Presentation-1 Human Behaviour Intelligence | Intelligence | Intelligence Quotient

WHY WE CHOOSE THIS TOPIC: I selected this topic of intelligence because it is an integral part of human beings.Human are considered superior creatures amongst all because they possess better intelligence abilities than others. For example. Intelligence is art which should be used in every field because it brings very productive results.Intelligence creates analytical abilities. we see that most successful people who brought revolutionary development in the service of humanity used their mental capabilities. students who work hard may not bring good results if they will not plan their studies intelligently. Intelligence requires human mind to be used in an intensive way . we see that intelligence plays very important role in every walk of life. INTRODUCTION OF INTELLIGENCE:- . we selected the topic of intelligence. logical capabilities and enhances thinking capabilities. When we go back to history. Due to these attributes. Also in business we observe that those businessmen are highly successful who know the pros & cons of business techniques. Intelligence differentiates people on the basis of a creativity of human mind . Thus.

There are several ways to define intelligence. to think abstractly. perhaps extremely insane forms of thinking) results in some kind of intelligent action. All forms of thinking (excluding. intelligence may include traits such as creativity. and to learn. to solve problems. Again. RELATION OF INTELLIGENCE AND THINKING:The neurological understanding of the mechanisms of intelligence remains unclear but I suspect that we will discover that the term "intelligence" and "thinking" will prove entirely synonymous." The dictionary meaning defines intelligence as NOTE: This meaning leaves out many other capabilities which we might also consider intelligent. EXAMPLE: For example an artist who creates an abstract painting does not necessarily need to acquire knowledge nor even apply it through reason. probably due to the fact that most people believe that only humans have the capacity to think. to plan. to include these traits in the definition of intelligence.DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENCE: Intelligence (also called intellect) is an umbrella term used to describe a property of the mind that encompasses many related abilities. to use language. To have intelligence means having the ability to think. even if it may seem very low intelligence to us. most people confuse thinking with consciousness and awareness. yet we label many artists as intelligent or genius. to comprehend ideas. such as the capacities to reason. "The Capacity to Acquire and Apply Knowledge By Means Of Thought And Reason. DO ONLY HUMANS THINK? . EXPLAINATION: A key to understanding intelligence requires the understanding of its basic mechanism for obtaining it: thinking. In some cases.

On the other hand. so did the capacity to think and acquire knowledge. use of symbols and tools are already apparent in great apes. It increases with the acquirement. Intelligent may not acquire knowledge. It is the intelligence help the application of all this knowledge in the practical life of man. It cannot he increased by practice. mourning. The question is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain. research into brain biology over the past 30 years has shown that even a lowly worm has the capacity to think and reason at some basic level.” A man may be learned and he may have a good deal of knowledge. And since intelligence comes from mechanisms that think. Generally intelligence is determined and fixed. the first 3 million concern Sahelanthropus. but it is not necessary that he should be intelligent also similarly. Natural selection evolved brains because brains allow an organism to gather knowledge about the outside world and to utilize it to help them survive. although in lesser sophistication than in humans. theory of mind. Many traits of human intelligence.000 years ago. specifically Chimpanzees. Knowledge of many things is called “Learning”. thinks. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE:The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved. while the final 2 million span the history of actual human species (the Paleolithic). so also does intelligence evolve along with the brains that hold intelligence.Do only humans think? I submit that anything with a brain. And because nervous systems developed into simple brains and simple brains evolved into complex brains. ritual. knowledge is nothing but knowing about many things. the following 2 million concern Australopithecus. it is possible to develop and increase the knowledge. The timeline of human evolution spans some 7 million years from the separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 30. Of this timeline. such as empathy. In spite of past philosophers attempts to put humans on the pedestal of life and to declare that only humans think. In other words. . and to the emergence of human language. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND KNOWLEDGE:“Knowledge is an acquired quality and it is acquired with the help of the atmosphere.

He defines two types of reasoning: CONVERGENT THINKING:Which applies when an individual reaches a conclusion by working within a given framework. people have multiple intelligence.INTELLIGENCE AND LEARNING:- FACTORS OF INTELLIGENCE:GENERAL FACTOR: Spearman proposed that intelligence consisted of two factors. where he/she starts from a wide range of facts and narrow them down converges. Guilford another theorist of intelligence. believes creativity is an important part of our ability to reason. . Where an individual starts form one or several ideas and works out wards. DIVERGENT THINKING:- THE ROLE OF INTELLIGENCE:Intelligence has played a major role in psychology but a very minor. The general underlying factor is referred to as the G factor and represents our capacity to develop more specific skills. FOR EXAMPLE:A person with an IQ of 80 may be able to tune an engine while a person with an IQ of 130may not. Therefore. almost nonexistent role in organizational behavior. often involving the generation of many new ideas this is also sometimes referred to as lateral thinking. INTELLIGENCE AND CREATIVITY:Creativity also has a special relationship with intelligence.

reasoning. Research shows that intelligence unfolds through a series of stages. FLUID INTELLIGENCE: Fluid intelligence reflects information-processing capabilities. KINDS OF INTELLIGENCE:FLUID AND CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE:are two different kinds of intelligence: 1 Fluid intelligence.INTELLIGENCE IS GENETICALLY DETERMINED:- Ou r primary intelligence development takes place during the early years of our lives. INTELLLIGENCE IS DETERMINED BY THE EXTERNAL ENVOIRNMENT:On the other hand.Eech stage places an upper limit on restrict the speed of learning. Today it is generally agreed that intelligence is a product of both genetics and the environment. 2 Crystallized intelligence. Some psychologists suggest that there EXAMPLE: If we asked to solve an analogy group a series of letter according to some criterion or remember a set of number we would be using fluid intelligence. and memory. People brought up in a 'rich' environment a home where learning is encouraged and a highly differentiated social and ideal setting for development of intelligence. other psychologists have argued that intelligence is determined by the external environment in which the individual grows up. Most people's intelligence is developed by the time they enter the work force. CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE:- . Over the years some psychologists have argued that intelligence is genetically determined and exists at birth.

In contrast to fluid intelligence. actors. and sensitive listener. They are usually quite aware of sounds others may miss. reproduce. EXAMPLE: We would be likely to rely on crystallized intelligence. and mathematical and musical intelligences may share common thinking processes. conductors. there is often an affective connection between music and the emotions. and reflect on music. skills. Young adults with this kid of intelligence are usually singing or drumming to themselves. crystallized intelligence is more a reflection of the culture in which a person is raised. which reflects a more general kind of intelligence. and tone. for instance. vocalist. a task that allows us to draw on our own past experiences and knowledge of the world. rhythm. 3- LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCE (Number/Reasoning Smart):Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to calculate. This intelligence enables us to recognize. quantify. if we were asked to participate in a discussion about a solution to the causes of poverty. each relatively independent of the others: 1- MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE (Musical Smart):- Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch. GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE (The many way of showing intelligence):- Gardner argues that we have minimum eight different forms of intelligence. exemplified by dancers. and surgeons. create. and carry out complete mathematical operations. 2- BODILY KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE:- It skills in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the construction of products or displays.Crystallized intelligence is the accumulation of information. as demonstrated by composers. timbre. It enables s to perceive relationships and connections and deductive thinking . athletes. consider propositions and hypotheses. Interestingly. musicians. and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations.

. which can be mobilized in the discrimination among cars. scientists. 7- INTERPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE:- Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and interact effectively with others. Young adults with this kind of intelligence are leaders among their peers. kinds of makeup and the like. actors. 4- LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE:- Skills involved in the production and use of language. Young adults with lots of logical intelligence are interested in patterns. and politicians all exhibit interpersonal intelligence. and relationships. categories. rock configurations). the ability to note distinctions among others. social workers. and the ability to entertain multiple perspectives. and farmers.patterns. sensitivity to the moods and temperaments of others. 6- NATURALIST INTELLIGENCE (Nature Smart):- Designates the human ability to discriminate among living things (plants. They are drawn to arithmetic problems. it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef. Teachers. Logical intelligence is usually well developed in mathematicians. This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters. animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds. such as those used by artist and architects. 5- SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE:- Skills involving spatial configurations. It involves effective verbal and non-verbal communication. It is also speculated that much of our consumer society exploits the naturalist intelligences. sneakers. are good at communicating and seem to understand others’ feelings and motives. gatherers. and detectives. strategy games and experiments.

access to one’s own feelings and emotions. accounting for three fourths in adults.8- INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE:- Knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself. They assert that the way people store material in memory and use that material to solve intellectual task provides the most accurate measure of intelligence. BIOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE:Evidence suggests that genetic variation has a significant impact on IQ. few genes have been found to . Despite the high heritability of IQ. INFORMATION PROCESSING INTELLIGENCE:One of the newer contributions to understand intelligence comes from the work of cognitive psychologists who take an information-processing approach.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE:Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it. it has been proposed that genetic engineering could be used to enhance the intelligence of animals. • SELF MANAGEMENT: The ability to manage your own emotions and Impulses. • SELF MOTIVATION: The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures. • • EMPATHY: SOCIAL SKILLS: The ability to sense how others are feeling. Other biological factors correlating with IQ include ratio of brain weight to body weight and the volume and location of gray matter tissue in the brain. Because intelligence appears to be at least partly dependent on brain structure and the genes shaping brain development. . a process sometimes called biological uplift in science fiction. suggesting that IQ is the product of interaction between multiple genes. Emotions may be more effective in their jobs. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE:“Emotional intelligence is once ability to detect and to manage emotional cues and information” People who know their own emotions are good at reading others. Experiments on mice have demonstrated superior ability in learning and memory in various behavioral tasks. Emotional intelligence composed of five dimensions: • SELF AWARENESS: Being aware of what you are feeling. That in essence is theme underlying recent (EI) research. The ability to handle the emotions of others.have a substantial effect on IQ.

USES: 1: USE IN SELECTION: Result of intelligence can be properly used for selection of suitable candidates for educational and professional activities. bright and gifted." EXISTENTIAL INTELLIGENCE:Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence. to act wisely in human relations" .Major AI textbooks define the field as “The study and design of agents. such as the meaning of life. John McCarthy.It is equivalent to interpersonal intelligence USES AND ABUSES OF INTELLIGENCE:All intelligence processes contains many merits and demerits and have been used and abused in so many ways. is "The ability to understand and manage men and women. boys and girls. Enrichment program for the gifted and remedial education . “where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success”. Why do we die? And how did we get here? SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE:Social intelligence according to the original definition of Edward Thorndike. *Identification and offer of scholarship to gifted students. defines it as "The science and engineering of making intelligent machines. In the school his is possible for the teacher to classify the students in his class as backward average. Let us take a look at these aspects of INTELLIGENCE. EXAMPLE:*Admission into a special educational program. 2: USE IN CLASSIFICATION:Intelligence helps in classifying individuals according to their mental make-up. who coined the term in 1956.

Q.Q:- An Intelligence Quotient or IQ is a score derived from one of several different standardized tests attempting to measure intelligence. These effects can be briefly summarized as follows. ABUSES OF INTELLIGENCE: Intelligence has sufficient scope for being misused leads to unhealthy effects on the welfare of individuals and society.Q tables tagged to the children are very carefully remembered and misutilized by their teachers and parents. 1: ILL-EFFECT ON STUDENTS:The subjects whose intelligence is tested through intelligence test may be adversely affected by the knowledge of their I." a calque of the German Intelligenz-Quotient. 3: MISUSE BY SOCIETY:Not only students and teachers but society in general has tried to misinterpret and misutilized the results of intelligence testing for maintain the theory resulting in segregation. sectarianism and racial discrination in many societies include the most developed societies of the west.Q findings may color not only their interests and attitudes towards learning and work but also personality in dealing with their environment. 3: USE IN ASSESSMENT FOR PROMOTION:The result of intelligence along with the achievement can be successfully used for promotion of student to the next higher grades of classes.for the backward and dull can thus be possible with the help of classification done through intelligence. They try to see them in the light of their I. 2: MISUSE BY TEACHERS AND PARENTS:The I. was coined by the German psychologist William Stern in . The term "IQ. I.

Normal or average intelligence 80 .Q = M. Severity of mental retardation can be broken into 4 levels: • 50-70 . Lewis Terman (1916) developed the original notion of IQ and proposed this scale for classifying IQ scores: • • • • • • • Over 140 .Q is mental age divided by chronological age and express as a percentage.A/C. a condition of limited mental ability in that it produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life.A * 100 What is a good IQ score? What is a high IQ score? What is a low IQ score? These are common questions.Superior intelligence 90 . particularly after someone finds out their score from an IQ test.79 .Mild mental retardation (85%) .Genius or near genius 120 .5% of IQ scores fall between 60and140 Low IQ & Mental Retardation:5% of people have an IQ under 70 and this is generally considered as the benchmark for "mental retardation".Dullness 70 .89 .1912 as a proposed method of scoring early modern children's intelligence tests such as those developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in the early 20th Century.109 .119 .Borderline deficiency Under 70 .140 . UNDERSTANDING IQ:Binet develop the concept of the I.The I. L.Q (Intelligence Quotient).Very superior intelligence 110 .Definite feeble-mindedness Normal Distribution & IQ Scores: The properties of the normal distribution apply to IQ scores: • • • • 50% of IQ scores fall between 90 and 110 70% of IQ scores fall between 85 and 115 95% of IQ scores fall between 70 and 130 99.

Profound mental retardation (1%) High IQ & Genius IQ:Genius IQ is generally considered to begin around 140 to 145.Gifted (e..Moderate mental retardation (10%) 20-35 .25% of the population (1 in 400).Genius (e.• • • 35-50 .g....High genius CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE TEST:INTELLIGENCE TEST may be classified as follows: 1: INDIVIDUAL TEST:- .Highly gifted (e.g.g. representing ~. Nobel Prize winners) 165-179 .Above average (e. intellectuals) 145-154 . post-graduate students) 135-144 . professors) 155-164 .Severe mental retardation (4%) IQ < 20 .g.Genius (e. Here's a rough guide: • • • • • • 115-124 . university students) 125-134 .g..

CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE TEST (On the basis of their form):INTELLIGENCE TEST may also be classified on the basis of their form as: *VERBAL or LANGUAGE TEST: *NON-VERBAL or NON-LANGUAGE TEST: 1: INDIVIDUAL VERBAL or LANGUAGE TEST:“Test involving the use of language in which the instructions are given in words written. 2: GROUP TEST:In which a group of individuals is tested at the same time. and include recall and recognition type of items. the date of birth of his siblings and so on. EXAMPLE: He may be called upon to tell the full names of teachers who teach him different subject.In which only one individual is tested at a time. oral or both are administered to one individual at a time” The test content is loaded with verbal material which may include varieties of items listed below: 1: VOCABULARY TEST:In these the subject is required to give the meanings of words or phrases. 3: COMPREHENSION TESTS:- . his phone number . EXAMPLE: What is the meaning of word “EVENTUALLY”? What does the phrase “BARKING DOGS SELDOME BITES” covey? 2: MEMORY TEST:These are designed to test the subject’s immediate and long-term memory.

understand and react to a given situation. They are may be in the form of material objects or through oral or instructions and signs. 11. 7. EXAMPLE: Complete the series 1. . 9. EXAMPLE: The questions may be like: Why do big ships float in the sea while a small needle would sink in it? 4: INFORMATION TESTS:The subject is tested on his knowledge about the things around him by means of these tests. 5. logically.……. EXAMPLE: In what ways are animals and plants alike? INDIVIDUAL NON-VERBAL or NON-LANGUAGE TEST:“These tests involve activities in which the use of language is not necessary except for giving directions” PERFORMANCE TESTS are typical example of such tests.. synthetically.By means of these.. 3. EXAMPLE: Where is Taj Mahal situated? 5: REASONING TESTS:In these tests the subject is asked to provide answers which demonstrate his ability to reason.? 6: ASSOCIATION TESTS:Through these tests items the subject is tested for his ability to point out the similarities or dissimilarities between two or more concepts or objects. the subject is tested for the ability to grasp. analytically..

however. It contains pictures diagram and geometrical figures etc printed in a booklet. EXAMPLE OF PICTURE ARRANGEMENT: Here is a JIGSAW.Generally the activities on which the performance of an individual is tested are of different types. . in a jigsaw the task is to arrange the given picture with the help of given pieces cut out from that picture. The completion of the picture gave us good estimate of INTELLIGENCE of the subject without language. 2:*GROUP VERBAL or LANGUAGE TEST:“The test which necessitate the use of language and are applied to a group of individuals at a time” :*GROUP NON-VERBAL or NON-LANGUAGE TEST:“The test which do not necessitate the use of language and are applicable to a group of individuals at a time” The non-verbal group test does not. contain words or numerical figures.

************* . In this example the child has to understand 3 shapes form a pattern through 3 by 3 matrix. BY ALL THESE WE CAN TEST THE INTELLIGENCE OF A PERSON.EXAMPLE: A student must see the patterns forms by the shapes organized into groups then choose the answer that completes the picture. once the child understand that the circle form diagonal line and triangle and square form their alternating pattern then he can choose the correct option no#2.

. *I.Q TEST BOOK.References: *Elementary Psychology (KARAMAT HUSSAIN).K. MANGAL). *Google Search. *Advance Educational Psychology (S. *Fred Lutkams (organization behavior) *Robert Lussier & Minas Poulous.

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