Rise of Venice: Factors: Leadership, Reforms in government, Trade developments and expansion, Industrial development & Innovative practices Macro

Format: XY Factor is an important factor that contributed to the rise of Venice. Thus XY Factor is an important factor that contributed to the rise of Venice. Leadership: Venice had capable leaders that contributed to the rise of Venice. An example is the three doges, Pietro II Orselo, Enrico Dandolo and Pietro Ziani. Together they subdued piracy in the region, captured the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and established important trade routes for Venice. All these led to the rise of Venice as it helped the trade industry flourish and also gained recognition from major powers. Reforms in government: The Venetians adapted their system of government to meet the demands of the people and the growing city-state. An example is the creation of the Great Council. The Great Council consisted of nobles and was able to elect members to all councils in the government. It also settled disputes between members of different councils. This ensured the efficient running of the Venetian government as capable people were allowed a say on Venice s policies. Another example is preventing the concentration of power in the government. The Nominating Committee was added to the election process to nominate capable candidates for positions. Nobles were not allowed to campaign for support in the election. This ensured that all positions of responsibility were filled up by capable w ho could run Venice properly. These led to the rise of Venice. Trade developments: Venice generated most of its income and fame through its trade industry. Its strategic position in the Adriatic Sea made it an important port for many trade routes. Thus trade developments were important for Venice to prosper. An example is their attitude towards trade. They were willing to explore new trade routes, supplies and markets by traveling to unknown lands like China. This adventurous spirit allowed the Venetians to stay ahead of the competition for trade. Another example is its trade monopoly. The Venetians were able to use their position to their advantage as they had sole control of trade routes from the Middle East to Central and Southern Europe. This allowed them to sell goods like spices at high prices as they were the only distributors. All this led to the rise of Venice as they generated a lot of wealth from trade through these developments which led to an increase in the standard of living for Venetians. Industrial development: The expansion of trade in Venice resulted in many economic developments. Venice was renowned for two industries, shipbuilding and glassmaking. Improvements in these industries contributed to Venice s success. An example of such development is the Arsenal. The Arsenal concentrated all of the shipbuilders at one location. This prevented overcrowding and minimized noise pollution from the market and allowed the shipbuilders to concentrate on their work. Another example is also the creation of new industries. Trade expansion led to an increase in the demand for goods which promoted the creation of manufacturing industries like the printing industry. With new industries, more jobs were created which led to increase in the standard of living in Venice. All this led to the rise of Venice

Innovative practices: The Venetians developed and introduced the use of many innovative practices in trade and business. An example of this is Giro-banking. This made it easier for traders to conduct transactions as they need not worry about carrying large sums of money or carrying different currencies. With these innovative practices, trade was further facilitated which contributed to the rise of Venice as many traders came to Venice for its convenience and efficiency. This generated revenue for Venice and gave it prestige. Basis of comparison: Trade>Reforms + Leadership: Trade development and expansion is more important based on effectiveness. Trade development and expansion was able to specifically improve the trade industry which was the main source of income for most Venetians. Leadership and reforms in government were only able to make general policies which would not have as much effect without developments in trade. For example, even if leadership managed to secure trade routes, Venice would not have been able to benefit as much from it without its innovations in maritime technology. On the other hand, even if bad leadership imposed unfair policies on Venetians, Venice would still prosper if the traders could generate a profit from their trade. Thus trade developments and expansion is more important than reforms in government or leadership. Trade>Industrial development and innovation: Trade development and expansion is more important as it is the root cause. Venice s prestige from its trade development resulted in the creation of industries and provided work for other industries like shipbuilding. In addition, Venice s trade development resulted in innovative practices as their attitude towards trade prompted them to think of innovations to help maximize their profit. Thus t rade developments and expansion is more important than industrial developments or innovative practices. Sub-points: Attitude towards trade: The Venetians possessed an enterprising spirit. They were willing to explore new trade routes, supplies and markets by traveling to unknown lands. This adventurous spirit allowed the Venetians to stay ahead of the competition for trade. An example is the Polo family who took calculated risks and extended their trade route to as far as China. This extension of the overland trade route enable Venice to expand its trade. Thus attitude towards trade is an important factor in establishing Venice s trade developments and expansion. Innovations: The Venetians had an extensive knowledge of shipbuilding. Using their expertise, they were able to innovate and invent superior vessels to meet their sailing needs. An example of this is the invention of the Venetian great galley. The great galley was a combination of a merchant and war vessel. This discouraged pirates from attacking Venetian trading ships. This advantage over their competitors allowed them to sail more frequently as well as sail with more stock as the Venetians were no longer afraid of piracy. Thus innovations in maritime technology is an important factor in establishing Venice s trade developments and expansion.

Efficiency: The Venetian traders were efficient in managing their voyages. An efficient system was in place to regulate voyages. For example, the management system grouped the traders and ordered them to travel in convoys. This allowed the traders to maximize their profits as it was more profitable to trade in larger quantities. The efficiency of the system meant that Venice was able to expand its trade into many regions. Thus efficiency in managing voyages is an important factor in establishing Venice s trade developments and expansion. Overcoming competition: The Venetians faced stiff competition from its rival Genoa. Genoa took measures to suppress the trading of Venetian goods at Genoese ports such as confiscation and looting. These measures adversely affected Venetian trade. By defeating Genoa in the late 14th century, the Venetians were able to repeal these measures and expand their trade without fear of opposition from the Genoese. Thus, overcoming trade competition is an important factor in establishing Venice s trade developments and expansion. Trade Monopoly: Venice was strategically located at the northern tip of the Adriatic Sea. The Venetians were able to use this position to their advantage as they had sole control of trade routes from the Middle East to Central and Southern Europe. For example, goods from the East such as spices and sugar were only available from the Venetians. These goods were sold at high prices, enabling the Venetian traders to reap large profits. Thus, trade monopoly is and important factor in establishing Venice s trade developments and expansion.

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