It’s All About Imagineering




Larsen & Toubro Limited (L&T) is a technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing company. It is one of the largest and most respected companies in India's private sector. Seven decades of a strong, customer-focused approach and the continuous quest for worldclass quality have enabled it to attain and sustain leadership in all its major lines of business. L&T has an international presence, with a global spread of offices. A thrust on international business has seen overseas earnings grow significantly. It continues to grow its overseas manufacturing footprint, with facilities in China and the Gulf region. The company's businesses are supported by a wide marketing and distribution network, and have established a reputation for strong customer support. L&T believes that progress must be achieved in harmony with the environment. A commitment to community welfare and environmental protection are an integral part of the corporate vision.

Engineering & Construction Projects (E&C) Heavy Engineering (HED) Construction Electrical & Electronics (EBG) Machinery & Industrial Products (MIPD) IT & Technology Services

Founded: 1938 Number of employees: 35000(2007) Revenue: US$ 8.50 Billion (2009)

Headquarters: Mumbai, India.

The L&T vision reflects the collective gaol of the company. It was drafted through a large scale interactive process which engaged employees at every level, worldwide.


• • • Innovation Planning Technology

TECHNOLOGY Engineering and construction In engineering and construction, L&T's technology capabilities include a strategic mix of inhouse strengths and the expertise of its joint venture partners. Engineering Centres at Mumbai, Vadodara and Delhi carry out process design and simulation, analysis of computational fluid dynamics, mechanical design, failure analysis and trouble shooting. L&T has set up an engineering and project management centre in Abu Dhabi, to undertake oil and gas related projects as well as engineering and consultancy services. An engineering centre in Sharjah is an extended arm in the Gulf. This is supplemented through collaborations with key partners: L&T-Valdel for engineering services in the upstream hydrocarbon sector, L&T-Chiyoda for the mid and downstream sectors, and L&T Sargent & Lundy for the power sector. The engineering services provided by L&T's Engineering Design Research Centres at Chennai and Kolkata include feasibility studies, project reports, system engineering, architectural, structural and civil design for infrastructure development projects.

L&T-Ramboll Consulting Engineers provides civil engineering and consultancy services for a wide range of projects in the transportation sector - ports, airports, highways and bridges.

MANUFACTURING L&T's design & engineering capabilities in manufacturing enable it to set new benchmarks in terms of scale, sophistication and speed. The Company has dedicated engineering centres at the manufacturing locations. Two 'Technology Development Centres' have been set up to develop new products and manufacturing technologies. L&T also collaborates with the organisations like ISRO to bolster its capabilities in the strategic sectors of aerospace, defence and nuclear power. L&T's Electrical & Electronics Division is a pioneer in the design of switchgear and switchboards that are engineered for tropical conditions. It has built further on this experience, and has leveraged its R&D strengths to develop a host of new products and features. In 2008-09, the division filed applications for over 100 patents, improving its previous year’s score of 101 patents. Cumulatively, L&T's Electrical & Electronics Division has applied for and secured 409 patents - a landmark for an Indian company. Patent applications cover innovations made on a variety of low voltage indigenously developed switchgear products like the air circuit breakers (ACBs) and moulded case circuit breakers (MCCBs), medical products, petroleum dispensing pumps, tooling solutions and switchboards.

TECHNOLOGY SERVICES L&T provides its global clients with the winning edge through the development of optimal solutions. L&T's e-engineering services leverage the Company's own engineering heritage and experience. The Embedded Systems unit provides technological assistance across a broad spectrum - design, maintenance, re-engineering, testing, prototyping and industrial design.

The following are the portfolio of products and services offered by L&T 1. Engineering & Construction – Projects(EPC) L&T’s engineering and construction track record consists of successful implementation of turnkey projects in major core and infrastructure sectors of the Indian industry. L&T has integrated its strengths in process technology, basic and detailed engineering, equipment fabrication, procurement, project management, erection and construction and commissioning, to offer single- point responsibility under stringent delivery schedules. It is the only Indian EPC company pre- qualified for executing large, process-intensive projects for oil and gas, refinery, petrochemical and fertiliser sectors. The various sectors for which L&T has done turnkey projects are Oil and Gas, water, Power, Cement and allied machinery, Engineering services and Railway projects. 2. Heavy Engineering:

L&T is acknowledged as one of the top five fabrication companies in the world, with engineering and manufacturing capabilities that are among the most sought after in industry. Operating at the higher end of the technological spectrum, L&T has led the way in introducing new processes, products and materials in manufacturing. It has the logistics capabilities of fabricating and supplying over- dimensional equipment to tight delivery schedules. The products in this category include hydrocrackers, reactors, heat exchangers, polymerization reactors etc. Shipbuilding Shipbuilding represents a new thrust for L&T in the high technology manufacturing space and is in line with its strategic growth objectives. L&T is developing a shipyard capable of constructing vessels of up to 150 metres in length and displacement of 20000 tonnes at its heavy engineering complex at Hazira near Surat on India’s west coast. The focus will be on construction of commercial vessels, warships for the navy and the coast guard. Construction The Engineering Construction & Contracts (ECC) division of L&T is India’s largest construction organisation. Its leading edge capabilities cover every discipline of construction – civil, mechanical, and electrical and instrumentation. L&T has also expanded its focus to the Middle East, South East Asia, Russia, CIS, Mauritius, African and SAARC countries. It also has keen interest in the markets of Indian Ocean rim countries, Africa and Latin America. Construction includes construction products like support structures etc. They also provide construction services like Fire Protection, Building Automation (IBMS), Vertical Transportation, Plumbing and Sanitary, Surveillance and Security Systems, Telecommunication networks, Electrification, Kitchen, Laundry, Water and Effluent management, Medical equipment for buildings Electrical & Electronics L&T is a major international manufacturer of a wide range of electrical and electronic products and systems. In the electrical segment, the Company holds leadership position in low tension switchgear in India, and is rapidly establishing itself in international markets. Its products are widely sold in markets in Europe and Australia. Recently, L&T set up a new manufacturing base for high-end air circuit breakers in China. It joined hands with Saudi Arabia’s reputed house of Kanoo to offer a range of high-end intelligent electrical systems to Saudi Arabian market. L&T also manufactures custom- engineered switchboards for industrial sectors like power, refineries, petrochemical and cement. In the electronic segment, L&T offers a wide range of meters and provides complete control and automation systems for industries. Medical equipment and systems manufactured by it include advanced ultrasound scanners and patient monitoring systems. They also manufacture medical equipments like ECG machines, electrosurgical diathermies and ultrasound scanners etc.

Information Technology Larsen & Toubro Infotech Limited, a 100 per cent subsidiary of L&T, offers comprehensive, end-to-end software solutions and services with a focus on Manufacturing, BFSI and Communications & Embedded Systems. It provides a cost cutting partnership in the realm of offshore outsourcing, application integration and package implementation. Machinery & Industrial Products L&T manufactures markets and provides service support for critical construction and mining machinery – surface miners, hydraulic excavators, aggregate crushers, loader backhoes and vibratory compactors.


Turnkey Proj Hydrocarbon Power Cement Engg. Petroleum

Construction Construction Services Infrastructure Engg. Services International Projects

EPS Refinery Oil & Gas Petrochemicals Fertilizers Coal Gasification Aero space Thermal Power Nuclear Power

EEPS Switchgear Electrical Systems Metering Systems Medical Equipment Control Petroleum Dispenser

IT Information services Engg. Services Embedded Services


FIN SEVICES Infrastructure Financing Equipment Financing


The offerings are divided into two parts – i) Project Executions ii) Products The projects are executed not only in the domestic sector, also in the international locations. The credentials what it has earned over the last decades has made a distinct branding for the companies. The latest order of Rs. 6900Cr from Mahagenco has established the company in the international Power Equipment Business. The industrial products like the welding products, Valves, Switchgear, Metering Systems are known for high standard technologies & relaiblity.

Company recognises that people are the real source of competitive advantage. It is through people that ECC delivers total customer satisfaction. These values are reflected in our Human Resources practices which have earned national recognition several times. The employee goes through a process of continuous learning, assisted by training programmes. Apart from on-the-job training and technical training, over 100 programmes on general management and behavioural topics are conducted each year. Interactive CD-ROM based programmes have enabled employees learn at their pace. ECC has always believed in experimentation with and implementation of new ideas. HR practices such as collaborative performance appraisal, career & succession planning, team rewards have been institutionalised. An extensive and rigorous recruitment process ensures quality induction. L&T's Graduate Engineer Trainee recruitment process covers India's major engineering colleges and institutions. Programmes, plant visits and comprehensive information-sharing facilitate induction. Division has an ongoing organization development programme, which is one of the longest sustaining OD efforts in India. The basic principles of Human Resources policies include
• • •

Recruitment based solely on merit by following well-defined and systematic selection procedures without discrimination Sustain motivated and quality work force through appropriate and fair performance evaluation, reward and recognition systems Identify training needs within the Organisation and design and implement those need based training programmes resulting in continuous up gradation of knowledge, skills and attitudes of the employees Maintain a quality Human Resource Management System to meet the international standards as per ISO 9001. Plan, design, train, equip and motivate the department staff to meet this standard of expectation.

Work culture emphasises: · Freedom to experiment · Continuous learning and training

· Transparency · Quality in all aspects of work · Rewards based on performance and potential A majority of L&T’s processes are ISO certified and comparable with the best in the world. The company has an on time/ on budget project completion rate higher than the average for its industry, which translates to highly predictable construction & Engineering services delivery for its clients.


Oil & Gas LG Hyundai Samsung NPCC

Power BHEL LG Alstom GE

Construction HCC Gammon Nagarjuna IVRCL

Electrical Electronics Schneider Siemens ABB -


L&T's participates in building a healthy community through continuing initiatives in several areas of healthcare, with a focus on mother & child care and HIV/AIDS awareness. All L&T locations, including construction sites, have in-house AIDS awareness programs. Five additional mother & child care centres were set up in 2006-07. In partnership with local NGOs, these centres benefit children of commercial sex workers, street children and tribal communities. Through health care centres and regular family camps L&T organizes health checkups, provides gynaecology and laboratory facilities, carries out free cataract surgeries and intra ocular lens implants, and helps maintain health data for children. Supply of equipment and aid for orphanages and physically challenged children, periodic counselling to combat rampant alcoholism, awareness camps on childcare, reproductive health, sanitation, dental check-up, provision for safe drinking water, cancer awareness etc. are other healthcare activities that L&T supports.

L&T's diverse and sustained programmes in education provide underprivileged children with learning opportunities through supply of educational materials, teaching aids, recreational tools and up scaling school infrastructure. L&T also enriches children's lives through programmes like summer camps, maths coaching, providing facilities like science laboratories, scholarship to deserving students, etc. The vocational training institutes of the Larsen and Toubro Public Charitable Trust provide local communities with skill-based training in Formwork, Masonry, Agro Mechanics, Electricals, Fabrication, Welding and Housekeeping. Various diploma courses are also conducted by L&T Institute of Technology for the children of employees. L&T has developed training modules in local languages in six centres across India for imparting skills sets in construction. L&T Training Centres provide courses for improving the standards of electrical engineering practices and for upgrading knowledge of maintenance, repair and welding.

Global warming: at L&T, we have always been conscious of the need to maintain harmony with the environment. We continuously seek newer environment-friendly approaches in all

our operations – energy conservation, exploring alternative sources like wind and solar energy, waste water reduction, etc. The Zero Discharge approach of the Powai Campus saves over 350,000 litres water every day through water treatment and recycling. More than 13,500 trees have been planted in different L&T campuses in the last year, and an additional 4,000 saplings were distributed among local communities.

L&T and its employees have provided relief measures during natural calamities like earthquake and floods. L&T has assisted in disaster relief through employee and corporate donations, employee volunteering, supply of construction material, medical and food supplies. After the floods in Surat (Gujarat-India), L&T played a major role in road-clearing operations, organising medical camps, and supply of food, water, clothes and other relief materials.

EMPLOYEE VOLUNTEERING L&T encourages employees to volunteer for CSR activities, resulting in a self-driven approach while retaining consistency. L&T employees and the ladies clubs formed by their families at different locations, serve their communities by investing personal resources and time. From taking initiatives in building the next generation of productive citizens, empowering women, paying regular visits to old age homes and orphanages, to organising blood donation camps, our employees have always believed in truly making a difference to the world in which they live.

i) L&T-Sargent & Lundy Limited A joint venture with Sargent & Lundy (USA), it offers a complete range of engineering and design services for the power sector. ii) Larsen & Toubro (Oman) LLC A joint venture between L&T International FZE and The Muscat Trading Co. LLC

iii) Bangalore International Airport Limited (BIAL):

A JV of Karnataka State Industrial & Investment Development Corporation (KSIIDC), Airports Authority of India (AAI), Siemens, L&T and Unique (Zurich Airport) of Switzerland, to develop an airport at Devanahalli, Bangalore on BOOT basis.

1) L&T-Case Equipment Private Limited A joint venture of L&T and CNH America LLC (CNH America LLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of CNH Global N.V., USA, which has manufacturing and marketing facilities worldwide. It is the world's largest manufacturer of loader backhoes). 2) L&T Komatsu Limited (LTK) A joint venture of L&T and Komatsu Asia Pacific Pte Ltd., Singapore, a wholly owned subsidiary of Komatsu Ltd., Japan. LTK manufactures hydraulic excavators and high pressure hydraulic equipment, such as cylinders, turning joints, radial flow pumps, axial piston pumps, Cam-lobe radial piston motors, axial piston motors, gear boxes / drives and systems. 3) Tractor Engineers Limited (TENGL) A wholly-owned subsidiary of L&T. It designs and manufactures crawler undercarriage systems for excavators, blast-hole drills, bulldozers, amphibious dredgers, mobile crushers, etc. Apron feeders, chain conveyors, scraper conveyors, track modules, and crawler lowers are tailor- made by TENGL for material handling, and mining applications. TENGL manufactures centrifugal slurry pumps, which have found wide acceptance in industrial application and oilfield exploration. 4) Audco India Limited (AIL) A joint venture company with equal equity holding by L&T and Flowserve Corporation, USA It is a leading manufacturer of industrial valves, with four independent and specialised manufacturing facilities.

5) L&T-Demag Plastics Machinery Limited A 50:50 joint venture of L&T and Demag Plastics Group, Germany, it is the market leader in

India, involved in the manufacturing of a range of injection moulding machines for processing of thermoplastics and thermosets. The joint venture partner, Demag Plastics Group, Germany is a world leader in the field. 6) EWAC Alloys Limited A joint venture of L&T and Messer Eutectic Castolin Holding GmbH, Germany. It manufactures special purpose welding electrodes, brazing rods, welding and soldering fluxes, powder alloys and delivery systems, flux-cored welding wires, cold repair compounds and wear plates.

Railway bridge construction in Western Thailand in 1956. It was later immortalized by the film “The Bridge on the River Kwai”. It was obstructed by the companies from Germany & Japan. So, it concentrated on smaller orders to build its credibility. In 1976, it got the subcontract for Abu Dhabi International Airport which was the landmark for its credibility. It was in the mid-90s when the Indian government had initiated the liberalization process that L&T revisited its options overseas. Due to its prior experience in the UAE, the Middle East was an obvious choice. To build up a reputation as a quality provider of engineering and construction services, L&T management decided to follow a policy of “Take only what you can deliver”, bidding for contracts only when it was confident of timely completion. Based on the business policies of the Gulf countries, L&T went for joint ventures wherever required to secure contracts. In 1994, L&T Oman LLC was established as a joint venture with The Zubair Corporation, a leading business group of the Sultanate of Oman. In the UAE, L&T registered as an independent corporation in 1996. In Saudi Arabia, L&T established a joint venture called L&T Saudi Arabia LLC in 1999. In 2001, L&T incorporated a wholly owned subsidiary called L&T International FZE at Sharjah to provide project consultancy, equipment lease services and maintenance of plant and machinery in the Gulf region. By mid 2006, almost all the Emirates had announced infrastructure plans, the total cost of which was estimated to be approximately $270 billion over the next ten years. Recognizing the growth potential, L&T’s management decided to expand its resource base and opened new offices in Dubai, Sharjah and Ras al Khaima in addition to Abu Dhabi. Some of the prestigious projects executed by L&T include four bridges at Palm Island, residential buildings at the Dubai Marina and construction of Raysut Cement Plant, Oman. Exhibit 1 provides a detailed list of projects successfully executed by L&T E&C in the Middle East.

Apart from the Gulf region, L&T E&C also gradually expanded its overseas operations to Russia, the CIS countries and China. Projects executed include a hydrogen reformer package for Dalian petrochemicals in China, turnkey construction of international hotels at Uzbekistan and construction of residential township at Zernograd, Russia.


For the offerings like Turnkey Projects, Construction Projects, Engineered Products & Systems, IT, Financial services, Shipbuilding, the company directly maintain relationship with the customers. Promotional strategies adopted by the organisation are: • Trade Shows

Telemarketing Product Brochures Direct selling

• •

The EEPI & MVI categories are dependent on the respective distributors. The sales reps of the company along with the distributors market those products.

CORPORATE BRANDING CAMPAIGN IMAGINEERING L&T launched a corporate Branding campaign where it projected its capabilities in every category as “IMAGINEERING”. As part of corporate brand building plans, L&T has produced a series of TV commercials on its business verticals. Each commercial shows some of its business offerings, and highlights the role that plays in everyday lives. The commercials were telecasted on CNBC- India’s leading business channel till December 26, 2008. The advertisements focus on two core values of the organization: • • Innovativeness Customer focus and development focus


: A benchmark in innovation : Fewer hours travelled, more hours lived : Asia’s highest : Accolades : Imagineering as usual

The company gives its message that

As how it has achieved the excellence of being Asia highest How it as created a level of performance and innovation through its engineering How it is serving to the needs of its customers & consumers by providing them with revenues generated plus consumer satisfaction. More over for Konkan Railways, the project achieved is a matter of pride but For L&T it is merely creative & Innovative & Planned design based on what started with an imagination & now has taken a practical shape.

• •

Distribution Channels at L&T –Various Divisions It has a global supply network with offices in 10 locations worldwide, including Houston, London, Milan, Shanghai, and Seoul.

L&T Construction Division: All the distribution is project based, and the sales are made through direct marketing. This is a Zero Level Channel Structure and this enables direct control to L&T project development teams.

L&T Engineering Equipment: The equipment is dealt through dealers and other channels of delivery where the equipment sale can be made through dealers e.g., turnkey, valves etc

The sales pitch is made and followed up and detailed later on by the Dealers present in the Area, The distribution network is based on each geographical area.

L&T Financial Services: In spite of increased competition from alternate distribution channels, L&T believes that independent agents continue to represent a major chunk of carriers' business. Hence it is imperative for carriers to focus on enriching their relationship with Agents. L&T’s suite of services enables insurance companies to achieve a 'Carrier of choice' status amongst agents. The Agency Relationship Management Solution, Agency Point includes:
  

Agency Portal Mobile Based Agency Management Solution Agency - Carrier Interface Solution these services enable insurance carriers to retain its top agents, while developing an attractive proposition to attract new agents.

L&T EmSys: The channel of distribution is entirely corporate sales based, and project based, which is a Zero Level Channel structure. The projects are acquired through Relationships and a few dealers. The Distribution is entirely dependent on the Customers requirement. The overseas offices of EmSys are located in USA, Europe and Japan along with a network of Business Associates in various places. Larsen & Toubro e-Engineering Solutions This subsidiary focuses on providing engineering solutions using PLM technology. It provides engineering services. It operates from off-shore engineering centres at Vadodara, Chennai and Bangalore with onsite teams to cater to engineering requirements of global clients, many of them Fortune 500 companies.

Larsen & Toubro Valves Business Group The marketing network is supported by an experienced team of valve specialists. The distribution is completely project based, and the teams develop relations with the customer to meet requirements. It is a leading global supplier of industrial valves and customized solutions for major Refinery, LNG, GTL, Petrochemical and Power projects. Larsen & Toubro InfoTech: The channel of delivery is again a zero level structure, wherein a project is handled just like a TCS or an Infosys to achieve maximum control and no Intermediaries.

Price management is the disciplined method to understand the various cost components of transaction and to enforce a process to eliminate unstructured decision, thereby lead to improve the bottom line growth. Companies today are under great to increase the value for their shareholder on one hand and to satisfy continuous demand for the customers on the other hand.

Aggressive pricing (predatory pricing):
In business and economics, predatory pricing is the practice of selling a product or service at a very low price, intending to drive competitors out of the market, or create barriers to entry for potential new competitors. If competitors or potential competitors cannot sustain equal or lower prices without losing money, they go out of business or choose not to enter the business. Biggest competitor of L&T is BHEL which takes part in all the bids of construction deals. L&T’s aggressive pricing strategy not only outbid BHEL but other overseas players also such as Chinese and Koreans, who are known for low pricing strategies.

Penetration strategy:
L&T acquired TAMCO switch gear in Malaysia. After the acquisition the switch gear products were sold at a very low price so as to attain a significant market in Malaysia. Grasim and L&T deal: LNT and Grasim deal lead to increased consolidation in the cement industry. This deal leads to increase in consolidation in the cement industry and considerable improvement in the cement prices. Demand has been growing consistently and on the other there is less increase in capacity. Demand growth, driven by construction demand such as roads and housing, was over 8-9 per cent per annum over the medium term, lifting cement demand to 125 million

tonnes in FY05 from the 107 million tonnes in FY03. As the giants have consolidated they enjoyed monopoly to a certain extent and increased the cement prices to some extent. Multinational players would become marginal players. In fact, the biggest MNC player in India, Lafarge, had only a 3 per cent market share. Five Indian companies owned 55 per cent market share and the rest of the market were shared by 44 players of median capacity of 1.2 million tonnes. Any potential player would have to make several acquisitions to gain market shares comparable with the top Indian players.

Bid price
A bid price is the highest price that a buyer (i.e., bidder) is willing to pay for a good. It is usually referred to simply as the "bid." L&T has been engaged itself in several bids with one of the most successful being of Rs 300 crore order for construction of the ductile iron spun pipe (DISP) plant of KIOCL Ltd, earlier known as the Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd, the public sector undertaking under the ministry of steel and mines. KIOCL plans to set up a 100,000 tonnes per annum DISP plant at Mangalore as part of its diversification. L&T emerged as the L1 bidder for the project. The KIOCL board shortlisted L&T through a global bidding route for the proposed project.

Waterfall Strategy
A popular strategy followed by L & T Ltd. Is the price waterfall strategy (also called Pocket price waterfall). It is the set of prices, price adjustments and cost elements that defines how list price gets to net price and how net price gets to net margin. Price waterfall depicts the build up of L & T ltd’s engineering products prices from a base price to the list price and then the discounts that are given to the dealers to get to the Invoice price, the rebates terms, bonuses and other Discounts that affect the Pocket Price, the Pocket margin based on Cost of Goods sold and the Net margin based on the other fixed costs. The Price Waterfall Strategy shows the different prices that are included in the pocket price to get to the dealers price for the L&T Ltd. Engineering and electrical products.

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