Energy: Energy

:
Forms and Forms and
Changes Changes
Nature of Energy
Energy is all around you!
You can hear energy as sound.
You can see energy as light.
And you can feel it as wind.
Nature of Energy
You use energy
when you:
hit a softball.
lift your book
bag.
compress a
spring.
Nature of Energy
iving organisms need
energy for growth and
movement.
Nature of Energy
Energy is involved
when:
a bird flies.
a bomb explodes.
rain falls from the
sky.
electricity flows in
a wire.
Nature of Energy
hat is energy that it can be
involved in so many different
activities?
Energy can be defined as the
ability to do work.
If an object or organism does
work (exerts a force over a
distance to move an object) the
object or organism uses energy.
Nature of Energy
ecause of the direct
connection between energy and
work, energy is measured in
the same unit as work: joules
(J).
In addition to using energy to
do work, objects gain energy
because work is being done on
them.
orms of Energy
%he five main forms
of energy are:
Heat
Chemical
Electromagnetic
Nuclear
Mechanical
eat Energy
%he internal motion of the atoms is
called heat energy, because moving
particles produce heat.
Heat energy can be produced by
friction.
Heat energy causes changes in
temperature and phase of any form
of matter.
emical Energy
Chemical Energy is required to
bond atoms together.
And when bonds are broken,
energy is released.
emical Energy
Fuel and food
are forms of
stored
chemical
energy.
Electromagnetic Energy
!ower lines carry electromagnetic
energy into your home in the form of
electricity.
Electromagnetic Energy
ight is a form of
electromagnetic energy.
Each color of light (Roy G
v) represents a different
amount of
electromagnetic energy.
Electromagnetic Energy is
also carried by X-rays,
radio waves, and laser
light.
Nuclear Energy
%he nucleus
of an atom is
the source of
nuclear
energy.
Nuclear Energy
hen the nucleus splits (fission),
nuclear energy is released in the
form of heat energy and light
energy.
Nuclear energy is also released
when nuclei collide at high speeds
and join (fuse).
Nuclear Energy
%he sun´s energy
is produced from
a nuclear fusion
reaction in which
hydrogen nuclei
fuse to form
helium nuclei.
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear
energy is the
most
concentrated
form of
energy.
Most of us live within 10 miles of the Surry
Nuclear !ower !lant which converts nuclear
energy into electromagnetic energy.
ecanical Energy
hen work is done to an
object, it acquires energy.
%he energy it acquires is
known as mechanical energy.
ecanical Energy
hen you
kick a
football, you
give
mechancal
energy to the
football to
make it move.
ecanical Energy
When you throw a
balling ball, you
give it energy.
When that
bowling ball hits
the pins, some of
the energy is
transferred to the
pins (transfer of
momentum).
Energy onversion
Energy can be changed from one
form to another. Changes in the
form of energy are called energy
conversions.
Energy conversions
All forms of energy can be
converted into other forms.
%he sun´s energy through solar cells
can be converted directly into
electricity.
Green plants convert the sun´s energy
(electromagnetic) into starches and
sugars (chemical energy).
ter energy conversions
In an electric motor, electromagnetic
energy is converted to mechanical
energy.
In a battery, chemical energy is
converted into electromagnetic energy.
%he mechanical energy of a waterfall is
converted to electrical energy in a
generator.
Energy onversions
In an automobile
engine, fuel is
burned to convert
chemical energy
into heat energy.
%he heat energy is
then changed into
mechanical
energy.
emical eat ecanical
$tates of Energy
%he most common energy
conversion is the conversion
between potential and kinetic
energy.
All forms of energy can be in either
of two states:
!otential
Kinetic
$tates of Energy:
Kinetic and Potential Energy
Kinetic Energy is the
energy of motion.
!otential Energy is
stored energy.
Kinetic Energy
%he energy of motion is called
kinetic energy.
%he faster an object moves, the
more kinetic energy it has.
%he greater the mass of a moving
object, the more kinetic energy it
has.
Kinetic energy depends on both
mass and velocity.
Kinetic Energy
K.E. = mass x velocity
2
hat has a greater affect of kinetic
energy, mass or velocity? hy?
Potential Energy
!otential Energy is stored energy.
Stored chemically in fuel, the nucleus
of atom, and in foods.
Or stored because of the work done on
it:
Stretching a rubber band.
inding a watch.
!ulling back on a bow´s arrow.
ifting a brick high in the air.
ravitational Potential Energy
!otential energy
that is dependent
on height is called
gravitational
potential energy.
Potential Energy
Energy that is stored due to being
stretched or compressed is called
elastic potential energy.
ravitational Potential Energy
A waterfall, a suspension bridge, and a
falling snowflake all have gravitational
potential energy.
ravitational Potential Energy
If you stand on a
3-meter diving
board, you have 3
times the G.!.E,
than you had on a
1-meter diving
board.
ravitational Potential Energy
%he bigger they are the harder
they fall¨ is not just a saying. It´s
true. Objects with more mass have
greater G.!.E.
%he formula to find G.!.E. is
G.!.E. = eight X Height.
Kinetic-Potential Energy onversion
Roller coasters work because of the energy that is
built into the system. Initially, the cars are pulled
mechanically up the tallest hill, giving them a great
deal of potential energy. From that point, the
conversion between potential and kinetic energy
powers the cars throughout the entire ride.
Kinetic vs. Potential Energy
At the point of maximum potential energy, the car has
minimum kinetic energy.
Kinetic-Potential Energy onversions
As a basketball
player throws the
ball into the air,
various energy
conversions take
place.
all slows down
all speeds up
%e Law of onservation of Energy
Energy can be neither created nor
destroyed by ordinary means.
It can only be converted from one form
to another.
If energy seems to disappear, then
scientists look for it - leading to many
important discoveries.
Law of onservation of Energy
In 1905, Albert Einstein said that
mass and energy can be converted
into each other.
He showed that if matter is
destroyed, energy is created, and if
energy is destroyed mass is
created. 2
E = MC
'ocabulary Words
energy
mechanical energy
heat energy
chemical energy
electromagnetic energy
nuclear energy
kinetic energy
potential energy
gravitational potential energy
energy conversion
aw of Conservation of Energy

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