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SLUMP CONE 1. Purpose : The slump cone is used for determining the workability of concrete where the nominal maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 38 mm. 2. Procedure as per IS 1199 – Methods of sampling and analysis of concrete a. b. c. d.

e.

f. g.

h.

Firstly decide the frequency of slump value to be taken during concreting. Oil the interior surface of the slump cone with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete. Place the slump cone on a leveled surface. Collect the sample in a wheelbarrow after mixing the concrete properly in the transit mixture. Remix the sample thoroughly in wheelbarrow with sampling scoop. After remixing immediately fill the slump cone in layers approximately one – quarter of the height of the cone. Each layer shall be compacted with the tamping rod by 25 strokes distributed in a uniform manner over the cross-section of the cone and for the second and subsequent layers tamping rod shall penetrate into the underlying layer. After compacting the top layer the concrete shall be struck off level with the top of the slump cone, using a _______. Any mould which may have leaked out between the mould and the base plate shall be cleaned away.

i.

Unscrew the slump cone from the base plate and remove it immediately from the concrete by raising it slowly and carefully in a vertical direction. After the concrete subsides place the slump cone on the base plate in reverse position and place a scale on it. Measure the height between the top of the mould and the highest point of the concrete specimen being tested.

j.

3. Reporting of slump value The slump measured shall be reported in terms of millimeters.

VIBRATING TABLE 1. Purpose Vibrating table is used for proper compaction of concrete (as per IS 516-Methods of tests for strength of concrete) while casting specimens for compressive strength determination. 2. Procedure i. ii. iii. After preparing the concrete mix, put moulds on the vibration table platform. Fill concrete in the mould in layers of 50 mm deep. In placing each scoopful of concrete, move the scoop around the top edge of the mould as the concrete slides from it, in order to ensure a symmetrical distribution of the concrete within the mould. Let each layer compact by vibration. After compacting concrete in 3 layers, finish the surface of the concrete level with the top of the mould. Stop the table and remove the mould from it.

iv. v. vi.

TEST PROCEDURES

BULK DENSITY MEASURE (For Density of Concrete) 1. Purpose The bulk density measure is used for determining the weight per cubic meter of freshly mixed concrete (density) from which the yield of concrete per cubic meter can be calculated. 2. Procedure as per IS 1199 – methods of sampling and analysis of concrete i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v. vi. vii. viii.

ix.

Take freshly mixed concrete from transit mixer by using wheel borrow. Fill the cylindrical measure with concrete as soon as practicable after mixing. Fill the cylindrical measure with concrete in layers approximately 5 cm deep and each layer shall be compacted. While compacting the concrete the standard tamping bar shall be distributed in uniform manner over the cross section of the measure. The number of strokes per layer is 60 for 10 litres cylinder and 120 for 20 litres cylinder. The exterior surface of the cylinder shall be tapped 10 to 15 times or until no large bubbles of air appear on the surface of the compacted layer. Strike-off the top surface and finish it smoothly with a flat cover plate. Clean all excess concrete from the exterior and weigh the filled measured. Density of concrete (W1): The weight per cubic meter of concrete shall be calculated by dividing the

x. xi.

weight of fully compacted concrete in the cylindrical measure by the capacity of measure in kg/cu.m (W1). Yield of concrete (V2) : The volume of concrete produced per cum. shall be calculated as follows. V2 = Wc + Wf + Wca + Ww W1 Wc = Wf = Wca = Ww = Weight of cement, kg Weight of fine aggregate, kg Weight of coarse aggregate, kg Weight of water, kg

Apparatus Wheel barrow. After remixing immediately fill the mould in layers approximately 5 cm deep. d. g. Each layer shall be compacted with the tamping rod (of 16 mm dia 60 cm long and rounded at one end) by .6 m long and bulleted point at the lower end. 0. 3. b. 2. Purpose The moulds are used for making of concrete cubes as per IS : 516 – 1959 – Methods of tests for strength of concrete. trowel cube moulds of 15 x 15 x 15 cm size and tamping bar 16 mm in diameter. During filling the mould. Firstly decide the number of samples to be taken during concreting.TEST PROCEDURES 150 x 150MM Cube Moulds 1. Remix the sample thoroughly in wheelbarrow with sampling scoop. in order to ensure a symmetrical distribution of the concrete within the mould. the scoop shall be moved around the top edge of the mould as the concrete slides from it. f. Oil the interior surface of the mould with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete. Collect the sample in a wheelbarrow after mixing the concrete properly in the transit mixer. sampling scoop. Procedure as per IS 516 a. e. c.

i. using a trowel.minimum 35 strokes distributed in a uniform manner over the cross-section of the mould. After this period. After compacting the tip layer. h. . top surface of the concrete shall be finished level with the top of the mould. mark the specimen and remove it from the mould by dismantling and submerge it clean water at a temperature of 27 +2oC and keep it till the time of testing for compressive strength. Store the cube moulds in a place which is free from vibration and cover the surface of the concrete with a piece of damp sacking for initial 16 to 24 hours. j.

Keep the moulds covered with a water impermeable cover and under shed for the duration of test. For each test. b. Push the apparatus gradually i. d. f. Purpose Penetration resistance apparatus : (Penetrometer) is used to find out initial and final setting time of concrete as per IS 8142Method of test for determining setting time of concrete by penetration resistance. tilt the mould by placing a 3 cm block under one of the edges and allow water to collect at the shallow portion for 2 minutes. After removing the bleed water. c. . remove bleeding water by using a pipette. Oil the interior surface of the cube mould with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete.TEST PROCEDURES PENETRATION RESISTANCE APPARATUS 1.75 mm IS sieve into a mortar pan. Select a representative sample of concrete of known proportion. g. 2. Procedure a. h. Remove all of the mortar from the sample by sieving it through a 4. e. Compact each layer with tamping rod by tamping each layer 25 times. Remix the sample thoroughly and fill it in a 15 cm cube mould in two layers. insert the penetrometer vertically into the mortar. For easy removal of water. a set of three cube moulds should be filled. Prior to making each penetration resistance test. leaving a space of 13 mm (1/2 inch) at top. Select 65 mm2 and 16 mm2 removable needles for initial and final setting time respectively.

in about 10 seconds. Make penetration test at hourly intervals. Initial setting time is read off against a penetration resistance corresponding to 35 kg f/cm2. Leave a space of 20 mm from previous impression in subsequent penetration test. n. k. initial test being made after 3 hours. m. The force required is indicated by the white ring. Change the needle dia i. 16mm2 and final setting time is read off against a penetration resistance corresponding to 275 kgf/cm2 . until the needle (65 mm2) penetrates the mortar upto scribe mark. Record the force required and the elapsed time after adding water to the mix.e.j. l.

After the test specimens (whose 28 days strength to be determined) have been made. 8. The temperature of water in the curing tank shall be at boiling (100 oC) when the specimens are placed. 6. Purpose : To find out 28 days compressive strength of concrete in 28 hours by accelerated curing method. 4.64 Ra. where Ra is accelerated compressive strength and R28 is predicted compressive strength at 28 days. the specimen shall be carefully removed from the boiling water and cooled by immersing in cooling tank at 27 +2oC for 2 hrs. Predicted 28 days compressive strength = R28 = 8. Cover the specimens with flat steel cover plate to avoid distortion during the use. The 28 days can be found out using following formula. (As per IS 9013-1978Method of making. Carefully and gently lower the specimens into the curing tank and shall remain totally immersed for a period of 3½ Hours + 15 min.ACCELERATED CURING METHOD 1. store it in moist air of at least 90 percent humidity for 23 hours + 15 min. . After curing for 3 ½ hours in boil water. curing and determining compressive strength of accelerated cured concrete test specimens) Procedure : 1. 3. 2. After cooling remove the specimens from the mould and tested for its accelerated compressive strength (Ra) in N/mm2.09 + 1. 5. 7.

6.15 kN/s. 11. Note down the pattern of failure and calculate the compressive strength in N/mm2 or kg/cm2. clean the lower platen and bring the digital display to “Zero” position by depressing the “Reset” switch. release the pressure slowly by opening valve. Make the digital display to read “Zero” by adjusting the zero knob. which could be maintained by adjusting the slow fast knob. 10. As soon as sample fails. If the pace rate is exactly equal to set rate then the indicator will display green colour. The digital display will be holding the maximum load reading at which sample has failed. . 9. Put the display unit on “Peak Hold” mode to hold the maximum load reading. Start applying the load at the specified pace rate. Purpose : The digital compression – testing machine is used to determine the compressive strength of hardened concrete specimens.TEST PROCEDURES DIGITAL COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE 1. 3. 8. Before starting another test. Procedure as per IS 516 – Methods of tests for strength of concrete 1. 2. Close the pressure release valve. Pace rate for 15 cm cube is 5. 7. 5. Keep the specimen to be tested centrally on the clean lower platen so that small clearance is left between the upper platen and the top the specimen under test. 4. If the pace rate is on higher side the indicator displays red colour and the pace rate is on lower side the indicator will display yellow colour.

e. Lower the stem and check if the reading is zero when the plunger touches the non-porous resting plate (glass plate).TEST PROCEDURES VICAT APPARATUS (Standard Consistency) 1. . Take the Vicat apparatus and fit the standard consistency plunger (Cylindrical one). Prepare a past with weighed quantity of water (30% of weight of cement = 90ml). Coat the non-porous resting plate (glass plate) with petroleum jelly. Purpose : It is used to determine the standard consistency. Measure and note down the penetration. Clean the mould and plate. etc. j. initial and final setting of cement (As per IS 4031 – Methods of physical tests for hydraulic cement) Procedure for determination of standard consistency : a. h. d. make it level to the top of the mould. The time from adding water to the dry cement till starting to fill the Vicat mould should be within 3 to 5 minutes. Place the mould under the plunger together with non-porous resting plate. c. The temperature of cement and water and that of testing room shall be preferably within the range of 27 +2oC. If not adjust it to zero. b. Make sure that the dash pot works properly. g. f. If the value obtained is below 5 mm then try with lesser quantity of water (say 29%. Take 300 g of cement.) repeat steps c to k above with the lesser water. Fill the Vicat mould completely with the cement past made and smooth off the surface of the paste. Lower the plunger gently to touch the surface of the block and release quickly. Place the mould after coating it lightly with petroleum jelly on the non-porous resting plate (glass plate). i. 28%. k. l.

32% etc. . Standard consistency : Express the amount of water as a percentage by weight of the dry cement.) repeat steps c to k above with more water.m. Keep doing above tests with varying percentages of water until the amount of water for the required penetration of 5 to 7mm value is found. o. n. If the value obtained is above 7 mm then try with more quantity of water (say 31%.

The temperature of cement and water and that of testing room shall be preferably within the range of 27 + 2oC. If standard consistency = 30%. b. Prepare a neat cement paste mixed with water which is 0.5 ml). Start the stop watch as soon as you start adding water and mixing the cement past. Procedure as per IS 4031 – Methods of physical tests for hydraulic cement a. d. e. Fill the Vicat mould completely with the cement paste made and smooth off the surface of the paste.e. on the non-porous resting plate (glass plate). g. . Take 300 g of cement. Take the Vicat apparatus and fit the standard consistency plunger (Needle type). make it level to the top of the mould. The time from adding water to the dry cement until starting to fill the Vicat mould should be within 3 to 5 minutes. water for initial setting time = 0. f.85 = 25. If not adjust it to zero.30 x 300 x 0.85 times that of standard consistency (i. Place the mould after coating it lightly with petroleum jelly. Lower the stem and check if the reading is zero when the plunger touches the non-porous resting plate (glass plate).TEST PROCEDURES VICAT APPARATUS (Initial setting time of cement) 1. c. h. The mixing should be done using a stainless steel trowel called gauging trowel which is available with lab equipment dealers. Coat the non-porous resting plate (glass plate) with petroleum jelly.

5 mm is described as the initial setting time. j. Repeat this procedure until the needle fails to penetrate into the test block by 5 + 0. k. Lower the needle gently to touch the surface of the block and release quickly.5 mm from the bottom of the mould. Place the mould under the needle (1 mm square) together with non-porous resting plate and cement paste. Make sure that the dash pot works properly.i. l. Initially the needle will pierce completely into the test block. Initial setting time : The time started from mixing of water to the cement to the time when the needle fails to penetrate the test block by 5 + 0. .

Final Setting time : The time elapsed from mixing of water to the cement and the time till step c is the final setting time of cement. Lower the attachment gently to touch the surface of the block and release. Use the dash pot.TEST PROCEDURES VICAT APPARATUS (Final setting time of cement) 1. Procedure as per IS 4031 – Method of physical tests for hydraulic cement a. . d. Repeat this procedure at regular intervals until the time to find the needle makes an impression on the surface of the block and the circular impression is not seen. c. b. After determining the initial setting time replace the needle of Vicat apparatus by the needle with annular attachment.

Take 200 g of cement and 600 gms of standard sand b. c. Procedure as per IS 4031 – Methods of physical test for hydraulic cement a. f. e. Immediately after mixing the mortar place it in the cube mould and tamp it with the poking rod for 20 times in about 8 seconds. h. Attach a hopper of suitable size on the top of the mould to facilitate filling. g.07 cm) mould on the vibration table and clamp it to hold it firmly in position.07 x 7. Manali. Place the remaining quanitity of mortar place it in the cube mould and tamp it again as specified for the first layer. Take water @ (P/4 + 3)% of combined weight of cement and sand (800g) where P is the standard consistency of cement paste. The 600g of standard sand will be made up o 200g each of grade I.TEST PROCEDURES VIBRATING MACHINE (Compressive strength of cement) 1. . Chennai. Ii & III Sand purchased from TAMIN. d. Compact the mortar further by means of vibration for two minutes. At the end of vibration remove the mould from the machine and finish the top surface of the cube with the blade of a trowel. Mix the dry mixture with the quantity of water specified above for 3 to 4 minutes. Place the 50 cm2 ( 7. conforming to IS : 650 – 1966.07 x 7. Mix it dry with a trowel for one minute on a non-porous mixing plate. i.

m. Keep the filled moulds preferably at a temperature of 27 + 2oC and atleast 90 percent relative humidity for 24 hours after completion of vibration. Cast twelve such cubes so that we can find the compressive strength for 3 cubes each at 1 day. k. Report average of compressive strength of three cube results to the nearest 5 kg/cm2. Temperature of the curing water should be preferably 27 + 2oC.j. 3 days. After 24 hours remove the cubes from the moulds and immediately submerge in clean water for curing. 7 days and 28 days. . l.

c. The rebound value is arrested and read by means of the push-button. f. Press housing against the test surface at moderate speed until impact is triggered. PURPOSE It is used for estimation of compressive strength of concrete by rebound hammer method. Place test hammer perpendicular to the test surface. For testing. The strength determined from the curve is to be corrected by using correction factors (as per manual of manufacture). e. Each test point should be tested with at least 8 to 10 impacts. (As per IS 13311 part – 2Non destructive testing of concrete – methods of test) 2. j. clean and dry surface preferably bottom of the slab is to be selected. which are abnormally high or low. After using the hammer the impact bolt is to be arrested by means of the push-button after the initiation of an impact. l. this should be rubbed of with grinding stone. smooth. must be eliminated. g. PROCEDURE a. b. k. If loosely adhering scale is present. Plot the average rebound value in the conversion curve to determine the compressive strength of concrete.TEST PROCEDURES SCHMIDT CONCRETE TEST HAMMER 1. h. Release the impact bolt by applying pressure to it. i. d. Rebound values. . Minimum distance between impact points 20 mm.

m. The correlation between compressive strength of concrete cubes and its rebound number is to be established for most satisfactory results. n. The test can be conducted horizontally on vertical surfaces like column or vertically upward or downward on horizontal surfaces like slabs and beams. .

600 mic. Sieve the sample progressively starting from the largest sieve i. On completion of sieving weigh the material retained on each sieve. 1..18 mm.75 mm. Find out which grading zone the sand conforms to by checking with the table – 1 given below.36 mm. f. .TEST PROCEDURES SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR FINE AGGREGATE 1...75 mm.e. Take known weight of dry sample. 1.. (As per IS 2386 part 1 – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete) 2. 2. 300 mic. d. 4.. 300 mic.8mm. Procedure : a. Calculate cumulative percentage passing through each sieve. g. and 150 mic. Sizes of sieves : Sieves of the sizes 10mm. 4. 10 mm c. sieves and dividing the sum by 100. Calculate the percentage of sand retained in each sieve and cumulative percentage retained on each sieve. 3. Purpose : The sieves are used for the determination of particle size distribution of fine aggregate by sieving. 6000 mic. b. and 150 mic. e. Calculate the fineness modulus of sand by summing up the cumulative percentage of sand retained on 10 mm.

S.Table 1 : Grading zones (I. 383) 1978 I.75mm 2.36mm 1. Sieve 10mm 4. S.18mm 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron 75 micron Cumulative percentage passing IS sieves for grading zone (natural sand) I II III IV 100 90-100 60-95 30-70 15-34 5-20 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 75-100 55-90 35-59 8-30 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 85-100 75-100 60-79 12-40 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 95-100 90-100 80-100 15-50 0-15 0-3 Crushed Sand 100 90-100 75-100 55-100 35-79 8-40 0-20 0-15 .

12. 4. c. 20 mm. Take a known weight 9 2kg) of dry aggregate. b. 150 mic. 25 mm. 600 mic. 40 mm.5 mm.75 mm 40 mm..75 mm. 600 mic. Calculate the percentage of aggregate retained in each sieve.75 mm 20 mm. 2. 10 mm. 63 mm. f.S.. 10 mm. sieves – sizes as following : Nominal size of aggregate 40 mm 20 mm 12. 20 mm. Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate retained in each sieve.TEST PROCEDURES SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR COARSE AGGREGATE 1. d. Note down the weight of the material retained in each sieve.5 mm 10 mm Sieve size (mm) 80 mm. 10 mm. e. Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate passing through each sieve. .75 mm. 4. 4. 150 mic. Sieve the aggregate progressively starting from the largest sieve.36 mm. Sizes of sieves required for nominal size coarse aggregate Balance and I. Purpose : The sieves are used for the determination of particle size distribution of coarse aggregate by sieving (As per IS 2386 part I – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete) 2. 4. 3. 12. Procedure : a. 16 mm. 10 mm.5 mm.

Grading requirement of coarse aggregate (IS : 383) 25 mm 20 mm 12.75 mm .g.5 mm 10 mm 4. Check the values of percentage passing with the limits specified in IS 383 and record it.

Calculation : Silt & Clay %. h. c. Allow contents to settle for 15 to 20 min. Fill the glass-measuring cylinder with sample of sand upto 100 ml mark. b. Procedure : a. Measure the total height of material (A). (A-B) /B* 100 . d. Find out height of silt and clay layer (A-B). Purpose : The 250 ml capacity glass-measuring cylinder is used for determination of silt and clay content in sand on volume basis. f.TEST PROCEDURES SILT CONTENT OF FINE AGGREGATE (BY VOLUME METHOD) 1. g. Measure the height of sand layer (B). e. Clay and silt will be seen as a separate layer over sand. i. Add clean water upto 150 ml and shake the contents well. 2. Calculate the percentage of silt and clay in the total sand layer.

f. c. dismantle the sieve assembly and collect separately the material retained on each sieve and on the receiver for weighin TEST PROCEDURES AIR OVEN . and continue the sieving operation for specified time say 10 minutes.SIEVE SHAKER 1. 2. Procedure : a. e. d. Select the required group of sieves for the sieve analysis. At the end of sieving operation. Purpose : Sieve shaker is used for the process of sieving easier and quicker as per IS 2386 part I – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete. g. Keep the material on the top sieve. On the base of the sieve holder mount the sieves in order of decreasing opening size from top to bottom. b. Unbolt the nuts of the sliding retaining plate. Start the sieve shaker by switching on the motor. slide it down to pass the whole sieve assembly and tighten the nuts. h. raise it to a suitable height and tighten the nuts. Unbolt the nuts of the clamping plate. together with a receiver fitted below the bottom sieve. Place the lid on the sieve.

% W1=weight of moist sample. 2. The procedure is the same for both coarse and fine aggregate. Take the sample out of air oven and cool it.1. 3. gm W2= weight of dry sample. Take the moist or wet sample weigh (W1) Dry it in a hot air oven for 10-15 min. d. Calculation Moisture content of aggregate is calculated as follows : M=(W1-W2) / W2 x 100 Where M = Moisture content of aggregate. c. Moisture content of aggregate is the percentage of weight of water in the aggregate sample to the total dry weight of the aggregate sample. b. Procedure a. gm . at the temperature of 100oC. Take the weight of dry sample (W2). Purpose Air oven is used to dry the material for finding out moisture content present in aggregate.

g Where W1 = W2 = W3 = W4 = . g. refill it with water only and weigh. 2. Weight an empty pycnometer (W1) Fill up half of the pycnometer with dry aggregate sample and weigh. b. Calculate the specific gravity using this formula. Procedure a. roll it on a flat surface and then fill it completely with water and weigh (W3). weight of pycnometer and dry aggregate. g weight of pycnometer filled with only water. Empty the contents of the pycnometer. fill the pycnometer with water. Specific Gravity = (W2 – W1) / [(W4-W1)-(W3-W2)] weight of empty pycnometer. Purpose : The pycnometer is used to determine the specific gravity of aggregate as per IS 2386 part III – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete. g. c. (W4). d. Add water to the sample. e.TEST PROCEDURES SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST FOR AGGREGATE 1. weight of pycnometer with aggregate and water.

c. b.m. Overflow the measure with aggregate.TEST PROCEDURES CYLINDRICAL METAL MEASURE (For Density of Aggregate) 1. . Fill the measure about 1/3rd height with thoroughly b. B. same quantity & tamp it with 25 strokes. 2. Fill the measure to overflow with aggregate by discharging from height not more than 5 cm above the top of measure. Purpose : The cylindrical metal measures are used for determining unit weight or bulk density of aggregate. Determine the net weight of aggregate by knowing empty weight of measure and calculate Bulk density in Kg/cu.Methods of test for aggregates for concrete A. Tamp it with 25 strokes of the rounded end of tamping rod. c. Again fill the measure with approx. Loose Density a. Procedure as per IS 2386 part III. tamp it 25 times & struck off surplus aggregate with tamping rod. d. Level the sample with a straight edge. Determine the net weight of aggregate by knowing empty weight of measure and calculate Bulk density in Kg/cu. Rodded or Compacted Density a. mixed aggregate. e.m.

Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that b. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm. expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.3 mm. 31. Weigh the particles retained on length gauge. 20 mm to 16 mm. Take all the fraction separately. Purpose The length gauge is used to determine the Elongation index of coarse aggregate (As per IS 2386 part – 1 – Method of test for aggregates for concrete) 2.TEST PROCEDURES LENGTH GAUGE 1. g .5 mm to 10 mm 10 mm to 6. Procedure a. 50 mm to 40 mm. f.5 mm.5 mm to 25 mm. atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present. g W2 = Weight of total sample taken for test. 12. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. 16 mm to 12. 25 mm to 20 mm. Keep the particles retained by the length separately.e. Calculation Elongation index of aggregate in % is calculated as follows: Ei = (W1/W2) x 100% Where W1 = Weight of particles retained in length gauge. 3. 40 mm to 25 mm. 63 mm. c. d. Elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges. gauge them one by one through the corresponding shot provided in the gauge. e.

b.5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6. Keep the particles passing through the slot of the gauge and retained in gauge separately. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge.e.5mm. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. Take all the fraction separately.TEST PROCEDURES THICKNESS GAUGE 1. iv. . vi. 25 mm to 20 mm.3 mm.5 mm. 2. 31. iii. Calculate for each fraction the following : a. (As per IS 2386 part 1 – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete). Purpose : Thickness gauge is used to find out flakiness index of coarse aggregate. Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in fraction.). This is noted as X.5 mm to 25 mm. ii. Percentage of weight of particles in fraction taken for testing to the total weight of particles in fraction taken for the test (total qty. Note the number of particles passing and not passing through the corresponding slot in the gauge for each fraction. 40 mm to 31. 12. 63 mm. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present. v. 50 mm to 40 mm. This is noted as Y. 16 mm to 12. 20 mm to 16 mm. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm. Procedure : i.

3. % . % Yi = Percentage of weight of particles in fraction to the total weight of particles in all fraction. Calculation : Flakiness Index = Fi = X (Xi – Yi)/100% i=1 to n Where Xi = Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in that fraction.

. g Report the aggregate impact value in percentage and as the mean of two determinations rounded off to the nearest whole number. The sample should be placed in three increments. Find the weight of sample retained on 2.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve.36 mm IS sieve. each increment being rodded 25 times with the tamping rod. 3. 4. % = (W1 – W2) W1 x 100 Where W1 = weight of dry sample passing through 12. Purpose : The impact test machine is used to determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregate as per IS 2386 Part IV – 1963 – Methods of test for aggregates for concrete 2.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve. Take about 1000 g of dry sample passing through 12. g W2 = weight of dry sample retained on 2.36 mm sieve (W2). 9.IMPACT VALUE TEST FOR 10 mm AGGREGATE 1. Fill the cylindrical metal measure with the dried sample. Calculation : Aggregate impact value. 8. 7. The interval between each blow should be about one second.36 mm IS sieve until no more sample passes through the sieve. Take the weight of sample in the measure (W1). 6. Repeat the test for another sample from the same lot and calculate the average of the two values. Height of the fall of the hammer should be 380 mm. Procedure : 1. Now drop the hammer in the testing machine 15 times on the sample test in the cup. Strike off the excess sample using the tamping rod as a straight edge. Remove the sample from the cup and sieve it on 2. 10. 2. 5.

Note down the weight of material retained in each sieve. 150 mic. f. 20 mm. d. 63 mm. 16 mm.TEST PROCEDURES SIEVES FOR COARSE AGGREGATE Sieve analysis of Coarse Aggregate Coarse aggregate consists of material above 4. Apparatus Balance and I.5 mm. 25 mm. Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate retained in each sieve. Procedure : a.75 mm 40 mm. 600 mic. 150 mic.75 mm.. 10 mm. 10 mm. sieves – sizes as following : Nominal size of aggregate 40 mm 20 mm 12. Sieve the aggregate progressively starting from the largest sieve.75 mm. e. 12. 20 mm.36 mm. Take a known weight (2 kg) of dry aggregate reduced by quartering. 4.75mm size. 2.75 mm 20 mm. Calculate the cumulative percentage of aggregate passing through each sieve. 600 mic. 12. 4. c.5 mm.S.. . 4. 10 mm. It may be crushed aggregate of natural gravel of different sizes.5 mm 10 mm Sieve size (mm) 80 mm. 4. b. 10 mm. Calculate the percentage of aggregate retained in each sieve. 40 mm.

h. Check the values of percentage passing with the limits specified in IS 383 and enter the values.g. . If the grading deviates from limit specified. it can be corrected by blending it to coarser of finer size fractions available to make it according to the limit specified in IS 383 (Grades Coarse Aggregate).

20 mm. 2. Apparatus Balance. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present. 12. 63 mm.3 mm. .e. Take all the fraction separately. d. The aim should be to retain as much as possible to avoid testing bias.5 mm. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge. 20 mm to 16 mm.5 mm. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm. 25 mm to 20 mm. Elongation Index Elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than one and four-fifth times their mean dimension. 25 mm. 31. It is measured on particles passing through mesh size of 63 mm and retained on mesh size 6. 40 mm to 25 mm.3 mm.3 mm 3. Keep the particles retained by the length separately. f.5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6.5 mm to 25 mm.5 mm 10 mm and 6. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. Elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size. 31. 50 mm. Procedure a. c. b. 16 mm to 12. Weigh the particles retained on length gauge. Elongation gauge (Length gauge) and IS sieves of the following mesh sizes – 63 mm. 12. expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.TEST PROCEDURES ELONGATION TEST 1. 50 mm to 40 mm. 16 mm. e.

.g W2 = weight of total sample taken for test.Calculation Elongation index of aggregate in % is calculated as follows: Ei = (W1/W2) x 100% Where W1 = weight of particles retained in length gauge. g Reporting Report the elongation index in percentage rounded off to the nearest whole number.

c. 50 mm. 25 mm to 20 mm. 16 mm to 12.TEST PROCEDURES FLAKINESS TEST 1.e. 63 mm. 31. 12. 40 mm to 31. .3 mm. 20 mm. Apparatus : Balance. d. It is measured on particles passing through mesh size of 63 mm and retained on mesh size 6. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm. e. b. 50 mm to 40 mm.3 mm. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. Keep the particles passing through the slot of the gauge and retained in gauge separately. This is noted as X. The aim should be to pass as many as possible through the slot to avoid testing bias.5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6. 31. 16 mm. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present.5 mm.5 mm. 40 mm. 10 mm and 6.5 mm to 25 mm. Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in fraction. Flakiness Index : Flakiness index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles in it whose least dimension (thickness) is less then threefifth of their mean dimension. Calculate for each fraction the following : a.5 mm. 2. Take all the fraction separately.5 mm. 25 mm. Procedure : a. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size. 3. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge. Flakiness gauge (thickness gauge) and GI sieves of the following mesh sizes – 63 mm.3 mm. 20 mm to 16 mm. 12.

b. This is noted as Y. Calculation Flakiness Index = Fi = ∑ (Xi – Yi)/100% Where Xi = Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in the fraction. Yi = Percentage of weight of particles in fraction to the total weight of particles in all fraction. . Percentage of weight of particles in fraction taken for testing to the total weight of particles in all fractions taken for the test (total qty. %. % Reporting Report the flakiness index in percentage rounded off to the nearest whole number.).

Keep the moulds covered with a water – impermeable cover and under shed for the duration of test.75 mm IS sieve into a mortar pan. f. remove bleeding water by using a pipette. Remix the sample thoroughly and fill it in a 15 cm cube mould in two layers. Oil the interior surface of the cube mould with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete. tilt the mould by placing a 3 cm block under one of the edges and allow water to collect at the shallow portion for 2 minutes. . 2. Procedure a. Push the apparatus h. Initial setting time of concrete by penetration resistance Initial setting time of concrete is the time interval required for the mortar sieved from the concrete mixture to reach a penetration resistance of 3. Remove all of the mortar from the sample by sieving it through a 4. pipette. After removing the bleed water. leaving a space of 13 mm (1/2 inch) at top. b. g. For easy removal of water.TEST PROCEDURES PENETROMETER 1. Apparatus Concrete cube moulds of 15 cm x 15 cm size. Prior to making each penetration resistance test. d. e. Select a representative sample of concrete of known proportion. tamping rod of 16 mm in diameter and 600 mm length rounded at one end. Compact each layer with tamping rod by tamping each layer 25 times. a set of three cube moulds should be filled. c. penetrometer graduated from 0 kgf to 60 kgf in increments of 2 kgf. insert the pocket penetrometer vertically into the mortar.43 N/mm2 (35 kgf/cm2) after the initial contact of cement and water. For each test.

Leave a space of 20 mm from previous impressions in subsequent penetration tests. Report the type and proportion of cement. Reporting : Average value of elapsed time of three tests shall be reported as initial setting time. k. fine aggregate. j.i. gradually until the needle penetrates the mortar upto the scribe mark. The force required is indicated by the white ring. Make penetration tests at hourly intervals. Initial setting time is read off against a penetration resistance corresponding to 35 kgf/Cm2. Record the force required and the elapsed time after adding water to the mix. coarse aggregate and the water-cement ration with ambient temperature during test period with the result. initial test being made after 3 hours. Plot the penetration resistance against time. . in about 10 seconds. l.

f. Oil the interior surface of the mould with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete.6 m long and bulleted point at the lower end. Firstly decide the number of samples to be taken during concreting. trowel. After remixing immediately fill the mould in layers approximately 5 cm deep.TEST PROCEDURES CASTING OF CONCRETE CUBE MOULDS 1. Remix the sample thoroughly in wheelbarrow with sampling scoop. Collect the sample in a wheelbarrow after mixing the concrete properly in the transit mixer. in order to ensure a symmetrical distribution of the concrete within the mould. Each layer shall be compacted with the tamping rod by minimum 35 strokes distributed in a uniform manner over the cross-section of the mould. PROCEDURE : a. e. sampling scoop. b. the scoop shall be moved around the top edge of the mould as the concrete slides from it. c. d. g. 2. 0. MAKING AND CURING CONCRETE CUBES: This method covers the procedure for making and curing of concrete cubes as per IS : 516 – 1959. 3. APPARATUS : Wheel barrow. . cube moulds of 15 x 15 x 15 cm size and tamping bar 16 mm in diameter. During filling the mould.

. top surface of the concrete shall be finished level with the top of the mould. Store the cube moulds in a place which Is free from vibration and cover the surface of the concrete with a piece of damp sacking for initial 16 to 24 hours. using a trowel. i. After compacting the top layer.h.

0. d. g. either in the laboratory or in the field during work. f. APPARATUS Metal slump cone of at least 1. 3. for determining the workability of concrete where the nominal maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 38 mm. c. Firstly decide the frequency of slump value to be taken during concreting. Internal dimension of the cone should have the following sizes : Bottom diameter 20 cm Top diameter 10 cm Height 30 cm Tamping rod of 16 mm diameter. Oil the interior surface of the slump cone with mould releasing oil to prevent adhesion of the concrete. 2. SLUMP TEST This method of test specifies the procedure to be adopted.6 m long and rounded at one end. After remixing immediately fill the slump cone in layers approximately one – quarter of the height of the cone. Collect the sample in a wheelbarrow after mixing the concrete properly in the transit mixer. PROCEDURE : a. e. .TEST PROCEDURES SLUMP TEST 1. Place the slump cone on a leveled surface. b.6 mm thickness provided with suitable base plate and also handles for lifting it from the moulded concrete test specimen vertically. Each layer shall be compacted with the tamping rod by 25 strokes distributed in a uniform manner over the crosssection of the cone and for the second and subsequent layers tamping rod shall penetrate into the underlying layer. Remix the sample thoroughly in wheel barrow with sampling scoop.

i. the specimen shears. If. shall be reported. After the concrete subsides place the slump cone on the base plate in reverse position and place a scale on it. using a trowel. Measure the height between the top of the mould and the highest point of the specimen being tested. the concrete shall be struck off level with the top of the slump cone. Take corrective action to make the mix cohesive. shall be cleaned away. the slump shall be measured and the fact that the specimen sheared.h. REPORTING OF SLUMP VALUE : The slump measured shall be reported in terms of millimeters of subsidence of the specimen during the test. 4. Unscrew the slump cone from the base plate and remove it immediately from the concrete by raising it slowly and carefully in a vertical direction. shall be repeated with another sample. which may have leaked out between the mould and the base plate. . j. which collapses or shears off laterally. Any mortar. Any slump specimen. After compacting the top layer. in the repeat test also.

Again fill the measure with approx.75 mm to 40 mm Over 40 mm Nominal Capacity Litre 3 15 30 Inside diameter cm 15 25 35 Inside Height cm 17 30 31 Thickness of Metal Min mm 3.00 5. . Table 1 : Size of container for Bulk density test Size of largest particles 4. b. Apparatus Balance cylindrical metal measure with handle and tamping rod of 16 mm dia. Procedure Rodded or Compacted weight – a.15 4. And 60 cm long. rounded at one end. Bulk density of aggregate This method of test covers the procedure for determining unit weight or bulk density of aggregate 2. same quantity & tamp it with 25 strokes.TEST PROCEDURES DENSITY CYLINDER FOR AGGREGARE (Coarse and Fine) 1. Tamp it with 25 strokes of the rounded end of tamping rod. c. A straight tamping rod of cylindrical c/s 16 mm in diameter. 60 cm long and rounded at one end.75 mm and under Over 4.00 3. Fill the measure about 1/3rd height with thoroughly mixed aggregate. Sizes of metal measures for different sizes of aggregate are given in table – 1.

Determine the net weight of aggregate and calculate Bulk density in Kg/lit. Loose Density – a. Overflow the measure. b. Level the sample with a straight edge. e. Fill the measure to overflow with aggregate by discharging from height not more than 5 cm above the top of measure. tamp it 25 times and struck off surplus aggregate with tamping rod. Determine the net weight of aggregate and calculate Bulk density in Kg/lit. c.d. .

b. weight of pycnometer and dry aggregate. g weight of pycnometer filled with only water.TEST PROCEDURES PYCNOMETER 1. roll it on a flat surface and then fill it completely with water and weigh. Calculate the specific gravity using this formula. refill it with water only and weigh. d. a. g. weight of pycnometer with aggregate and water. e. Sp. 2. g. 3. Apparatus Pycnometer (glass bottle with conical cap) and balance. fill the pycnometer with water. g . Add water to the sample. c. Specific gravity of aggregates This method cover the procedure for finding the specific gravity of aggregate using glass pycnometer. Fill up half of the pycnometer with dry aggregate sample and weigh. Procedure Weigh an empty pycnometer. Gravity = (W2-W1) [(W4-W1)-(W3-W2)] Where W1 Where W1 = W2 = W3 = W4 = weight of empty pycnometer. Empty the contents of the pycnometer.

c. 2. % W1 = Weight of moist sample. Moisture Content of Aggregate Moisture content of aggregate is the percentage of weight of water in the aggregate sample to the total dry weight of the aggregate sample. Apparatus One hot plate or over. g . 4. tray and balance 3.TEST PROCEDURES AIR OVEN 1. Take the weight of moist or wet sample Dry it in a hot plate or oven Take the weight of dry sample Calculation Moisture content of aggregate is calculated as follows : M=(W1 – W2)/W2 x 100 Where M = Moisture content of aggregate. b. Procedure a. g W2 = Weight of dry sample. The procedure is the same for both coarse and fine aggregate.

g. f.36 mm IS sieve until no more sample passes through the sieve. . Take about 1000 g of dry sample passing through 12. Repeat the test for another sample from the same lot and calculate the average of the two values. h. Remove the sample from the cup and sieve it one 2. Calculation : Aggregate impact value. The interval between each blow should be about one second. i. Take the weight of sample in the measure (W1) e. Fill the cylindrical metal measure with the dried sample. g j.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm sieve. b.36 mm IS sieve.TESTING METHOD OF IMPACT TEST MACHINE (As per IS 2386 Part IV) – 1963 Purpose : This method is used to determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregate Procedure : a. % = (W1-W2)/W1 x 100 Where W1 = weight of dry sample passing through 12. d.5mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve. each increment being rodded 25 times with the tamping rod. Find the weight of the sample retained on 2. Strike off the excess sample using the tamping rod as a straight edge. g W2 = weight of dry sample retained on 2. c. Report the aggregate impact value in percentage and as the mean of two determinations rounded off to the nearest whole number. The sample should be placed in three increments.36 mm sieve (W2). Height of the fall of the hammer should be 380 mm. Now drop the hammer in the testing machine 15 times on the sample kept in the cup.

Take the weight of dry sample 4. The procedure is the same for both coarse and fine aggregate. Procedure a. % W1 = Weight of moist sample. 2. Take the weight of moist or wet sample b. g W2 = Weight of dy sample. Apparatus One hot plate or oven tray and balance 3. g . Calculation Moisture content of aggregate is calculated as follows : M=(W1-W2) / W2 x 100 Where M = Moisture content of aggregate. Dry it in a hot plate or oven c.TEST PROCEDURES Air Oven for Aggregate (Coarse and Fine) 1. Moisture content of Aggregate Moisture content of aggregate is the percentage of weight or water in the aggregate sample to the total dry weight of the aggregate sample.

16 mm. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm. f.e. 20 mm. Procedure : a. Keep the particles retained by the length separately. Weigh the particles retained on length gauge. Apparatus : Balance. The aim should be to retain as much as possible to avoid testing bias. 12. 2. 40 mm. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. 20 mm to 16 mm. c. b. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size.5 mm. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present.3 mm. Take all the fraction separately. Elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length gauges. 31.3 mm. 63 mm. 12. Elongation Index : Elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than one and four-fifth times their mean dimension. 16 mm to 12. 25 mm to 20 mm. 40 mm to 25 mm. expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.3 mm. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge. 3. d. 50 mm. e. . 10 mm and 6.5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6.TEST PROCEDURES ELONGATION GAUGE COARSE AGGREGATE 1.5 mm. Elongation gauge (Length gauge) and IS sieves of the following mesh sizes – 63 mm. It is measured on particles passing through mesh size of 63 mm and retained on mesh size 6. 50 mm to 40 mm.5 mm. 25 mm.

Reporting : Report the elongation index in percentage rounded off to the nearest whole number. . % Where W1 = weight of particles retained in length gauge. g W2= weight of total sample taken for test.4. g 5. Calculation : Elongation index of aggregate in % is calculated as follows : Ei = (W1 / W2) x 100.

c. 16 mm. Sieve the blended sample through all the sieves mentioned above starting from the largest sieve i. 20 mm to 16 mm. Procedure a. 2.3 mm. gauge them one by one through the corresponding slot provided in the gauge. Flakiness gauge (thickness gauge) and GI sieves of the following mesh sizes – 63 mm. Separate all the individual fractions – 63 mm to 50 mm. 63 mm.e.TEST PROCEDURES FLAKINESS GAUGE FOR COARSE AGGREGATE 1. 3. Note the number of particles passing and not passing through the corresponding slot in the gauge for each fraction.5 mm to 10 mm and 10 mm to 6.5 mm. 20 mm.5 mm. 31. e. 25 mm. The aim should be to pass as many as possible through the slot to avoid testing bias. Flakiness Index Flakiness index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles in it whose least dimension (thickness) is less then three-fifth of their mean dimension. 31. 40 mm to 31. 25 mm to 20 mm. Take enough quantity of dry blended sample so that atleast 200 pieces of any fraction is present.5 mm to 25 mm. 12. d. This is not applicable for the biggest and smallest size. 12. . b. Keep the particles passing through the slot of the gauge and retained in gauge separately. It is measure on particles passing through mesh size of 63 mm and retained on mesh size 6. 10 mm and 6. 50 mm to 40 mm. Apparatus Balance. 50 mm.3 mm.5 mm. 16 mm to 12. 40 mm.5 mm. Take all the fraction separately.3 mm.

Percentage of weight of particles in fraction taken for testing to the total weight of particles in all fractions taken for the test (total qty.f. 2. Calculate for each fraction the following : 1. This is noted as X.). This is noted as Y. Calculation : Flakiness Index = Fi = X (Xi – Yi)/100% i=1 to n Where Xi = Percentage of number of particles passing the slot to the total number of particles in that fraction. % Reporting : Report the flakiness index in percentage rounded off to the nearest whole number. Percentage of number of particle passing the slot to the total number of particles in fraction. . % Yi = Percentage of weight of particles in fraction to the total weight of particles in all fraction.

. . e. 300 mic. 300 mic..) b.75 mm. Take known weight of dry sample (about 1 kg min. zone-II. 2. 1. 600 mic. Sieve analysis of Fine Aggregate : Fine aggregate consists of material mostly between 4. 3. Sieve the sample progressively starting from the largest sieve i.. Sizes of sieves : Sieves of the sizes 10 mm. Calculate cumulative percentage of sand retained in each sieve and cumulative percentage retained on each sieve. 600 mic. 4. d. Purpose : The sieves are used for the determination of particle size distribution of fine aggregate by sieving.18mm. 10 mm. It may be natural sand or crushed stone dust. Calculate the fineness modulus of sand by summing up the cumulative percentage of sand retained on 10 mm.75 mm. g. Procedure : a.TEST PROCEDURES SIEVES FOR FINE AGGREGATE 1.75 mm and 150 micron.. f.36 mm. On completion of sieving weigh the material retained on each sieve. Find out which grading zone the sand conforms to by checking with the table – 1 given below : 2. and 150 mic. 1. and 150 mic.e. 4. Calculate cumulative percentage passing through each size. zone-III and zone-IV as per IS383. c. Sand based on sieve analysis is classified into four zones conforming to zone-I. And weighing balance. Sives and dividing the sum by 100.18 mm. 4.

Sieve 10mm 4. 383) 1978 I.Table 1 : Grading zones (I.36mm 1.75mm 2.18mm 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron 75 micron Cumulative percentage passing IS sieves for grading zone (natural sand) I II III IV 100 90-100 60-95 30-70 15-34 5-20 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 75-100 55-90 35-59 8-30 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 85-100 75-100 60-79 12-40 0-10 0-3 100 90-100 95-100 90-100 80-100 15-50 0-15 0-3 Crushed Sand 100 90-100 75-100 55-100 35-79 8-40 0-20 0-15 . S.S.

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