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INSTRUCTED BY: Mr. H Rathnasuriya
NAME INDEX NUMBER COURSE: GROUP: DATE OF PER: DATE OF SUB:
V.W.MEEMADUMA 090325G MPR B3 2010.08.03 2010.08.17
v = Flow Velocity. = Fluid viscousity In pipes. as shown in Figure below. certain formulae were created. fluid flows in layers with orderly movement of fluid particles while in Turbulent flow fluid particles move in a disorderly manner. In laminar flow.1. It is important to determine frictional head losses in many pipe flow problems. For turbulent flow hf is given by the Darcy-Weisbach equation. Objectives To verify that the friction factor in pipe flow varies as expressed in the Darcy-Weisbach and HagenPoiseuille equations for a (a) Small diameter pipe (3 mm) (b) Commercially used PVC pipe (c) Commercially used Galvanized Iron (GI) pipe Theory The frictional head loss (hf) depends on the type of flow. As a result of this. which can be laminar or turbulent. From these formulae two equations for the two separate flow states of turbulent and laminar are used commonly by engineers to model pipe systems today. some experimentally while others theoretically. Such head losses are known as frictional resistance head losses. . Whether the flow is laminar or turbulent is decided by a non-dimensional Reynold’s number Re which is expressed as Re = Where = Fluid density. D = pipe diameter. the flow is laminar when Re < 2000 and turbulent when Re > 4000 with flow transition taking place when 2000 < Re < 4000 Various scientists had a need to evaluate the frictional head loss for a given pipe flow.0 Introduction Energy Loses Occur in pipe flow due to frictional resistance at the pipe surface.
1. some other empirical equations are used occasionally Eg: The Hazen-Williams formula hf = here C is a dimensional constant dependent on the pipe material and diameter and having values between 75-150. D = diameter of pipe and Here = f(( ) therefore it is solved by iterative methods However at lower Re values (Re 4000) = friction factor <<< Then at lower Re values (Re ) 0 Therefore These are known as Prandtl and Von Karmann equations. an equivalent friction factor can be defined for laminar flow so that hf = = yielding = Apart from these equations. L = pipe length and g = Accelaration due to gravity For Laminar Flow hf is determined by the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation. . In both these cases.hf = where = friction factor. hf = If the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is expressed in the form of the Darcy-Weisbach equation. the friction factor can be found using several different methods. Applying the Colebrook-White equation The general form of the Colebrook-White equation is as follows Where k = surface roughness of the pipe.
2. Thus the name Wallingford charts and Wallingford tables being given to them. Apparatus 1. This method is rather easier and less time consuming than solving the above mentioned equations. This diagram has been obtained through a various number of experimental data and any pipe obeying normal frictional flows will have values within the chart in the respected areas ( turbulent or laminar). 3. Using the Moody Diagram The Variation of with the relative roughness and Re values are graphically expressed in the Moody diagram. Wallingford. UK. Pipe Friction Apparatus 1 (for pipe with small diameter) . These provide yet another convenient method for engineers to obtain various properties for a pipe flow. not only the friction factor but also the required pipe diameter for a certain flow rate or the velocity in a pipe for a particular roughness value hence eliminating the need to be involved in tedious sums using the Colebrook-White equation. Using Wallingford charts or tables The Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Colebrook-White equation have been graphically represented in “charts for the hydraulic design of channels and pipes” and have been tabularly represented in “tables for the hydraulic design of channels and pipes” which have been published by the Hydraulic research station.
hf ( frictional head loss) can be expressed as hf = Where P1 and P2 are the pressures at sections (1) and (2) respectively. Pipe Friction Apparatus 2 (For larger diameter pipes) 3. Stop Watch 4. . which can be measured by the piezometers or the differential manometer.2. Measuring Vessel 5. Ruler/Measuring Tape Methodology For horizontal pipe of uniform diameter. as shown in the above diagram.
hf = and Re = (where V = and Re = ) then. To obtain a larger range or readings the internal pressure of the piezometric apparatus can be increased by using a bicycle pump.0 Procedure Fix the apparatus as shown in the above diagrams for the two pipe cases. Record the diameter of the pipe. hf = 2. Measure the length of Pipe. . Once a specific flow rate is set by the water pump do not adjust the pump. First compare manometer readings at minimum and maximum output flow rates in pipes and divide the difference in readings by the number of records to be taken in order to approximate a periodical change in pressures to obtain flow rate values. only adjust the flow rate through the control valve at the down stream end. For each flow the outflow in a time is measured three times for an average value to be taken for better accuracy of experimental values.V can be expressed as V= in which flow rate = Q = where is the volume of outflow in a time Re can be calculated by the equation given earlier and therefore can be calculated using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the Darce-Weisbach equivalent for the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. Obtain steady flow rates for different manometer readings and record them. Special considerations to be taken when handling the pipe of small diameter Special care should be taken to observe that the manometric liquid and piezometric liquids do not mix. but attention should be paid to the piezometric levels to ensure none of the above mentioned occurs. Also the dropping of the piezometric liquid level inside the pipe should be avoided.
9352252 187.92 343.76 26.92 3.95 41.82 27.4 16.5 10.36 35.64 19 9.13 19.423149 51.3 310.35637E12 36224.5 10940 31.42 81.30259E12 16050.9 4790 26.06 404.65 22.96 17.4 12.34 22.2 22513.58649E12 27753.74 19.a2x10.5 4790 32.29399E12 16 11.16 Diameter (m) = 0.6637478 88.28 2.88 3.13 35.deltaVx103(m) 3(m) 6(m3) t1 Qx106(m3/s) hfx103(m) lambdax10 9 Re 2.79 2.50416879 13.86 7291.81 251.4 10940 35.2372625 120.06 32.4 4790 22.13 149.22 Length (m) = 6.34 26.54 14.5 4790 19.16 32.016 .87 31.76 31.8 12.4850863 143.393881 23.57 2.2 4790 58.14 3.78 3.0 Calculations PVC Pipe a1x10.16 18.50563E12 30727.93 4.25 42.94 14.33 115.9 7 10940 27.17 26.38077E12 13342.86606E12 t2 t3 21.7 11.66 15.2047478 66.9 4790 40.3.41 213.70012E12 10322.89 59 58.3 13.99 179.9 8.1437468 36.0235E12 19072.
1972829 177.38 37.98 17964.1 16.61 20.29 259.59 39 12.2 22.7727987 71.44 30.73278E11 1.91 726.7 13.6120008 371.57708E11 3.GI Pipe a1x103(m) a2x103(m) deltaVx106(m3) Qx106(m3/s) hfx103(m) lambdax10 9 1.54 29.66 16417.8 56178.16 132.2451751 333.6 10940 39.05 42.3 4790 26.91 232.5 18.75 18.1058291 303.5268196 264.3 4790 61.75 61.9 22688.71973E11 1.82 10272.59 293.16 Diameter (m) = 0.5 11 10940 35.5 20.67 316.05 177.41 37.65147E11 1.0185 .66 21671.24 22.09 280.3 21.8 4790 20.73635E11 1.55 34.49 61.1861367 217.02 15.27 14.5 10940 15.3 34.5 4790 36.14 27.37 20.24 77.64611E11 1.95 37.1061947 415.6 20079.6 30.86 22.5 9.58 32.08 36 15 4790 18.8 27.54 12153.99 29.71574E11 1.7 24496.32 Length (m) = 6.68 36.4 4790 22.652 28.4293123 128.5 10940 36.09 38.3 24.4 4790 30.62 212.0835155 99.2 6026.76645E11 1.67087E11 1.39 35.35429E12 t1 t2 t3 Re 26.99 39.89462272 25.89 157.33 18.67813E11 1.17 40.69 33.52 13727.
51 41.801 266 324 400 37.23 38.51978E11 3.19 45.45923E11 3.699 410 37 250 34.118541033 513 4350.145 494 38 300 35.27 39.250693802 541.71 4.93745E11 3.34 7.101161996 101 1956.485 412 311 200 48.82 36.91 53.09845998 617.35 40.604 272 319 400 42.13 6.419083255 456 4016.60702E11 3.10699741 781.7 37.3493 393 347 100 52.777 402 326 100 32.46 34.118 272 319 400 40.86 32.13 32.31 9.78942636 730.82 48.88774226 46 900.74 10.300221038 35 620.6619 398 339 100 41.708 455 257 200 38.75 39.761652973 592.36683E11 4.388915432 59 1139.97 76.388 271 320 400 39.55044E11 Re 390 355 100 76.553 274 317 400 43.59 42.369144285 592.84 1.61 42.75 264 326 500 44.91 2.89 9.38 3.15 9.34813E11 3.11 34.52 10.25 42.39 32.98 35.4 4818.93 34.2 5299.a1x103(m) a2x103(m) deltaVx106(m3) t1 t2 t3 Qx106(m3/s) hfx103(m) lambdax10 9 1.16378E11 4.077870114 76 1468.83 45.834 528 15 300 33.8 4413.082 268 322 400 37.2 4657.8 5147.03 11.78253E11 3.163511188 198 2463.23745E11 5.7 32.38 43.07 1.67425725 680.94 52.99 8.16077E10 7.79647E11 4.4 5092.2 4470.48446E11 3.11 41.77 48.2 37.22 43.08 41.66 36.266 .21 10.92 76.566 493 211 200 31.05 32.45 9.39445E11 3.5498E11 3.42 33.247396918 282 2980.287921485 373 3477.49807E11 3.22 5.05102E11 3.
More accurately there will be two types of head loss. However if there were to be some limiting force against the flow of the water. affecting the fluid flow in the pipe.4. the velocity of the fluid. Copper and Glass all produce smooth pipes. Concrete.0 Discussion Significance of Frictional Head loss in the analysis of pipe flow Analysis of pipe flow deals with the characteristics of fluid flowing within a pipe. Hydraulically Rough Pipes The flow rate in a pipe producing turbulent flow is said to be a hydraulically rough pipe. The flow rate between points of the pipe. As there is no ideal pipe in practical applications there will always exist a frictional head loss. Hydraulically Smooth Pipes If the Flow rate inside a pipe can produce a laminar flow then the pipe is said to be a hydraulically smooth pipe. since the Head differences at two points would be the same. frictional and local. Therefore it is vital that frictional head loss be taken into account when analysing pipe flows. no matter how minimal it maybe. etc… In an ideal pipe having no head loss one could simply find all above mentioned factors if the necessary data about the pipe was given. Hence the frictional head loss becomes the major component. Rough Turbulent Flow If the Renault Number in a fluid undergoing turbulent flow is very high then it is knows as a rough turbulent flow. Hence the curvatures in the Moody diagram. Transitional Turbulent Flow Transitional turbulent flow is a region in between the smooth turbulent flow and rough turbulent flow having fluid with a moderate Renault number. The surface roughness values of these pipes are considerably higher. . Therefore the relationship between the friction factor and the Re number is = (64/Re) while for turbulent flows the relationship becomes much more complicated. Behaviour of friction factor and Moody Diagram For low Re values the fluid remains laminar. Smooth Turbulent Flow If the Renault Number in a fluid undergoing turbulent flow is close to the value 4000 then it is knows as a smooth turbulent flow. which causes the flow rate to be turbulent at a lower flow rate than a smooth pipe having identical dimensions. The surface roughness plays a major role in deciding the flow rate at which turbulent flow occurs. but in civil engineering applications where we deal with considerably larger pipes with a small number of bends the local losses reduce to something comparatively negligible. Therefore a material with higher surface roughness can cause turbulent flows at lower flow rates. the analysis of the flow would not be as straight forward. Cast iron.
This causes an increase in roughness value of the pipe but comparatively the diameter of the pipe is considered as unchanged. Local Losses and their significance in engineering applications Apart from the Frictional Head losses. As a pipe is used for a long time. Local head loss can be expressed in the form hl =kl Where kl = constant for a particular fitting An expression can be derived for kl in terms of the area of the pipe. The types of local losses are 1. Therefore the relative roughness of the pipe will increase. Effect of Aging of pipes and friction factor Aging of a pipe is its prolonged usage. ( some studies have shown a 4 inch diameter steel pipe undergoing a 20% increase in friction factor after its roughness was increased by twice the value from 3 years usage). junctions and valves. tubercules or other foreign matter. Sudden Contraction 2. Head Losses due to Bending . therefore it is important to consider this in such situations or there would be an error in any assumption made about the flow system. These losses occur due to eddy formation generated by the fluid at the fitting. Local Head losses ( minor head losses) are incurred at pipe bends. For cases where pipes are shorter the local losses could be higher than the frictional head loss. According to the Moody diagram this increase in relative roughness will cause an increase in the friction factor as well. dirt. if improperly maintained the interior will be encrusted with scale. Sudden Expansion 3.
Taylor & Francis. Crane (p12) Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental Engineering. fittings and Pipes.0 References Flows of fluids through valves.4. Losses due to pipe junctions 5. (p112) . 2004.