer=fl.Ise reactance X with the MVA method.)
Now, let us examine the MV A diagram, Fig. 3. If a short circuit is taken at point F, there will be a series flow of MVA1 and 'MVA2, and their combination will be in parallel with MVA3. The question now is: how do you combine the MV A values in series and in parallel? The answer is again simple arithmetic
series
(MVA1)i(MVA2)MVA1,2 =
(MVAd + (MY A2)
MV A I + 2 = MV A I + MV A2 •.
parallel
From (5) and (6), it cart easily be recognized that series MY A combinations are exactly as resistances computed in parallel. Parallel MV A combinations are exactly as resistances computed in series.
The MV Asc at point F of Fig. 2 then can be calculated as follows:
_ 500 X 500 _ 250 MVA1,2  500 + 500 
MV Asc = MV A r + MV A3 = 250 + 250 = 500.
The term with the asterisk is the new MV A I value which is the result of combining MVA1 and MVA2• After the operation, the new MVA1 which is 250 MV A, replaces the old MV AI and MV A2• This scheme of replacing old quantities with new quantities relates'to computer data memory storage system.
At this point the short circuit MVA is solved. To find the. current value, only the voltage value is required. For example, if the voltage is 13.8 k~, t~.:..c~~~nt1sc is
~~MVAX 1000. 500 X 1000·  .~. _.
Y3 X KV "0 X I3]r~20_900 A.
THE ABC OF THE MV A
Up to now, the reader has spent about 15 min in slow reading. He has found that there has been nothing new, and the formulas are no more than good old Ohm's Law arithmetics. Now, he can forget the formulas and start the ABC.
A. Convert to MVA 's ."
Convert all one line components to short circuit MV A's.
Equipment. such .as generators, motors, ·transformers, etc., are normally given their own MVA and impedance or reactance DJ;rll~S. The short circuit MVA of each is equal to its MVA
divided by its own per unit impedance or reactance, :;or a feeder where voltage is given and its impedance or reo ictance is known, its short circuit MV A is equal to (KV? iivided by its impedance or reactance in ohms.
PAGE 4.7.2
A.. CONVERT TO "VA"
~
,
~G IIIOOMYA
 v
'; _"" 1.17 0+tMS
6. ) 'IMYA ~./'2KV N~ Xa..07W
.... ,2 KV
_ (&9)2 3.17
11) ~1'5 MYA
f M II
Xd  0.2
~
0.2
(a)
(b)
Fig. 4. The ABC of the MVA. (a) One line diagram. (b) MVA diagram.
(5)
B. COMBINE THE ..vA'S
(6)
r. SERIES: MVA,.2  .. VA, • MVA2 I MVA, + MVA2 2. 'ARALLEL: :.tVA, + 2 • '"VA, + MVA2
.3, OELTATOWYE
~~::: ~2
, Y3  =3
S  (0, • 021 + (02 • OJ! + (03 • 0,1. .
Y • WYE '
o • DELTA
(a)
(b)
Fig. S. The ABC of the MY A. (a) Delta connection. (b) Wye connection.
.; '\
11/A_:_2 ,J .. 5 • 7·1 .10
Fig. 6. Series combination ratio.
Incoming line short circuit duty in MV A is normally given by power companies. Therefore, use the value as given and no conversion is required. However, if impedance or reactance at the terminal is given, find its short circuit MV A by dividing its (KV? by its ohms.
~ conversion is being made, an MVA diagram is being developed. One line diagram 4{~) is replaced with MV A diagram 4{b).
. :'
B. Combine MVA 's
1) Series MY A's are combined as resistances in parallel.
2) Parallel MV A's are added arithmetically. Refer to Fig.
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
13.1 Ky 3OO"VA
x· om, OHMS
rMl]C .... I • ~
20MVA l{,j" 0.1
13.8 KV
;;:~~::;:.....~. =. .. ~ .. ~. ~~~=I·~· _.,
.== ' .... _ ._ 
,

,
lMVA
AlL MOTORS 15O200HP TOTAL' I MVA ~"".lI.2I5
x " D,Dlg DHMlI
x  0.01. OHMS
J<,j'" O.2li
Fig. 7. One line diagram.
4(b) for the following:
MVA = 1500 X 1230 = 675
1,2 1500 + 1230
(this IS the riew MV AI)
675 X 198
MVA1 3 = 6 = 153
, 75+198
MVA1+4 = MVAI + MYA4 = 153 + 75 = 228 228 X 1000
112=..[fXI2 =ll000A.
For MVAI:;; add MVA; and MYA;m series. For MVAI+4, add MY A t and MV A, in parallel. 112 is the short circuit current at 12 kV.
_..:3) Delta to. wye conversions are rarely used in ·industrial power distribution systems, but they are again simple arith
..:.._ITleiic.Reter toFi~ 5(a)and (b).~==  . ,
 4)ThLQUlYPQint that ru:e.di.morCaUenti9n is th.U:enes combination if a slide rule is not available. The attempt here is to be able to solve most short circuit problems with reasonable accuracywithout the use·ofaslide"rule;,.:...· _._
With the aid of the curve in Fig. 6, let us analyze the series combination
LetA =; MVAt,B =MVA2; and T= total MVA, so that
_. ~._. '_'_. '~T= A..X_.B_A (B)_=~" :'_':'
A+B::::A+B' A<B.
'/ • + B is platted as a constant on a loglog scale base from 100 which is the ratio of BfA. (Refer to Fig. 6.) For example, let A = 10, B = 40, and BfA = 4. Read 4, at 1J.Orizontal scale .. From 4 project upward until it intersects the
C, REDUCE THE MVA DIAGRAM
13.8KV
14 I
I
I
1
1 15
4.111kV
II
12
Fi,. 8. MY A diagram.
curve. Read the horizontal value 0.8, which is the result of BfA + B; then
T=A(BfA +B) = 10 X 0.8 = 8.
It is also noted that when combining two quantities in series, the result is always smaller than the smallest of the two. The. example shows the result to be 8 when combining 10 and ~.
C. Reduce MVA Diagram
Reducing an MVA diagram takes the same reduction process required for the per unit impedance diagram, except that MV A quantities are used instead of per unit impedances or reactances.
Fig. 7 is a typical distribution one line diagram including a delta connected feeder system. Reactances only are used for practical purposes. Fig. 8 is an MV A diagram that mows all elements in the one line in MY A quantities. Fig. 9(a) shows
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
_ ··~t ~~:..:
",..:..;"
(a)
"_"Vl~
~. . . • 11M! B I.
 _ _. 
_;__=  _  .
S J.IM!' 10' • 3Ile
VJ • 0; "wooo
s l.ge x 10'
v •• 0. • 1. . 201.
S 11M! .~o·
Va· De • 11M! • lOp" 1P .... ).0, "r\) 6 .,.0 't'y" D ~
." . s • IY'3·r.·.:';.!Y.!~.IYJIX I.V8!. IY,I :.; (Vel
• 1100001 • (1911 • 1100001 • (11111 • 11 .. 1 • (1911
• J.N I: lOti
(b)
11
(e)
Fig.9. MVA reduction.
=   _. :.':':
F,
'.lBKV
ie first step reduction sequence. Note that there are three .iIltS:"t6be.C:ilcwated, F1: F2; and F ;:=~
The:rllst~ ~ep r~CfUctffin:cornbines the series .and parallel irnponents so that the simplest diagram can be accomplished,
rd that any fault can be solved in random fashion. Fig.9(a) FJ"
oWSthat..items4<md5have been combined tomake a new JI.=±:::::"';";;
items 6 and 7 have been combined to make a new 6; items ·10 have been combined to make a new 8. Fig. 9(b) conrted a delta to a wye configuration. Fig. 9(c) is further duced_to Fig. IO(a), indicating items 2 and 4 have been ·mb·iii.~ ~.~~Iriake·ariew~2:: Figure 10(a) then ill the simplest igram. thatwould allow. the solving of any of the three rlts Inrandomselection. Figs. lO(a){c) show the reduction ~'Ss~ solving'::faulta.:Ft::;.Fn.md.F3lrespectively.
. WHY TIlE MY A METHOD?
. .
.l,~_': are many reasons why. the MVA method is recorn
.nded for industrial power short circuit calculations.
) It does not require a common MY A base as required by
: per unit method. .
~1
1
FJ J
"1
'2 .,
)
~
1
! PAGE 4.7.4
(a)
,,8KV
(b)
(e)
Fig. 10. MVA reduction.
1
1 j
. .
~ J t
'1
~ !
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
SYSTEM
lJ.B ICV
X • 0.151 onrm
5000 ICVA X 0.0GIi
F
2500 ICVA X ~.O.le
2.4 ICV
Fig. 11. One line diagram for comparison of methods.
2) It is not necessary to convert impedances from one voltage to another as required by the Ohmic method.
3) The conversion formulas as used for both the Ohmic and the per unit methods are complex and not easy to. memorize.
4) Both the Ohmic and the per unit methods usually end up with small decimals resulting from converting impedances from one voltage to another or from converting impedances to .the same common base. Therefore, one can make mistakes
in the decimals, with resulting wrong answers.
5) The MV A method utilizes large whole numbers denoting MVA quantities. With a little practice, one can estimate the sult by looking at the combination. For example, 10 and 10
ill.series become 5; 10 and 100 in series become 9.1; and 10 and 10 000 in series give 10. A small number combined with too large a number, 100 times larger or more, will have no effect on the small number.
In order to further prove the preceding points, it is necessary ·to give the following comparison of methods that are utilized  in solving industrial power system short circuits.
COMPARISON OF METHODS
A one line diagram, Fig. 11, is shown. Solve the threephase  ·fault at pointF' withand without motor contribution.
~.  ..  =NgJe that r~~~.illlCes only_ ale. consideredTn.:ihe thr.e~~cases being compared .. It is felt that using impedances would give the same result, but would complicate the calculations. It is
·alsowidely recognizedand acceptable  byindustries to use reactances only in calculating industrial power system short circuits, in that it would result in a higher short circuit value, perhaps by: O~ percent in most cases. Reference [1]
. exemplifies the use of reactances rather than impedances. c:·Figs. 12(a){c) tabulate the conversion calculations for the three methods. Figs. 1315 show the three methods utilized for comparison. Fig. 16 tabulates the results of the three
=:.method;::' ..  
CAN PHASEGROUND FAULT BE SOLVED?
The answer, of course, is yes. Solving phaseground fault is as easy as solving threephase fault.
Refer to Figs. 4{a) and (b). This problem is taken from the California State Professional Engineer Registration Examina
PAGE 4.7.5
o..oc MlTHOO
k _ 1000 "'i,KVt2
KV ~ 1000. ":1..) 2
sYSTEM .
IOIlCOO
I. • R.:Il.Jlli!!l
x  Q ,~] QHN;i
1l.8I(V FEEDEII
2.
x IOCXJ. IX ~.U.) • IICV)2
TRAHSI'OfI"'EII KVAb • 1000. 0.11M. 12.4)2
a, 5000
" 0.010 OHMS
X· 1000. IXP.U.W IKV)2
KVAb
MOTOII _ 1000. 0.' • .: (2.111,2
2500
4. • O..Je'! OHMS (a)
PEA UNIT METHOD
(500000 ICVA IlASE)
X BASE ICVA. (I)
P.U.· ICV" s.c,
SYSTEM " 500000.1
500000
I. ." 1.000
XP.U.' IDHMS) • IBASE ICVA)
1000. (KV)2
1l.8I(V FEEDEII . (0.151).,SOOOOO)
(13.1)2.'000
2. .~
x IX P.U.) • (BASE ICVA)
P.U.  KVA·T
TRAHSI'OA"'ER 1a.055) • 15ODOOO)
"
sooo
J. " 5.500
X (~.U) • (BASE ICVA)
P.U. ICVAm
MOTOR· (a. 18) • 1500000)
. 2SOO
4. • 32.000 (b) ,
MVA METHOO
MVA1 • 500
SYSTEM
(KV)2 113.8) 2
MV~''
ll.IJ(V FEEDER X OHMS 0.151
2.  12'&1

MVAT 5
MV"J "  " 
TRAHSFORMEA XP.U. a.05Ii
·91

MVAm 2.5
MVA4" "
MOTOR XP.U. 0.15
'15.8 .
4.  (c)
rig. 12. (a) Ohmic conversion. (b) Per unit conversion. (c) MVA cnnversion.
tion of August, 1965. As noted, the threephase fault has been solved to be 228 MY A at the 12kV bus. Since the positive sequence fault is equal to the negative sequence fault, therefore,
MVAxl = MV An = 228_
The zero sequence fault MVA, however, must be calculated, and its MVA value then is combined with the positive and negative MVA values. .
Refer to Fig. 4{a) again. During a fault on the 12kV bus, only the transformer and the motor contribute to zero sequence MVA's. The delta primary of the transformer blocks
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
SYSTEM
x,  D.3*l OHMS 0 '~IKV . X2  0.,5' OHMS 0 '3.I1(V _.' X,,2  063' OHMS 0 'J.aKV
X,.2  10.=).100310 2.4KV ()  0.0'1 OHMS 0 2.4KV
",.,
CABLE X3 0.00!3 OHMS" 2.4KV
~;:::~~~~~~~~~~;::'=.,XF.~ ~ OHMS 0 ~V .
_==:::::::__._. _·_2_'1, _~ .. 1I...,. (KV) 2 _ 12.4)2072.1
XF o.on
MOTOR
X.  0.3M OHMS 0 2.4KII
XF+t04 0 10.079) • (0.36il1 ~ OHMS (0.079) • (LJ&a)
MII:~+t04  (KV) 2 _ (2.,) 2 _ l1li
x; ~
 OHMS 2.4  OHMS,:u' 12.4/'3.8) 2
 OHMS 13.8 • (D.03)
SYSTEM
PER UNIT METHOD BASE MilA. 500
X, 1.000
X2• 0.39<1
CABLE
X3  5.500 XF G._
MV ... F·• ~/tIl19<l • ~
WITHOUT MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
. TRANSF
F 2.4KV
!lUge) • (32.000)
X F>M  (8._). (32.000)  6.67
___ . OR
WITH MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
Fig. 14. Reactance diagram.
MV ... METHOD
,": ·2
MVA,+4 .~
. ~=:":'.
 __ __.
 ~ "_.;;'.Al£]'HCIlS._ :._ OHMIC _ _ PER UNIT
Mil'"
F"'ULTCONDIT~ METHOD METHOD METHOD
FAULT" 2.4KV BUS 72.8 MV ... 72.8 MilA 72.8 MV'"
'" 'lOUT MOTOR CONTRIBUTION
_T 0 2.0KIIBUS I18WV", .. ... &8.2MVA
I WITH MOTOR CONTRIBUTION Fig. 16. Result oC comparison oC methods.
PAGE 4.7.6
J.l'HA£E FAULT MVA  221
MVA X OT
THEREFORE:
'2KV
MVAX1'MVAX2'm
MVA X O· MVA X OT' MVA XOM • '" + 150
'5 .
1150 °T.f_MOTOR ZERO SEOUENCE REACTANCE
Fii. 17. Zero sequence Cault power.
POSITIVE SEQUENCE POWER
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE POWER
ZERO seQUENCE POWER
MVA 1.2 • ~2  ill
MVA'.3 • 114 X 348/114 +348·!!t MVAFO • 3 X 16  i1!§
IFO·· 258 X 10001 n.,2 ~
Fig. 1 B. Phaseground fault of MY A circuit.
any zero sequence power flowing from the system and across the transformer. Therefore, Fig. 17 shows the zero sequence power circuit
MV AXOT = MV AXl = MV An = 198
(the transformer zero sequence reactance is equal to its positive and negative reactances)
15 MVAxOM== 150MVA 0.1
(since the zero sequence reactance of the motor is about t of its positive sequence reactance). The total zero sequence fault power then is equal to the sum, which is
MVAxOT + MVAxOM = 198 + 150 = 348.
The phaseground fault power is obtained withthe use of Fig. 18. Since these are three branches in parallel, the sanplest approach is to take one branch out of the circuit and solve its MVA value, then multiply. the value by 3, which gives the fmal answer
MVA"l =228/2= 114
114 X 348 .
MVA  86
\ .3  114 + 348 
MV AFO = 3 X 86 = 258 258 X 1000
lFO = vrx 12 = 12400A.
The problem, as shown in Fig. 4(a), is also solved with the per unit method as Appendix I. This gives further comparison of
I.n
:!
i I ',I
I
[
i
I
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
oe • ....,
_=_ ~~~~ _'''+480 ~221 MVA
 .  221 • 1000
1  10800 iJ .. 12 =
,KV,2 11212
 04&0
.J .J
1.11.21 .. _ ::::=::=,.._ 1.0 _ ~ 0.&91
X, + X2 + Xo t lX, 0.456 + 0.&56 + 0.428 + 0.3 2.031 
_. _ ItpU.: ~I.t.~ J. 0.&92 1 .• 4n ':
I,· lAn II 7230 ~
Fig. 19: Phase to ground fault with added fault reactance Xp
'. ~~ I". ~.r.
'v'; II e
c
0
l ZERO ! t
I 11
POS. I t
12
I NEG. I t Ql'ERATORS
• ~  .'  .0.500 + J 0.8811 .2 ~D_."b _ .0.500 • J 0._
.l .. 1.0 ." ••
CONN[CTIONS BETWEEN SEOUENCE NETWORKS
Fig. 20. Two lines to ground fault.
 Fig.e.2 1: Twophaseto ground. fault by per unit.method,
:z:za.678
MVAX, ~  ~

,,~:_ t_·
~Y~~f
====MV"X MV":e
1 1
 1 au. __1:!!__ ~+221
~. . ~VAF3MVAXa 3.R&~
IF~
Fig. 22. Twophase to ground fault by MVA method,
SYSTEM SYMETRICAL SHORT CIRCUIT. SOO MV"
~OOHM
7.5 MVA TRANSF
x o.OUJ 0Il/13.II(V
13.& KV
X 0.19 OHM
'71 MY", F2 'SHRT CIRCUln
4000 HP INDUCTION MOTOR
30S MVA
STARTING MVA  21 AT 13.& KV . '19.3 MVA AT 13.2 KVI
PAGE 4.7.7
~'~~r~~~~
VII S1.fVA _~~tMI · .. ~'7..: .. ~~ .; l~··
SMVA + MVA sc L • ; •• : _ ...
SMVA" STARTING IlfVA
MVA SC  SHOAT CIRCUIT tIlVA
V d  INSTANTANEOUS VOLTA(U DAOP
V d  21121 + 71  21192  Il.22I
V Tll.; = 1..o.22ii  0.772
V T13.2  o.m. 1~,2
13.2
 0.Il0l5 OR 110.510
V T13..l1 • MOTOR TERMINAL VOLTAGE ~ 13..11(V V Tl:1.2 • MOTOR TERMINAL VOLTAoGE • 13.2 KV
Fig. 23. Motor starting voltage drop calculation.
the amount of calculation involved between the MV A and the per unit methods.
Phaseground fault with an added fault neutral reactance also can be calculated with the MV A method. Fig. 19 illustrates jhe preceding problem with an added fault neutral reactance Xf. Note that using both the MY A and the per unit methods obtain the same result except that the MY A method shows much less calculation.
TwOPHASE TO GROUND FAULT
Can twophase to ground fault be solved with the MVA method? The answer is again, yes. Fig. 20 shows a twophase to ground fault diagram and connections between sequence networks. As indicated, If is the fault current between phases C,B, and ground.
In order to develop an MV A equation for twophase to ground fault calculations, the classical symmetrical component equations are utilized as basis. Relationships between phase and sequence quantities are expressed by the following: .
Va = Vo + VI + Vl (7)
Vb = Vo +alV, +aVl (8)
Ve = Vo +aV, tal Vl (9)
la = 10 + I, + t, (10)
Ib =/0 +a2/, +a12 (II)
Ie =10 + all +a2Il· (12) From the preceding equations, the following relationships are obtained:
Vo = i (Va + Vb + Ve) . (13)
VI = i (Va +aVb +a2 Ve) (14)
V2 = i (Va + a2 Vb + aVe) (15)
10 =j(Ia+Ib + Ie) (16)
11 = i (fa + alb +a2Ie) (I 7)
12 = i (fa + a2 h + ale)· (I 8) FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
:::'_':::::;.   ._ . . .
. .
.. ...:....~ ...
.23 ==rc:::'_ '., 
.', . ...:._
.:::=.T~~ _
10
3 4
20
y
PAGE 4.7.8
o .. ~ .
".,,,
0., .,
5 • 30
7 •
40
12 13 14 10 70
9 10 11 50
15 1. 10
(a)
EOUAnON fOR LINE C, . 104
y· .. x·x
MVA,
y 1.1104
_M__
SlIVA
:cJlVE FOI'I X;;!TH "ex,'SMVA)
L_.~x ~A,.,. 01
suasTlTUTE X INTO A
Y 1.04
WV",.."SMVAI MVA,.
YiMVA,.J  1.04[MV",.. yISMVAI]
y  1.04 MV A,,!MV A,. + $MY A
EOUATION fOR LINE A, ~ _ '2'Yl
•.• , 2· .,
y • ° 1.D4. 0

x . MV",. c MV",. .
. r 1.04
OR__
MV",.. X MY"..
SMVA  STARTING MYA
MV",.  SHORT CIRCUIT MVA V,  r  STARTING VOLTAGE
1.04 • 71 71 + 21
 0.801
(b)
Fig, 24, (a) Voltage drop by graphic solution. (b) Graphic solution proven by analytic geometry.
 8O.5~ ",,",ox.
Connections between sequence networks can be found from
13)=<f8)::·;::.:.:::~~   .
 10'+/1 t/2 =0
======:=~~:=:. ro = VI ~. Vi·.' .. .==.
~ .''~
~tiOfl& (19) anl'(20)~e sl!:t~fi~fthesequence net. orks are connected as follows:
~_~·_··_·=~_·_·~ ~I~btI~ __
rd by addition of (11) and (12)
Ib+1c='2/0 + (a" +a)(/1 +12),
..
nCE_a1.:!: a ~~:::.1, th~r~fore; .... ;;__ _.: .
_____ ~/b.!:.L:.'::jf.'= 2/0:, (/l_U2)' __
nce
. _ '.     .
~
10 + II + 12 = 0 11+/1=/0.
erefore
From the preceding analysis, (22)(25) can be derived for the application of both the per unit method
(19) (20)
(22)
(23)
and the MV A method
_ MV A J,)(.(MV A2 + MV Ao) MVAx, MVAI+(MVA2 + MVAo)
(24)
(25)
Fig. 21 shows the use of (22) and (23) for solving the twophase to ground fault of the same problem, the per unit method. Fig. 22 indicates the utilization of (24) and (25) for solving the twophase to ground fault of the same problem, the MV A method. It is obvious as shown, that the use of the
(21) MV A method is simpler.
I
of 1
i
I
1
~
I
t
I
I
]
~
" 1
i 1
I
I
I
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
PAGE 4.7.9
1~ 1,_
115
110i,_~
   ' ~
so
w Cl «
~ 60 o
>
;rI!
40
20
.2
3
B
4
7
5
6
2
3
4
~
""TOft STARTING VOLTA!;E 01il01i
1. S.t O",_r.tor ''A'. On 7"'"'''''' of lhart circuit s cel e and ,wl", it 10 Its Mirllne '.111 on 10Lt"L on the 'X. 'WOlu!Je s cel e ..
2. Sat Operator "I" on 21 turting ,.,VA on short circuit s ce Ie ,
J. 5 .... 1"9 Operator "t" so Its h.alrlirw r.'h on tM Int.rucalon of Opeutor '''au .. nd lott'%. ...aIU9Co
r.. It •• d 80.5l. 'ItOlhgc en crolllf19 point IUd. by O~ration" ."''' .nd "'C" ".
5. If It Is d4lsirad to find ~t surtlntj voltag_ c .. n be obtained with Inc.renlng bus voltAlgcs to I07X and 1094 (corrnpondll't9 to 211.nd Sl tap lettln9' .bov. no,.... I tran,for.r volug.).
A .. S""ftC] O~,.tor ''C'' 10 Its hairline hils on Intersection of Dpocutor "I" and Ion volt.9C.
,
a •• d 82.51 on crof"lng point IMdc by O~ntors ' ..... and ''C''.
I. S...,lng OSM'rltor ''CH so Its hairline hils on Intructlon of Open tor "I" aM 109%0 volt.cre.
" •• d 85l. on c~.lng point .. de by Open ton .... " Ind ''C''.
9
10
13 14
17 18
19
20
15 16
11
12
5
6
10
8
7
9
SHORT CIRCUIT MVA. Fig. 25. Slide rule model.
MVAMETHOD FOR INSTANTANEOUS VOLTAGE EsTIMATE Large motors are frequently connected to power systems ~:~_.consisting of complicatednetworks of lines and cables for . which a calculation of the voltage drop would be difficult.
Yet, it may be critical to know approximately what the __ voltag~at certain bus must be. . TIlls is because the voltage affects the motor torque in a square function; i.e., motor :torque varies as . the_square _ of the voltage for a l Gpercent
=~~01tage drop== . ~.=~'. : .. . ~.~ .   _._.

_ ..
torque cr (E) l
_T= (0.9Jl =~.81 or 81 percent.
The torque loss is 19 percent.
The voltage drop may be estimated with reasonable accuracy, however, if the short circuit MVA is known at the ~ _. poin 1. of po~er delivery ..  When motor starting MV A is drawn . from' a system, the voltage drop in per. unit of the initial _. voltage irapproximately equal to the motor starting MV A _ divid~d. by the su~ of this MV A and the short circuit MV A
v = MYA:s
pu MV As + MV Asc·
•• g. 23 shows an example applying the MV A method in estimating the voltage at the 13.8kV bus when a large motor is started.
(26)
Fig. 24(a) shows a graphic solution of the problem. Figure 24(b) illustrates the validity of the graphic solution by analytic geometry. Fig. 25 shows a slide rule made for the sole purpose of solving instantaneous voltage drop in starting large motors. The instruction for the use of the slide rule as shown is selfexplanatory.
Fig. 26 is a compilation of standard industrial nominal voltages and motor terminal voltages. Note that the unique relationship between the nominal and terminal voltages is 4 percent different. 'This unique relationship aids the slide rule operation in solving instantaneous voltage drop during motor starting.
THE SIMPLE COMPUTER TIME SHARE PROGRAM
Why is it necessary to develop a computer program for such an easy method? . The answer is simply economics. True, the MY A method enables the engineer to quickly calculate the faults on a power system, but how about documentation? After the engineer finishes his calculation, the result needs typing, proofreading, etc. From ~anual calculation to printing, the estimated cost for a problem as shown in Appendix II, having 12 components and three faults, is approximately S100 including' the engineer's pay. But the time share program solution from input to printout costs approximately S24 (S12 for engineering time and 512 for computer and terminal
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
A· TRANSFORMER SECOHoARY VOLTAOE B· MOTOR TERMINAL VOLTAGE .
AlB· UO/M;O· 2400/2300·41110/<4000·12000/11600 '. • 13800/13200 • Z2'OOI22000 • 1001'1,
_EN ONE 2 112 TRANSFORMER TAP IS USED:
_ , AlB • '90/4<50 • 24aO/2300 • 42110/4000 • 1Z300/11600 • 1'100/13200 • 23500122000 • 107'1.
ig. 26:Pcrcent 'motor terminal vcltage irelated to transformer secondary voltage.
me). As the problem involves more components and more aults, the cost differential increases noticeably.
Appendix II is a time share computer solution of Fig. 7. 'he program itself is a conversational type. The user of the rogram canInput the databy aprepared tape or by typing re data as the computer' is ready 10 receive tile data.
The input data are separated into two sections. Section one to use lines 200 through 399 for MV A items as shown with
te use of the MVA method. For example, item 1 is 300 IVA, item 2 is 200 MV A, etc. Section two is to use lines 00 through 999 for 'command sequence. For example, line 00 data 1, 4, 5 instructs the' computer to combine items 4 rd 5 in series; the first number, 1, is for a series operation. 1 line 400 data, there is a 2, 8, and 9, which instructs the ~mputer to combine items 8 and 9 in parallel; the first umber, 2, i~for a parallel operation. A 3, 3,4,6 command .structs the computer to convert a delta to wye operation of
"',4,and6.
~; to Appendix lI. The fault 1 result is 533.4 MVA, hich is close to the manual solution result of 533 MVA. ote the computer asked for a kilovolt input. The user itered the voltage. The computer then asked whether the rer prefers an interrupting duty or a momentary duty cornputiOIf.:_.As shown, fault 1 requires an interrupting calculation Id the' computer gave a series of output selections to meet wi! Standard latest requirement of multipliers. The comIter solution sequence is exactly as shown on Fig. 10(a) for ult 1, manual solution.
For fault 2, line 410 data are replaced with new commands
$.own:::.Notk~ ihat...thtu;~ue.n~ej_Qllows.the MVA diagram, %r1 O(b ~The:::r~f fault2is261.9MVA which was anually solved to be 262 MV A, Fig. 1 O(b). The computer ain asked for a kilovolt input and a 4.16 was given. Thenextqueslion again wasfoflfiteiTupting duty 'or omentary duty. The answer was momentary so the comIter gave two answers that are in accordance with [2] .
For fault 3, line 410 data are replaced with new commands at follow _the sequence as shown on Fig. 1 O( c). The computer ked for a kilovolt input, and 0.48 was given. Because 0.48 r  is 'alowvoltage" system, . the "computer automatically inted . .9!1tnv~_ansW~r~.Jo suit the user's choice. The multiers arelill"1ri"accordance with theJEEFRed Book #141, ction IV ...
the MV A method is mastered in about an hour's lie, It will take no more than fifteen minutes to learn to use ~ computer program. Appendix III is a premade graph for ick estimate of instantaneous voltage in starting large motors.
PAGE 4.7.10
CONCLUSION
The paper described a unique easy to learn and easy to remember method for solving industrial power distribution system short circuit problems. The examples given proved its effectiveness in terms of speed, accuracy, and economy over other conventional Ohmic and per unit methods. The writer has been using it for the past twenty years for many projects, small and large, and found it most effective because it seldom required one to memorize formulas as with other methods.
The MV A method also has been taught in various evening schools and corporation sponsored seminars, including the University of California Extension, ITC College, Bechtel Corporation, Pacific Gas and Electric Co., etc., in the San Francisco Bay area for the past seven years.
REFERENCES
[1) Electrical Power Distribution [or Industrial Plants, IEEE Standard 141,1969, ch. IV.
[2) IEEE Red Book,'EEE Standard 141, 1969, sect. IV.
ApPENDIX I
The following problem is taken from the California ~ate P.E. Registration Examination of August, 1965. The problem will be solved with the per unit method.
A. Solve for ).ph.se F.ult
B. Solve for sinqle lina to ground f.ult
A. )PHASE FAULT
IWAban  '5DHVA
)(.Vbna ·69 .lind 12 respec:tively
Xb 69· (xV12 x 1000· (6912.,000.31.8 Ohm,
ue KVAb•s• 150000
• (1212 x 1000 • 0.96 0 ...... 150000
150000 • 1250 A
~
I SOOOO  72)0 A
VT7T2
Xutility p.U,  1.0 x ~~:bU. ·I~~g~~· O.IOOp.u.
s.c.
Xtr.n"f. p.U, • trued p.u. :~:b.S.  0.01511 lf~~gg .0.750 p.u. r.ted
XI' • Xrated 0,""", • J.87 • 0.121 p.u,
.,. p.u, Xb•slI }T":"B'
Xmotor diu· 0.200 x 'f~~gg • 1.00 p.u.
(a
Xa • Xut• + XII .... Xtr,n,f
• 0.100 +.0.121 • 0.750
• 0.971 .
.u.
x ..
dl
Xb • 0.200
X • 0.971 • 2 • 0.655
a9 ~
I fault· f . Hss . 1.525 A .g
I".ault J ph (iI 12ltY  Ifault p.u. )( lb ... 12 J(V
·1.525. 7230 • ~
I j ~
{
1
f
i
!
J
1 I
.~
}
;
FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
_ __
z.ro s..qu.nc:...
E •• 1.0
x • 0.655
0,
X
n JI'IOtD~
.~_.J___  .
Xo nt • ~~t"1) T~='~..:u~:.':~ of Xo tr • !:~~ir:~o=unc.
Xmotor dO" • ~t!=::· t~b~::~I.nt
Xmotor dl"  Posltl .... s.QUllnc. Subtr.n,l.nl k.aacu~ o( the Hotor
Xo nt • 3Xn .,[or • 0 Xo lr • 0.750
Xmotor dO"  t x ..ator dP' • 1.000
X •• O.7SD JI__'  ~. O.1!28
, ~ 1.];0 
E • 1.0
___L655
I
_ _l'_655
_ _ ...: _' ~_·t_0'42B
~    :..~: :== ~=.' L. '_: _=_= _. _J
'., • '.2 
I  I
.0 0.655 + 0.655 + 0.428
 I  0.575
r.m
loult p.u.  (~+l.Z+I~~J·(0.575)  I.n
'fault. lfault p.u. x Ib.es. 12 KV
 I._n x nJO 12,4ll0A
 .. _
,'="'_'__ 
t" .. :.:..
PAGE 4.7.11
!t[ADY "TAr'E "£MY
200 OoIITA JOO, 200, 10000, I DODO , 200, 10000 210 O ... rA 200,5. 10.24,15.4
400 DATA I, 4. 5, 1,6.7, 2,8,9, 2,8,10, J, J.  , .(,
"'0 DATA I. II, 12, 2, B, 11, I,J. 8, 1,2,4, 2,;. J, 1,2,6, 2, I, 2
"""
IS THIS TH£: FIRST FAULT T' Ie .IIl)fH I.YES. 0 ....
11
NlDE NIl 1
2
J
4
5
6
7
B
~
10
11
12
""A JOO.O 200,0
10000.0 10000.0 200.0 10000.0
200.0 5.0 10.0 24.0 15 _0 4.0
a A AHD e ""DES
1 SE", E5 10000.0 200.0 196.1 4 5
2 5ERI ES 10000.0 200.0 196. I 6 7
J PAIVoLlEl 5.0 10,0 15.0 B 9
4 PAlVolLEl IS .0 24.0 J9.0 B 10
5 DELTA 10000.0 196.1 196.1 J 4
lIVE J96.0 201%.1 20196.1
6 SE.,E5 15.0 4.0 J.2 11 12
7 PAlVolLEl J9.0 3.2 42.2 B 11
B 5E.,E5 J96.0 42.2 3B.l 3 B
9 SEAlES 200.0 20196.1 19B.0 2 ..
10 PAlVollEL 198.0 J8.1 236. I 2 J
11 5ERI E5 236.1 20196.1 rill1 2 6
12 PAlVollEL 300.0 2ll.4 4 2
INPUT kV 713.8 ENTER I fU. INTE~~UPTINC DUTY, 2 FU MlM£HTAAY DUTY 71
IHT[,,'WPTlNC DUTY X/R MTIt
XI. ItIlTIPlIE. HVA AT FAULT
I SYI1I1(TllltAl
4160 1.2 640.1 26779.6
26'0<1 1.1 586.B 24547 .s
lYE. 60 1.3 693." 29011.2
025 1.0 533." 22J16.J
READY ,"TAPE READY
410 OATA r , r t , 12. 2.8. n , I. I, 6. 1.2. It, 2, 1.2.
I, I, J, 2, I. I
::RUN
IS THI5 THE FIRST FAULT T' BE litU"7 .'.YES. 0 ..... 10
IHPUT NIl L1HE ""s \lHE'E P",HTlUT 5T"15 712.5
.... OE NO ,",VA
12 4.0
A 5 A AND B ""DES
DELTA 10000.0 196.1 196.1 3
\lYE . 396.0 20196.1 20196.1
6 5[",E5 15,0 4.0 J.2 II 12
7 PAIVoLlEl _ J9.0 3.2 42.2 8 II
B SE.IES JOO.O 20196.1 2~S,6 ,
s 5E.IE5 200.0 20196. I 198.0 4
10 PAlVolLEl 2~5.6 198.0 4~J.6
II 5E",E5 493.6 396.0 Illijj
12 PMAllEl 219.7 42.2
.
INI'IIT KY 14.16
EHTU. , rill IHT(IUtUP'TINC; DUTY. 2 FIR I1tIHEHTAAY DlfTY 72
HIP1£HTMY DUTY
xl" RATI' 010 lYE' 10
xr« MULTIPLIER 1.5 1.6
I'WA AT FAULT 392.8 419.0
1 SY,..;£TIUCAl 54520.2 5B154.9 r. FUSE TECHNOLOGY COURSE LEVEL 2
PAGE 4.7.12
ApPEND I X III
A READYMADE GRAPH FOR QUICK ESTIMATE OF INSTANTANEOUS VOLTAGE IN STARTING LARGE MOTORS
.
I I I
I I I
Eo<
....
?i
'" I
'"
...
'" r
c:l
~
0
>
SHORT CUCUIT INA
_l IS'THI~ THE rll\~.TrAIJLT T' BE f\U~? ' .. YES.O";H"' •• 
10 . _
INPUT n.r'.LlHE HeS WERE Pl'tINTillIT STAATS
712 ,6 •
IittOEHfI I1VA ,':. :, • .::: 
12 ~ ~ .:.:_ ~.O :~.: = _.... ;~.
.H . .. ...
.10
":_".:
.. 
• A a" A AHD a H'OES
6 SEA I [S' 300.0 ·'20196.1 295.6 6
7 SERI ES . _. 200.0 '20196.1 19B.0 4
C. PARAllEl .. 295.6 19B.0 493.6 2
9 SER I ES 493.6 396.0 219.7 3
10 PARALLEL 219.7 39.0 258.7 B
U_.s..ERIE.5.. ____ . _.25B.7 _15.0 '''.2 11
'"2" PARALLEL  ._ •. 14,2 .. =~"~_'" 4.0 @2J 12 .1"
.SO
HPUT KV ?4B
.lO
iULTlPLIER 1.0
L/V HIILDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER "R L/V FUSES
1.25
ltv HOTOR STARTER WITH
• HOLOEO CIRCuiT BREAKER
~R FUSE
1."
HIGH SPEED FUSE reR FEEDER (0.00" SEC
. ~R LESS)
1.6 HIGH SPEED FUSE F~R HIITIR STARTER (0.004 SEC
IR LESS)
VA AT FAULT SYMMETRICAL
18.2 21860.8
25.4 30610.7
22.7 27331.0
29.1 34983.6

.~: .. __ " 
_'. ._ ... ,
===:..  ====
_. __ .. _,
z~:·:;0'::=~·::~ ~.~7:::.:~~':_,)_:~~~:~~: :·~:.:~:~:i·~~
Moon H. Yuen (M'54SM'66) received the B.S.E.E. degree in 1948 from Heald Engineering College, San Francisco, Calif., and the BMC from the University of California Extension, Berkeley, in 1970.
Currently, he is the Head of the Electrical Group of Scientific Development Facilities Engi
~~~I;~~~~~~[=:n~e~e~nn~'f;g, Bechtel Corporation, San Francisco, Calif. Since 1965, he has also been the Organizer
and Teacher of electrical engineering and design courses at for the University of California Ex
 . and .Bechtel Manpower Development Programs, and is the author of 12 technical papers and various class texts on these subjects. In 1973, he was granted a U.S. Patent in "Solid State ControlLow Voltage Heating of Motors."
Mr. Yuen is a Registered Professional Engineer in the States of California, Louisiana, Michi
. gan, New York, South Carolina, Oregon, Hawaii; Illinois, florida, Texas, Washington, and Washington, D.C. He is a member of the National Council of Engineering Examiners. He is also registered in the Province of Alberta, Canada, and a member of the Instrument Society of America.
f'
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.