WORKED EXAMPLES
FOR THE DESIGN OF CONCRETE BUILDINGS
Based on BSI publication DO ENV 199211: 1992.
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. Part 1. General rules and rules for buildings.
This book of worked examples has been prepared by:
British Cement Association Ove Arup & Partners
and
S. B. Tietz & Partners
The work was monitored by the principal authors:
A. W. Beeby BSe. PhD, CEng, MICE, MIStructE, FACI
Professor of Structural Design, Dept of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds (formerly Director of Design and Construction, British Cement Association),
R. S. Narayanan BE(Hons), MSe, DIC, CEng, FIStructE
Partner, S. B. Tietz & Partners, Consulting Engineers,
and
R. Whittle MA(Cantab), CEng, MICE Associate Director, Ove Arup & Partners,
and edited by:
A, J. Threlfall BEng, DIC
Consultant (formerly a Principal Engineer at the British Cement Association).
This publication was jointly funded by the British Cement Association and the Department of the Environment to promote and assist the use of DD ENV 199211 Eurocode 2: Part 1.
The British Cement Association, BCA, is a research and information body dedicated to furthering the efficient and proper design and execution of concrete construction, Membership of BCA's Centre for Concrete Information is open to all involved in the construction process. BCA is funded by subscriptions from cement producers, through joint ventures, sales of publications, information and training courses, and the carrying out of research contracts.
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43.505
First published 1994 ISBN 0 7210 1446 1 Price group M
© British Cement Association 1994
Published by British Cement Association Century House, Telford Avenue, Crowthorne, Berks RG11 6YS Telephone (0344) 762676 Fax (0344) 761214 From 15 April 1995 the STD Code will be (01344)
All advice or information from the British Cement Association is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibiiity to. its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information IS accepted. Readers should note that all BCA publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.
FOR THE DESIGN OF CONCRETE BUILDINGS
Based on BSI publication DD ENV 199211: 1992.
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. Part 1. General rules and rules for buildings.
Published by the British Cement Association in conjunction with:
Ove Arup & Partners S.B. Tietz & Partners The Department of the
13 Fitzroy Street 14 Clerkenwell Close Environment
London W1 P 6BQ Clerkenwell 2 Marsham Street
Tel: 071636 1531 London EC1R OPQ London SW1P 3EB
Tel: 071490 5050 Tel: 071276 3000
July 1994
FOREWORD
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures, Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings (EC2)(1) sets out both the principles for the design of all types of concrete structure, and design rules for buildings. Rules for other types of structure and particular areas of technology, including precast concrete elements and structures, will be covered in other parts of EC2.
EC2 contains a considerable number of parameters for which only indicative values are given. The appropriate values for use in the UK are set out in the National Application Document (NAD)(l) which has been drafted by BSI. The NAD also includes a number of amendments to the rules in EC2 where, in the draft for development stage of EC2, it was decided that the EC2 rules either did not apply, or were incomplete. Two such areas are the design for fire resistance and the provision of ties, where the NAD states that the rules in BS 8110(2) should be applied.
Attention is drawn to Approved Document A (Structure) related to the Building Regulations 1991(3), which states that Eurocode 2, including the National Application Document, is considered to provide appropriate guidance for the design of concrete buildings in the United Kingdom.
Enquiries of a technical nature concerning these worked examples may be addressed to the authors directly, or through the BCA, or to the Building Research Establishment.
~ 2 r
CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
1.1 Introduction 5
1.2 Symbols 5
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Introduction 15
Basic details of structure,
materials and loading . . . . . . . .. 15
2.3 Floor slab 17
2.4 Main beam 20
2.5 Edge beam (interior span) 30
2.6 Columns 34
2.7 Foundation 39
2.8 Shear wall 43
2.9 Staircase 49
2 2.1 2.2
3 BEAMS
3.1 Introduction 53
3.2 Design methods for shear .. 53
3.3 Shear resistance with concentrated
loads close to support . . . . . . .. 63 3.4 Design method for torsion . . . .. 70
3.5 Slenderness limits 81
4 SLABS
4.1 Solid and ribbed slabs 82
4.2 Flat slabs 109
5 COWMNS
5.1 Introduction 132
5.2 Capacity check of a section by
strain compatibility 132
5.3 Biaxial bending capacity of
a section . . . . . . . . . . .. 137
5.4 Braced slender column 141
5.5 Slender column with biaxial
bending 143
5.6 Classification of structure 147
5.7 Sway structures 151
6 WALLS
6.1 Introduction 154
6.2 Example 154
7 FOUNDATIONS
7.1 Ground bearing footings 158
7.2 Pilecap design 172
8 SPECIAL DETAILS
8.1 Corbels................... 180
8.2 Nibs 185
8.3 Simply supported ends 188
8.4 Surface reinforcement . . . . . . .. 191
9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
9.1 Introduction 193
9.2 Design data 193
9.3 Serviceability limit state 195
9.4 Ultimate limit state 204
9.5 Minimum and maximum areas of
reinforcement 207
9.6 Reinforcement summary 207
10 SERVICEABILITY CHECKS BY CALCULATION
10.1 Deflection 208
10.2 Cracking 219
11 DEEP BEAMS
11.1 Introduction 222
11.2 Example 222
12 LOAD COMBINATIONS
12.1 Introduction 236
12.2 Example 1
 frame 237
12.3 Example 2
 continuous beam 1 240
12.4 Example 3
 continuous beam 2 243
12.5 Example 4
 tank 245
13 DESIGN OF BEAM AND COWMN SECTIONS
13.1 Concrete grades 246
13.2 Singly reinforced rectangular
beam sections. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 246 13.3 Compression reinforcement . .. 248
13.4 Flanged beams 249
13.5 Symmetrically reinforced
rectangular columns . . . . . . .. 249
REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 256
~ 3 r
1 INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS II
1.1 Introduction and symbols
The main objective of this publication is to illustrate through worked examples how EC2(1) may be used in practice. It has been prepared for engineers who are generally familiar with design practice in the UK, particularly to BS 8110(2).
The worked examples relate primarily to insitu concrete building structures. The designs are in accordance with EC2: Part 1 as modified by the UK National Application Docurnent'", Where necessary, the information given in EC2 has been supplemented by guidance taken from other documents.
The core example, in Section 2, is a redesign of the insitu concrete office block used in the BCA publication Designed and detailed (BS 8110: 1985), by Higgins & Rogers(4). Other design aspects and forms of construction are fully explored by means of further examples in Sections 3 to 12.
Equations and charts for the design of beam and column sections, taken from the Concise Eurocode for the design of concrete buildings (5) , are given in Section 13. Publications used in the preparation of this book, and from which further information may be obtained, are listed in the References. Unless otherwise stated, all references to BS 8110 refer to Part 1.
Two conventions have been adopted in the preparation of this book. Statements
followed by' OK' mark places where the calculated vaiue is shown
to be satisfactory. Green type is used to draw attention to key information such as the reinforcement to be provided.
The calculations are crossreferenced to the relevant clauses in EC2 and, where appropriate, to other documents: all references in the righthand margins are to EC2 unless indicated otherwise.
The symbols used throughout the publication are listed and defined below, and are generally those used in EC2 itself.
A
1.2 Symbols
Ac Act Act,ext Ak Ap As A'
s
As,min As,prav As,req As,surf ASf As!
Area of crosssection
Area of concrete crosssection
Area of concrete within tensile zone
Area of concrete tensile zone external to links
Area enclosed within centreline of thinwalled section Area of prestressing tendons
Area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement Area of compression reinforcement
Minimum area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement Area of tension reinforcement provided
Area of tension reinforcement required
Area of surface reinforcement
Area of transverse reinforcement within flange of beam
Area of tension reinforcement effective at a section or, for torsion, area of additional longitudinal reinforcement
Area of shear reinforcement or torsion links
Minimum area of shear reinforcement
Effective modulus of elasticity of concrete
~ 5 r
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
e; Eem Es
Fe
Fs
FSd FSd,sup Ft
Fv
II In Ib Ie Ieol Islab
t,
Iy
J
M
Me Mer «. »:
Mo MAd «:
M' Ad,e
MAd,S
Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete
Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement or prestressing steel Force due to concrete in compression at ultimate limit state
Force in tension reinforcement or prestressing tendons at ultimate limit state Design value of tie force in pilecap
Design value of support reaction
Tie force in corbel or due to accidental action
Vertical force applied to corbel or, for sway classification of structures, sum of all vertical loads under service conditions
Characteristic value of permanent action or dead load
Characteristic dead floor load
Characteristic dead roof load
Overall depth of tank
Horizontal force applied to corbel Second moment of area of crosssection
Second moment of area of uncracked concrete section Second moment of area of cracked concrete section Second moment of area of beam section
Second moment of area of concrete section
Second moment of area of column section
Second moment of area of slab section
Second moment of area of section in x direction Second moment of area of section in y direction St Venant torsional stiffness of rectangular section St Venant torsional stiffness of total section
Deflectioncurvature factor dependent upon the shape of the bending moment diagram
Reduction factor for calculation of second order eccentricity
Coefficient taking account of decrease in curvature due to increasing axial force
Bending moment
Moment of force, Fe' about tension reinforcement Moment causing cracking
Moment of force, Nc' about x axis
Moment of force, Ne, about y axis
First order moment
Design moment of resistance
Moment of force, NAd,e' about middepth of section Moment of force, N' Ad,e' about middepth of section Moment of force, NAd,s' about middepth of section
~ 6 ~
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
MSd MSdx
MSdy
MSd1 MSd2 MSd,cs MSd,ms Mspan »:
Mt,max Mx My
N
Pay r.: r: r.:
Po
:
PI Ok
°kf °kr
RA Rs S
Design value of applied moment Design moment in x direction Design moment in y direction First order moment at end 1
First order moment at end 2 Design moment in column strip Design moment in middle strip Moment in span
Moment at support
Maximum moment transfer value Moment about x axis
Moment about y axis
Axial force
Axial force due to concrete in compression Design resistance to axial force
Design resistance to axial force due to concrete
Design resistance to axial force due to concrete of hypothetical section of depth x > h
Design resistance to axial force due to reinforcement Design value of applied axial force
Mean applied axial force
Prestressing force or point load
Average prestressing force along tendon profile Initial prestressing force at transfer
Mean effective prestressing force at time t Final prestressing force after all losses
Maximum initial prestressing force at active end of tendon Required prestressing force
Final prestressing force at service
Characteristic value of variable action or imposed load Characteristic value of imposed floor load Characteristic value of imposed roof load
Reaction at support A
Reaction at support B
First moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of section
First moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of uncracked section First moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of cracked section Design value of tensile force in longitudinal reinforcement
Maximum torsional moment resisted by concrete struts
Maximum torsional moment resisted by reinforcement
;7 ~
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
TSd TSdft TSd,tot T
Sd,w
VA
VB
VCd Vext
~nt VRd1
VRd2 VRd3
VSd VSdx VSdY
Vsd,max VWd
Wb WCP Wk
Wt
a
Design value of applied torsional moment Torsional moment applied to flange
Total applied torsional moment
Torsional moment applied to web
Shear force at support A
Shear force at support B
Design shear resistance provided by concrete Shear force at exterior support
Shear force at interior support
Design shear resistance of member without shear reinforcement Maximum design shear force to avoid crushing of notional concrete struts Design shear resistance of member with shear reinforcement
Design value of applied shear force
Design shear force in x direction
Design shear force in y direction
Maximum design shear force
Design shear resistance provided by shear reinforcement Section modulus at bottom fibre
Section modulus at centroid of tendons
Characteristic value of wind load
Section modulus at top fibre
Distance or deflection or maximum drape of tendon profile Deflection based on uncracked section
Deflection based on cracked section
Distance of load from face of support (corbel) or from centreline of hanger bars (nib)
Deflection due to concrete shrinkage
Distance from face of support to effective centre of bearing Horizontal displacement of the envelope line of tensile force Total deflection
Distance between positions of zero and maximum bending Deflection at distance x along span
Values of ai at ends of span
Width of section or flange width or lateral cover in plane of lap Average width of trapezoidal compression zone
Width of effective moment transfer strip
Effective width of flange
Minimum width of support beam
Width of rib
Width of support
~ 8 r
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
b, Mean width of section over the tension zone
bw Minimum width of section over the effective depth
c Cover to longitudinal torsion reinforcement
C1,C2 Support widths at ends of beam
d Effective depth of section
d' Depth to compression reinforcement
day Average effective depth for both directions
db Depth to bar considered
d Distance of critical section for punching shear from centroid of column
erit
d, Effective depth of flange
dH Effective depth for punching shear check in column head
<; Maximum effective depth for both directions
«; Minimum effective depth for both directions
dx Effective depth in x direction
dy Effective depth in y direction
d, Effective depth to bars in layer 1
d2 Effective depth to bars in layer 2
ea Additional eccentricity due to geometrical imperfections
eay Additional eccentricity in the y direction
eaz Additional eccentricity in the z direction
ee Equivalent eccentricity at critical section
eoy First order eccentricity in y direction
e01,e02 First order eccentricities at ends of column
etot Total eccentricity
ey Eccentricity in y direction
ez Eccentricity in z direction
e2 Second order eccentricity
e2y Second order eccentricity in y direction
e2z Second order eccentricity in z direction
fb Stress in concrete at bottom fibre
fbd Design value of ultimate bond stress
fed Design cylinder strength of concrete
te; Cube strength of concrete at transfer
fek Characteristic cylinder strength of concrete
fet,elf Effective tensile strength of concrete at time cracking is expected to occur
fetm Mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete
feu Characteristic cube strength of concrete
tpd Design tensile strength of prestressing steel
'; Characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel
~9 ~
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
fRdu Design value of ultimate bearing stress
fs Stress in reinforcement
" Stress in concrete at top fibre
fYd Design yield strength of reinforcement
fYk Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement
fYld Design yield strength of longitudinal torsion reinforcement
fYWd Design yield strength of shear reinforcement or torsion links
fywk Characteristic yield strength of shear reinforcement or torsion links
gk Characteristic dead load per unit area
h Overall depth of section or liquid in tank
h' Reduced value of h for separate check about minor axis of column section
with biaxial eccentricities
ha Active height of deep beam
he Overall depth of corbel at face of support
h, Overall depth of flange
hH Depth of column head
hmax Larger dimension of rectangular section
hmin Smaller dimension of rectangular section
htot Total height of structure in metres
Radius of gyration of section
k Coefficient or factor
kA Restraint coefficient at end A
kB Restraint coefficient at end B
kbottom Restraint coefficient at bottom
ke Minimum reinforcement coefficient associated with stress distribution
ktop Restraint coefficient at top
k, Crack spacing coefficient associated with bond characteristics
k2 Crack spacing coefficient associated with strain distribution
I Length or span
I' Length of tendon over which anchorage slip is taken up
Ib Basic anchorage length
Ib,mln Minimum anchorage length
Ib,net Required anchorage length
Ie Diameter of circular column
leol Height of column between centres of restraints
left Effective span
left,slab Effective span of slab
IH Distance from column face to edge of column head
In Clear distance between faces of support
~10r_
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
pi
q
s
u
Distance between positions of zero bending or effective height of column or, for deep beams, clear distance between faces of support
Length of compression flange between lateral supports
Required lap length or floor to ceiling height in metres
Minimum lap length
Greater of distances in metres between centres of columns, frames or walls supporting any two adjacent floor spans in direction of tie under consideration
Effective span in x direction Effective span in y direction
Lengths between centres of supports or overall dimensions of rectangular column head
Minimum design moment per unit width
Ultimate design load per unit area or number of tendons or number of subdivisions
Average loss of prestressing force per unit length due to friction Equivalent load per unit length due to prestressing force profile Characteristic imposed load per unit area
Radius of bend or radius of curvature
Radius of curvature based on uncracked section Radius of curvature based on cracked section Radius of curvature due to concrete shrinkage
Radius of curvature due to concrete shrinkage based on uncracked section Radius of curvature due to concrete shrinkage based on cracked section Total radius of curvature
Spacing of shear reinforcement or torsion links or horizontal length of tendon profile
Spacing of transverse reinforcement within flange of beam Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement or torsion links Average final crack spacing
Thickness of supporting element or wall of thinwalled section Minimum thickness of wall
Circumference of concrete section or critical section for punching shear Circumference of area Ak
Design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for slab without shear reinforcement
Maximum design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for slab with shear reinforcement
Design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for slab with shear reinforcement
Design value of shear force per unit length of critical perimeter Support width or quasipermanent load per unit length
Design crack width
~11 ~
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
x
(3
'Yc
'Yp 'Yo 'Ys
Xl
Minimum width of support
Neutral axis depth or distance along span from face of support or distance along tendon or column dimension in x direction
Maximum depth of concrete in compression in direction of minor axis for column section with biaxial eccentricities
Depth of concrete in compression at position of minor axis for column section with biaxial eccentricities
Drape of tendon at distance x along profile or column dimension in y direction
Distance from centroid of uncracked section to extreme tension fibre Lever arm of internal forces
Distance from centroid of section to centroid of tendons
y
a Reduction factor for concrete compressive stress or modular ratio or deformation parameter
a) Value of parameter based on uncracked section
Value of parameter based on cracked section Effectiveness coefficient for anchorage Effective modular ratio
Reduction coefficient for assumed inclination of structure due to imperfections
Moment coefficients in x and y directions Effectiveness coefficient for lap
Coefficient with several applications including shear resistance enhancement, effective height of column, St Venant torsional stiffness, punching shear magnification, design crack width
Reduced value of shear resistance enhancement coefficient Coefficient associated with bond characteristics
Coefficient associated with duration of load
Partial safety factor for concrete material properties Partial safety factor for actions
Partial safety factor for permanent action or dead load
Partial safety factor for permanent action, in calculating lower design value Partial safety factor for permanent action, in calculating upper design value Partial safety factor for actions associated with prestressing force
Partial safety factor for variable action or imposed load
Partial safety factor for steel material properties of reinforcement or prestressing tendons
Ratio of redistributed moment to moment before redistribution Strain in concrete at bottom of section
Basic concrete shrinkage strain
Final concrete shrinkage strain
Minimum strain in tendons to achieve design tensile strength Strain in tendons corresponding to prestressing force P rn.t
~12r_
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
fs Strain in reinforcement
fs(t,tJ Estimated concrete shrinkage strain
fsm Mean strain in reinforcement allowing for tension stiffening effect of concrete
fu Ultimate compressive strain in concrete
fyd Initial yield strain in reinforcement
r Distribution coefficient
'Yj Moment coefficient
e Angle of rotation or angle between concrete struts and longitudinal axis
A Slenderness ratio
Acrit Critical slenderness ratio
Am Mean slenderness ratio of all columns in storey considered
Amin Slenderness ratio beyond which column is considered slender
Il Coefficient of friction between tendon and duct or applied moment ratio
Illim Limiting value of applied moment ratio for singly reinforced section
v Efficiency factor or assumed inclination of structure due to imperfections
vred Reduced value of assumed inclination of structure
Vu Longitudinal force coefficient
P Tension reinforcement ratio or density of liquid
p' Compression reinforcement ratio
PI Longitudinal tension reinforcement ratio
Pix' Ply Longitudinal tension reinforcement ratios in x and y directions
p, Effective reinforcement ratio
Pw Shear reinforcement ratio
P Minimum shear reinforcement ratio
w,min
Principal and secondary reinforcement ratios in solid slabs
Stress in concrete adjacent to tendons due to selfweight and any other permanent actions
Average stress in concrete due to axial force
Initial stress in concrete adjacent to tendons due to prestress
Initial stress in tendons immediately after stressing (pretensioning) or immediately after transfer (posttensioning)
Stress in tension reinforcement calculated on basis of cracked section Value of as under loading conditions causing first cracking
Basic design shear strength
Factor defining representative value of variable action Value of 1/1 for rare load combination
Value of 1/1 for frequent loading
Value of 1/1 for quasipermanent loading Mechanical ratio of tension reinforcement Mechanical ratio of compression reinforcement
w
w'
~13~
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
Limiting value of w for singly reinforced section Total vertical force applied to frame at floor j Anchorage slip or wedge set
Variation of longitudinal force in section of flange over distance a
v
Equivalent horizontal force acting on frame at floor j due to assumed imperfections
ilMRd,c Moment of force ilNRd,C about middepth of section
ilMsd Reduction in design moment at support
E
J
Design resistance to axial force due to concrete in area of hypothetical section lying outside actual section
Average loss of prestressing force due to elastic deformation of concrete Loss of prestressing force at active end of tendon due to anchorage slip Loss of prestressing force due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation at time t
ilP (x) Loss of prestressing force due to friction between tendon and duct at distance
I' x from active end of tendon
.6.a pr
cI> cI>(t,t)
cI>( DO,t)
Variation of stress in tendon due to relaxation Bar size or duct diameter or creep coefficient
Creep coefficient, defining creep between times t and t , related to elastic
o
deformation at 28 days
Final creep coefficient
~14r_
2 COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE II
2.1 Introduction
Design calculations for the main elements of a simple insitu concrete office block are set out. The structure chosen is the same as that used in Higgins and Rogers' Designed and detailed (BS 8110: 1985Y4). Calculations are, wherever possible, given in the same order as those in Higgins and Rogers enabling a direct comparison to be made between BS 8110(2) and EC2(1) designs. For the same reason, a concrete grade C32/40 is used. This is not a standard grade recognized by EC2 or ENV 206(6), which gives grade C35/45 in Table NA.1. Some interpolation of the tables in EC2 has, therefore, been necessary.
The example was deliberately chosen to be simple and to cover a considerable range of member types. Comparison shows that, for this type of simple structure, there is very little difference between BS 8110 and EC2 in the complexity of calculation necessary or the results obtained.
2.2 Basic details of structure, materials and loading These are summarized in Table 2.1 and Figure 2.1.
Table 2.1 Design information
Intended use
Laboratory and office block
Fire resistance
1 hour for all elements
Loading (excluding selfweight of structure)
Roof  imposed (kN/m2) 1.5
 finishes (kN/m2) 1.5
Floors  imposed including partition allowance (kN/m2) 4.0
 finishes (kN/m2) 0.5
Stairs  imposed (kN/m2) 4.0
 finishes (kN/m2) 0.5
External cladding (kN/m) 5.0
Wind load
Speed (m/sec) 40
Factors
S1 1.0
S2 0.83
S3 1.0
c, 1.1
Exposure class
2b (external) and 1 (internal)
Subsoil conditions
Stiff clay  no sulphates
Allowable bearing pressure (kN/m2) 200
Foundation type
Reinforced concrete footings to columns and walls
Materials
Grade C32/40 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate
Characteristic strength of main bars (N/mm2) 460
Characteristic strength of links (N/mm2) 250
Self,weight of concrete (kN/m3j 24 ~15r_
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
~16~
~ ® ~' '~ ,~)~) (9 (~ ~ cp
I a @ 5000040,000 I
~i·~~~~:~~~~
O~O~I~firiii~O
':' I I . I ~b I I I m
0 0 0 0 0 0 __ 0 __
wall
TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN
R CD
sz__ I==~'__:=t===!=
3 s:z_____
2 ~ ~~4
1 s;z____
G :s;z___
0 Notes ..
0
'"
m I. All columns 300 x 300
@ 1. Main beams 500 x 300
'"
> 3. Edge beams 350 x 300
~
0 4 Internal column bases
gJ; 2750 x 2750 x 600
s TYPICAL CROSS SECTION
Notes:
1. N .S wind force resisted by end shear walls
2. Lateral bracing in EW direction provided by staircase, and infill masonry panels, on gri d 11 H  J. and grid 31 Hj
t wind direction
WIND RESISTANCE
P C
c>< L
+' +' +'
Int. c: Int. e e Int.

<,. .,_,. ........ ....,. . "'_,. <, ......,.
~ p
Key·
P  Peripheral tie Int.  I nternal tie
(  Cct urnn (external) tie
W  Wall (external) he
P
( P C
(
C
TIE PROVISION  horizontal ties
Ft 0 ( 20 + 4n 0) = 20 + 16 = 36 e 60 kN
Figure 2.1 Structural details
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.3 Floor slab
2.3.1 Idealization of structure
Consider as a oneway continuous slab on knifeedge supports and design a typical 5 m interior span where
fCk 32 N/mm2
fYk = 460 N/mm2
2.3.2 Cover for durability and fire resistance
Nominal cover for exposure class 1 (internal) is 20 mm.
Cover should not be less than the bar size when 20 mm maximum aggregate size is used.
175 mm slab with 20 mm cover will give 1.5 hours fire resistance .... OK
Use 20 mm nominal cover bottom and top J
L___ _
2.3.3 Loading
Selfweight of slab = 0.175 x 24 Finishes = 0.5 kN/m2
Characteristic permanent load (gk) = 4.7 kN/m2
4.2 kN/m2
Characteristic variable load (qk)
4.0 kN/m2
1.35 x 4.7 1.5 x 4.0
6.35 kN/m2 6.0 kN/m2
Design permanent load Design variable load
2.3.4 Design moments and shears
Moments have been obtained using moment coefficients given in Reynolds and Steedman's Reinforced concrete designer's handbook?), Table 33.
Support moment = 0.079 x 6.35 x 52 + 0.106 x 6.0 x 52 = 28.4 kNm/m
Span moment = 0.046 x 6.35 x 52 + 0.086 x 6.0 x 52 Design shear force = 0.5 x 6.35 x 5 + 0.6 x 6.0 x 5
20.2 kNm/m 33.9 kN/m
2.3.5 Reinforcement 2.3.5.1 Support
Assume effective depth
175  20  6
149 mm
= 0.040
0.048, xld
0.092 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
NAD Table 6 4.1.3.3
NAD 6.1(a) & BS 8110 Table 3.5
& Figure 3.2
Table 2.2
,17r
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
For zero redistribution, x/d should be less than 0.45 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK
As = 498 mm2/m
Minimum area of reinforcement
0.6btd
_ f;:. 0.0015 btd = 224 mm2/m
fYk
OK
Use T12 @ 200 mm crs. (565 mm2/m)
2.3.5.2 Span
M bd2f
ck
0.028
A/Yk =:
As = 342 mm2/m
0.063 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
0.033,
x/d
Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 rnrnvrn)
Note:
Reinforcement areas differ somewhat from those given by BS 8110 which permits design for the single load case of maximum load on all spans combined with 20% redistribution. EC2 requires alternate and adjacent spans to be considered. In this instance, no redistribution has been carried out but it would have been permissible to carry out 30% redistribution in the EC2 design. This would have resulted in an identical answer to that given by BS 8110 but ductility class H (as defined in prEN 10080(8» reinforcement would need to be specified.
2.3.6 Shear
Shear resistance of the slab without shear reinforcement is given by VRd1 = 'Rl(1.2 + 40PI)bwd
where
0.35 N/mm2
k 1.6  d = 1.6  0.149 = 1.451
565
0.0038
1000 x 149
Hence
VRd1 = 102.3 kN/m > VSd
33.9 kN/m . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK
No shear reinforcement required
Note:
Since shear is rarely a problem for normally loaded solid slabs supported on beams, as the calculation has shown, it is not usually necessary to check in these instances.
2.5.3.4.2(5)
5.4.2.1.1(1)
NAD Table 5
4.3.2.3 Eqn 4.18
Table 4.8
~18~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.3.7 Deflection
Reinforcement ratio provided in span
377
0.0025
1000 x 149
Using NAD Table 7(1) and interpolating between 48 for 0.15% and 35 for 0.5%, a basic span/effective depth ratio of 44 is given. By modifying according to the steel stress, the ratio becomes
44 (400 x 377) = 42.2 460 x 342
5000 The actual span/effective depth ratio is
149
33.6 OK
Had EC2 Table 4.14 been used instead of NAD Table 7, the basic ratio before modification would have been 35, which would not have been OK.
2.3.8 Cracking
For minimum area of reinforcement assume
f 3 N/mm2
ct,eif
k 0.8
0.5 x 175 x 1000
87500 rnrn"
Hence
0.4 x 0.8 x 3 x 87500/460 = 183 mm2/m
Area of reinforcement provided = 377 mm2/m OK
No further check is necessary as h = 175:5 200 mm
Maximum bar spacing = 3h:5 500 mm OK
2.3.9 Tie provisions
The NAD requires that ties are provided in accordance with BS 8110. Internal tie in EW direction, with Ft = 36 kN/m width, is given by
36 x (4.7 + 4) x ~ = 41.8 kN/m
7.5 5
NAD Table 7
4.4.3.2(4)
4.4.2.2
Eqn 4.78
4.4.2.3(1) NAD Table 3 5.4.3.2.1(4)
NAD 6.5(g) BS 8110 3.12.3.4
~19~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
. 41.8 X 103
Minimum area = = 91 mm2/m
460
Thus this area of the bottom reinforcement is the minimum that should be made continuous throughout the slab.
2.3.10 Reinforcement details
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.2.
~ 0
15T1063
ST104) 3 5T105 T2
cp A ~ r4T107300T1 C? r67T12B2
 _:*
. 4! ::'11   
. I
0012 II I I IJ I. :
1501 1200 1/'
5 A I I
00 4 13 + 2) I
Alt. (2 +31
2 3 8T102J
1500 ~ 7T10 3
·1 I i I 150
: I, 3 2 .1 TI 81103J
I II 7T102
0 1'1 5 4 13 + 2)
Alt. I! ; (2+3) : I
I! I J 3 I I
OT~_rli_ :It  _= __ I ' I _L.
I I
       =f:~:
I
45T12130081 B~
5 T10  5) 30 5T104 T2
,5T10630
0
! ~ I g cid 20m i It" foe clnrit y I I '''" nlt er nnte bnrs
t~: =m £"'1 [, f"j f'
2fJ . __ l~_'t_. __  I
AA
B B COVER to outer bars = 20
300
82 Alt.
00T1
300
62 AI t.
Figure 2.2 Slab reinforcement details
2.4 Main beam
2.4.1 Cover for durability and fire resistance
Nominal cover for exposure class 1 (internal) is 20 mm.
Nominal cover for 1 hour fire resistance is 20 mm.
Use 20 mm nominal cover to links
NAD Table 6
BS 8110 Table 3.5
~20~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.4.2 Loading
Permanent load from slab (Section 2.3.3) = 4.7 x 5 = 23.5 kN/m
Selfweight of beam = (0.5  0.175) x 0.3 x 24
Characteristic permanent load (gk) = 25.8 kN/m Characteristic imposed load (qk) = 5 x 4 = 20 kN/m
2.3 kN/m
Maximum design load Minimum design load
1.359k + 1.5qk = 64.8 kN/m 1.359k = 34.8 kN/m
2.4.3 Analysis
2.4.3.1 Idealization of structure and load cases
The structure is simplified as a continuous beam attached to columns above and below, which are assumed to be fixed at their upper ends and pinned at the foundations, as shown in Figure 2.3.
T 175
l'~
14 300 ~I
6
1._ ~_8~00~0 _.~+_~60~O~0~
5000
I _L
Figure 2.3 Idealization of structure
2.4.3.2 Design moments and shears
These are summarized in Table 2.2 and Figures 2.4 and 2.5.
6
3500
4000
2.3.3.1 2.3.2.3.(4)
2.5.3.3
~21 ~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Table 2.2 Results of frame analysis
Load case 1 Load case 2 Load case 3
I Load per m on 8 m span (kN) 64.8 64.8 34.8
Load per m on 6 m span (kN) 64.8 34.8 64.8
Upper LH column moment (kNm) 103 109 50
Lower LH column moment (kNm) 68 72 33
LH end of 8 m span moment (kNm) 171 180 82
LH end of 8 m span shear (kN) 233 238 119
Middle of 8 m span moment (kNm) 242 256 116
RH end of 8 m span moment (kNm) 382 345 242
RH end of 8 m span shear (kN) 286 280 159
! Upper centre column moment (kNm) 33 55 3
Lower centre column moment (kNm) 18 29 2
LH end of 6 m span moment (kNm) 331 262 247
LH end of 6 m span shear (kN) 240 146 223
Middle of 6 m span moment (kNm) 98 20 130
RH end of 6 m span moment (kNm) 57 12 76
RH end of 6 m span shear (kN) 149 63 166
Upper RH column moment (kNm) 34 7 46
Lower RH column moment (kNm) 22 5 30 REDISTRIBUTION AT CD AND CD
Case 1  Reduce 171 to 126 ( see 2 )
Reduce 362 to 268 (30%)
Case 2  Reduce 180 to 126
Reduce 345 to 268
Case 3  No redistribution 76 (3)
(3) elastic"
"(1) redistributed
(2) elastic
(1)&(2] redistributed
325
Envelope Moments in kNm
Figure 2.4 Bending moment envelope
_,22~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
(1 J 240
(3 J 223 ~
(2 J 146
(R J 242
( 1 J 233
149 (1 J 16b (3 J
( 3 J 119
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3 Redistri buted Envelope Forces in kN
63 (2 J
159 ( 3 I
277 {RJ 286 (1 J
8000
6000
Figure 2.5 Shear force envelope
2.4.4 Reinforcement for flexure
2.4.4.1 Internal support
From bending moment envelope
M 268 kNm
0.7 and x/d :5 (0  0.44)/1.25 = 0.208
Illim 0.0864 and Wlim = 0.1084 (Section 13, Table 13.2)
268 X 106
0.1442 > Illim
300 X 4402 x 32
Therefore compression reinforcement is required
0.1442  0.0864 0.87 (1  50/440)
0.87 (1 d'/d)
0.0750 (Section 13)
At
W ~ = WI' + ca' = 0.1084 + 0.0750 = 0.1834 (Section 13)
bdt im
ck
As 0.1834 x 300 x 440 x 32/460 = 1684 rnrrr'
Since d'/x d'/0.208d = 0.546 > (1  tyJ805) = 0.429
Increase w' to (~  0.429) 0.075 = 0.0943
 0.546
A I = 0.0943 x 300 x 440 x 32/460
s
866 rnm"
Use 4T25 (1960 rnrrr') top Use 2T25 (982 rnrn') bottom
2.5.3.4.2 Eqn 2.17
_,23~~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.4.4.2 Near middle of 8 m span
From bending moment envelope
M 325 kNm
s > 1.0
Effective flange width = 300 + 0.2 x 0.85 x 8000
1660 mm
325 X 106
0.030
1660 X 4502 x 32
x/d 0.068 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
Neutral axis is in flange since x = 31 < 175 mm
w 0.035 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
0.035 x 1660 x 450 x 32/460
1819 mm2
Use 4T25 (1960 rnm")
2.4.4.3 Lefthand end of 8 m span From bending moment envelope
M 126 kNm
[) 0.7 and P.lim = 0.0864 (Section 13, Table 13.2)
126 X 106
= 0.0678 < JL1im
300 X 4402 x 32
Therefore no compression reinforcement is required.
w 0.084 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
0.084 x 300 x 440 x 32/460
772 mm2
Using 2T25 bentup bars, minimum diameter of mandrel
Use 2T25 (982 rnrrr) with r = 5¢
2.5.2.2.1 Eqn 2.13
5.2.1.2 NAD Table 8
~24r_
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.4.4.4 Righthand end of 6 m span From bendi ng moment envelope M = 76 kNm
M
0.041
bd2f 300 X 4402 x 32
ck
w 0.049 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
A 450 rnrn"
s
Use 2T25 (982 rnrrr) with r
4cJ> minimum
2.4.4.5 Near middle of 6 m span
From bending moment envelope M = 138 kNm
Effective flange width
300 + 0.2 x 0.85 x 6000
1320 mm
138 X 106
= 0.0161
32 X 4502 x 1320
w 0.019 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
0.019 x 1320 x 450 x 32/460
785 rnrn"
Use 2T25 (982 rnm')
2.4.4.6 Minimum reinforcement
A
s
;;::: k kfct ftAct/(J
c.e s
where
kc 0.4
k 0.68
f 3 N/mm2
ct,eft
Act 300 x 325 mm2
"« 460 N/mm2
Therefore
A ;;::: 173 rnm". , , , , OK
s
203 rnrrr' , . , , . .. OK
4.4.2.2 Eqn 4.78
5.4.2.1.1(1)
~25~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.4.5 Shear reinforcement
2.4.5.1 Minimum links
Here, for comparison with BS 8110 design, grade 250 reinforcement will be used.
Interpolation from EC2 Table 5.5 gives
Minimum
«; 0.0022
A Is 0.0022 x 300 = 0.66 mm2/mm
sw
If VSd :5 (t) VRd2  refer to Section 2.4.5.3 for VRd2
s = lesser of 300 mm or O.8d = 300 mm
max
Use R12 links @ 300 mm crs. (A Is = 0.75 mm2/mm)
sw
2.4.5.2 Capacity of section without shear reinforcement VRd1 = TRdk(1.2 + 40p) bwd
Assume 2T25 effective
PI 982/(300 x 440) = 0.00743
k
1.6  d
1.6  0.44 = 1.16
0.35
VRd1 = 300 x 440 x 0.35 x 1.16 x (1.2 + 40 x 0.00743) X 103 = 80.2 kN
2.4.5.3 Shear reinforcement by standard method
Maximum capacity of section
u
0.7  fc/200 = 0.7  32/200 = 0.54 1:. 0.5
0.5 x 0.54 x (3211.5) x 300 x 0.9 x 440 x 103 = 684 kN
Design shear force is shear at a distance d from the face of the support. This is 590 mm from the support centreline.
Asw VSd  80.2
= = 0.0116 (VSd  80.2)
s 0.9 x 440 x 0.87 x 250
Design of shear reinforcement is summarized in Table 2.3.
4.3.2
5.4.2.2
Eqn 5.17
4.3.2.3
Table 4.8
4.3.2.4.3
Eqn 4.21
Eqn 4.25 4.3.2.2(10)
Eqn 4.23
~26r_
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Table 2.3 Design of shear reinforcement
As)s s for 12 mm Links
Location VSd links
8 m span
LH end 203 1.42 159 R12 @ 150
RH end 248 1.95 116 R12 @ 100
6 m span
LH end 202 1.41 160 R12 @ 150
RH end 128 min. max. R12 @ 300
Minimum R12 @ 300 2.4.6 Deflection
Reinforcement percentage at centre of 8 m span
= 100 x 1960/(450 x 1660) = 0.26%
Interpolating between 0.15 and 0.5%, basic span/effective depth ratio for end span = 40
To modify for steel stress multiply by 400/460 To modify for T section multiply by 0.8
To modify for span > 7 m multiply by 7/8
Therefore permissible ratio
40 x (400/460) x 0.8 x 7/8 = 24.3
17.8 OK
Actual ratio = 8000/450
2.4.7 Cracking
For estimate of steel stress under quasipermanent loads
Ultimate load
64.8 kN/m 0.3
0.3 x 20 + 25.8 = 31.8 kN/m
Assuming 1{;2 Quasipermanent load
Approx. steel stress at midspan
460 x 31.8 = 196 N/mm2
1.15 64.8
Approx. steel stress at supports allowing for 30% redistribution = 196/0.7 = 280 N/mm2
These are conservative figures since they do not allow for excess reinforcement over what is needed or for moment calculated at centreline of support rather than at face of support. Check limits on either bar size or spacing.
From EC2 Table 4.11,25 mm bars in spans are satisfactory at any spacing since steel stress < 200 N/mm2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK
From EC2 Table 4.12, bar spacing at supports should be :5 150 mm with no limitation on size. As bars are located inside column bars the maximum possible spacing is 125 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK
4.4.3.2
NAD Table 7
4.4.2.2
NAD Table 1
4.4.2.3
~v~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.4.8 Curtailment of reinforcement
Reinforcement must extend for a distance of at + [b,ne! beyond the moment envelope where
5.4.2.1.3
at 0.9d/2 = 198 mm
25 460 782 mm 5.2.3.4.1
I =  x x 
b,net 4 1.15 3.2
a{ + I = 980 mm
b,net Bars mark 8, which are located outside the web, must extend a further 150 mm  refer to Figure 2.8.
2.4.9 Reinforcement details
Curtailment of the main reinforcement and arrangement of the link reinforcement are shown in Figures 2.6 and 2.7. Reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.8 and given in Table 2.4.
126
76
5.4.2.1.3
~28~
Moment envelope Cur tui 1m ent line
Figure 2.6 Curtailment diagram of main reinforcement
300 lOa 300 clc
(minimum links) ~:14si:(minimUm lin"ks7
240
'I Sh enr cupcc i+y of minimum links
. t _ _  (R12 300) with
147kNI
I
, 2150 286
14 ~I
166
Figure 2.7 Arrangement of link reinforcement
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
0
;
'"
'" N
N ,._ 0 0
N en '"
G+·_··
~f 0
N
"'.
*t '"
'"
c:
a
I ~
~I ';'r ..I '
<0 1 '"
>D '" >
e ~ ~I ;:::: N a
,._ w
::liN ~I N
e
N ~, sr: v
~ I
~ CD CD
~;h~'
<:>
'"
~ 1 1
"''''
@ NN
,._,._
'" NN
8m~'" ·~d
>D
<> 0 0
0 '" '"
r
@ 0
C> 0 ""
N <:>
m
0
'"
e
0
0 >D .... N
m 1 1
",,,,
@ NN
,._ ,._ 1
;: ..I N N("oj
'1~r
c::_ ~ :1
'D C   o~ ::;: "\T'"" v
« «
d a
.c
:::, 0
m
0
'" '"
<3 N
N
f~~
0;: _ >D l!J'
1
, r,
§I~ '" "
N L
e ' ,._ '"
N :>
0
u
'"
'=
V) ~29~
Figure 2.8 Main beam reinforcement details
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Table 2.4 Commentary on bar arrangement
Bar Notes
marks
1 Tension bars are stopped 50 mm from column face to avoid clashing with the
column bars
Nominal cover = 20 + 12 = 32 > 25 mm .. , ........ ........... OK
2 Remaining tension bars stopped off at LH end as shown in Figure 2.6.
Bars extended at RH end to provide compression reinforcement (lap = Ibn.)
and continuity for internal ties (lap = 1000 mm)
Check minimum distance between bars =:: bar size or 20 mm
(300  32 x 2  4 x 25)/3 = 45 > 25 mm ... ...... ... ,. , ..... OK
3 Not used
4 Sim ilar to bar mark 1
5,10 Loose U bars are fixed inside the column bars and provide continuity for
column and internal ties
Top legs project from centre line into span, minimum dimensions shown in
Figure 2.6
Bottom legs are lapped 1000 mm to provide continuity for internal ties
5 Top legs = 1800 mm
Bottom legs = 200 + 1000 = 1200 mm
Use r = 5</> for both bends
Note that the bottom legs are raised to avoid gap between bars being < 25 mm
10 Top legs = 1500 mm
Bottom legs = 200 + 1000 = 1200 mm
6,9 2T16 provided as link hangers are stopped 50 mm from column face
7,8 Tension bars over the support are stopped as in Figure 2.6.
Bars mark 8 are located outside the web
11 Links are arranged in accordance with Figure 2.7 for shear. Links also
provide transverse reinforcement with a spacing :5 150 mm at all laps 2.5 Edge beam (interior span)
2.5.1 Cover for durability and fire resistance
Nominal cover for exposure class 2b (external) is 35 mm. Nominal cover for 1 hour fire resistance is 20 mm.
Use 40 mm nominal cover to links
4.1.3.3(5)
BS 8110 5.2.1.1
5.4.2.1.3
BS 8110
5.2.1.1
5.4.2.1.2(2)
5.2.4.1.2(2)
NAD Table 6 BS 8110 Table 3.5
~30~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.5.2 Loading
Permanent load from slab = 4.7 x 5 x 1.25 = 29.4 kN (assuming 1.25 m strip to be loading on edge beam)
Selfweight of beam = (0.35  0.175) x 0.3 x 5 x 24 = 6.3 kN Cladding load @ 5 kN/m = 5 x 5 = 25 kN
Characteristic permanent load = 60.7 kN
Characteristic imposed load = 4 x 5 x 1.25 = 25 kN
Total design load = 1.35 x 60.7 + 1.5 x 25 = 119.5 kN
2.5.3 Design moments and shears
These are taken from the Concise Eurocode, Appendix, Table A.1(5l.
2.5.3.1 Interior support
Moment = 0.10 x 119.5 x 5 = 59.8 kNm Shear = 0.55 x 119.5 = 65.7 kN
2.5.3.2 Midspan
Moment = om x 119.5 x 5 = 41.8 kNm
2.5.4 Reinforcement for flexure
2.5.4.1 Interior support
Assume effective depth = 280 mm
M 59.8 x 106
= 0.079 2802 x 300 x 32
0.099 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
xld
0.189 < 0.45................................ OK
A 579 mrn"
s
Use 2T20 (628 rnrrr)
2.5.4.2 Midspan
Assume effective depth = 290 mm
Effective flange width = 300 + 0.1 x 0.7 x 5000
650 mm
2.5.3.4.2(5)
2.5.2.2.1
~31~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
41.8 X 106
= 0.024
650 X 2902 X 32
0.028 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
= 367 rnrn"
Use 2T20 (628 rnrrr')
The crosssection is shown in Figure 2.9.
650
• • 2T 20
70
T
350
2T 20
• •
_l
60
300
I'"
Figure 2.9 Edge beam crosssection
2.5.5 Shear reinforcement
Design shear force may be taken to be at distance d into the span from the face of the support. This can be calculated approximately as
VSd 65.7  119.5 (0.28 + 0.15)/5.0 = 55.4 kN
( 40 x 628 )
300 x 280 x 0.35 (1.6  0.28) x 1.2 + 
300 x 280
58.2 kN
This is greater than VSd' hence only minimum links are required.
Assuming grade 250 reinforcement for links, EC2 Table 5.5 gives
Pw = 0.0022
Hence
A
sw
0.0022 x 300 = 0.66 mm2/mm
s
0.5 (0.7  32) x 32 x 300 x 0.9 x 280 = 435 kN
200 1.5
4.3.2.2(10)
4.3.2.3(1)
4.3.2.2(2)
4.3.2.3(3)
~32~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Since
< (i) VRd2'
Smax = 0.8d = 224 mm
200 mm spacing gives Asw = 132 mrn"
Use R10 links at 200 mm crs. (Asw = 2 x 78.5 157 rnrrr')
2.5.6 Deflection
Actual span/effective depth ratio = 5000/290 = 17.2 At midspan
100 A
s
100 x 628
= 0.33%
bd
650 x 290
By interpolation from NAD Table 7, modified for fYk = 460 Basic span/effective depth ratio = 36
Note:
This can be increased allowing for use of a larger than required steel area to
= 36 x 628/367 = 61.6
But not greater than 48/1.15 = 41.7 Inspection shows this to be unnecessary.
Allowable lid > actual lid OK
2.5.7 Curtailment of reinforcement
Since the bending moment diagram has not been drawn, simplified curtailment rules are needed. These are given in Section 8 of the Appendix to the Concise Eurocode.
Using the rules, the 20 mm bars in the top may be reduced to 12 mm bars at a distance from the face of support
0.11 + 32cp + 0.45d = 500 + 32 x 20 + 0.45 x 280
1266 mm from the column face
Eqn 5.17
Concise Eurocode Figure A.12
4.4.3.2(4)
NAD Table 7 Note 2
_,33r
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.5.8 Reinforcement details
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.10.
23Rl0  5  300
2T12  3
2T20 4
top cover 60 side cover 75
1 ,...."
2T201
si de cover 75
ELEVATION
3 4 4 3
=f]
iJ lJ 1 2 2 1
(over to links = 40
AA
Figure 2.10 Edge beam reinforcement details
2.6 Columns
2.6.1 Idealization of structure
The simplification assumed for the design of the main beam is shown in Figure 2.3.
2.6.2 Analysis
Moments and column loads at each floor are taken from the analysis for the main beam given in Section 2.4.3.
2.6.3 Cover for durability and fire resistance
Nominal cover for interior columns (exposure class 1) is 20 mm. Nominal cover for exterior columns (exposure class 2b) is 35 mm. Nominal cover for 1 hour fire resistance is 20 mm.
Use 20 mm (interior) and 40 mm (exterior) nominal cover to links
NAD Table 6
1~~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.6.4 Internal column
2.6.4.1 Loading and moments at various floor levels These are summarized in Table 2.5.
Table 2.5 Loading and moments for internal column
Beam loads Column design loads Column moments
(kN) (kN) (kNm)
Total Imposed Dead Top Bottom
Load case 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
Roof 8m 240 238 53 51 187 187 32 42
6m 202 165 43 6 159 159
Selfweight 9 9
   
96 57 355 355 30 39
3rd floor 8 m 283 278 131 126 152 152 33 49
6m 236 143 110 17 126 126
Selfweight 9 9
   
337 200 642 642 30 55
2nd floor 8 m 283 278 131 126 152 152 33 49
6m 236 143 110 17 126 126
Selfweight 9 9
   
578 343 929 929 33 55
1st floor 8 m 286 280 132 126 154 154 18 29
6m 240 146 111 17 129 129
Selfweight 14 14
   
Foundations 821 486 1226 1226 2.6.4.2 Design for column between first floor and foundation Effective height in N  S direction
= (0.5 x 675 x 106 + 675 x 106)
5000 3500
(3125 X 106 + 3125 x 106)
8000 6000
0.28 but take not less than 0.4
Hence
= 0.8
Effective height = 0.8 x 5000 = 4000 mm
Load case 1 gives worst condition (by inspection). Imposed load = 0.7 x 821 = 575 kN
Eqn 4.60
Figure 4.27
BS 6399:
Part 1, Reduction factor
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Dead load = 1226 kN
NSd 1801 kN
MSd 18 kNm (top), 0 (bottom)
1801 X 103 x 1.5 = 0.94 3002 x 32
Hence
I Ii
o
4000[12 300
46
Note: Iii = (Iih) x [12
A > 25, hence column is slender in NS direction
The slenderness in the EW direction will be found to be approximately the same.
The structure is braced and nonsway (by inspection), hence the Model Column Method may be used with the column designed as an isolated column.
\r~ = 25(2  eO/e02) = 50 in both EW and NS directions
Slenderness ratios in both directions are less than \r~' hence it is only necessary to ensure that the column can withstand an end moment of at least
NSdhl20 = 1801 x 0.3120 = 27.0 kNm
This exceeds the first order moments.
Hence NSd = 1801 kN and MSd = 27.0 kNm
NSd 0.62
bhfck
MSd 27.0 X 106 0.031
bh2f 3003 x 32
ck
Assume
d' 45 mm 4.3.5.3.5(2)
4.3.5.5.3 Eqn 4.62
4.3.5.5.3 Eqn 4.64
~36~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Then
d'lh 45/300 0.15
0.16 (Section 13, Figure 13.2(c))
Hence
A = 1002 rnrrf
s
Use 4T20 (1260 rnrrr)
Note:
In the design by Higgins and Rogers, the slenderness ratio exceeds the equivalent of }.. "t but the design moment is still Nh120. EC2 requires less
ell
reinforcement due to the smaller design load and the assumption of a smaller
cover ratio. If the same cover ratio is used in the Higgins and Rogers design, 4T20 are sufficient in both cases.
2.6.5 External column
2.6.5.1 Loading and moments at various levels These are summarized in Table 2.6.
Table 2.6 Loading and moments for external column
Beam loads Column design loads Column moments
(kN) (kN) (kNm)
Total Imposed Dead Top Bottom
Load case 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
Roof
Main 184 186 39 41 145 145 104 107
Edge 55 55 55 55
Selfweight 9 9
   
39 41 209 209 93 98
3rd floor
Main 235 240 109 114 126 126 93 98
Edge 55 55 55 55
Selfweight 9 9
   
148 155 399 399 93 98
2nd floor
Main 235 240 109 114 126 126 93 98
Edge 55 55 55 55
Selfweight 9 9
   
257 269 589 589 103 109
1st floor
Main 233 238 108 113 125 125 68 72
Edge 55 55 55 55
Self·weight 9 9
   
Foundations 365 382 778 778 4~r_
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.6.5.2 Design for column between first floor and foundation
k  (675 X 106 x 0.5 675 x 106) . (3125 x 106)
top  +..,.. = 0.71
4000 3500 8000
Hence
(3
= 0.85
Effective height = 0.85 x 4000 = 3400 mm Slenderness ratio = 1 Ii = 3400 [12 = 39.3
o 300
p will be small so 1~ will be less than 25
u u
Hence
A . 25
min
A > 25, therefore column is slender in NS direction
Calculate Acrit
bottom moment top moment
o 85
o
Hence
\rit = 25 (2 + 0) = 50
Slenderness ratios in the EW and N S directions are both less than 50, hence it is only necessary to ensure that the end moment is at least Nh120.
The worst condition occurs with load case 2 at section just above the first floor. where MSd is greatest.
NSd 589 + 0.8 x 269 = 804 kN
Nh 20
804 x 0.3 20
12.0 kNm
Design end moment = 109 > 12 kNm
Hence NSd = 804 kN and MSd = 109 kNm
Figure 4.27
4.3.5.5.3
~38~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.6.6 Reinforcement details
Maximum spacing of links for internal column
Generally 12 x 20 = 240 mm
Above and below floor 0.67 x 240 = 160 mm
Maximum spacing of links for external column
Generally 12 x 25 = 300 mm
At lap and below floor 0.67 x 300 = 200 mm
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.11.
INTERNAL COLUMN F2 EX TERNAL COLU MN F1
Li n ks Verti cal bars Section Li nks Vertical bars Section
<:> .~
~ o
I
@ en
U"> a:
r, '"
1st. ... . I m~
sr
  = F    .J I_
   f 4 4
" <:>
<:>
'" .. N
N ~ <:> E I
N C>
... e I
..
_,. .c
® <:>
C> , g:,
... U"> "0 I
I N .~
@ l
_,. 4 4
~ '"

I G) 5
<1\ <:> @
:::: N C>
I
@ _,. ~
~ 1 1 '" 4 4
C>
N ...
@ , '"
'" e
[over to Ii n k s = 30 fdn:" N __j_ [over to links 40
I
U _,.
I ~ @g ,t
N'" 
Fdn. l__l ro" I
a:,<
\l ....,..= '"
~ _ _J~Starters. see Fig. 2.13 _J <X>
'< ~~
co .S
a: '
_ N
N, Figure 2.11 Column reinforcement details
2.7 Foundation
Design typical pad footing for internal column. 2.7.1 Cover
Use 50 mm nominal cover against blinding
BS 8110 specifies a nominal cover of not less than 40 mm against blinding. EC2 specifies a minimum cover greater than 40 mm. This implies a nominal cover greater than 45 mm, hence the choice of 50 mm.
2.7.2 Loading
Taken from internal column design. Ultimate design loads: Dead Imposed Total
1226 575 1801 kN
5.4.1.2.2(3) NAD Table 3 5.4.1.2.2(4)
4.1.3.3(9)
439r
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Hence service loads: Dead
Imposed
Total
908 383
1291 kN
The assumption is made that the base takes no moment. Also it is assumed that the dead weight of the base less the weight of soil displaced is 10 kN/m2 over the area of the base.
2.7.3 Size of base
Since, at the time of publication, EC7: Geotechnical design(9) and EC2, Part 3:
Concrete foundations(10) have not been finalized, the approach used here is based on current UK practice.
Use 2.75 m x 2.75 m x 0.6 m deep pad
Bearing pressure under service loads
1291
 + 10 = 181 < 200 kN/m2 OK
2.752
Design pressure at ultimate limit state
1801 2.752
238 kN/m2
2.7.4 Flexural reinforcement
Moment at face of column = 238 x 2.75 x 1.~~252/2 Average effective depth = 600  50  25 = 525 mm
491 kNm
491 X 106
= 0.020
2750 X 5252 x 32
0.023 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
Hence
As = 0.023 x 2750 x 525 x 32/460 = 2310 rnrrr'
Use 9T20 @ 300 mm crs. each way (2830 mrn')
2.7.5 Shear
2.7.5.1 Shear across base
Shear force may be calculated at a critical section distance d from the face of the column.
4.3.2.2(10)
Design shear (V sd
238 x 2.75 x [(2.75 2 0.3)  0.525] ~ 458 kN
~~r
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
In calculating VRd1, the influence of the reinforcement will be ignored since, if straight bars are used, they will not extend d + [b,net beyond the critical section.
VRd1 0.35 x 1.075 x 1.2 x 2750 x 525/1000 = 652 kN
VRd1 > VSd' hence no requirement for shear reinforcement
2.7.5.2 Punching shear
The critical perimeter is shown in Figure 2.12. Design load on base = 1801 kN
Length of critical perimeter
u
= [ 4 x 300 + 7r (2 x 1.5 x 525) 1 11000
6.15 m
Figure 2.12 Critical perimeter for punching
VRd1 = 0.35 x 1.075 x 1.2 x 525 x 6.15 = 1458 kN
Area within perimeter = 2.98 m2
Area of base = 7.56 m2
Design shear (VSd) = (7.56  2.98) x 238 = 1090 kN
VSd < VRd1, hence no requirement for shear reinforcement
2.7.6 Cracking
Approximate steel stress under quasipermanent loads
460 (908 + 0.3 x 383) 2310
x x 
1.15 1801 2830
186 N/mm2
From EC2 Table 4.11 bar size should not exceed 25 > 20 mm used.
Hence cracking OK
4.3.2.3(1)
4.3.4.5.1
4.3.4.1(5)
4.4.2.3 Table 4.11
__,41r
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.7.7 Reinforcement details
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.13 and given in Table 2.7.
~ I
I
~A
I"" I
I
:~+~~+~.9T201300B2
2 2 3
~
2 2
0' 
AL._
r
' 9T201300 81
PLAN
Fdn. \l
II+I,.T202 Cover = 40
I I
2R83 300
L1
AA
COVERB1=50, end =75
Figure 2.13 Base reinforcement details
Table 2.7 Commentary on bar arrangement
Bar marks Notes
1 Straight bars extend full width of base less end COVl3r of 75 mm. Bars should
extend an anchorage length beyond the column face
Anchorage length = 32 x 20 = 640 mm
Actual extension = 1150 mm
2 Column starter bars wired to bottom mat
Minimum projection above top of base is
a compression lap + kicker = 32 x 20 + ni = 715 mm
3 Links are provided to stabilize and locate the starters during construction 4.1.3.3(9) 5.2.3.4.1
5.2.4.1.3
~~~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.8 Shear wall
2.8.1 Structure
The structure is shown in Figure 2.14.
1 st floor
_____ 'V  140·5 x wind
, load on building
II
250
T
14300
I ... 900 .. I
,
Figure 2.14 Shear wall structure
2.8.2 Loading at foundation level
Dead load from first to third floors and roof
0.5 (3 x 23.5 + 28.5) = 49.5 kN/m Selfweight = 0.175 x 24 x 15.5 = 65.1 kN/m Characteristic dead load = 49.5 + 65.1 = 114.6 kN/m Characteristic imposed load from slabs
= 2.5 (1.5 + 3 x 4) x 0.7 = 23.6 kN/m
Wind loading is taken as 90% of value obtained from CP3: Ch V: Part 2(11). Total wind load on building in NS direction = 0.9 x 449 = 404 kN Wind load on wall = 404/2 = 202 kN
Moment in plane of wall = 202 x 8 = 1616 kNm
Hence
Maximum force per unit length due to wind moment
±
Mx6 [2
±
1616 x 6 14.22
± 47.4 kN/m
2.8.3 Vertical design load intensities at ultimate limit state Dead load + imposed load
= 1.35 x 114.6 + 1.5 x 23.6
190.1 kN/m
Dead load + wind load
1.35 x 114.6 + 1.5 x 47.4 = 225.8 kN/m; or 1.0 x 114.6  1.5 x 47.4 = 43.5 kN/m
NAD 4(c)
Eqn 2.8(a)
Eqn 2.8(a)
~43r_
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Dead load + wind load + imposed load
1.35 x 114.6 + 1.35 x 23.6 ± 1.35 x 47.4 250.6 kN/m or 122.6 kN/m
Therefore maximum design load = 250.6 kN/m
From analysis of slab (not presented), maximum moment perpendicular to plane of wall = 11.65 kNm/m
2.8.4 Slenderness ratio
0.5 + ...L 4 3.5
...L
5
2.05
Hence
{3
0.94
(31 = 0.94 x 4 = 3.76 m
col
IIi
o
3.76 x 1000 x ./12 175
74.4
Hence wall is slender
2.8.5 Vertical reinforcement
Higgins and Rogers design the shear wall as unreinforced. Plain concrete walls will be covered in EC2 Part 1A which, at the time of publication, has not yet been finalized. The wall will, therefore, be designed here as a reinforced wall. As will be seen, the result is the same.
Eccentricity due to applied loads
eOl 0
e02 11.65 x 10001250.6 = 46.5 mm
Hence
= 0.6 x 46.5 + 0 = 27.9 mm
Accidental eccentricity
3760
 x = 9.4 mm
200 2
Eqn 2.8(b) NAD 4(c)
Eqn 4.60
Figure 4.27
Eqn 4.66
Eqn 4.61
~~~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Second order eccentricity
37602 460
x 2 x
10 1.15 x 200000
x x K
0.9 x 122 2
Assuming K2 = 1 Design eccentricity
27.9 + 9.4 + 51.5 = 88.8 mm
Design ultimate load = 250.6 kN/m
Design ultimate moment = 88.8 x 250.6/1000 22.3 kNm/m
0.023
N
0.045
0.01 (Section 13, Figure 13.2(d))
Hence
A = 122 mm2/m or 61 rnrnvrn in each face
s
Minimum area of reinforcement
= 0.004 x 1000 x 175 = 700 mm2/m
This exceeds the calculated value. Hence the minimum governs.
Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. in each face (754 mm2/m)
2.8.6 Shear
Design horizontal shear = 1.5 x 202 = 303 kN
Shear stress =
303 x 1000 14300 x 175
OK
= 0.12 N/mm2 ...
Note:
VRd1 is not calculated since it must be > 0.12bwd by quick inspection of EC2 Eqn 4.18.
2.8.7 Horizontal reinforcement
Minimum at 50% of vertical reinforcement provided
A = 188 rnrnvrn (EF)
s
Minimum for controlled cracking due to restraint of early thermal contraction
5.4.7.2
5.4.7.3
4.4.2.2
~45~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
A k ifcte" c/ (J s Eqn 4.78
s
k 1.0
c
k 0.8
f 1.9 N/mm2 (assuming concrete strength to be equivalent to Table 3.1
ct.ert
C16/20 at time of cracking)
(J 360 N/mm2 (assuming 10 mm bars) Table 4.11
s
A 1.0 x 0.8 x 1.9 x 175 x 1000/360 = 739 mm2/m
s Use T10 @ 200 mm crs. in each face (785 mm2/m)
2.8.8 Tie provisions at first floor
According to the NAD, these should follow the rules in BS 8110.
NAD 6.5(g) BS 8110 3.12.3
Ft = 36 kN
2.8.8.1 Peripheral tie
A
s
36 X 103
= 78 rnm"
460
Use 1T10 (78.5 rnrn")
2.8.8.2 Internal tie force
Force
2.5 x 36 (4.7 + 4.0) 7.5
14.3 x 
5
299 kN
Hence
A
s
299 X 103
= 650 rnrn"
460
Use 5T10 in each face (785 rnrrr)
Hence T10 @ 200 mm crs. horizontal reinforcement in wall 0.5 m above and below slab is adequate.
2.8.8.3 Wall tie
Take the greater of (a) and (b) IF
(a) Lesser of 2.0Ft or _s_t = 72 or 48 kN 2.5
~46r_
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
(b) 3% of total vertical load = 0.03 x 190.1
5.7 kN
Hence
Tie force 48 kN
48 X 103 460
104 mm2
Therefore reinforcement in slab will suffice
2.8.9 Strip footing
EC2, Part 3: Concrete foundations, at the time of publication, has not yet been drafted, hence current UK practice is adopted.
Maximum pressure due to characteristic dead, imposed and wind loads
= 114.6 + 23.6 + 47.4/0.9 = 191 kN/m
For 900 mm wide strip, pressure = 191 = 212 kN/m2 0.9
Allow extra 10 kN/m2 for ground floor loads and weight of concrete displacing soil in foundations. This gives 222 kN/m2.
Allowable pressure = 1.25 x 200 = 250 > 222 kN/m2 OK
Use 900 mm wide strip
Calculate reinforcement for flexure
Moment
250.6 x (0.9  0.175)2 8
16.5 kNm/m
Minimum area
0.0015bd
0.0015 x 1000 x 200 = 300 mm2/m
Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m)
5.4.2.1.1
~~~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.8.10 Reinforcement details
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.15 and given in Table 2.8.
cr
st'SFL __ '\1_
B
.i&1T107 ~ 2 x1T10B 1T1~ 1
 _J .
_.J   or  roO I
: T;VB f
sr I
I
'"
...
'_g 96T123300 ~~
I .. ~I~ (4BN2+4BF2l .><.0
c.
 ''::::>
~ o~p.
350 :=' g u..
~ 00
HgN NN
'" . , ~ • I
0
I 0 .j~
.j'" N X
I I ,.:, N I 0
oog co ~
I + 0:1
a: I o ~ 0. 0.
0. ~ ~ z ~ ~
~ I 0
co ~
rn x
96 T121 300 x N (48N2 + 48 F2 l
"'_
I ... 75__1__  ...; I F
I I
I , lap I
L x   (over o
8
wall tie
~.I
2 4T12 2 300 B2
= 40  ends =75
~48r_
(grid 2 omitted for clarity) EAST WALL ELEVATION
BB
COVER to outer bars  N1 = 40. F1 = 20
Figure 2.15 Shear wall reinforcement details
3 xBR109  1000 EW
AA
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Table 2.8 Commentary on bar arrangement
Bar marks Notes
1 Wall starters match vertical reinforcement
The projection of the horizontal legs beyond the face of the wall form the tension
reinforcement in the footing
This extension must be at least a tension anchorage length
12 460 209 208 mm OK
=  x x  =
4 1.15 x 3.2 377
The minimum projection above the top of the base is a compression lap
+ 75 mm kicker
= 32 x 12 + 75 = 459 mm
This is detailed at 525 mm ..... . .... . .. OK
2 Minimum longitudinal reinforcement provided
4,5,6 Minimum horizontal reinforcement provided
7,8 Peripheral tie at floor
9 Wall spacers to maintain location of reinforcement 2.9 Staircase
2.9.1 Idealization
The idealization of the staircase is shown in Figure 2.16.
,r 
/~. f
// // // //
//
//
3500
'~'
5060
Figure 2.16 Idealization of staircase
Design as end span of a continuous beam. Calculations will be given for 1 m width.
2.9.2 Durability and fire resistance
As for floor slab, Section 2.3, 20 mm nominal cover will be satisfactory.
5.2.2.2 5.2.2.3 5.2.3.4.1
5.4.7.3 4.4.2.2
BS 8110 3.12.3.5
~4g~
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.9.3 Loading
Average slab thickness on plan Selfweight = 0.25 x 24 Finishes
Characteristic dead load Characteristic imposed load Design ultimate load
2.9.4 Analysis
250 mm 6.0 kN/m 0.5
6.5 kN/m 4.0 kN/m
1.35 x 6.5 + 1.5 x 4
14.78 kN/m
Using coefficients in the Concise Eurocode
Moment at interior support Moment near midspan Shear
2.9.5 Reinforcement for flexure
Effective depth
0.11 x 14.78 x 5.062 = 41.6 kNm 0.09 x 14.78 x 5.062 = 34.1 kNm
0.6 x 14.78 x 5.06 = 44.9 kN
M
175  20  6 = 149 mm
41.6 X 106
= 0.059
Interior support, bd2f ck
From Section 13, Table 13.1
= 0.072
Hence
A = 746 mm2/m
s
Use T12 @ 150 mm crs. (754 rnrnvrn)
0.048
0.058
Hence
A = 601 mm2/m
s
Use T12 @ 150 mm crs. (754 mm2/m)
Concise Eurocode Table A.1
~50r_
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.9.6 Shear
Reinforcement ratio
754
0.0051
1000 x 149
Near support
VRd1 = 0.35 x (1.6  0.175) x (1.2 + 40 x 0.0051) x 149 = 104.3 kN
VRd1 > VSd 44.9 kN, hence no shear reinforcement required
2.9.7 Deflection
Reinforcement ratio at midspan = 0.51%
Concrete is lightly stressed, hence basic span/effective depth ratio is 32. Since fYk = 460, this should be modified to:
32 x 400/460 x 754/601 34.9
Actual span/effective depth ratio = 5060/149
34 < 34.9 OK
2.9.8 Cracking
As for floor slab in Section 2.3.8
Minimum area of reinforcement = 183 mm2/m Thickness of waist = 175 < 200 mm
No further check is necessary.
2.9.9 Tie provisions
EW internal tie, the minimum area required = 91 mm2/m (see Section 2.3.9)
Total area for staircase = 91 x 3 = 273 mrrr'
Provide 2T12 tie bars each side of staircase in adjacent slab
4.3.2.3 Eqn 4.18
Table 4.14
4.4.3.2(4)
4.4.2.2 4.4.2.3 (1)
BS 8110 3.12.3.2
~51 r
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.9.10 Reinforcement details
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.17.
7
2
750
3+ 2T108
3 rd SZ
l L 10T1212150 10T1213150
[over = 40
10T1215150
I (over to outer bars = 20 I
FLIGHT 'B'
AA
2+3T108
21T107150
U  bar [aver: 40
5T10 10300
6T101,1250
10T125150
2 nd SZ
FLI GHT A
,
14.j 4110  2  300
L 10T12 1  150
Figure 2.17 Staircase reinforcement details
452~
3 BEAMS II
3.1 Introduction
This Section covers the design of beams for shear and torsion, and supplements the examples given in Section 2. The requirements for adequate safety against lateral buckling are also examined.
3.2 Design methods for shear 3.2.1 Introduction
EC2(1) differs from BS 8110(2) because the truss assumption used in shear design is explicit. Leading on from this, two alternative methods are given in the Code.
(1) Standard
(2) Variable Strut Inclination (VSI).
The standard method assumes a concrete strut angle of 45° (cote = 1) and that the direct shear in the concrete, VCd' is to be taken into account. This contrasts with the VSI method which permits the designer to choose strut angles between the limits set in the NAD(1), as shown in Figure 3.1, but ignores the direct shear in the concrete.
NAD limits
cot 9 • tan 9
0.3 '_' __ ' l.. ....l..... '
0·4 0·67 1·0 is 2·0 2·5 cot 9
EC2 limits
Figure 3.1 Limits of cote (VSI method)
Because the direct shear in the concrete is not taken into account in the VSI method, no savings in shear reinforcement can be achieved until the applied shear exceeds three times the concrete shear (VSd > 3Vcd)·
A further disadvantage of this method is that with increasing values of cote, i.e., reductions in the concrete strut angle, the forces in the tension reinforcement
.. I
~53~
BEAMS
increase significantly and may well outweigh any notional savings in shear reinforcement. These forces are, it should be noted, explicitly checked in EC2 but not in BS 8110. Given special circumstances the VSI method may be required but for most practical situations, the standard method will provide the most economic design.
3.2.2 Example 1  uniformly distributed loading
The beam shown in Figures 3.2 and 3.3 is to be designed for shear.
Ultimate load = 385 kN/m
Figure 3.2 Beam span and loading  example 1
I"'n. _
900
1000
tJ~ _ ....
_ , I Asl = 6434mm 2 18T321
I .. 400 .. I (over to links = 50mm
Figure 3.3 Typical section  example 1 The material strengths are
fCk 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength class C30137)
250 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength of links)
f
ywk
The beam will be checked for shear reinforcement at three locations using both the standard and VSI methods for comparison. These are
(1) d from support
(2) Where VSd = VRd1, i.e., the point beyond which only minimum shear reinforcement is required
(3) An intermediate point between 1 and 2.
3.2.2.1 Standard method
The shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.4.
Figure 3.4 Shear force diagram  example 1
4.3.2.4.3 4.3.2.4.4
4.3.2.2(10) 4.3.2.2(2)
4.3.2.4.3
~54~
BEAMS
The design shear resistance of the section, VRd1, is given by
VRd1 [TRi (1.2 + 40PI) + 0.15a ] b d
cp w
TRd 0.34 N/mm2 for fCk 30 N/mm2
k 1.6  d 4:: 1 = 1
ASI 6434 0.Q18 t> 0.02
PI bd 400 x 900
w (assuming 8T32 throughout span)
a cp
VRd1 0.34 x 1 (1.2 + 40 x 0.018) x 400 x 900 235 kN
3.2.2.1.1 Position 1  at d from support
VSd = 1155  0.9 x 385 = 808.5 kN
VSd > VRd1, shear reinforcement is required
The shear resistance of a section with shear reinforcement is given by
VCd VRd1 = 235 kN
A
~ (o.9d)f
5 ywd
where
A area of shear reinforcement
sw
5 spacing of shear reinforcement
f 250/1.15 = 217.4 N/mm2
ywd
A
__.!'!!. (0.9d)f V V
d~ Sd cd
5 yw
Therefore A
sw
(808.5  235) x 103
5 0.9 x 900 x 217.4
Try R12 links @ 140 mm crs. (4 legs), A 15
sw
4.3.2.3(1)
Eqn 4.18
Table 4.8
4.3.2.4.3
Eqn 4.22
Eqn 4.23
~55r_~
BEAMS
Check crushing of compression struts
For vertical links, cota = 0
v
f 0.7 ~ 200
0.55 1:. 0.5
Eqn 4.25
Eqn 4.21
4.4.2.3
Eqn 4.79
Table 4.13
5.4.2.2(7) Eqn 5.18
Table 5.5
4.3.2.1P(6) 5.4.2.1.3
Eqn 4.30
__,56~
30 1.5
= 20 N/mm2
Therefore
VRd2 (t) x 0.55 x 20 x 400 x 0.9 x 900 x 1
1782 kN > V Sd, max = 1155 kN OK
Check maximum spacing of links
Asw
452
0.0081
sb sin a
w
140 x 400
(808.5  3 x 235) x 103 0.0081 x 400 x 900
35 N/mm2
Maximum spacing for crack control = 300 mm
Since (H VRd2 < VSd :S (~~ VRd2
Smax = 0.6d 1> 300 mm
140 mm spacing OK
Check minimum value of Pw
Concrete strength class C30/37
Steel class S250
By interpolation from EC2 Table 5.5
P . = 0.0022 < 0.0081 proposed
w,mln
Use R12 links @ 140 mm crs. (4 legs)
Note:
Using the standard method, the increase in force in the tension reinforcement is best covered by using the shift rule.
It will, however. be calculated in this example to provide a comparison with the values obtained in the subsequent examples using the VSI method.
Force in tension reinforcement MSd
 + (t) Vsicote  coto) Z
BEAMS
884 kNm,
0.9d
810 mm
z
VSd 808.5 kN
cote
o for vertical links
1,
coto
Therefore Td
1091 + 404
1495 kN
3.2.2.1.2 Position 2  where VSd = VRd1 = 235 kN From Figure 3.4
1155  a x 385
235 kN
a 2.39 m from support
From Section 3.2.2.1.1, VRd2 > VSd, max ., •..........•... ,..... OK
The amount of shear reinforcement provided should be greater than Pw,min
Pw,min = 0.0022
A Rearranging EC2 Eqn 5.16 in terms of ~ gives 8
For vertical links sino Hence
A
sw
= 0.0022 x 400 x 1 = 0,88 mm2/mm
8
Maximum longitudinal spacing (8 ) is given by EC2 Eqns 5.175.19.
max
VSd 235 kN
VRd2 1782 kN from Section 3.2.2.1.1
Since
VSd ~ (~) VRd2, EC2 Eqn 5,17 applies
0,8d 'P 300 mm
0.88 x 300 = 264 rnrn",
314 mm"
4R10
Use R10 links @ 300 mm crs. (4 legs)
3.2.2.1.3 Position 3  at 1.65 m from support
This is a point intermediate between the section at dfrom support and the point at which shear reinforcement is no longer required.
VSd 1155  1.65 x 385 = 520 kN
VRd1 235 kN
4.3.2.4.3(5)
Table 5.5
Eqn 5.17
~57r_
BEAMS
Since VSd > VRd1, shear reinforcement is required
Rearranging EC2 Eqn 4.23
A
sw
(520  235) x 103 162 2/
= . mm mm
0.9 x 900 x 217.4
4.4.2.3
Eqn 4.79
Table 4.13
5.4.2.2(7) Eqn 5.18
~58r_
5
Try R12 links @ 250 mm crs. (4 legs) = 1.81 mm2/mm
Check maximum spacing of links A
sw
sb sin«
w
For vertical links sino = Hence
452
0.0045
250 x 400
(520  3 x 235) X 103 0.0045 x 400 x 900
114 N/mm2
Maximum spacing for crack control = 300 mm ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK
Since
smax = 0.6d 1> 300 mm
From Section 3.2.2.1.1
VRd2 > V Sd,max' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK
Provide R12 links @ 250 mm crs (4 legs)
To optimize link spacing, check the point at which shear reinforcement is satisfied by R12 @ 200 mm crs. (4 legs).
Asw 452 = 2.26 mm2/mm
5 200
A
....:!!!. (0.9d)f ywd 5
2.26 x 0.9 x 900 x 217.4
398 kN
Equating
VRd3 = VSd and noting that Vcd = VRd1
VSd VRd1 + VWd = 235 + 398 = 633 kN
BEAMS
Distance of point from support =
1155  633 385
1.36 m
The proposed link arrangement is shown in Figure 3.5 .
•
R12 140 R12  200 R12300 R12  200 R12  140
4 legs 4 legs 4 legs 4 legs 4 legs
1· 36 m J J l l 1· 36 m
2· 39 m + 2· 39m +
6'Om bet~een centres I of su_pports Figure 3.5 Link arrangement (standard method)  example 1
Note:
In the centre portion of the beam R10 links are required by calculations but R12 (*) are shown to avoid the possible misplacement on site. Distance from the support (+) could be reduced to 1.70 m in this case.
3.2.2.2 Variable strut inclination method
This method allows the angle of the concrete compression strut to be varied at the designer's discretion within limits stated in the Code.
It can give some economy in shear reinforcement but will require the provision of additional tension reinforcement. In most cases the standard method will suffice.
This reduced shear reinforcement will only be obtained at high levels of design shear and is counterbalanced by increased tension reinforcement. This can be seen by a comparison of EC2 Eqns 4.22 and 4.23 in the standard method and EC2 Eqn 4.27 in the variable strut inclination method.
The standard method gives
A
~ (0.9d)f
S ywd
Rearranging gives
Asw VRd3  VCd
S (0.9d)fYWd
The VSI method gives
A
VRd3 = ~ (O.9d)f d cote
s yw
Rearranging gives
Asw VRd3
S (O.9d)f d cote
yw
4.3.2.4.4
Eqn 4.22
Eqn 4.23
Eqn 4.27
~59~
BEAMS
Note:
In the above equation the contribution of the concrete, VCd' to the shear resistance of the section is not taken into account.
With cote = 1.5 which is the maximum value permitted in the NAD, reductions in shear reinforcement will only occur when
<
VRd3  VCd (0.9d)fYWd
; or
(0.9d) fYWd x 1.5
Putting VSd = VRd3 gives VSd > 3VCd
If VSd > 3VCd' then the VSI method will allow a reduction in shear rei nforcement.
If this inequality is not satisfied, use of the variable strut inclination method will produce an uneconomic amount of shear reinforcement. In this case the standard method should be used.
For elements with vertical shear reinforcement, VRd2 is given by
Eqn 4.26
cote + tane
Putting VSd
VRd2 and rearranging gives
cote + tano
Figure 3.1 shows cote plotted against 1/(cote + tane) together with the EC2 and NAD limits for cote. Hence for a given VSd' the limits for cote can be found.
Increasing the value of cote will reduce the shear reinforcement required but increase the force in the tension reinforcement.
In this example, cote will be chosen to minimize the shear reinforcement.
3.2.2.2.1 Position 1  at d from support
From above
VSd

bwzvfCd cote + tane
bw 400 mm
z 0.9 x 900 810 mm
0.7 fCk 0.55 4:. 0.5 Eqn 4.21
v
200 _,60~
BEAMS
30 1.5
20 N/mm2
VSd 808.5 kN
Therefore
1
808.5 X 103
0.22
cote + tane
400 x 810 x 0.55 x 20
From Figure 3.1, this lies under the curve. Therefore, cote = 1.5 can be chosen which is the maximum value allowed under the NAD limits.
= (Asw) zf cote
s ywd
Now equating VRd3 to V Sd and rearranging
808.5 X 103
810 x 217.4 x 1.5
Check
AsJywd = b s
w
1.66 s (t)pfcd = 5.5 OK
Try R12 links @ 150 mm crs. (4 legs), A Is
sw
Check maximum spacing of links.
A
sw
= 0.0075
sb sina
w
VSd  3VCd P b d
w w
(808.5  3 x 235) X 103 0.0075 x 400 x 900
38.3 N/mm2
Maximum spacing for crack control = 300 mm
= 0.0075 > pw•min = 0.0022................... OK
Check smax
808.5 kN
400 x 810 x 0.55 x 20 2.167
1644 kN
cote + tane
Smax 0.6d 1> 300 mm
Eqn 4.27
4.4.2.3
Eqn 4.79
Table 4.13
Table 5.5
5.4.2.2(7)
Eqn 5.18
~61 r
BEAMS
Use R12 links @ 150 mm crs. (4 legs)
Check additional force in tension reinforcement.
MSd 1
 + ("2) VSd(cote  coto) = 1091 + 606 = 1697 kN
z
This compares with Td = 1495 kN using the standard method.
Note:
Although not permitted by the NAD, values of cote up to 2.5 are given in EC2.
A check on shear reinforcement using cote = 2.5 is now given to illustrate the effect of increasing values of e on shear and tension reinforcement.
Asw 5
808.5 X 103
= 1.84 mm2/mm
zf d cote yw
810 x 217.4 x 2.5
Try R12 @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs), A 15 = 2.01 mm2/mm
sw
Check maximum spacing of links
Pw = 0.005
VSd  3VCd
= 57.5 N/mm2
pbd
w w
Maximum spacing for crack control = 250 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK
5max = 0.6d 1> 300 mm OK
Use R12 links @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs)
Check additional force in tension reinforcement.
MSd
 + (t)VSd (cote  cot«) = 1091 + 1011 = 2102 kN z
This compares with Td = 1495 kN using the standard method.
3.2.2.2.2 Position 2  where VSd = VRd1
Since only minimum shear reinforcement is required this case is identical to that shown in Section 3.2.2.1.2.
3.2.2.2.3 Position 3  at 1.65 m from support
VSd 520 kN
A
sw
520 X 103
810 x 217.4 x 1.5
5
Try R12 links @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs), A Is = 2.01 mm2/mm
sw
Eqn 4.30
Table 4.13
Eqn 5.18
~62~
BEAMS
From Section 3.2.2.2.1 spacing is satisfactory.
Use R12 links @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs)
As in Section 3.2.2.1.3, check the point at which the shear requirement is satisfied by R12 @ 200 mm crs. (4 legs).
A
sw
452
 = 2.26 mm2/mm
200
s
(A;w)ZfYWd cote = 2.26 x 810 x 217.4 x 1.5
597 kN
1155  597 Distance from support =
385
1.45 m
The proposed link arrangement is shown in Figure 3.6.
R12  150
R12150
R12  200 R12  300 R12  200
4 legs
4 legs 4 legs 4 legs
4 legs
I
I
i HSm
2·139m
1'45m
2· 39m
6·0m beh,~en centres of supports
Figure 3.6 Link arrangement (VSI method)  example 1
Comparing this with the arrangement in Figure 3.5 obtained using the standard method, it can be seen that less reinforcement is required near the support but this needs to be carried further along the beam. There is little overall saving in this case.
3.3 Shear resistance with concentrated loads close to support
3.3.1 Introduction
Where concentrated loads are located within 2.5d of a support, the value TRd may be modified by a factor (3 when calculating VRd1. This enhancement only applies when the section is resisting concentrated loads and the standard method is used. For a uniformly distributed load, an unmodified value of VRd1 should be used.
3.3.2 Example 2  concentrated loads only
The beam shown in Figures 3.7 and 3.8 is to be designed for shear.
Eqn 4.27
4.3.2.2(9)
~63~
BEAMS
800 kN 800 kN
l Ultimate loads l_
. i •
"35rn I 1'3Sm
I
6m Figure 3.7 Beam span and loading  example 2
,.
900
1000
t ...
I ASI= 482Smm2(6T32) I .. 400~ (over to links = SOmm
Figure 3.8 Typical section  example 2
The materials strengths are
fCk 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength grade, C30/37)
f 250 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength of links)
ywk
In the example. VRd1 will be calculated at positions between the support and 2.5d away at intervals of o.5d. This is done to illustrate the effect even though the critical section will normally be at the position of the concentrated load.
3.3.2.1 Shear reinforcement
The shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.9.
Figure 3.9 Shear force diagram  example 2
~64~
BEAMS
The basic design shear resistance of the section, VAd1, is given by
TAd = 0.34 N/mm2 for fCk = 30 N/mm2
For concentrated loads within 2.5d of the face of the support, an enhancement of shear resistance is permitted. TAd may be multiplied by a factor {3 when determining VAd1.
{3
= 2.5d/x with 1.0 s {3 s 5.0
Taking values of x between 0.5d and 2.5d gives values of {3TAd shown in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Design shear strength {3TAd
x fJ fJTRd
(m) (N/mm~
0.45 5 1.7
0.90 2.5 0.85
1.35 1.67 0.57
1.80 1.00' 0.34
2.25 1.00' 0.34 • No enhancement taken, see Figure 3.9
The equation for VAd1 can be modified to give a range of values corresponding to the distance from the support.
k 1.6  d .;::. 1
(J cp
Asl 4825 0.013
bd 400 x 900
w
NSd 0
A
C Values of design shear resistance, VAd1, are given in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Design shear resistance VAd1
X VRd1
(m) (kN)
0.45 1052
0.90 526
1.35 353
1.80 211
2.25 211 4.3.2.3(1)
Eqn 4.18
Table 4.8
Eqn 4,17
Eqn 4.18 (mod)
~65r_
BEAMS
Shear reinforcement is required when VSd > VRd1·
From Figure 3.9, VSd = 800 kN from x = 0 to x = 1.35 m Using the standard method
Putting VRd3 = VSd and VCd
VRd1 gives
4.3.2.4
4.3.2.4.3
Eqn 4.22
4.3.2.2(9)
4.3.2.2(9)
~66r_
Values of design shear resistance to be provided by shear reinforcement, Vwd' are given in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3 Design shear resistance VWd
VRd1 VSd VSd  VRd1 = VWd
(kN) (kN) (kN)
1052 800 < a
526 800 274
353 800 447
211 a < 0

211 a < 0 Therefore maximum shear reinforcement is required when VRd1 = 353 kN, i.e., when x = 1.35 m.
This should be provided over the entire length from x = 0 to x = 2.25 m (0 < x < 2.5d).
Note:
If a concentrated load is positioned close to a support, it is possible that using (3 to modify VRd1 may lead to only minimum shear reinforcement being provided throughout the beam. In this case, the designer may wish to base the shear resistance on the unmodified VRd1.
This can be illustrated by taking the example above but placing the point load at 0.5d from the support.
The modified shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.10.
VRd1 (mod) = 1052kN _.
VSd = 800kN 11
Note ,,= 1 on span side of concentrated load
VRd1 = 211kN I
I
I
I
I
X/d = 0·5 1·0 1·5 2'0 2'5
L Position of concentrated load
Figure 3.10 Shear force diagram (load at O.5ci)  example 2 modified
BEAMS
In this case it would be prudent to check the shear resistance on the unmodified VRd1 = 211 kN. The required shear reinforcement should be provided from x = 0 to x = 0.5d
Check area of shear reinforcement required in example 2.
Rearranging the equation for Vwd gives
A
sw
Vwd 0.9dfYWd
447 X 103
= 2.54 mm2/mm
0.9 x 900 x 217.4
s
Try R12 links @ 175 mm crs. (4 legs), Asw/s = 2.58 mm2/mm
Check crushing of compression strut
For vertical links, cote = 0
p
f 0.7 ~ 200
0.55
30 1.5
20 N/mm2
Therefore
VRd2 (t) x 0.55 x 20 x 400 x 0.9 x 900 x 1
1782 kN > V Sd = 800 kN , , , . . . . .. 0 K
Check maximum spacing of links.
A
sw
sb sina
w
For vertical links sino 1
452
0.0064 > Pw,min
0.0022 . , . . . .. OK
175 x 400
(800  3 x 353) X 103 0,0064 x 400 x 900
< 0
Maximum spacing for crack control = 300 mm
By inspection, EC2 Clause 5.4,2.2(7) is satisfied.
Use R12 links @ 175 mm crs. (4 legs) for 0 < x < 2.25 m
Eqn 4.23
Eqn 4.25
Eqn 4.21
4.4.2.3
Eqn 4.79
Table 5.5
Table 4.13
5.4.2.2(7)
BEAMS
3.3.3 Example 3  combined loading
The revised loading and shear force diagrams are shown in Figures 3.11 and 3.12 respectively.
Ultimate loads
800 kN 800 kN
1 \. 100 kN/m 1
C'Tl. '\.J \.J'\ C\.J V JVl. l. ...lo.l..l.L
~ 1·35m .J L 1·35m
I 6m I Figure 3.11 Beam span and loading  example 3
Figure 3.12 Shear force diagram  example 3
The basic design shear resistance of the section, VRd1, is given by
For concentrated loads within 2.5d of the face of the support, TRd may be increased as in Section 3.3.2. However, no similar enhancement is permitted for uniformly distributed loads.
{3 must be reduced depending on the proportion of concentrated loads to total design load. {3 can then be written as
v
= 1 + ((3  1) Sd(conc) with 1.0 ~ (3 ~ 5.0
VSd(tot)
VSd(conc)
design shear force due to concentrated loads
VSd(tot)
design shear force due to total loads
Values of the concentrated load ratio and the resulting design shear strength are given in Tables 3.4 and 3.5.
4.3.2.3(1)
Eqn 4.18
4.3.2.2(9)
~68r_
BEAMS
Table 3.4 Concentrated load ratio VSd(cOnc/VSd(tot)
x V Sd(conc) V Sd(ud1) vSd(1OI) v Sd(conc/v Sd(1Ot)
(m) (kN) (kN) (kN)
0.45 800 255 1055 0.76
0.90 800 210 1010 0.79
1.35 800 165 965 0.83
1.80 0 120 120 0
2.25 0 75 75 0 Table 3.5 Design shear strength t3'edTRd
x {3'edTRd
(m) {3 {3rod (N/mm2j
0.45 5 4.04 1.37
0.90 2.5 2.19 0.75
1.35 1.67 1.56 0.53
1.80 1.0 1.00 0.34
2.25 1.0 1.00 0.34 The equation for VRd1 can be modified to give a range of values corresponding to the distance from the support.
VRd1 (x) = [t3'edTRi(1.2 + 40p/) + 0.15 O'cp] bwd
As in Section 3.3.2.1
k
1,
p/ = 0.013,
Values of design shear resistance, VRd1, and design shear resistance to be provided by shear reinforcement, Vwd, are given in Tables 3.6 and 3.7.
Table 3.6 Design shear resistance (VRd1)
X VRd1
(m) (kN)
0.45 848
0.90 464
1.35 328
1.80 211
2.25 211 Table 3.7 Design shear resistance (Vwd)
VRd1 VSd VSd  VRd1 = Vwd
(kN) (kN) (kN)
848 1055 207
464 1010 546
328 965 637
211 120 < 0
211 75 <0 Eqn 4.18 (mod)
~69~~
BEAMS
Therefore maximum shear reinforcement is required when
VRd1 = 328 kN, i.e., when x = 1.35 m
This should be provided from x = 0 to x Check area of shear reinforcement required. Rearranging the equation for VWd
2.25 m (0 < x < 2.5d)
Asw s
637 X 103
(0.9d)fYWd
0.9 x 900 x 217.4
Try R12 links @ 125 mm crs. (4 legs), Asjs Check crushing of compression strut
From example 2, VRd2 = 1782 kN > VSd Check maximum spacing of links
By comparison with example 2, requirements are satisfied
1100 kN OK
OK
Use R12 links @ 125 mm crs. (4 legs) for 0 < x < 2.25 m
For the remainder of the beam beyond x = 2.5d (2.25 m) provide minimum reinforcement as example given in Section 3.2.2.
3.4 Design method for torsion
3.4.1 Introduction
The edge beam shown in Figure 3.13 carries the ends of simply supported floor slabs seated on the lower flange. The beam is fully restrained at its ends.
The example chosen is the same as that used in Allen's Reinforced concrete design to as 8110: Simply explained(12).
Analysis of the structure and the design of the section for flexure is not included. The section will be checked for shear, torsion and the combination of both.
Eqn 4.23
4.4.2.3 5.4.2.2(7)
~ror_
BEAMS
560
I~
250
1500
Floor ~lab
Figure 3.13 Beam section
3.4.2 Design data
Design torsional moment (TSd) Design shear (VsJ = 355 kN
120 kNm
Concrete strength grade is C30/3?, fCk 30 N/mm2
Nominal cover to links is 35 mm.
Assuming 25 mm bars and 10 mm links
d 1500  35  10  25 1441.5 say 1440 mm
2
Assume 0.25% tensile reinforcement for flexure
3.4.3 Shear resistance
Shear will be taken as acting on the web of the section only.
When combined shear and torsion effects are to be considered, shear is to be checked using the variable strut inclination method. The angle e of the equivalent concrete struts is to be the same for both torsion and shear design.
The design shear resistance, VRd1, with zero axial load is given by
0.34 N/mm2 for fCk = 30 N/mm2
k 1.6  d = 1.6  1.44 = 0.16 t:.1.0
3.1.2.4 Table 3.1 4.1.3.3 NAD Table 6
4.3.3.2.2(4) 4.3.2.3(1)
Eqn 4.18
Table 4.8
~71 r
BEAMS
Assuming 0.25% tensile reinforcement, PI = 0.0025 1> 0.02
VRd1 0.34 x 1(1.2 + 40 x 0.0025) x 250 x 1440 x 103
159.1 kN < 355 kN
Therefore shear reinforcement required.
Use the variable strut inclination method. The maximum design shear force, VRd2, to avoid web crushing is given by
b zvt d
w C
(cote + tane)
Rearranging gives
VRd2
bwzvfCd cote + tano
VSd 355 kN
b 250 mm
w
z 0.9d = 0.9 x 1440 1296 mm
4.3.2.4.4(2) Eqn 4.26
4.3.2.4.2(3)
NAD Table 3 4.3.2.4.4(1)
4.3.2.4.4(2) Eqn 4.27
4n~
v
f 0.7  ~ 200
0.55 1:. 0.5
0.7 _ 30 200
30 1.5
20 N/mm2
Therefore
355 X 103
0.1
250 x 1296 x 0.55 x 20
e should be ~ 0.1
cot + tane
By reference to Figure 3.1, it will be seen that the value of cote may be taken anywhere between the limits of 0.67 to 1.5.
To minimize link reinforcement, take cote = 1.5
Design shear resistance, VRd3, for shear reinforcement is given by
= (~sw) zf cote
s ywd
BEAMS
Rearranging gives
Asw VRd3
S zf dcote
yw
Putting VRd3 equal to VSd
Using high yield reinforcement
f
ywd
400 N/mm2
460 1.15
Therefore
A
sw
355 X 103
s
0.9 x 1440 x 400 x 1.5
ASwfYWd 400 :5 vfed
 = 0.46 x  = 0.74
b s 250 2
w
20 0.55 x
2
5.5 N/mm2 .. OK
Before choosing the reinforcement, the effects of torsion will be considered and the results combined.
The force in the longitudinal reinforcement, Td, ignoring flexure, is given by
= (t) Vsicote  coto)
For vertical links, cote 0
355
x 1.5
2
266.3 kN
Additional area of longitudinal reinforcement
Td 266.3 x 103 = 666 rnrn"
f 400
ywd
This area of reinforcement must be combined with the tension reinforcement required for flexure together with the longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion.
3.4.4 Torsional resistance
Torsional resistance is calculated on the basis of a thinwalled closed section. Solid sections are replaced by an idealized equivalent thinwalled section. Sections of complex shape are divided into subsections with each subsection treated as an equivalent thinwalled section. The torsional resistance is taken as the sum of the torsional resistances of the subsections.
The torsional moment, carried by each subsection according to elastic theory, may be found on the basis of the St Venant torsional stiffness. Division of the section into subsections should be so arranged as to maximize the calculated stiffness.
4.3.2.4.4(2) Eqn 4.27
4.3.2.4.4(5) Eqn 4.30
173r
BEAMS
For this example the section will be divided into the subsections shown in Figure 3.14.
Figure 3.14 Dimensions of subsections
3.4.4.1 St Venant torsional stiffnesses
J = {jh3. h
min max
3.4.4.1.1 Top and bottom flanges
h
max
310 mm,
h.
min
200 mm
h
max
310
1.55
h . 200
min
From which {j = 0.203
Therefore
J 0.203 X 2003 x 310
3.4.4.1.2 Web
h
max
1500 mm,
250 mm
h
max
1500
6
h . 250
min
From which {j = 0.33
Therefore
J 0.33 X 2503 x 1500
BS 8110:
Part 2
2.4.3 Eqn 1
BS 8110:
Part 2 2.4.3 Table 2.2
BS 8110:
Part 2 2.4.3 Table 2.2
~~~
BEAMS
3.4.4.1.3 Total stiffness
Jtot [(2 x 0.5) + 7.7] x 109 = 8.7 X 109 rnrn"
3.4.4.2 Thicknesses of equivalent thinwalled sections A 1> the actual wall thickness
u
where
u outer circumference of the section
A total area within the outer circumference
3.4.4.2.1 Top and bottom flanges
u (310 + 200)2 = 1020 mm
A 310 x 200 = 62 X 103 rnm"
Therefore
62 X 103 = 61 mm 1020
t may not be less than twice the cover, c, to the longitudinal bars. Hence, with 10 mm links
tmin = 2(35 + 10) = 90 mm
3.4.4.2.2 Web
u (1500 + 250)2 = 3500 mm
A 1500 x 250 = 375 x 103 rnrn"
Therefore
375 X 103
3500 = 107 mm > 2c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK
Values of t between the limits of Alu and 2c may be chosen provided that the design torsional moment, TSd' does not exceed the torsional moment that can be resisted by the concrete compression struts.
3.4.4.3 Torsional moments
TSd.tot = 120 kNm
This total moment is shared between the flanges and web in proportion to their torsional stiffness.
Therefore
T
Sd.w
120 x 0.5 8.7
= 120 x 7.7 = 106 kNm 8.7
6.9 kNm
TSd must satisfy the following two conditions
4.3.3.1(6)
4.3.3.1(6)
4.3.3.1(5)
Eqn 4.38 Eqn 4.39
~75~
BEAMS
3.4.4.4 Torsion in flanges
cote + tane
Rearranging gives
cote + tane
Putting TRd1 equal to TSd
TSd
2vfeiAk cote + tane
TSd,f1 6.9 kNm
v
0.7 (0.7 ~)
200
0.7 (0.7  12. )
200
0.385 1: 0.35
fed 20 N/mm2
t 90 mm
Ak area enclosed within the centre line of the thinwall section (310  90) x (200  90) = 24.2 X 103 rnrrr'
Therefore
0.206
2 x 0.385 x 20 x 90 x 24.2 X 103
By reference to Figure 3.1 it may be seen that the value of cote may be taken anywhere between the limits of 0.67 to 1.5.
To minimize link reinforcement take cote = 1.5.
Note that this value must be consistent with the value taken for normal shear.
Rearranging gives
Asw TRd2
S 2A/ywdcote
4.3.3.1(6) Eqn 4.40
4.3.3.1(6) Eqn 4.41
NAD Table 3 4.3.3.1(6)
4.3.3.1(7) Eqn 4.43
4ro~
BEAMS
5.4.2.3(3)
Putting TRd2 equal to TSd
Asw TSd
s 2A/YWdcote
Using mild steel reinforcement
"Is
250 1.15
217 N/mm2
Therefore
A
sw
6.9 X 106
s
2 x 24.2 X 103 x 217 x 1.5
u The spacing of torsion links should not exceed _k 8
where
the circumference of the area Ak
2[(310  90) + (200  90)]
660 mm
Therefore
660
 = 82.5 mm, say 80 mm
8
A
sw
35.2 mm"
0.44 x 80
Use R8 links at 80 mm crs.
The additional area of longitudinal steel for torsion is given by
Rearranging and putting TRd2 equal to TSd
Asl
(TSd~Jcote
'Yld
Using high yield reinforcement
460 = 400 N/mm2 1.15
Therefore
6.9 X 106 x 660 x 1.5 400 x 2 x 24.2 X 103
353 rnrn"
Use 4T12 bars
4.3.3.1(7)
Eqn 4.44
~77~
BEAMS
Reinforcement will also be required in the bottom flange to cater for flexure of the flange acting as a continuous nib.
3.4.4.5 Torsion in web
T 106 kNm
Sd.w
(1500  107) x (250  107)
199.2 X 103 mm2
Therefore
106 X 106
0.32
2 x 0.385 x 20 x 107 x 199.2 x 103
Again by reference to Figure 3.1, cote should fall within the limits of 0.67 to 1.5. Similarly use cote = 1.5
As the web is subject to shear and torsion, the combined effects should now be checked to satisfy the condition
TSd 106 kNm
2vfCdtAk cote + tane
2 x 0.385 x 20 x 107 x 199.2 x 103 1.5 + (115)
151.5 kNm
VSd 355 kN
cote + tane
250 x 1300 x 0.55 x 20 1.5 + C1s)
1650 kN
Therefore
( 106 )2 ( 355 )2
151.5 + 1650
0.54 < 1.0 OK
Where the entire section is used to resist normal shear, each subsection should be checked to satisfy the above interaction condition.
4.3.3.2.2(3) Eqn 4.47
4.3.3.1(6) Eqn 4.40
4.3.2.4.4(2) Eqn 4.26
~~~
BEAMS
3.4.5 Reinforcement in web
Link reinforcement for torsion
Using high yield links
A
sw
106 X 106
s
2 x 199.2 X 103 x 400 x 1.5
Note that A for torsion relates to a single leg in the wall of the section.
sw
Link reinforcement required for shear
A
sw
= 0.46 mm2/mm from Section 3.4.3
s
Note that Asw for shear relates to the total shear link legs.
Assuming single links, total area for one leg
A
sw
0.46s
=  + 0.44s = 0.67s rnrrr'
2
Using T12 links
0.67s 113 rnrn"
s 168 mm, say 160 mm
Maximum link spacing for shear (+)VRd2 < VSd :5 (; WRd2
5.4.2.2(7) Eqn 5.18
s = 0.6d
max
864 1> 300 mm
Therefore
s 300 mm
max
For cracking
pbd
w w
4.4.2.3(5) Table 4.13
Therefore s
max
300 mm
For torsion
8
2[(1500  107) + (250  107)]
3072 mm
Therefore
S
max
3072
=  = 384 mm 8
Maximum spacing to suit all conditions is 300 mm.
Use T12 links @ 160 mm crs.
~79~
BEAMS
Additional area of longitudinal steel for torsion in web 106 x 106 x 3072 x 1.5
3065 rnrrr'
400 x 2 x 199.2 X 103
Use 16T16 bars
The bars in the tension face of the web will need to be increased to provide for the additional longitudinal steel required for shear and combined with the reinforcement required for flexure.
Area required in tension face for combined torsion and shear
(3065 x 2) + 666 = 1049 mrrr'
16
Use 3T25 bars
3.4.6 Summary of reinforcement
Top flange
4T12 longitudinal bars R8 links @ 80 mm crs.
Bottom flange
4T12 longitudinal bars R8 links @ 80 mm crs.
Plus reinforcement for flexure of the nib
Web
3T25 longitudinal bars in tension face 7T16 bars in each side face
T12 links @ 160 mm crs.
Plus reinforcement for flexure
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 3.15
4T12
R8 so
R8 80
T16 bars except where shown otherwise
T12  160
Additional bars needed for flexure in nib
4T12 3T25
Figure 3.15 Beam reinforcement details
Eqn 4.44
~80r_
BEAMS
It will be seen from this example that choosing the upper limit value of cote, to minimize the link reinforcement, results in substantial additional longitudinal reinforcement being required. In practice the value of cote should be chosen so as to optimize the total reinforcement in the section.
3.5 Slenderness limits
The Code requires that a beam has an adequate factor of safety against buckling.
Providing that the following requirements are met, the safety against lateral buckling may be assumed to be adequate
< 50b; and
h
< 4b
where
width of the compression flange, which can be taken as beff for T and L beams
h total depth of the beam
b
unrestrained length of the compression flange taking lateral bracing into account
For example, consider the beam shown in Figure 3.16.
975)( 400 beam
~vvv~~vv~~vv~~,:
ABC 0
Figure 3.16 Beam spans and loading for slenderness check
In this example the top of the beam is loaded but unrestrained (for instance, the beam is carrying a wall).
The second requirement is satisfied i.e. h < 4b = 1600 mm
In calculating lot' the unrestrained length of the compression flange can be taken as the distance between points of contraflexure.
These distances, which need to be < 50b = 20 m, can be obtained from EC2 Figure 2.3.
I (AB)
ot
0.85/(AB) O.71(BC)
0.85 x 22 = 18.7 m
lot(BC) lot(CO)
0.7 x 22 = 15.4 m
21(CO) = 2 x 11
22 m
Spans AC are satisfactory but span CO is not. It is too slender and the width will need to be increased, or additional lateral retrain! will need to be provided.
4.3.5.7
4.3.5.7(2)
Eqn 4.77
NAD
2.5.2.2.1(3)
2.5.2.2.1(4)
Figure 2.3
~81 ~
4 SLABS II
4.1 Solid and ribbed slabs
4.1.1 Oneway spanning solid slabs
Example of a oneway spanning slab is given in Section 2.
4.1.2 Twoway spanning solid slabs
EC2(1) permits the use of elastic analysis, with or without redistribution, or plastic analysis for ultimate limit state design.
Elastic analyses are commonly employed for oneway spanning slabs and for twoway spanning slabs without adequate provision to resist torsion at the corners of the slab and prevent the corners from lifting. Plastic analyses are commonly used in other situations.
Tabulated results for moments and shears from both types of analysis are widely available.
Care is necessary in subsequent design to ensure that adequate ductility is present. Where redistribution has been performed, the necessary checks should be carried out.
4.1.2.1 DeSign example of a simplysupported twoway spanning solid slab Design a solid slab, spanning in two directions and simplysupported along each edge on brickwork walls as shown in Figure 4.1. The slab is rectangular on plan and measures 5 m by 6 m between the centre of the supports.
In addition to selfweight, the slab carries a characteristic dead load of 0.5 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.
The slab is in an internal environment with no exposure to the weather or aggressive conditions.
,
F~ll
II II'
I I
I
I I'
220mm Wide  'I
supporting "'alit i: :
II I,
,=L:::=_===.=::::::::= ~~~=Jl~ L
~
ly = 6m I
~~~.
I x = Sm
Figure 4.1 Layout of slab
4.1.2.1.1 Durability
For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. Minimum concrete strength grade is C25/30.
2.5.1.1(5)
2.5.3.5.1(2)
as 8110 Tables
3.14 & 3.15 2.5.3.2.2(5) 2.5.3.4.2(3) 2.5.3.5.5(2)
Table 4.1 ENV 206 Table NA.1
~82r_
SLABS
For cement content and w/c ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3(6).
Minimum cover to reinforcement Assume nominal aggregate size Assume maximum bar size Nominal cover
= 15 mm = 20 mm = 12 mm ~ 20 mm
Use nominal cover = 25 mm
Note:
20 mm nominal cover is sufficient to meet the NAO(1) requirements in all respects.
Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2(2).
4.1.2.1.2 Materials
Type 2 deformed reinforcement
fYk 460 N/mm2
460 1.15
400 N/mm2
C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size
4.1.2.1.3 Loading
Assume 200 mm thick slab
Gk 4.8 + 0.5 = 5.3 kN/m2
Ok 5.0 kN/m2
'YG 1.35
'Yo 1.5 Ultimate load
14.66 kN/m2
4.1.2.1.4 Flexural design
Bending moment coefficients for simplysupported twoway spanning slabs, without torsional restraint at the corners or provision to resist uplift at the corners, based on the GrashofRankine Formulae, are widely published and are reproduced in BS 8110.
I For .:
I
x
1.2
0.084,
0.059
NAO Table 6
NAO 6.4(a)
NAO
Table 3 4.1.3.3(8)
NAO 6.1(a)
NAO 6.3(a)
2.2.3.2 Table 2.3
Table 2.2
Eqn 2.8(a) NAO 6.2(d)
BS 8110 Table 3.14
~83r_
SLABS
Giving
MSdx 30.8 kNm/m
MSdY 21.6 kNm/m
For short span with reinforcement in bottom layer 12
d
= 200  25
= 169 mm
2
0.043
x
0.099 < 0.45 OK
d
0.052
Therefore A = 478 mm2/m
s
Use T12 @ 200 mm crs. (566 rnrnvrn) in short span
For longer span
d
200  25  12  6
157 mm
0.035
A/yk bdfck
Therefore A = 359 mm2/m
s
0.042
Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 rnrrr'rm) in long span
4.1.2.1.5 Shear
VSdx
24.6 kN/m
(nl 2)
= 8ex _x_ = 14.4 kN/m sy 21
y
The shear resistance with no axial load:
VRd1 = TRl(1.2 + 40p)bwd
Where
0.3 N/mm2
2.5.3.4.2(5)
4.3.2
4.3.2.3 Eqn 4.18
Table 4.8
184~
SLABS
Assume 'I> 50% of reinforcement curtailed at support
k = 1.6  d = 1.431 1:. 1
Assume
As[ bd
w
o 'I> 0.02
Hence
VRd1 = 87.0 kN/m > VSdX = 24.6 kN/m
No shear reinforcement required
4.1.2.1.6 Serviceability  deflection
Control by limiting span/effective depth ratio based on the shorter span for a twoway spanning slab.
A = 566 mm2/m,
s,prov
p = 0.0033
NAD Table 7 gives basic span/effective depth ratios which are assumed to be based on fYk = 400 N/mm2.
Note 2 to NAD Table 7 states that modification to the tabulated values for nominal reinforced concrete should not be carried out to take into account service stresses in the steel (refer to EC2 Clause 4.4.3.2(4». However, it is assumed that the correction ought to be made for concrete with 0,15% ::;;; p«; 0.5% but that the resulting values should not exceed those tabulated in the NAD for nominally reinforced concrete.
Basic limiting span/effective depth ratios are:
Concrete lightly stressed (p = 0.5%): 25 Concrete nominally reinforced (p = 0.15%): 34
By interpolation at p = 0.33%: 29.4
The actual service steel stress modification factor is
250
400
1.03
400
460 x 478/566
Therefore, permissible span/effective depth ratio = 1.03 x 29.4 = 30.3 ::;;; 34
Since span 'I> 7 m, no further adjustment is required.
Actual span/effective depth ratio
5000 169
29.6 < 30.3.... OK
Note:
No modification to the longer span reinforcement is required in cases where short span reinforcement is increased to comply with deflection requirements.
Figure 4.12
4.3.2.1P(2) 4.3.2.2
4.4.3.2
4.4.3.2(4)
NAD 6.4(e)&(f) Table 7
4.4.3.2(3)
BS 8110 3.5.7
~85~
SLABS
4.1.2.1.7 Serviceability  cracking
For a slab with h ~ 200 mm, no further measures to control cracking are necessary if the requirements of EC2 Clause 5.4.3 have been applied.
4.1.2.1.8 Detailing
Detailing requirements for cast in situ solid slabs, including twoway slabs
Slab thickness, h = 200 > 50 mm OK
For the short span, use alternately staggered bars and anchor 50% of the midspan reinforcement at the supports.
VSd (~) + NSd
Anchorage force, F
S
d
Therefore
F
S
VSd
24.6 kN/m
A
s,req
F
S
fyd
24.6 X 103 400
A
s,prov
OK
Net bond length, Ib,net
alA
a b s,req
1: Ib,min
A
s,prov
1.0 for straight bars
cP 4
All bars in slabs with h ~ 250 mm may be assumed to have good bond,
fbd 2.7 N/mm2
12 400
Ib x 444 mm
4 2.7
Ib, . 0.3/b 1: 10cP or 100 mm 133 mm
min In calculating Ib, t take A as midspan reinforcemenU4 giving
ne s,req
1
Ib,r.et = 1.0 x 444 x '2 = 222 mm > Ib,min " OK
4.4.2.3{1}
5.4.3 5.43.1{1} 5.4.3.2.2{1}
5.4.3.2.1(1) 5.4.2.1.4(2) Eqn 5.15
5.4.3.2.1(1)
5.2.3.4.1(1} Eqn 5.4
5.2.3.4.1
5.2.2.3 Eqn 5.3
5.2.2.1 Table 5.3
5. 2.3.4.1 (1) Eqn 5.5
NAD 6.5(c) 5.4.2.1.4(3}
Eqn 5.4
SLABS
For a direct support. the anchorage length required is
(2/3)lb.net = 148 mm
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 4.2.
T12  300
T12200 alternately staggered
•
(4J (213) lb,net = 148
\.
220
·1
Figure 4.2 Section through short span support
The use of (2/3)lb,net at a direct support is an allowance for the transverse compression due to the support reaction,
Minimum area of reinforcement
A
s
Minimum area provided (T12 @ 400 mm crs.) near support
283 mm2/m OK
Maximum bar spacing
3h 1> 500 mm
Maximum spacing used
400 mm near support , , , , , , . , . . . . .. OK
4.1.2.2 Design example of a continuous twoway spanning solid slab
Design a solid slab spanning between beams, as shown in Figure 4.3.
In addition to selfweight, the slab carries a characteristic dead load of 1,0 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.
5.4.2.1.4(3) Figure 5.12(a)
5.4,3.2.1(3) 5.4,2.1.1(1)
NAD Table 3 5.4.3.2,1(4)
~~r_
SLABS
Supporting beams
6m
6m
6m
1 7' 2 m
....
I 7·2 m
...
I ..
7· 2 m
I
Figure 4.3 Layout of slab
4.1.2.2.1 Durability
For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. Minimum concrete strength grade is C25/30.
For cement content and w/c ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3.
Minimum cover to reinforcement Assume nominal aggregate size Assume maximum bar size Nominal cover
= 15 mm = 20 mm = 12 mm ~ 20 mm
Use nominal cover
25 mm
Note:
20 mm nominal cover is sufficient to meet the NAD requirements in all respects.
Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2.
4.1.2.2.2 Materials
Type 2 deformed reinforcement, fYk = 460 N/mm2 C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size.
Table 4.1 ENV 206 Table NA.1
NAD Table 6
NAD 6.4(a)
NAD
Table 3 4.1.3.3(8)
NAD 6.1(a)
~88~
SLABS
4.1.2.2.3 Loading
Assume 200 mm thick slab
Gk 4.8 + 1.0 = 5.8 kN/m2
Ok 5.0 kN/m2
'YG 1.35 or 1.0
'Yo 1.5 or 0.0 For nonsensitive structures, a single design value for permanent actions may be applied throughout the structure, i.e. 'YG = 1.35 throughout.
Maximum ultimate load Minimum ultimate load
1.35 x 5.8 + 1.5 x 5.0 = 15.33 kN/m2 1.35 x 5.8 = 7.83 kN/m2
4.1.2.2.4 Load cases
For continuous beams and slabs in buildings without cantilevers subjected to dominantly uniformly distributed loads, it will generally be sufficient to consider only the following load cases.
(a) Alternate spans carrying the design variable and permanent load ('YOOk + 'YGGk) , other spans carrying only the design permanent load, 'YGGk.
(b) Any two adjacent spans carrying the design variable and permanent load hoOk + 'YGGk). All other spans carrying only the design permanent load, 'YGGk.
4.1.2.2.5 Flexural design
Bending moment coefficients for twoway spanning slabs supported on four edges, with provision for torsion at the corners, have been calculated based on both elastic and yield line theory. The coefficients published in BS 8110:
Part 1, Table 3.15, are based on yield line analysis and are used in this example.
For continuous slabs the effects of rotational restraint from the supports can be ignored.
Yield line methods can only be used for very ductile structural elements. Use high ductility steel Class H to prEN 10080(8).
No direct check on rotational capacity is required if high ductility steel is used.
The area of steel should not exceed a value corresponding to
x
M 0.25 which is equivalent to bd2f
ck
0.102
d
For the yield line (kinematic) method, a variety of possible mechanisms should be considered. This is assumed in the use of the published bending moment coefficients.
Table 2.2
2.3.2.3
2.5.1.2(4)
BS 8110 Table 3.15
2.5.3.3(3)
2.5.3.2.2(5) NAD Table 5
2.5.3.5.5(3)
2.5.3.5.5(2)
2.5.3.5.5(4)
489r
SLABS
The ratio of moments at a continuous edge to the span moment should be between 0.5 and 2.0. This is true for the published coefficients.
Consider the design of the corner panel, D, in Figure 4.4.
N <S>
...r ...r
9 0
~ 0·024 6 0·028
0 ·032  0·032  0 ·037 I
 
~t ~t
N ~
...r
<;> 0
C> A 6 B
I I
oD tTl
..... oD
<:> 9
0,037 ~ ~ 0·037  0·045 c;> 0·034

~t ~f
c 0 2.5.3.5.5(5)
2.5.1.2
BS 8110 3.5.3.6
2.5.3.3(4)
Eqn 2.16
~90r_
Figure 4.4 Bending moment coefficients I II = 1.2
y x
Using the coefficients shown in Figure 4.4 and the method described in BS 8110 to adjust moments for adjacent panels with unequal conditions, the following moments and shears can be calculated for this panel:
In the 6 m direction, M 29.7 kNm/m
sup
M 28.5 kNm/m
span
In the 7.2 m direction, M 21.0 kNm/m
sup
M 20.6 kNm/m
span The support moments calculated can be further reduced by an amount ~MSd
where
FSd,sup = design support reaction compatible with the analysis moments.
In the 6 m direction, FSd ,sup
In the 7.2 m direction, FSd
,sup
81,9 kN/m 69.9 kN/m
For a 300 mm wide supporting beam:
In the 6 m direction, ~MSd In the 7.2 m direction, ~MSd
Therefore, the design support moments are:
3.1 kNm/m
2.6 kNm/m
In the 6 m direction,
M
sup
26.6 kNm/m 18.4 kNm/m
In the 7.2 m direction, M
sup
SLABS
For the short span, with the reinforcement in the first layer
d
= 200  25 
12 2
= 169 mm
M
sup
0.038
x
d
0.087 < 0.25 OK
A/Yk =:
A 414 mm2/m
s
0.045
Use T12 @ 250 mm crs. (452 mm2/m) T in short span
The span moment is similar to that over the support and the same reinforcement may be used in the bottom
For the long span, with the reinforcement in the second layer 12
d 200  25  12   = 157 mm
2
M
sup
0.030
x d
0.068 < 0.45 0 K
0.035
Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m) T in long span
The span moment is again similar to that over the support and the same reinforcement may be used in the bottom
For arrangements of reinforcement in middle and edge strips use BS 8110. The NAD directs the use of BS 8110 where torsion reinforcement is required in the corners of panels.
4.1.2.2.6 Shear
Use forces consistent with the analysis moments. In the 6 m direction:
At internal beam, Vint At edge, Vex!
0.47 X 15.33 X 6 0.31 X 15.33 X 6
43.2 kN/m 28.5 kN/m
2.5.3.5.5(2)
BS 8110 3.5.3.5 NAD 6.5(e) 5.4.3.2.2
4.3.2
~91 r
SLABS
In the 7.2 m direction:
At internal beam, ~n! At edge, Vex!
0.4 X 15.33 X 6 0.26 X 15.33 X 6
36.8 kN/m 23.9 kN/m
= 0.3 N/mm2
Assume
1> 50% of the bottom reinforcement curtailed at edge support.
k 1.6  0.169 = 1.431 Asl
= 0.00134 1> 0.02
b d
w
Note: Ensure detailing provides necessary anchorage to As!' See EC2 Figure 4.12 for definition of Asi.
(1 = a
Cp
Therefore
VRd1 = 91.0 kN/m > VSd = 28.5 kN/m at edge support
It is also clear that VRd1 > VSd = 43.2 kN/m at the internal beam.
No shear reinforcement required
4.1.2.2.7 Serviceability  deflection
Control by limiting span/effective depth ratio based on the shorter span for a twoway spanning slab.
Actual span/effective depth ratio
6000 169
35.5
For a corner panel use structural system 2.
It may be normally assumed that slabs are lightly stressed (p ::s; 0.5%).
NAD 6.4(e) and (f) allows the basic span/effective depth ratio to be interpolated, according to the reinforcement provided, for values in the range 0.15% < p < 0.5%.
Basic span/effective depth ratio (p = 0.5%) = 32 (p = 0.15%) = 44
For the span moment A = 441 mm2/m
s,req
A = 452 mm2/m,
s,prov
p = 0,27%
Basic span/effective depth ratio (p = 0.27%) 39.9
4.3.2.3 Eqn 4.18
Table 4.8
5.4.3.2.2
4.3.2.1P(2) 4.3.2.2(2)
4.4.3.2 4.4.3.2(5)
Table 4.14 4.4.3.2(5)
NAD Table 7
~92~
SLABS
Using reinforcement with f k > 400 N/mm2, this value should be multiplied to reflect the actual servic~ steel stress by the factor
250
400 x 452 460 x 441
0.89
400
Therefore, permissible span/effective depth ratio
= 0.89 x 39.9 = 35.5............................... OK
Note 2 to NAD Table 7 is taken to mean that the resulting span/effective depth ratio, after the service stress modification, is limited to the value tabulated for nominally reinforced concrete. In this case the value is 44.
4.1.2.2.8 Serviceability  cracking
For a slab with h :5 200 mm no further measures are required to control cracking, provided the requirements of EC2 Clause 5.4.3 have been applied.
4.1.2.2.9 Detailing
Slab thickness, h = 200 mm > 50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK For the short span, use alternately staggered bars and anchor 50% of the midspan reinforcement at the external support.
Anchorage force (at external support)
F
S
VSd al
x  + NSd
d
0
d
VSd 28.5 kN/m
F 28.5 x 103
S 71 mm2/m
fYd 400 F
S
A
s.req
A 226 mm2/m OK
s.prov
Net bond length
A
s.req ~
As,prov
lb, .
min
<Xa 0.7 for curved bars
4.4.3.2(4)
4.4.2.3(1)
5.4.3
5.4.3.1(1) 5.4.3.2.2(1)
5.4.2.1.4(2) Eqn 5.15
5.4.3.2.1 (1)
5.2.3.4.1(1) Eqn 5.4
5.2.2.3 Eqn 5.3
~93~
SLABS
For all bars in slabs with h s 250 mm, good bond may be assumed.
fbd
2.7 N/mm2
12 400
4
x
= 444 mm
2.7
In calculating Lb, et take A as midspan reinforcementl4.
n s.req
L
b.net
1
= 0.7 x 444 x  = 156 mm > Lb .
2 .rrun
OK
Bars to extend into support for a distance
b
 + L = 256 mm
3 bone!
giving sufficient end cover in 300 mm wide section . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK
4.1.2.2.10 Top reinforcement at edge beam
Design moment = M 14 = 7.125 kNm/m
span
0.Q1
0.012
= 110 mm2/m 1:. A .
s.mtn
Minimum area of reinforcement
Use T10 @ 250 mm crs. bars extending 0.21 from inner face of support into span
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 4.5.
5.2.2.1
Table 5.3
NAD 6.5(c) 5.4.2.1.4(3)
Figure 5.12(b)
5.4.3.2.2(2)
5.4.3.2.1(3)
5.4.3.2.2(2)
~94r_
SLABS
r~~~~ ~_;
T10  500 secondary transverse reinforcement
1200
T12  300 middle strip T 10  300 edge strip
T10 250
T12 250 alternately staggered
1.26 •• 1 ·
600
I
I. Edge strip .1. Middle strip
~
Figure 4.5 Detail at edge beam
4.1.2.2.11 Secondary transverse reinforcement  top Principal reinforcement, T10 @ 250 mm crs., As Secondary reinforcement, A = 0.2 x 314
s
Maximum spacing = 500 mm
Use T10 @ 500 mm crs. (157 mm2/m)
4.1.2.2.12 Corner reinforcement
Use the detailing guidance given in BS 8110.
4.1.2.2.13 Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at intermediate supports
Retain not less than a quarter of midspan reinforcement at support and provide not less than 104> anchorage.
Provide continuity bars lapped with bottom reinforcement as shown in Figure 4.6. Using alternately staggered bars with continuity for 50% of the midspan rei nforceme nt.
Minimum lap, lb t
.ne
1 1.4 x 444 x
2
310 mm
T12 500
r 
'"' .  '"'
•  •
 • 
I I
 T12
I I
120 1:l01tJ=120  250
Figure 4.6 Detail at interior support
5.4.3.2.1(2) NAD Table 3 5.4.3.2.1(4)
5.4.3.2.3 NAD 6.5(e) 5.4.3.2.3 5.4.2.1.5
5.4.2.1.4(1)
Figure 5.13(b)
_,95r
SLABS
4.1.2.2.14 Transverse reinforcement at laps
No requirement for slabs.
4.1.3 Ribbed slabs
EC2 permits ribbed slabs to be treated as solid slabs for the purposes of analysis, provided that the flange and transverse ribs have sufficient torsional stiffness.
4.1.3.1 Design example of a ribbed slab
Design a ribbed slab spanning between beams as shown in Figure 4.7.
In addition to selfweight, the slab carries a characteristic dead load of 1.0 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.
Supporti 09 beams
I AII/~I
~========lF=======I I=========l 1========1 I========~I========I F=======I 1========1
It=== === ======111== = === == =1' t=============II=========1 1========~I========t ,===========1 P=========j
I I I I
6m
NAD 6.5(b) 5.2.4.1.2
2.5.2.1(5)
~96r_
111125 I
600 , 600 ·1
l
AA I
Figure 4.7 Ribbed slab spanning between beams
SLABS
4.1.3.1.1 Durability
For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. Minimum concrete strength grade is C25/30.
For cement content and w/c ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3.
Minimum cover to reinforcement Assume nominal aggregate size Assume maximum bar size Nominal cover
15 mm 20 mm 20 mm
~ 20 mm
Use nominal cover
25 mm
Note:
20 mm nominal cover is sufficient to meet the NAD requirements in all respects.
Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2.
4.1.3.1.2 Materials
Type 2 deformed reinforcement, fYk = 460 N/mm2
fk
f =...!.._ =
yd 'Y
5
460 2
 = 400 N/mm
1.15
C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size
4.1.3.1.3 Analysis model Span ~ 4 x 6 m ~ 4 x
slab depth
0.275 = 1.1 m , OK
Rib spacing Rib depth
600:5 1500 mm OK
175:5 4 x rib width = 500 mm OK
Flange depth = 100 mm 1
~ 10 x clear spacing between ribs ~ 50 mm . .. OK
Transverse ribs (at supports only)
Spacing = 6 m > 10 x slab depth
2.75 m
Hence the ribbed slab may not be treated as a solid slab in the analysis under the terms of this clause unless intermediate transverse ribs are incorporated. This is not always desirable.
The model adopted in this example uses gross concrete section properties of the T shape in sagging regions and a rectangular section, based on the rib width, in the hogging region.
EC2 Figure 2.3 has been used initially to define the extent of the hogging. This method can clearly be refined.
Table 4.1 ENV 206 Table NA.1
NAD Table 6
NAD 6.4(a)
NAD Table 3 4.1.3.3(8)
NAD 6.1(a)
2.2.3.2P(1) Table 2.3
2.5.2.1(3)
2.5.2.1(5)
2.5.2.1(5)
~wr_
SLABS
4.1.3.1.4 Effective span
lett = In + a1 + a2
Assume 300 mm wide supporting beams I = 5700 mm
n
a1 at edge beam = aj taken as H) t = 150 mm a2 at central beam = aj = (+) t = 150 mm lett = 6000 mm
For ratio of adjacent spans between 1 and 1.5
10 = 0.85/1 = 0.85 x 6000 = 5100 mm
4.1.3.1.5 Effective width of flanges
Effective flange width is assumed constant across the span for continuous beams in buildings.
For a symmetrical T beam
beff bw + (+) 10 ~ b
125 + (+) x 5100 s 600 mm
Therefore
bett = 600 mm
4.1.3.1.6 Loading Gk Ok
3.6 + 1.0 5.0 kN/m2
4.6 kN/m2
1.35 1.5
Maximum ultimate load Minimum ultimate load
1.35 x 4.6 + 1.5 x 5.0 = 13.7 kN/m2 1.35 x 4.6 = 6.2 kN/m2
4.1.3.1.7 Flexural design
Design for ultimate limit state using linear elastic method, choosing not to redistribute moments.
Consider the following load combinations:
(a) Alternate spans carrying the design variable and permanent load ('YOOk + 'YGGk) , other spans carrying only the design permanent load, 'YGGk.
(b) Any two adjacent spans carrying the design variable and permanent load ('YOOk + 'YGGJ. All other spans carrying only the design permanent load, 'YGGk.
2.5.2.2.2 Eqn 2.15
Figure 2.4(a)
Figure 2.4(b)
2.5.2.2.1(4) Figure 2.3
2.5.2.2.1 2.5.2.2.1(2)
2.5.2.2.1(3) Eqn 2.13
Table 2.2 2.3.2.3P(2) Table 2.2
2.5.3.2.2
2.5.1.2
~98~
SLABS
 30 . 5 1 37· 0 I
26·7 124'SI
26·7 124'SI
2.5.3.3(4)
Eqn 2.16
~99~
BENDING MOMENT ENVELOPE (kNm)
29·8 130·S1
Notes
1. Values are per rib
2. Values in brackets are those obtained when I IS taken as uniform throughout the span
21·0 120·21
21·0 120·2)
 29·8 ( 30·8)
SHEAR FORCE ENVELOPE (kN)
Figure 4.8 Results of analysis
The following results are taken from the analysis (see Figure 4.8).
M
span
26.7 kNm/rib
 30.5 kNm/rib 59.6 kN/rib
M
sup
F
Sd,sup
Support moment can be reduced by an amount ilMsd where
59.6 x 0.3/8
2,2 kNm/rib
Therefore
M  28.3 kNm/rib
sup
16 2
b 600 mm (span), 125 mm (support)
d
275  25  10
232 mm