This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
If you know the laws of buoyancy it doesn’t mean that you know how to swim. It is only through jumping in the water that you get the feel of the depth. This is applicable to every aspect of life. Therefore practical training is of utmost importance. The object of undergoing this training was to get familiar with the weary waters of the industry and to learn how to put theory into practice. I have been greatly privileged to have undergone training at PTL. This report contains the extract of things I learned during my training period. HARPREET SINGH
Any endeavor cannot lead to success unless and until a proper platform is provided for the same. This is the reason I find myself very fortunate to have undergone my industrial training of four weeks at PUNJAB TRACTORS LIMITED. The persons of my department and all other departments have extended a warm and helping hand. I am very fortunate to have had a chance to feel the gravity of what role Mechanical Engineering plays in the industry. It was a golden opportunity for me to get a chance to experience what it feels to be in a company where discipline, quality and hard work are the motto. This training helped me a lot in bridging the gap between the theoretical and the practical aspects of my knowledge. First of all I would like to thank Mr. K.K Sharma for his valuable guidance & encouragement as a teacher and a friend throughout my training period. I am also thankful to MR. J. SINGH for giving me an opportunity to undergo training in such a renowned company. My heartily thanks to Mr.H.S.Baweja who was my project manager & my guide through the project works. They always went out of their way to help me at all times. Their experience & knowledge motivated me to bring out the best in times. I am sure that the knowledge & information that I have gained during this period would be of immense value for my growth in the field of Mechanical Engineering.
1. INDIAN TRACTOR INDUSTRY.
BEGINNING OF INDIAN TRACTOR INDUSTRY.
MATURING YEARS OF INDIAN TRACTOR INDUSTRY.
INTRODUCTION TO COMPANY
SALES SCENARIO OF VARIOUS TRACTOR COMPANIES
UNITS OF SWARAJ GROUP
QUALITY CONTROL INSPECTION
INDIAN TRACTOR INDUSTRY
India being a predominantly agricultural country, where agriculture is the life and blood of the economy, has been a traditional manufacturer of different types of farm machinery and implements. However, the use of advanced agricultural techniques in India started only in early sixties. Modernization and tractor-ization in Indian agriculture is only post independence phenomenon. One of the achievements of green revolution has been that the farmers increasingly realized the advantage of tractor-ization for obtaining the timeliness of operations. This would happen only because of awareness of new farm technology among the farmers, rise in the level of their income and education. The biological source of energy especially bullocks, could not cope with the requirements of the changed situation. Therefore, introduction of tractors got accelerated in several agriculturally advanced states of country like Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, etc. Tractors were introduced to Indian agriculture in early twenties. Sh. Joginder Singh was the first farmer to use a tractor, called a steam plough then, on the 12000 acres estate he had inherited in the remote Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh. The demand of tractors rose sharply in last two decades. However, the rate of adaptation of tractors is different in different parts of the country. Punjab occupies number one rank in this regard. Punjab possesses only 1.5% of the geographical area of the country; the density of 85 tractors per hectare in Punjab is the highest as compared to national average of 10.5 tractors per hectare.
India’s large gross cropped area (GCA) is next only to the big two — USA and Russia. That and the highly fragmented land holdings in India have helped our country to become the largest tractor market in the world. In terms of total tractors in use in the country. the tractor density is very low at about 10.5 tractors per thousand hectares of GCA in comparison to the international average of about 28 tractors. No wonder. let us face hard facts. Figuratively speaking. with more than 50 per cent of our GDP being contributed directly or indirectly by agriculture. . Despite a phenomenal increase in tractor population in the country. per Se. Also. Thus the Indian tractor market. has to be viewed only after considering its position in the world. In terms of penetration. the small size of land holding in India.India is primarily an agrarian nation. which is far lower than the global average of above 80 HP. India has a tractor density of 10. India is considered the largest tractor market in the world. we are ranked a distant eighth.5 tractors per thousand hectares of Gross Cropped Area (GCA) as compared to the international average of close to 30 tractors per thousand GCA. have led to low average power of tractors at 35 Horse Power (HP). If that sounds great.
Total indigenous production of tractors by 1965 was just 6000. 1970: 33. all with foreign collaboration. established the actual manufacturing facilities.000). The Government’s decision to freely invite new entrepreneurs to manufacture tractor in 1968 and sudden upsurge in demand. With the successful introduction and acceptance of the high yielding seeds. Recognizing the situation. led to a scramble of new entrepreneurs for new collaborators. They were as follows: . 6 units eventually. there was a sudden upsurge in the demand for tractors after 1967 and the demand started multiplying at an annual rate of approximately 50% (1967:18. the birth of Indian Tractor Industry took place in 1959-60 when the imports were restricted and 5 tractor manufacturing units set up in the private sector. Date of commencement of commercial production and collaboration are given in following table. import of tractors into the country was liberalized and over and above the domestic production of 20. however. with the green revolution. A natural consequence of this sharp upsurge and consequent shortage was a heavy premium on the price of tractors. 13. In 1970.000.000 tractors were imported.000. With the parallel emphasis on industrialization.The Beginning of Indian Tractor Industry The decade of 60’s India saw green revolution resulting in increase in both production and productivity.
when a large number of ancillary manufactures had also established them and were in a position to supply a wide variety of components to the tractor industry. Today tractors with HP ranging from 12 to 75 are available in India.The Maturing Years With the entry of new units in 1970 and increasing Government pressure towards indigenization picked up substantially after 1970 and by 1978 almost all the tractors manufactured were nearly indigenous. when low cost import particularly from East European countries had become far more attractive. A fillip to indigenization was also given by the overall industrialization of the country. The sharp liberalization of imports in 1970 had given the nascent Indian Tractor Industry a substantial setback in 1970-73. At present 44 models tractors are available in India. In India. the variety in land conditions makes it necessary to diversify the availability of tractors. listed category-wise as follows: .
Range of Tractors available in India — .
the meager shift from 41 — 50 HP to 50 HP levels. Then. Firstly. This shows an interesting shift in tractor demand from lower HP to higher HP tractors in recent times. The shift could be categorized as two — fold.Industry Structure The tractor industry is segmented on the power / size of the tractor engine. expressed in terms of horse power (HP). it seems to belie the notion that as the average farm sizes dwindle. which used to be 35% in FY 1990—1991 has been pushed to the back seat by the 31 —40 HP segment. One. While the higher HP tractors are more costly in terms of maintenance and running costs. the drastic shift from less than 30 HP to 31 — 40 HP levels and two. The HP-wise composition of tractor industry sales (as shown in the table 6 and the graph showing Indian HP Range Trends) reveals that 31-40 HP tractors still constitute the largest segment with 57% of the total tractor sales in Financial Year (FY) 2002 2003. it would render the use of tractor uneconomical. there is the running costs angle to it as well. still the fact of the matter is that the sale of the higher HP tractors are increasing. The general change in the farmers’ preference for higher HP tractors is significant in more ways than one. It can also be seen that demand for less than the 30 HP segments. .
Future potential With a total of 140 million hectares and with the performance of around 2. With the average number of tractors in India per hectare well below the world average.2002. the average HP of tractors used is around 80 -100 HP. With the total land currently under irrigation being a small fraction of the total irrigation potential of 1134 lac hectares. The density of tractors varies from state to state with Punjab taking the lead at 65 tractors per 1000 hectares of irrigated land. Increasing benefits of mechanization have resulted in an increase in the tractor demand and thereby tractor population over the years. At present the Indian tractor industry is among the select few in the world that is growing. the Indian market is a market with a huge untapped potential. . The export market. has been projected to grow at around 10% per annum over the next five years. according to industry players. As per reports.18 lac tractors in the year 2001 . India is the largest market for the below 50 HP tractors in the world. exports rose from around 160 tractors in 1990-91 to an estimated 7500 tractors in 1998-99. India today stands as the largest manufacturer of tractors in the world. In international markets. a steady demand for tractors in the near future can be anticipated. Company’s Outlook It has been established that there is a close relationship between the growth rate in food grain production and intensity of tractor-ization.
which was a major player. prompted it.’s Birth Keeping in mind Punjab’s agrarian economy it was decided by the Punjab government to encourage the growth of industries. which has played a major role in bringing Punjab to the threshold of the industrial revolution. A Board of Directors manages the company with the Secretary.P. industrial department. the government of India and financial institutes like Punjab Financial Corporation (PFC) provided significant support. The Vice —Chairman and Managing Directors manage the day-today affairs. PUNJAB TRACTORS LIMITED was established on 27 June 1970. Punjab being the ex-officio chairman. a public limited company. is India’s first largescale project based company with a totally indigenous design. which is an important township of Punjab. Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation (PSIDC). Introduction to the Company Punjab Tractors Limited. With the dual objective of industrial and agriculture growth. The factory is located at the Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar. This task was entrusted to Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation (PSIDC). which complement Punjab’s agriculture growth. The public subscribed the remainder. The Shareholding Pattern chart displays the shareholders in Punjab Tractors Limited and their share proportions. know-how and technology.T.L. .
It manufactures many products and is helping in to develop India and improving its farming techniques.T.Growth of PTL Punjab Tractors Limited started with an annual capacity of 5000 tractors and with a capital of Rs. It went into commercial production in the year 1974. Ever since then P. which is a considerable achievement by any standards. which includes: • TRACTORS • HARVESTING COMBINE • FORK LIFTERS • AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTS • AUTOMOTIVE CASTINGS • LIGHT COMMERCIAL VEHICLES • SHELTER • ENGINES • CASTINGS • ROUGH TERRAIN . 3.7 crores.L. has not looked back. In the first twenty year of its existence its capacity has been increased to 24000 per annum. PTL is considered as a highly reputated and impressive company in India. In all. SWARAJ provides with a host of varied products. its first production of 26.6 BHP tractors was given the name SWARAJ— 720.
the markets are flooded with tractors of various companies.T. Sudan. moreover fully based upon Indian technology.Origin of the word “SWARAJ” The word SWARAJ”. Since.L. they had entered in international market. SALES SCENARIO OF VARIOUS TRACTOR COMPANIES Nowadays. means “freedom from bondage”. P. Most of the companies provide a range (in terms of power) of tractors to capture the market. Zambia. in Hindi. They are also sending their Harvesting Combines to South Korea having first AC cabin Harvesting Combine in India. Malaysia. SAWRAJ tractors find an important place in developing countries like Ghana. Uganda. SWARAJ are now a well-established brand name in country. The products of SWARAJ are not only restricted to Indian market but. Indonesia. Tanzania. etc. Kenya. Position of SWARAJ products in market With more than 2 Lac tractors and harvester combines operating in Indian farms. a project worth millions of dollars. So “SWARAJ” was appropriately chosen as its brand name. The data is collected for the year. SWARAJ GROUP sells its product under this brand name. was the first largest tractor project in India. Earlier. Following is the detailed list of sales of leading tractor-producing companies: . they had also transported the machined rims to Japan. SWARAJ is also an internationally recognized name in the developing world.
LIST OF PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED SWARAJ GROUP of industries manufactures a number of products.We see that three-four companies dominate total tractor production in India and around. SWARAJ occupies third position in the market in terms of sales of tractors. Following is the list of the components manufactured by them: • • • • • • • TRACTOR HARVESTOR COMBINES FORK LIFTRES LIGHT COMMERCIAL VEHICLES SHELTERS ENGINES CASTINGS .
3.5 bhp tractor introduced in 1974 a 39 bhp tractor introduced in 1975 a 19. SWARAJ 720: 5. It has very short turning radius so that it can move easily in limited spaces. The heart of the FD is a 48 bhp engine supplied by KIRLOSKAR OILS INDIA LIMITED. It was basically designed to harvest wheat and paddy. FORK LIFT TRUCKS These are also called fork lifters. They are used for loading and unloading of heavy equipment and various articles in an industry.1. TRACTOR Following is the list of models of tractors that have been manufactured by this company: 1. HARVESTER COMBINE It was India’s first indigenous built Harvester Combine called H 8100. SWARAJ 735: 4. SWARAJ 834: a 25 bhp tractor introduced in 2003 a 26. SWARAJ 724: 3. SWARAJ 722: 2. It is a six-cylinder engine developing a power of 105 bhp. These can be either battery operated or diesel operated. Its engine is supplied by ASHOK LEYLAND LIMITED.5 bhp tractor introduced in 1978 a 55 bhp tractor introduced in 2004 2. . The fork lifter is manufactured by SWARAJ in collaboration with a Japanese firm KOMATSU.
ENGINES : The engines are required for various models of tractors are supplied by SWARAJ ENGINE LIMITED. 6. Some work of the shelter is done in PUNWIRE also. reduction gearbox and gearbox of Harvester Combine are also supplied by Foundry Division. rear cover. Also. which are. and special order vans. used as loading vehicles. SHELTER SCD manufacturers shelters on order basis. . gearbox. FD—30 FB—15 FB—20 FB—25 FB—30 4. 5. mini buses.LIGHT COMMERCIAL VEHICLES: SWARAJ MAZDA manufactures light vehicles. which are made for defence purposes. FD—25 d. castings of various pulleys.Following is the list of fork lifters manufactured a. FD—20 c. 7. FD—15 b. CASTINGS Castings of differential. trumpet SWARAJ FOUNDARY DIVISION produces housing required for the production of tractors.
. of Japan for manufacturing both diesel and electric fork lifters up to 10 tonnes capacity. Additionally. It was started with a capital layout of Rs. it opened its new Division near Chandigarh. to fulfill the requirements of Indian market. Ropar. SCD is manufacturing some components for SWARAJ MAZDA DIVISION. Following are the five divisions of SWARAJ GROUP: • SWARAJ COMBINE DIVISION • SWARAJ FOUNDARY DIVISION • SWARAJ ENGINE DIVISION • SWARAJ TRACTOR DIVISION SWARAJ COMBINE DIVISION It was set up in 1980 in village Chappercheri. This year target has been set to 30000 tractors annually. 2. Mazda etc. It was India’s first indigenously produced self-propelled harvester combine. with the collaboration of foreign companies like Komatsu. But with the passage of time.5 tonnes respectively were brought out. FE-939). Later in the year. In 1985. SWARAJ had set up its plant for the production of tractors.6 crores to manufacture self-propelled harvester combines modeled SWARAJ-8100. it diversified into other fields. 2. the production of tractor was also started here. on Landran road near Kharar in Distt. indigenous diesel fork FD-20 and FD-25 with a lifting capacity of 2 tonnes. In year 1990.Units of SWARAJ Group Originally. company also entered in collaboration with KOMATSU FORKLIFT CO. Presently this division is manufacturing around 75 tractors (FE-855.
M. SWARAJ FOUNDARY DIVISION This plant is located in village Majri near Kurali in Ropar Distt. It was setup in the year 1987 for the manufacture of diesel engines.S.4% indigenous components. a volume growth of 27% as compared to previous year. refrigerated vans. In H. It is situated at a distance of around 22 km from Chandigarh.M.S. SWARAJ ENGINE DIVISION This plant is located in Mohali. Engine production in this company has reached level of 15921. . trumpet housing. It includes supply of input shafts. shop it supply gearbox. hub. This division supplies the casting to all other units of SWARAJ GROUP. mobile radio stations and other similar defense applications. It also supplies connecting rods to SWARAJ MAZDA DIVISION. It uses about 99. Shelters are used for various purposes like housing electronic data. Total revenue of this plant has reached up to Rs. handling systems.SWARAJ COMBINE DIVISION (SOD) is also producing FIBRE RE ENFORCED PLASTIC (FRP) shelters for Indian army.72.6 crores. It was setup in technical and financial collaboration with KIRLOSKAR OIL ENGINE LIMITED. differential rear cover. 15 crores. The current capacity of this plant is 800 tonnes of gray iron casting per annum on single shift basis. gear main drive and many other components used in L. This plant manufactures engines for SWARAJ TRACTORS. This plant was set up in the year 1980 with an initial investment of Rs. The installed capacity of this plant was 1500 engines per annum.
5 Km from Chandigarh. in Punjab. 1300 crores Hierarchy of the Organization – The Board of Directors with the Secretary Industries. The Vice-Chairman and the Managing Director manage the day-to-day operations. 1970 with the dual objective of industrial and agriculture growth. Nagar. an important industrial town. of Punjab as its Ex-officio Chairman.e. Department.. Level 1 : Chairman • Ex-officio (Secretary Industries. in Ropar District. of different HPs. It was set up on May 27.S. manages the company. S. This was India’s first large-scale project totally based upon indigenous design and technology of India itself.A. Around 3000 Rs. Presently around 90— 100 tractors are produced in a day in two shifts.SWARAJ TRACTORS DIVISION (MOHALI) Introduction Swaraj Tractor Division is situated at phase-IV. It was the first SWARAJ DIVISION to be set up. Govt. Rated capacity : Employee strength: Annual turnover: 40100 tractors per year. Govt. It manufactures different models of tractors i. of Punjab) Level 2 : Working Director • Vice-Chairman and Managing Director Level 3 : Executive Directors • Finance .
• Human Resource and Development • International Business Division • Manufacturing • Material Services • Swaraj Automotive Limited • Swaraj Motors Limited • Senior Vice President (Marketing) Level 4 : Vice President • (3-4 under each Executive Director in level 3) Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8 Level 9 Level 10 Level 11 Level 12 Level 13 Level 14 Level 15 : : : : : : : Assistant Vice President General Manager Chief Manager Senior Manager Manager Assistant Manager Senior Engineer Engineer Assistant Engineer Junior Engineer Operating Class .
Product services • • • • • • • • • Tool room Tool control cell (TOO) Industrial engineering Research & Development Production planning & control (PPO) Material Management & control (Stores) Quality Engineering Maintenance Construction 3.Manufacturing System STD operates through a series of departments. which can be broadly classified into: 1. Support Services • • • Management systems Finances Purchase . Production Light machine shop (LMS) Heavy machine shop (HMS) Assembly shop Heat treatment shop Paint shop 2.
Except the bevel gear generator & gear shaver. Vertical Milling machine. ft. Centre lathe. Vertical pull broaching machine. gear hobber. shafts and gears used in Tractors are manufactured here. drum turret lathe. turret lathe. D/E boring machine Gear Shaver GTR machine. All transmission components viz. copying lathe. Radial drilling machine. internal grinder. Capstan lathe. TYPES OF MACHINES Cylindrical grinder. It has more than 120 machines. . Fay Auto. Capstan lathe. twin chucker. Honing machine. CNC machine. Gear shaper. and casting. Centering & facing machine. all other machines are from HMT Ltd. Deburring machine. Power Hacksaw Special purpose drilling machine. forging and high standard of quality. Horizontal Milling Machine. boring. Bevel Gear Generator. which have been imported from WIv1W & Churchill of West Germany respectively. Chuckmatic. Facilities of this shop include Equipment for blank operation. drilling etc.000 sq. Centre Hole grinding machine. The rupees thirty one million plant and machinery of this shop installed in an area of 33.LIGHT MACHINE SHOP (LMS) INDRODUCTION: LMS is the largest section in the factory.
bevel gear cutting of all rounds on power hacksaws. fixtures and cutting tools Maintenance: attending breakdowns and carrying out preventive maintenance of machine tools etc. drilling of all gears reporting system. . Production planning and co-ordination: Micro loading of components on a daily basis.Function of the department Gear manufacture and grinding. • Industrial engineering: provision of process charts for machining operations. number of workmen shifts operations Inter relations with other departments • • Tool room : jigs. hobbing and broaching machine. • • Quality control and inspection. all type of grinding inner and outer gears. Gear shaving gear deburring machine. storage and inspection R & D Heat treatment. inspection etc. machining of bull gears.shot blasting operations lab testing. • • Assembly: ensuring proper fitment of components. facing and centering.
Boring: It is a process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled. Chamfer is provided for better look/to rough turning: in this operations max. Finish Turning: Here min. Metal is removed &very little oversize dimensions is left for further machining. Drilling: It is a process of making hole in an object by forcing a rotating tool called drill. Under Cutting: It is similar to grooving operation but is performed inside a hole. Each tooth removes a fixed amount of material. Chamfering: It is the operation of beveling the extreme end of the work piece. metal is removed &very fine finish is obtained on the work surface. Knurling: It is a proc of embossing a diamond shaped regular pattern on the surface of the work piece using a special knurling tool. Broaching: It is a method of metal removal by a tool that has successively higher cutting edges in a fixed path.Different Manufacturing Operations In LMS Facing: It is the operations of finishing the ends of the work. to make the ends flat and smooth& to make the piece of required length. Grooving: It is the operation of turning the groove or neck in order to terminate a thread or to provide adequate clearance enable nut to pass freely on threaded work piece. . to remove burs &to protect the work piece from being damaged.
COMPONENTS MACHINED IN THE SHOP: • Gearbox housing (Material—R-33. The tool used in shaping for teeth cutting is a multipoint cutting tool. About 20 SPM and 30 GPM are installed in a covered area of 47. 2600 tonnes of castings are machined every year on a two-shift basis. In addition to the machining of castings for the tractor. for grinding threads.Grinding: To grind means to ‘abrade’ to wear away by friction or to ‘sharpen’ . 180-230 BHN. HEAVY MACHINE SHOP INTRODUCTION: All heavy castings of tractors are machined in this shop with the help of variety of special machines (SPM). some jobs are also performed for Swaraj Mazda Limited.) • Differential Housing • Rear Cover • Trumpet Housing .In grinding.000 sq. at a cost of 20 million. the material is removed by a means of a rotating abrasive wheel. It is generally used for sharpening the cutting tool. These machines are tailor made by HMT to suit component requirements. 76-kg wt. Shaping: The process of cutting gears on the shaper is known as shaping. better surface finish etc. Casting. Hobbing: It is the process of cutting teeth on gear &shafts & is performed by a rotating tool called hob on the hobbing machine. ft.
Ensuring proper fitment of components. machining of tractors parts. INTER-RELATION WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS • • Tool room . micro loading of components on day-to-day basis. rear cover. reporting system. shift operations. gear box housing. production planning and control.Attending breakdown and carrying out preventive maintenance of machine tools. • • • Quality control & inspection — Storage and inspection.Provide process charts for machining operations. R&D Paint shop . fixtures and cutting tools. • Assembly . machining of some components for Mazda. ORGANISATION STRUCTURE Hierarchy. of workmen. no. steering housing of tractors. Maintenance . • Industrial engineering . trumpet housing.FUNCTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT Machining of heavy castings like differential housing.Requirement of jigs.
735. 744. BPS L/R Assembly. PTO Shaft Assembly 3. 724.TYPES OF MACHINES • • Radial drilling machine Vertical milling • • • • • • • • Horizontal milling Simplex milling Duplex milling Lathe Double end T/W boring Automatic lathe SPM (special purpose M/c) ASSEMBLY SHOP Function: Assembly of all finished components and bought out components for Swaraj722. Cage Assembly 2. 733. 834 Sections in Assembly 1. .
King Pin Assembly. Greasing all points 22. Stay Bars. 6. to be assembled with 12 14. and testing 8. to be assembled with 11 13. Trailor Hook. 16. 10. Front and Rear Frame. Differential Assembly and Testing 5. Mounting of front and rear tire . Engine assembly. Invasion into painting chamber 23. 13. and Trumpet Hsg. Steering assembly. 21. Assembly. and Assembly. Tie Rod assembly. Foot Board Assembly. Assembly. 14 with 16 19. Clutch Pedal Assembly. 17. Battery Mtg. with 17 20. Rear Cover Assembly and testing 9. Brake Hsg. Frame. 7. Brake Pedal. Differential Hsg. Assembly. 12. Brake Hsg. Steering Assembly. Assembly. Coupling Engine Assembly with 13 18. Gear Box Assembly. Trumpet Hsg. 15.. Coupling Gear Box Assembly with Differential Hsg. Assembly other main link items like Levelling Rod. Assembly.4. 11. Front Axle Beam Assembly.
Fuel Tank Assembly. . Fender Assembly. Front Grill etc Assembly. 32. 30. Differential assembly and sub-assembly. the machinist has to drop the final Part on the roller conveyor. which takes place when the different parts are on their way to assembly shop. Air Cleaner and Exhaust Assembly. Gear Box assembly and sub-assembly. The various parts reach the assembly. The assembly shop can be divided into various groups depending upon subparts being assembled. Side panel. 28. Differential Cover assembly. The final processed parts from the various parts of production shop such as HMS. These groups are: 1. 29.e. Battery fitment 31. 26. Front Shield. Oil Filling. Testing The Assembly Shop is the production shop where assembly and sub-assembly I of all the parts take place. with lights and other electrical fitments 25. Battery filling etc. Bonnet. LMS and Heat Treatment reach the assembly Shop. The above washing process takes place automatically i. 27. shop only after being washed. Rear Shield. and the parts reach the assembly shop after being automatically washed and dried. 3. cleansed and dried.24. Radiator Assembly. Dash Board Assembly and Seat assembly. 2.
The Assembly of Differential Hsg. differential cage etc. Differential Assembly: Before the various differential parts such as BP shaft. This constitutes the assembly of Cross Bar. Foot Board and other accessories. is complete with the assembly of lay shaft ext. needle bearings etc. the differential cage is collected from the conveyor firstly fitted with the necessary bearing races. Steering Gear Box Assembly. and Crown Wheel etc. 6. 5. Assembly. of 5 and 6 assemblies. the various sub-assembly. + Brake assembly. and the Axles are assembled in a different assembly shop and there on the whole unit along with the Bull Gears is assembled to the differential Cage. Assembly. + Gear Shifting Mechanism Assembly. the oil filter and the brake mechanism Differential Cover Assembly The second stage of Assembly shop is the differential cover assembly shop which incorporates the gear pump assembly.. making up a complete one unit. After this. Then the differential Cage unit and the BP shaft are assembled. of parts listed above are performed in the sub units. of engine with Clutch mechanism. And the direction control valve. 7. are assembled. The DI cover is collected from the conveyor and the various attachments . both the BP shafts are fitted with various components such as circular clips. In the first unit. Assembly of various links. to be able to be assembled to the differential Cage. The Trumpet Hsg.4. of about parts and integral one are bolted using a pneumatic bolter gun. Planetary Gear Cover. Planetary Gear. The various bolts required making the assembly.
Firstly. is made. Apart from these sub assembly unit also produces the KPS assembly. The box after being tested for its efficiency is sent to the 5 stages. After which it is sent to the first stage where the whole unit is assembled to the Dc assembly. the brake assembly is sent to the 1 stage of assembly and the steering gear box and gear box cover assembly is sent to the 3 stage of assembly. Piston Assembly. Oil Pump. And further sent to the 5 stages of the assembly. clutch shafts. main shaft along with the ball bearings are assembled to the unit. There is separate sub unit assembling the planetary cage and gears. . Steering Gear Box + Gear Shifting + Brake Assembly: This unit consists of 4 stages of the assembly unit. In this unit the sub assembly of the steering gear box. and the cover is tested for its efficiency on the testing jig. Gear Box Assembly The Gear Box Assembly is the third stage of the assembly unit in which the gear box is assembled. which is then attached to the Gear Box output shaft to obtain the duplex speed ratios of the tractor. the gearbox cage is collected from the conveyor roller and successively parts such as the counter shafts. DCV Valve etc.such as Power Cylinder. gear shift mechanism on gear cover + the brake mechanism is assembled of these mentioned sub assemblies..
the Gear Box is mantled to the differential Apart from this. Assembly of Engine + Clutch Mechanism This unit is separate 6 stage of assembly in which the engines are received from the stores and fitted with the clutch mechanism and lay beam along with the counter weights. by mistake is not going to spoil the working space as all these spills gets underneath the working space and as a result the working space remains clean and tidy. Also it is to be made in mind that any spill of the sub parts such as bolts. the skilled workers are used to accomplish all the stages of assembly. Brake Link etc are mantled in this section. The various links and mechanism between the engine and the gear box or diff is fastened together and the whole integral unit is checked for its complete accessories etc. Also the whole of the assembly is done on the assembly jigs or stands which is kept moving at a speed of about 7cm/mm. In this stage the whole of the chassis is formed as an integral unit. .Assembly of Gear Box Differential Hs and other accessories In the 5 stage of assembly. nuts etc. In all the above stages of assembly. Battery Clamp and other links such as Accelerator Pedal Link. various other accessories such as Foot Board. But they are also held by the pneumatic bolt guns and the over head automatic conveyors and the alarm conveyor etc to make their job easy. Clutch link. Assembly of Engine with the rest transmission section The assembly of the engine and rest of the transmission is done within the 7 stage.
quenching tanks. which are used in the heat treatment shop: • • • • • • • Gas carbursing furnace Induction hardening machine Quenching tank Shot blasting machine Tempering machine Lapping machine Hydraulic press . In automobile industry the important components are gears. these need to be heat treated to impart desired strength and increase the life of components.Heat treatment INTRODUCTION: Heat treatment shop plays a very important role in every industry. induction hardening machines and shot blasting furnaces. List of components heat-treated in this shop • • All gears produced in LMS All shafts produced in LMS List of machines in heat treatment shop Following are the machines. shafts etc. The heat treatment shop at PTL is equipped with several gas carburising furnaces. The shop is manned by a highly skilled work force.
It is the process of case hardening. These processes consist of heating to marten site state for a scheduled period to an indicated temperature in a range between room temperature and critical temperature.Commonly used terms and operations Carburising Process of adding carbon to the large surface layer of the component is called carburising. nitrogen to the surface by diffusion from the surrounding medium at high temperature. which is the addition of some elements like carbon. It converts hard brittle steel into metal of hardness as well as ductility by reducing grain size. Cooling rate after temperature rise also affects the residual stresses. The hydrocarbon decomposes at a high temperature thereby releasing atomic carbon. Tempering generally follows a carburisation process. which is done to avoid brittleness due to cementite network and to make the surface ductile. followed by cooling. . It can be done in three ways: - Gas carburising Liquid carburising Pack carburising The purpose of carburising is to obtain high surface wear resistance and to obtain a hard surface. At PTL gas carburising is carried out in muffle furnace using isopropyl alcohol as a source of carbonaceous gas. It reduces the internal stresses and stabilizes the internal structure of the component. slower the cooling rate lesser the stresses. The amount of carburising gases depends upon rate of combustion of gases. Tempering It is the generally the final operation of all the steel components after they have been hardened. In this case it is necessary to maintain a continuous fresh stream of carburising gases.
which gradually raises the temperature of the component. It is metaquench 40 or servo quench 11. High frequency current is passed. The treatment is same as annealing and it eliminates casting from cooling stresses. It is then cooled rapidly by spraying water from water jacket. is passed through induction coil surrounding the surface to be hardened.Normalizing Normalizing is a type of heat treatment applicable to ferrous metals only.7 mms. holding the casting for definite time and then letting it cool in still air. At PTL special type of oil is used for quenching purpose. In this process iron alloy casting is heated to about 50-60 degrees above the critical temperature range. which is transformed into current of low voltage and high ampere. Induction hardness It is employed for increasing the surface hardness of steel. Depth of hardness generally varies from 2.2. The transfer of heat slows down and hence the internal stresses also come down. When the hot component is dipped in the quench tank it is immediately surrounded by oil vapor envelope.2. . Quenching Heat may be removed or quenching can be done by immersing the hot component into a bath of water or dressed oil.. The coil induces the current into the component. High voltage current. To avoid this a motor is run to remove the oil. The yield strength of annealed components is more than that of unannealed one.
Bull gear: • Case carburising: . • Shot blasting: . • Tempering: . removes scales and material from the component.it is then cooled at 810 degree Celsius followed by quenching in metaquinch oil. input shaft.it is electrically heated to 910 degree Celsius for 13-14 hours along with liquid feed. drive shaft: • Case carburising: .it is then cooled at 810-degree Celsius followed by quenching in metaquench oil. • Quenching: . .it is electrically heated at 910 degree Celsius for 13-14 hours along with liquid feed. Few components on which heat treatment is done are: 1. Gear Z-42.e.it is done to remove the carbon layer from the component surface.it is done to remove the carbon layer formed on the surface of the bull gear.after quenching bull gear is heated to 220 degree Celsius for 2-3 hours and then gradually cooled in air.Shot blasting Bombarding the component with lead fillings does it. • Tempering: . A clean uniform and in some cases final finished components is obtained after shot blasting. The reason for shot blasting is to clean the surface i. and intermediate shaft. • Quenching: .after quenching it is heated to 180 degree Celsius for 23 hours and gradually cooled in air. • Shot blasting: .
Pre Treatment Cell Various procedures followed here are: • • Degreasing Water Rinsing (part which is degreased is alkaline in nature so rinsed with water due to its being good solvent). Painting Chassis Paint Line: Operations carried out here are: . • • • De Rusting Surface oxidation Phosphating (done so as to form a thin layer of coating on part so that no surface remains unpainted). • Passination (done so as to avoid paint penetrating through certain section of part body’s surface). • • • • Painting Inspection Rejection (Reprocessing)-for sheets and rims.PAINT SHOP Operations performed in paint shop are: • Surface Preparation (Pre Treatment Cell)-carried out for sheets and rims.
Sheet and rims Painting: After surface preparation in PTC. Various parameters checked are-: • • • Depth of penetration of paint. concentration of which is 5% and auto sprayed in a chamber. Baking (at temperature of around 120-130°C) Wet Rubbing and cleaning with tack rag.• Washing: Here chassis is first washed with a chemical cleaner. Quality Control Inspection If painting in both sheets and rims is satisfactory the piece is selected otherwise rejected. • Drying: The chassis is then dried by hot air whose temperature is up to 60 to 70°C. Baking: Chassis is allowed to bake for around 30 minutes. There after following operations are carried out: • • • • Primer painting (full primer in addition to single coating of paint) Flash off. • • • • • Flash Off: This is the distance given so as to allow paint to dry. • Primer Painting: A thin layer of primer paint is sprayed on the chassis so that the final paint is strongly fixed on. sheets and rims are first of all cleaned with ordinary cloth. Thickness of paint coating Smoothness . Final Painting Flash off.
• Uniformity Rejection If piece is rejected it is either again processed whereby is again send to PTC or discarded. but now different types of maintenance practices are followed like: . overhead conveyors Roller conveyors. In fact production and maintenance go side by side If a machine is under breakdown. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS: • • • • • • • Trucks of different types Trolleys Cranes of different types Belt conveyors. it can not be subjected to the production process with the advent of new and modern technology.most common in use Chain conveyors Hoists MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT INTRODUCTION Many changes have taken place in the maintenance system and practice used in the industries with the progress made by technology. A MORE ABOUT SWARAJ TRACTOR DIVISION IN VERY BRIEF LAYOUT: Layout in the plant is the combination of the line and the batch layouts. maintenance plays vital role. the entire concept of maintenance has changed. Along with production. Earlier maintenance practices were only confined to the breakdown maintenance.
Helps in maintaining the operational accuracy and reduces the work content. Predictive maintenance The following are the main objectives of maintenance: • To achieve the minimum break down level and to achieve the production target at low cost. IMPORTANCE OF MAINTENANCE 1. Preventive maintenance 4. • • To keep the plant in proper working condition. 3. 2. Plant maintenance plays an important role in production management by preventing breakdowns which caves inevitable shortfall of target. Equipment breakdown leads to inevitable loss of production time. Machine and other facilities should be arranged so that they can be used to their max. Routine check-up of facilities ensure safe and efficient operation of machinery. needs of sub-contracting work. . which is prevented by maintenance department. Maintains optimum production efficiency of machinery 5. rescheduling of production. capacity. 4. Scheduled maintenance 2. need of over time etc. • The Maintenance division of the factory ensures the availability of all the facilities necessary for the performance of functions at optimum return of investment. Break down maintenance 3.1.
spares and tools directed towards controlling the level of availability and the condition of the plant.e. to achieve availability performance at the lowest cost and within the safety constants. Spare part planning and control cell. Material handling equipment maintenance cell. Electrical maintenance cell 2. 1. replace and adjust or modify the parts of plant to be enabling it to operate the specified availability and performance over a specified time for the specified life. production at min. With rise in the technology.6. This can be made possible to cent percent by systematic maintenance. 7. proper utilization of resources . of PTL have five subsections. Engineering machine maintenance cell 3.cost. 4. Engineering utility maintenance Kelley defines maintenance as the operation of a pool of resources like men. training have also become important now. The function of maintenance is to use these re3 sources to repair.better spare parts planning. At present the maintenance deptt. Reduce breakdowns and concerned downtimes thus achieving the target of max. 5. not only predictive and preventive action bus the concept of cost cutting. . Ensure safety of life and limbs of workers and machine operators. In Punjab tractors limited systematic maintenance operations are practiced to improve the plant availability and to achieve the goal at a reasonable cost. i.
I had the pleasure to do the work with one of the most reputed factory in their field.” I received the blend of experience in Private as well as in Govt. sector. It was a good learning time during my training as we were fortunate to be placed in the department related to manufacturing. In the end I will like to thank all persons who helped me through out my training to enhance my experience. HARPREET SINGH .“PUNJAB TRACTORS LTD. I feel training has give me exposure to undergo projects in the Manufacturing field as well help me a lot to understand the company work culture. I also pay my regards to my Lecturers for their guidance during my training and my Academics helped me to do a lot during my training. working with teams and much more.BIBLIOGRAPHY My training was the most versatile experience.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.