You are on page 1of 23


Satisfactory performance of an aircraft depends up on the continued
reliability of electrical system. Reliability is proportional to amount of
maintenance received and knowledge of men who performed such


The performance of tasks required to ensure the continuing

airworthiness of an aircraft including anyone or combination of overhaul,
inspection, replacement, defect, rectification and the embodiment of a
modification or repair.

Progressive Inspection:

An inspection that may be used in place of an annual or 100 Hrs

inspection. It has same scope as an annual inspection. But it may be
performed in increments soothe a/c will not have to be out of service for a
lengthy period of time.”This inspection is used for light A/c”.

Down Time:

Any time during which an A/C is out of commission and unable to be


Continuous airworthiness inspection programme:

An inspection programme that is a part of contiguous airworthiness

maintenance programme approved by FAA for certain large A/C including
turbine powered rotorcraft.

Modern A/c has complex system. A high degree of knowledge and

skill is needed to identify the problems so that down time is reduced.

Remove and replace or Rand R maintenance is the only way flight

schedules can be maintained today. This type of maintenance requires a
good knowledge of systematic trouble shooting so that only the offending
component is changed.

It is a procedure used in A/c maintenance in which the operation of
malfunctioning system is analyzed to find the reason for malfunction and to
find a method for returning the system to its condition of normal operation.


It is a term used for any portion of an electrical or electronic system

that can be removed as a unit. A black box does not to be a physical box.

Circuit diagrams, wiring diagrams, routing charts (location charts) and

troubleshooting tools like continuity light, multimeter and clampon ammeter
are helpful for troubleshooting .modern A/C deployed with BITE (built in test

Rules for systematic trouble shooting:

1. Know the way the system should operate .it is the secret of successful
troubleshooting .the way a component works, correct voltage and
current at a specified test points and correct frequency and waveform
of an alternating current at these test points must be known.

2. Observe the way the system is working/operating. Any difference

between the way system is operating and they it should operate is an
identification of trouble. Current or voltage is too low or too high or
components that show signs of overheating are indications that a
system is not operating correctly.

3. Divide the system to find the trouble, time is valuable. When the
system is not operating is not operating as it should we must find
whether the trouble is in the beginning of the system or hear its end.
To do this open the system near its middle and check the conditions
there .everything is ok the trouble is between there to end and vice

4. Look for the obvious problem first and make all measurements at the
points where they are easiest to make .popped out circuit breakers,
blown out fuses and corroded ground connections are usually easy to
check and are the cause of many electrical system malfunction.

There are usually there types of diagrams produced for A/C .the ATA-100
system has a much greater application internationally.

Circuit Diagrams:
Theoretical nature show the internal circuit arrangements of electrical
and electronic components both individually and collectively as a complete
distribution or power consumer system in the detail necessary to understand
the operating principle of the components and system.

Circuit’s diagrams are normally drawn in the “aircraft on the ground

condition with main power supply off .In general switches are in off”. Position
and all components such as relays and contactors are in de “energized
(demagnetize)”state. Circuit breakers are closed.

In the event it is necessary to deviate from these standard condition a

note is added to the diagram to clearly define the condition selected.

Wiring diagrams:

More practical in nature. They show how all components and cables of
each individual system making up the whole installation are to be connected
to each other .Their locations within the A/C and the groups of groups of
figures and letters to indicate how all components can be identified directly
on the A/C.

Routing Charts:

These charts have similar functions to wiring diagrams, but are set out
in such a manner that components and cables are drawn under “location”
heading so that the route of distribution can be readily traced out on the A/C.
In some cases both functions may be combined in one diagram.

Wiring diagrams and routing charts are use full for maintenance
engineers to assist them in their practical tasks of testing circuits fault
finding and installation procedures.

The number of diagrams or charts required depends upon size of A/C

and its electrical installations .it can vary from few pages at the end of
maintenance manual small light A/C (Cessna) to several massive volumes
for large transport A/C.

Cable Identification

Air transport association of America under specification

Positon1: unit number. It is used
where component have identical circuits Eg: components of a twin generator
system. This number is omitted where cables are used singly.

Position2: circuit function. It designates the circuit or system with which

cable is connected. The second letter indicates to further sub system.
Position3: wire number. It is used to differentiate between cables which
don’t have common terminal in the same circuit. Starting from the busbar
with lowest number.
Position4: segment letter. Signifies the segment of cable (the portion of the
cable between two terminals or connections). It starts from letter “A” from
power source goes on with alphabetical sequence (excluding letters I and O).
Different letter is used where cable segments have common terminal or

Position5: wire size in number as per American wire gauge (Awg). No

number for coaxial cable. Thermo couple cable – (dash)

Position6: letter indicates whether a cable is used as a connection or each

point. ‘N’ indicates earth connected ‘V’ supply in single phase. A, B, C three
phase circuits. No letter for DC

Thermocouple cables by type of conductor material

Al alumel, Ch chromel, Cu copper, Cn constantan.

The coding schemes adopted for items of electrical equipment, control

panels connector groups. Junction boxes etc are related to physical locations
within the aircraft and for the purpose aircraft are divided in electrical zones.
A reference letter and number are allotted to each zone and also to
equipment connectors. Panels etc so that they can be identified with in the
zones. The reference letters and numbers are given in appropriate wiring
diagram and are correlated t the diagrammatic representation of all items. In
the aircraft itself reference are marked on or near the related items.

Common electrical faults

Open circuit: a circuit with an unwanted disconnection or infinite
resistance. Like Broken wires, defective connectors. Loose terminals or any
other which creates circuit disconnection.

Short circuit: a circuit with an extra. Unwanted connection

Two types short to ground form when + wire touches –ve ground (extremely
low resistance infinite current flow) accidently.

A cross short takes place when two or more circuits are connected
accidentally together.

Short circuits are due to friction between two wires or between a wire and
the air frame.
Trouble shooting tools:
Continuity light (tester):

Bug light (3 volt bulb) or continuity tester used to trace wires in the
system. Locate shorts and open circuits and to determine whether a fuse is
good or bad.

When using a continuity tester “an electrical power must be OFF” to

the circuit. Connect the black test lead to one end of the circuit and green
lead to other end. The bulb will light up if there is continuity. In case of
disconnection bulb does not glow.

Note: never cut or pierce insulation of aircraft cable to check the continuity.
Check only at the correct points studs, connectors, junction boxes etc.

The “Hot light” is to check the presence of voltage at various points. In

this case aircraft supply must be “ON” appropriate switches and circuits
breakers must be ON. Black lead is to be connected to some ground point on
the aircraft structure. Touch the red lead of the got light to the point where
you want to check for voltage. The light will come on if there is voltage. No
light in case of no voltage.


An electrical test instrument that consists of a single current

measuring meter and all of the needed components to allow the meter to be
used to measure voltage, resistance, current.

Multimeter may be an analog or digital type displays.

In digital multimeter the indication is in the form of liquid crystal

display in discrete numbers.

Clamp on Ammeter:

An electrical instrument used to measure higher current without

opening the circuit through which it is flowing.

Used for trouble shooting hydraulic and fuel, Battery charging system.

They have a small screen of 3 inch diagonal which is easy to carry to

the aircraft. Used to display on CRT. The wave form and frequency of the
voltage being measured.

Modern electronic systems have mode dual trace oscilloscope. By

which you can look at the signals on the input and output of a circuit at the
same time.


A suggested list of items to look for and checks to be performed are

a. Damaged or over heated equipment, connections, wiring and

b. Excessive resistance at high current carrying connections as determined by
milli-volt drop test.
c. Misalignment of electrically driven equipment
d. Poor electrical bonding.
e. Dirty equipment and connections.
f. Improper support of wiring and conduit.
g. Loose connections, terminals, and ferrules.
h. Continuity of fuses.
i. Condition of electric lamps.
j. Insufficient clearance or poor insulation of exposed terminals.
k. Broken or missing safety wire, cotter pins, etc.
I. Operational check of electrically operated equipment such as motors, inverters, generators,
batteries, lights, etc.
m. Voltage check of electrical system with portable precision voltmeter.
n. Miscellaneous irregularities such as poorly soldered or loose swaged terminals, loose
quick disconnects, broken wire bundle lacing, broken or inadequate clamps, and insufficient
clearance between exposed current-carrying parts and ground.

Cleaning And Preservation

Frequent cleaning of electrical equipment to remove dust, dirt, and grime is
recommended. Fine emery cloth may be used to clean terminals and mating surfaces if they are
corroded or dirty. Crocus cloth or very fine sandpaper may be used to polish commutators or slip
rings. Do not use emery cloth on commutators since particles from the cloth may cause shorting
and burning.
Accomplish adjustments to items of equipment such as regulators, generators, contactors,
control devices, inverters, and relays outside the airplane on a test stand or test bench where all
necessary instruments and test equipment are at hand. Follow the adjustment procedures outlined
by the equipment manufacturer.

Insulation of electrical equipment.

In some cases, a unit of electrical equipment is connected into a heavy current circuit,
perhaps as a control device or relay. Such equipment is normally insulated from the mounting
structure, since grounding the frame of the equipment may result in a serious ground fault in the
event of equipment internal failure. If a ground connection for a control coil must be provided,
use a separate small gauge wire.

Bus bar maintenance.

Periodically check bus bars used in aircraft electrical systems for general condition and
cleanliness. Grease, oxide, or dirt on any electrical junction may cause the connectors to overheat
and eventually fail. Clean bus bars by wiping with a clean soft cloth saturated with Stoddard
solvent and drying with a clean soft cloth.

Junction boxes.
a. Junction Box Construction. Fabricate replacement junction boxes using the same material
as the original or from a fire-resistant, nonabsorbent material, such as aluminum alloy or
an acceptable plastic material. Where fire-proofing is necessary, a stainless steel junction
box is recommended. Rigid construction will prevent "oil-canning" of the box sides,
which could result in internal short circuits, ^n all cases, provide drain holes in the lowest
portion of the box.

b. Internal Arrangement. The junction box arrangement should permit easy access to all in-
stalled items of equipment, terminals, and wires. Where marginal clearances are unavoid-
able, insert an insulating material between current-carrying parts and any grounded sur-
face. It is not good practice to mount equipment on the covers or doors of junction boxes,
since inspection for internal clearance is impossible when the door or cover is in the
closed position.

c. Junction Box Installation. Securely mount junction boxes to the aircraft structure in such
a manner that the contents are readily accessible for inspection. When possible, face the
open side downward or at an angle so that loose metallic objects, such as washers or nuts,
will tend to fall out of the junction box rather than wedge between terminals.
d. Junction Box Wiring. Junction box layouts must take into consideration the necessity for
adequate wiring space and possible future additions. Lace or clamp electric wire bundles
inside the box in a manner that terminals are not hidden, relay armatures are not fouled,
and motion relative to any equipment is prevented. Protect cable at entrance openings
against chafing using grommets or other suitable means.


Battery electrolyte corrosion.

Electrolyte spilled during ground servicing should be neutralized at
once with solutions of sodium bicarbonate (for acid electrolyte) or boric acid,
vinegar, or a 3 percent solution of acetic acid (for alkaline electrolyte).
Residue should be washed off with clean water and the area thoroughly

Generators and Alternators.

Inspect generators and alternators and their associated wiring and
distribution systems for wear, damage, general condition, and proper
functioning to assure the continued satisfactory operation of the electrical
system. Frequent visual inspections, operating checks of all electrical circuits
and equipment, and replacement or repair when deficiencies are found are
effective in minimizing electrical troubles and hazards in aircraft.

Alternator diodes.
Alternators employ diodes for the purpose of converting the alter-
nating current to direct current. These diodes are electronic devices and are
particularly susceptible to damage if abused. A diode will allow passage of
current in one direction with little resistance, but will allow passage of cur-
rent in the opposite direction only if the voltage applied exceeds that value
for which the device was designed. A voltage surge in the line, if it exceeds
the design value, will destroy the diode very quickly.

Diode protection.
The best protection against diode destruction by voltage surges is to
make certain that the battery is never disconnected for the aircraft electrical
system when the alternator is in operation. The battery acts as a large
capacitor and tends to damp out voltage surges. Make certain that the
battery is never connected with reversed polarity. This will subject the diodes
to a direct short circuit and will generally destroy them instantly.

Alternator/battery connections.
Some alternators require that the battery be connected in the circuit
initially before it will produce any output.

Static electrical power converters.

Static power converters employ solid state devices to convert the aircraft
primary electrical source voltage to higher values for the operation of radio
and electronic equipment. They contain no moving parts and are relatively
maintenance free. Various types are available for AC to DC or DC to AC
conversion. Exercise care in locating and mounting static converters to
insure adequate ventilation for cooling purposes. Heat radiating fins should
be kept clean of dirt and other foreign matter which may impair their cooling

Cleaning and Preservation.

Frequent cleaning of electrical and electronic equipment to remove
dust, dirt, and grime is recommended. Fine emery cloth may be used to
clean terminals and mating surfaces if they appear corroded or dirty. Crocus
cloth or very fine sandpaper should be used to polish commutators or slip
rings. Use of emery cloth on commutators is not acceptable because metallic
particles from the cloth may cause shorting and burning.

Miscellaneous check items.

Make frequent checks for miscellaneous irregularities such as loose

terminal connections, poorly soldered or loosely swaged terminals, missing
safety wire, loose quick-disconnects, broken wire bundle lacing, broken or
inadequate wire clamps, and insufficient clearance between exposed
current-carrying parts and ground. Replacement or repair should be
accomplished as a part of routine maintenance.

Adjustment and repair.

Accomplish all adjustment, repair, overhaul, and testing of electrical
equipment and systems in accordance with the recommendations and
procedures set forth in the aircraft and equipment manufacturers.

Electrical switch inspection.

Special attention should be given to electrical circuit switches,
especially the spring-loaded type, during the course of normal airworthiness
inspection. An internal failure in this type of switch may allow the switch to
remain closed even though the toggle or button relurns to the "off position.
During inspection, attention should also be given to the possibility that
improper switch substitution may have been made.


Elimination or suppression of sources of radio interference within the
aircraft is necessary in order to obtain the optimum performance of airborne
radio equipment. This is done by bonding, shielding, and the use of static

Radio equipment should be bonded to the aircraft in order to provide a
low impedance ground and to minimize radio interference from static
electricity charges. Bonding jumpers should be as short as practicable and
be installed in such a manner that the resistance of each connection does
not exceed 0.003 ohm. Where a jumper is for radio-noise prevention only
and not for current-carrying purposes, a resistance of 0.01 ohm is satisfac-

The most effective method of minimizing engine ignition radio
interference is to shield the ignition system. Use a metallic braid covering
and special end connectors for ignition wires between the magneto and
spark plugs. The primary leads to the magneto and the magneto switch itself
should be shielded. Provide shielded type spark plugs and a shielded metal
cover for the magneto if it is not so equipped. All connections in the shielding
should be tight metal-to-metal contact.

Spark plugs.
The engine ignition noise may be suppressed by replacing the spark
plugs with resistor spark plugs of a type approved for the engine if it is not
feasible to shield the engine ignition system.

If an intolerable radio noise level is present despite shielding of the
ignition wiring and plugs, it may be necessary to provide a filter between the
magneto and magneto switch to reduce the noise. This may consist of a sin,
ffle by-pass capacitor or a combination of capacitors and choke coils. When
this is. done, the
shielding between the filter and magneto switch can usually be eliminated
and the special shielded magneto switch need not be used.
Inspect supporting brackets and wiring details for magneto filters for
conformance with standard aircraft electrical practice. The reliability of the
magneto filter installation should be at least equivalent to that of the
remainder of the magneto ground lead installation.

Precipitation static.
Precipitation static is a general term applied to noise in radio receiving
systems caused by precipitation. It is not always caused by true
precipitation, such as ice, snow, or rain. Dust, sand, or other airborne
particles may cause it. It may be the result of ionization in the exhaust of jet
engines. As a result of precipitation static charging, the electrical potential of
the aircraft rises until it reaches the corona threshold. Corona is the
discharge of electric current from an object into the surrounding air and
occurs as short pulses of current and produces a noise spectrum which
contains appreciable energy at radio frequencies. The noise produced is cou-
pled into the aircraft antennas.

Static dischargers.
Static dischargers are installed on aircraft to bleed off precipitation
static before the potential reaches the corona threshold. These dischargers
are normally mounted on the control surfaces and other extremities of the

The three major types in use are:

(1) Flexible, vinyl-covered, carbon-impregnated braid,
(2) Semi flexible metallic braid, and
(3) Null-field.

Maintenance of static dischargers.

Inspect flexible and semi flexible dischargers for physical security of
mounting attachments, wear or abrasion of wicks, missing wicks, etc. Inspect
flexible, vinyl-covered wicks to assure that one inch of the inner braid
extends beyond the vinyl covering. Null-field discharges are epoxy bonded to
the aircraft structure. Measure the resistance of the bond to determine
compliance with the manufacture’s recommended tolerances, and inspect
for physical damage.

Battery installation.

Use cables and/or connectors that are adequately rated for the current
demand and are properly installed (See AC 43.13-1 A, "Acceptable Methods,
Techniques, and Practices—Aircraft Inspection and Repair," chapter 11). It
may be necessary to contact the battery manufacturer to determine current
value of the battery at the 5-minute discharge rate. Cable size can also be
selected by using the same gage as used on a previously approved
production aircraft with the same battery.
(1) The cables should be of sufficient length to prevent undue strain on
the battery connector or terminals.
(2) Clamp and protect cables, including the bus, in a very secure
manner. Since these units are not fused, any fault could cause loss of the
entire electrical system in addition to a possible
(3) Route, cables so that cable or terminals cannot short, to the
battery case or hold-down
(4) Route cables outside the battery box whenever practicable
to prevent corrosion by acid fumes. When internal routing is unavoidable,
protect the cable inside the box with acid-proof tubing. Assure that cables
will not be inadvertently reversed on the battery terminals either by proper
cable lengths and clamps or, if this is not practicable, use conspicuous color

Battery Cutoff.
Install a battery cutoff relay to provide a means of isolating the battery
from the aircraft's electrical system. An acceptable battery cutoff circuit is
shown in figure 10.6. Mount the relay so that the cable connecting the relay
to the battery is as short as feasible, in any case not to exceed two feet, to
reduce the possibility of a fire occurring because of a short within this section
of cable.
In the constant voltage charging system the maximum permissible
voltage for lead acidbattery is 2.35V per cell for Ni-Cd 1.42-1.5V per cell.

The KOH will freeze at approximately -75F or -59C.

The serviceability state of the Ni-Cd battery can be checked by

measured discharge.

Digital a/c electrical system:

They provide for greater reliability faster response, smaller equipment light equipment, and
lower operating cost compare to analog system. It is no wonder modern commercial A/c contains
counters digital system & ccts. Digital system increases the mean time.

A/c heading & reference system (working on optic fiber infer metric) between the failure &
reduce the subsequent repairs time of failure components. The BITE equipment provides rapid fault
isolation detection. The majority of the digital system A/c contain a lot of 'LRU' Defective LRU's can
be identified quickly by the BITE & replaced during ground maintenance use of the LRU's & BITE
concepts greatly reduces A/c maintenance. Another concept of digital A/c technology is to remove as
many moving parts from electrical system as possible For E.g. S/W's are replaced with proximity
sensors. Relays are replaced with transistor & instruments are replaced with digital displays. In the
flight compartment the CRT displays replace conventional analog instruments. Thus eliminates of
moving parts. A CRT display located in instrument panel employ highly efficient & multi band pass
optical filters. In order to achieve enough contrast brightness & resolution to make them sun light

Trouble shooting digital ccts.

The trouble shooting is normally done by the logic trouble shooting techniques which can be
applied to both analog & digital systems well as for hydraulic, pneumatic & other systems also.
Logic trouble shooting is nothing but a sequence employing a flow chart of logical faults repair for
an electrical system.
The flow chart typical of trouble shooting avionics system. The system asks 'yes' or 'no'
system & directs the technician to the correct means of repair. The increased use of LRU's has made
the trouble shooting method very feasible.

Bite systems are designed to provide fault detection fault isolation & operational verification
after the defect repair. Each fault detection is performed continuously during the system operation. If
a defect is sensed the BITE initiates an appropriate control signals to isolate the defect component.
For repairing the defective system the line engineer can utilize the byte to identify the byte to identify
the fault. After the repair the system should be run through again for operational check. The BITE
will again monitor the system & confirm the repair.
A-typical commercial transport A/c. contains several BITE systems. Eg. B-757 or B-767 A/c
have BITE systems to monitor the electric power environmental control auxiliary power & flight
control system ,7 separate BITE units are located in the electronic equipment for this purpose- Each
of the BITE boxes receives simple i/p' s from several individual components of the systems
concerned. The BITE systems are relatively "simple & each system are contained within an LRU.
(line replaceable unit).
A BITE system performs two types of test programs
1. Operation
2. Maintenance test
The operational programme is designed to check i/p signals, protection circuitry, control circuitry, o/p
signals & the operation of BITE circuitry.
The maintenance programme of BITE is recorded into the system only when the A/c is on the
ground & maintenance test routine is required. When requested the maintenance BITE exercise all i/p
circuitry & software routines of the system being checked. The o/p data are then monitored & faults
are displayed on the bite.

IACS: Integrated Avionic Computer System

DAV: Data Acquisition Unit

BPCU: Bus Protection Control Unit.

ACARS - Arnic Communication Addressing & Reporting system

EIU: Electronic Interface units

IAC: Integrated Avionics Computer

Trouble Shooting with BITE:
BITE systems provide fault detection continuously during A/c operation. If a fault is
Detected the BITE system stores the necessary defect information in a nonvolatile, Memory & sense
the appropriate display signal to the flight deck.
If the fault requires immediate attention, the flight crew will notify ground engineer via the
radio Transmission. The technician must access the appropriate BITE system on ground for the
Fault isolation. The BITE system will display the failure data with code information. A Typical
simple system of BITE incorporates. Go or NOGO red or green light on the Equipment black box or
But in the advanced system have a means to terminals Data from the A/c to the maintenance
facility on ground during the flight. This type of Means is known as ACARS. The BITE system
shown in fig (a) is incorporated with BPCU (Bus Power Control Unit) which monitors the entire electrical
power ccts. When BITE button is depressed a 24 character faults display system is activated. This display fault
information in a coded message which is decoded by referring maintenance manual Note that the fault information
on the system is displayed only for 2 sec. The Display automatically advances to the next fault. After
system fault is rectified the Button should be pressed to reset & their operational check to be

Multipurpose control display unit:

• MCDU- is used to access a more advanced BITE system. In some A/c the access is from the
electronic equipment bay.
• In some A/c the access is through the controller located in the flight deck on the instrument
panel. The display information is obtained from the EICAS.
• The MCDU system normally employed in B-747 it receives the digital data in an ARINC -
429 format from the thrust management the flight control, FMS along with the EICAS i/p's.
• The MCDC also monitors both the flight faults and perform a ground test function also.
• A flight desk effect means any EICAS display or a discreet annunciator used to inform the
pilot of an in flight fault.
• When' the A/c lands the MCDU automatically records any in flight fault from the last in a
nonvolatile memory.
• To access the memory engineer must cycle the MCDU ON & OFF again. This will result in a
test of -MCDU. After the internal test has been completed & 'OK' ed by the display the
technician should select the in flight mode of operation. The unit will respond accordingly
with all the faults listed in order of occurrence.
• At the end of the fault data the unit will ask if you want from previous flights. The MCDU
stores for a maximum of ten flights.
• In case of MCDU located in equipment bay fault data appears on LED' display as explained
earlier. On this type of MCDU the top line display the flight on which the fault occurred &
the related flight deck information. The bottom line displays a faulty LRU to be replaced. In
case of MCDC access from the flight deck the messages are displayed on the EICAS unit.

CMC System: (Central Maintenance Computer):-

The latest BITE equipment is known as CMC. This system is designed to perform in flight &
ground test of Very a/c system, which can be accessed from a centrally located control display unit.
The CDU is located on the central console in the cockpit. This system is found in B-747-400. The
CDU is a CRT display. A CMC printer is incorporated to write the reports of the flight data. A
software data loader to down load the faults on a computer disk. If ACARS is Installed flights faults
can be transmitted to the ground facility & also will be able to answer all maintenance data from the
ground facility.

There are two CMC’S fitted in the A/c. the CMC receive up to 50 digital ARINC -data i/p's
& various discreet i/p's. Each CMC has 10 ARINC o/p's. One is a cross talk bus to the other CMC.
The o/p' s are send to A/c systems to the left CMC.if only one CMC is available it must be installed
in the left slot.
During flight the CMC receive the fault data from the A/c's EIU (Electronic Interface Units) & other
digital discreet signals record a in flight failure. The EIU's monitor all system parameters & control
the displays of all EICAS & EFIS system.
Once the A/c is on ground the CMC'S can be interrogated for any history of in flight faults
stored in a non volatile memory, up to 500 faults can be stored in the memory.
The first page of CDU shown above is used for maintenance & operations. The second page
for in-depth trouble shooting. A function is selected from the menu by pressing the button adjacent to
There are three types of faults.
1. Existing faults
2. Present leg faults
3. Fault history (faults recorded during present leg or previous flight).
Depressing the button for the ground test tells the CMC to test the LRU's the EICAS
maintenance page will activate the read time display of various systems & also will allow you to
access to other maintenance pages.
The confidence check allows the technician to perform test required before a flight.
CFDS: Centralized fault display system in Airbus
An airbus~A-320 employs a similar system 'like CMC called as CFDS. This system
classified the defects into three categories.

Class 1 faults: The faults which have got operational consequence on the flight. The crew is notified
either by an amber or red warning on the ECAM system or by discreet. Instrument flags. The pilot
must report class1failure in his log book since they require immediate attention & action before next
Class 2 defects: are displayed to the pilot by means of ECAM system only after landing & Engine
shut down. Class2 defects must be reported by the pilot in the log book because they cannot be left
unattended until the next maintenance. The class 2 faults are normally categorized by the MEL.
Class 3 failures: are not reported by the pilot & can be left unattended until next scheduled
maintenance. They are displayed only during access of CFDS data.

Logic flow charts:

A type of graphic charts that can made up for a specific process or procedure to help follow
the process or procedure through all of its logical steps in maintenance.

Logic flow charts for trouble shooting. An oval is used to show the beginning and the end of
the problem. A diamond is used when there is a decision to be made. The instructions in the rectangle
tell what to do next.