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D 2.1/PART 1 DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGIES AND PROTOCOLS GENERAL OVERVIEW OF STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGICAL ALTERNATIVES TASK 2.1.0

DUE DELIVERY DATE:M3 ACTUAL DELIVERY DATE: M6
© Copyright 2009 The OPEN meter Consortium

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Document History
Vers. 0.0 1.0 2.0 2.2 3.0 Issue Date 20.02.09 03.04.09 20.04.09 10.05.09 24.06.09 Content and changes ToC First incomplete draft First final draft Final draft for review Reviewers comments included

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Document Authors
Partners CTI Contributors Markus BITTNER Hanspeter WIDMER EDF Aline PAJOT Gaizka ALBERDI L&G DLMS Heinz HOHL Gyozo KMETHY (inputs and comments on voluntary basis)

Document Approvers
Partners CTI EDF Approvers Markus BITTNER Aline PAJOT Gaizka ALBERDI L&G DLMS Heinz HOHL Gyozo KMETHY

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 2 3 4

PURPOSE AND SCOPE INTRODUCTION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY STATE-OF-THE-ART METER READING 4.1 GENERAL CONCEPT OF AN AMI 4.2 LOCAL NETWORK 4.2.1 Basic concept 4.2.2 Technologies 4.3 WALK-BY 4.3.1 Basic concept 4.3.2 Technologies 4.4 DRIVE-BY 4.4.1 Basic concept 4.4.2 Technologies 4.5 FIXED NETWORK 4.5.1 Basic concept 4.5.2 Network topologies 4.5.3 Technologies 4.6 HYBRID SYSTEMS 5 WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES 5.1 GENERAL 5.2 PROPRIETARY WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES 5.2.1 Wavenis 5.2.2 Plextek (UNB) 5.2.3 Everblu 5.3 OPEN STANDARD WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES 5.3.1 IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth) 5.3.2 IEEE 802.15.4 (WPAN) 5.3.2.1 PHY and MAC 5.3.2.2 ZigBee 5.3.2.3 6loWPAN 5.3.3 IEEE 802.11 (WLAN/WiFi) 5.3.4 IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) 5.3.5 2G/2.5G GSM/GPRS/EDGE 5.3.6 3G UMTS 5.3.7 LTE 5.3.8 PMR (TETRA, TETRAPOL) 5.3.9 2-way radio paging (ERMES, ReFLEX) 5.3.10 European Radio Ripple control 5.3.11 Satellite systems

11 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 17 17 17 18 19 19 19 21 22 23 23 23 23 24 25 26 26 27 27 28 30 31 33 34 36 36 36 37 38 39

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WIRE-LINE TECHNOLOGIES 40 6.1 DATA OVER PSTN 40 6.2 XDSL 40 6.3 FTTB, FTTH 41 6.4 M-BUS 41 7 POWERLINE COMMUNICATIONS (PLC) 44 7.1 GENERAL 44 7.2 NON-STANDARDISED NARROWBAND PLC TECHNOLOGIES 44 7.2.1 Echelon and others 44 7.2.2 PRIME 45 7.2.3 Telegestore -DLC 46 7.2.4 ZIV 46 7.3 OPEN NARROWBAND PLC TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS 46 7.3.1 IEC 61334-5-1 S-FSK 46 7.3.2 IEC 61334-5-2 46 7.3.3 IEC61334-5-4 46 7.3.4 CENELEC EN50090 (KNX – PL) 47 7.4 NON-STANDARDISED BROADBAND PLC (BPL) TECHNOLOGIES 47 7.4.1 Homeplug 47 7.4.2 Panasonic 48 7.4.3 OPERA/UPA (DS2) 48 7.5 OPEN BROADBAND PLC TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS 49 7.5.1 IEEE P1901 49 7.5.2 ITU-T G.hn 50 8 DATA/APPLICATION MODELS 51 8.1 GENERAL 51 8.2 PROPRIETARY DATA/APPLICATION MODELS 51 8.3 OPEN DATA/APPLICATION MODELS STANDARDS 51 8.3.1 IEC 62056-61/62 COSEM 51 9 SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS 52 10 COPYRIGHT 54 11 APPENDIX 55 11.1 M-BUS STANDARD 55 11.1.1 The relevant standards 55 11.1.2 The EN 13757-1 standard 56 11.1.3 M-Bus System architecture 57 11.1.4 EN 13757-2: The physical and the link layer of the wired (twisted pair) M-Bus profile 58 11.1.5 EN 13757-4: The physical and the link layer of the wireless M-Bus profile 58 11.1.6 EN 13757-5: M-Bus wireless relaying 59 11.1.7 EN 13757-6: The physical layer for local bus 59 11.1.8 EN 13757-3: The M-Bus dedicated Application layer 59 11.1.9 Data security 60 11.1.10 Data exchange between devices using DLMS/COSEM and M-Bus: the Dutch project 60 11.1.11 Evolution of M-Bus in the German OMS specification 61 12 COPYRIGHT 62

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LIST OF TABLES Table 5-1: WLAN IEEE 802.11 standards overview ............................................................ 32  Table 5-2: Frequency ranges foreseen for WiMAX .............................................................. 34  Table 5-3: 2G/2.5G GSM data services and user data rate ................................................. 35  Table 5-4: Frequency bands allocated for TETRA in Europe .............................................. 37  Table 7-1: PRIME PHY data rates for the different transmission modes ............................. 45  Table 11-1: Interfaces and protocols in EN 13757-1 ........................................................... 56 
TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4-1: Generic concept and architecture of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure....... 14  Figure 4-2: Walk-by concept ................................................................................................ 16  Figure 4-3: Drive-by concept ................................................................................................ 18  Figure 4-4: Fixed network concept ....................................................................................... 19  Figure 4-5: Star network topology ........................................................................................ 20  Figure 4-6: Tree network topology ....................................................................................... 21  Figure 4-7: Mesh network topology ...................................................................................... 21  Figure 5-1: Example of a PLEXTEK's radio communication network topology.................... 24  Figure 5-2: ZigBee communication stack .............................................................................. 29  Figure 5-3: ZigBee over IPv6 ............................................................................................... 31  Figure 5-4: AMR using WLAN access network .................................................................... 33  Figure 11-1: M-Bus wired infrastructure – example .............................................................. 57  Figure 11-2: M-Bus wireless infrastructure – example with T1 or T2 mode ......................... 57 
TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT TU UT

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GLOSSARY AND ACRONYMS ADSL AES AMI AMM AMR ANSI AVL BPL BPSK CAPEX CCK CDMA CEN CENELEC CEPCA COSEM CSD CSMA/CA D-Bus DCSK DFS DL DLMS DPSK DSL DSLAM DSM DSMR DSSS EDGE EIA EN ETSI FDD FEC FSK FTTB FTTC FTTH FTTP GEO GPRS GPS GSM HAN HD-PLC HFC Asymmetric DSL Advanced Encryption Standard Advanced Metering Infrastructure Automated Meter Management Automated Meter Reading American National Standards Institute Automatic Vehicle Location Broadband Power Line Binary Phase Shift Keying Capital Expenditure Complementary Code Keying Code Division Multiple Access Comité Européen de Normalisation Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique Consumer Electronics Powerline Communications Alliance Companion Specification for Energy Metering Circuit Switched Data Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance Dialogue-Bus Differential Code Shift Keying Dynamic Frequency Selection Down-Link Device Language Message Specification Differential Phase Shift Keying Digital Subscriber Line DSL Access Multiplexer Demand Side Management Dutch Smart Metering Requirements Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution Electronic Industries Alliance European Norm European Telecommunications Institute Frequency Division Duplex Forward Error Correction Frequency Shift Keying Fibre To The Building Fibre To The Curb Fibre To The Home Fibre To The Premsises GEostationary Orbit Generalized Packet Radio service Global Positioning System Global System Mobile Home Area Network High Definition PLC Hybrid Fibre-Coaxial

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High Speed Circuit Switched Data High Speed Data Packet Access High Speed Uplink Packet Access International Electrotechnical Commission Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineering Integrated Services Digital Network Internet Protocol Industrial, Scientific, and Medical International Organisation for Standardisation International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications Kilo-bit per second Local Area Network Low Earth Orbit Line-od-Sight Long Term Evolution Low Voltage Medium Access Control Mega bit per second Meter-Bus Meter Data Management Multiple Input Multiple Output Medium Voltage Near Field Communication Non-Line-of-Sight OBject Identification System Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Open PLC European Research Alliance Open Public Extended Network metering Operational Expenditure Open Systems Interconnection Public Access Mobile Radio Personal Area Network PHYsical Layer Power Line Communication Private Mobile Radio Plain Old Telephone Service Public Switched Telephone Network Public WLAN Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quality of Service Quarternary (Quadrature) Phase Shift Keying Radio Access Network Radio Frequency Radio Frequency Identification System Architecture Evaluation Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Spaced Frequeny Shift Keying Short Message Service Short Range Device
H H

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Transmission Control Protocol Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiple Access Terminal Equipment TErrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications Industry Association User Datagram Protocol Ultra High Frequency Up-Link Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Ultra Narrow Band Universal Powerline Association Very high speed DSL Very High Frequency Very Low Frequency Voice over IP Wideband CDMA Wireless Distribution System Wireless Internet Compatibility Alliance Wireless Fidelity Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Wireless Local Area Network Wi-Fi Protected Access Wireless Personal Area Network See DSL 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 3rd Generation Partnership Project
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1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE
This document is Part 1 of deliverable D2.1 entitled ‘State-of-the-art technologies & protocols’ elaborated within OPENmeter WP2 ‘Identification of Knowledge and Technology Gaps’ D2.1/Part 1 is the outcome of task 2.1.0 and provides a general and brief overview of the state-of-the-art and the possible technological alternatives for an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). The scope of this document encompasses concepts, architectures, and state-of-the art wired and wireless communications technologies, protocols and data models applicable to Automatic Meter Reading as part of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure that may in turn be subsystem of a future holistic energy, water and customer services supply infrastructure. Part 1 provides a selection of communications technologies that have initially been proposed by WP2 partners and that have been considered potentially interesting for AMR. These technologies are briefly described and discussed (major PROs and CONs). It shall however be noticed that only a subset of these technologies/protocols is further considered in more detail in the other parts of D2.1. It is again a reduced subset that is finally assessed in D2.2 with respect to general requirements set forth by WP1 in D1.1 and additional requirements identified in T2.2. Part 1 does not intend to prejudice any technology and to reduce the set of technologies. This is considered subject of other T2.1 subtasks.
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Part 1 does not particularly emphasise communications protocols and protocol standards. Only a few are addressed. A selection of potentially interesting communications protocols and data structures is provided in D2.1. Part 4. Part 1 differentiates from other D2.1 parts in the sense that it only provides an overview on state-of-the-art of AMR and a cursory description of communication technologies. The list of communications technologies however is considered exhaustive and will not be extended neither in other D2.1 parts nor in the D2.2 deliverable report. This document does not consider business aspects such as special billing and payment concepts, payment meters, etc. Conclusions made in this part 1 report should be considered as preliminary and indicative. Final conclusions will follow after more thorough assessment which is subject of other parts of the D2.1 deliverable.

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2

INTRODUCTION

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) refers to systems that measure, collect and analyse energy and water usage, from devices such as electricity meters, gas meters, and water meters, respectively, through various communication media on request or on a pre-defined schedule. AMI may also include end user/customer associated systems and meter data management (MDM) and it allows collection and distribution of information to customers, suppliers, utility companies and service providers. In an AMI, the data collected can be captured, stored, and forwarded to a central computer. This can include events and alarms such as tamper, leak detection, low battery, or reverse flow.
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AMI can be differentiated from traditional Automated Meter Reading (AMR) and Automatic Meter Management (AMM) in that the latter may be considered subsystems of an AMI, in the way communications takes place, and in the complexity of networks and protocols. Moreover, AMI aims at an open system with a connection to the HAN.
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AMR is a technology which automatically collects data from metering devices like water, gas, heat, electricity and transfers these data to a central database for analysis and billing purposes. Many AMR devices can also do data logging. The logged data can be used for water or energy use profiling, time of use billing, demand forecasting, demand side management (DSM), rate of flow recording, leak detection, flow monitoring, etc. AMM allows control or influence energy consumption of customers through automatic reading of meters within fine time intervals in order to realise price elastic energy or water consumption or demand response. A HAN is a network contained within a user's premises that interconnects home IT and entertainment devices and their peripherals as well as home security systems, and "smart" appliances such as lighting, heating, cooling, etc.
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3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Smart grid applications , automated metering and provisioning of end-user services to customer premises is considered part of a future open Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). In chapter 4 an overview on state-of-the-art meter reading is provided, starting with the generic concepts and architectures of an AMI as well as definition of terminology. Then, state-of-the-art meter reading concepts and architectures (walk-by, drive-by, fixed networks) are reviewed mainly in regards to the various communications technologies that have commonly been employed in present metering systems. In chapters 5, 6, and 7, a selection of state-of-the-art communications technologies/standards that are potentially interesting for an AMI are briefly reviewed and discussed (PROs and CONs), starting with wireless technologies followed by wire-line technologies and powerline (PLC). Chapter 8 is devoted to proprietary and open data applications models such as IEC 6205661/62 COSEM. Finally, Chapter 9 summarises some preliminary conclusions. More detailed information on the M-bus standard is provided in an Appendix to this deliverable report.

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4 STATE-OF-THE-ART METER READING
4.1 General concept of an AMI
Figure 4-1 displays the generic concept and architecture of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure that may be subdivided into three segments: • • •
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The local network segment The access network segment The back-haul network segment
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The local network connects AMI-enabled meters belonging to the same entity (home, building, facility) as well as end-user applications (HAN) to a node acting as a local data collector and gateway between access and local network. The access network comprises the networks between house gateway and a hub/data concentrator or the data management center ic case there is no data concentrator, whilst the term back-haul network is used to designate the final segment between Hub/data concentrator and the data & management center for utility services and customer-related services.
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In some cases there may be no dedicated hub/data concentrator e.g. if public access networks are used. Meters Gas Water Heat Electr. End user applications (HAN) Local network Data colector/ house gateway

Data & management center

Access network

Access network

Hub/Data concentrator

Backhaul network

Figure 4-1: Generic concept and architecture of an Advanced Metering Infrastructure

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4.2 Local network
4.2.1 Basic concept To collect metering data from AMI-enabled meters belonging to the same entity (facility, building) and to enable energy-related end-user applications (HAN) a local network is typically installed using wired or wireless communications technologies. 4.2.2 Technologies

The following communications technologies can typically be found in a local network: •
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Euridis bus (IEC 62056-31 standard) over twisted pair
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M-bus (Meter bus), (EN13757 Series standard) over twisted pair or radio
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D-bus (Dialogue bus) for large facilities
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Ibus EIB (ABB)
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• •
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RS-485 over twisted pair with standard or proprietary protocols Echelon LONworks (ANSI/CEA-709.1) over proprietary (non-open standard) Powerline carrier, twisted pair, or radio
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Ethernet
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4.3 Walk-by
4.3.1 Basic concept

In walk-by AMR (ref. Figure 4-2), a meter reader carries a handheld computer with either a built-in or attached RF transceiver or an RFID-like reader (wireless or contactless touch based solution) or a wired connection (twisted pair) to interrogate and collect meter readings from an AMR capable meter. This is sometimes also referred to as handheld or on-site meter reading since the meter reader walks by the locations where meters are installed as he/she goes through their meter reading route. The handheld collected data stored in the handheld unit is then typically brought to the readers local office where the data is readout, post-processed and finally transferred to the billing center via public networks. Alternatively, using a 2G/3G-enabled handheld, reading data is directly transmitted to the billing center via cellular networks. This may happen immediately or delayed if there was no coverage e.g. in the basement of a house.

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The walk-by concept has been and is still widely used in cities and densely populated residential areas where walking distances are limited. Using RF technologies that provide sufficient distance, the reader does not need to enter the premises. UHF low power radio technologies operating in the 433/868 MHz ISM-bands, 2.4 GHz Bluetooth, wireless M-Bus or ZigBee are appropriate standards to interrogate meters over a distance of several or several tens of meters. In some areas and newer houses, meters are often linked together using twisted pair lines and a suitable field bus standard (local network). These systems provide then a single inductive coupler or similar device per house in the public domain where meters can be interrogated faster and more economically on the touch basis (e.g. EURIDIS). With touch-based meter reading, a meter reader carries a handheld computer or data collection device with a wand or probe. The device automatically collects the readings from the meters by touching or placing the read probe in close proximity to a reading coil enclosed in the touchpad. When a button is pressed, the probe sends an interrogate signal to the touch module to collect the meter readings. The software in the reading device matches the serial number to one in the route database, and saves the meter reading for later download to a billing or data collection computer. In the past, the touch concept has brought some benefits as it involved regular inspection of status and conditions of electrical installations and meters and thus increasing the likelihood of detecting fraud (e.g. meter tampering). In a modern AMI smart grid concept where energy flow is measured at different network levels and consistency is checked, this side effect may become less important but still not obsolete.

Meters Gas Water Heat Electr. Cellular networks Local network Data colector/ house gateway Short range radio link (UHF, Bluetooth, RFID) Walk-by interrogator & data collector

Billing center

Public fixed networks

Figure 4-2: Walk-by concept

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4.3.2

Technologies

For handheld walk-by meter reading the following technologies/standards are commonly employed: •
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Bluetooth based on IEEE 802.15.1 (WPAN) operating in the 2.4 GHz using frequency hopping technique.
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ZigBee based on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC & PHY operating in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz.
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Proprietary or industrial radio standards operating in the UHF ISM band (433 MHz or 868 MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in North America) e.g. frequency hopping-based long range UHF RFID (Wavenis).
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Transmit power can be in the mW range. For touch-based or close proximity walk-by meter reading the following technologies are used: •
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M-bus (Meter bus), (EN13757 Series standard) over twisted pair or radio
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standard RFID technologies e.g. inductive 135 kHz or 13.56 MHz.
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Inductive coupler in conjunction with IEC 62056-31 EURIDIS
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Infrared

To send meter readings/data to the billing center the following communications technologies/standards are commonly used: •
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2G/2.5 G GSM/GPRS/EDGE, 3G UMTS for immediate transmission using mobileenabled handheld
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PSTN analogue modem, xDSL for transmission from readers local office
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4.4 Drive-by
4.4.1 Basic concept

Mobile or "Drive-by" meter reading (ref. Figure 4-3) is a concept where a reading or interrogating device is installed in a vehicle. The meter reader drives the vehicle while the interrogating device automatically collects the meter readings. Often for drive-by meter reading the reading equipment includes navigational and mapping features supported by GPS and mapping software. With mobile meter reading, the reader does not normally have to read the meters in any particular route order, but just drives the service area until all meters are read.

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In principle, meter readings/data can be directly forwarded to the billing center via public cellular networks or private utility networks if available. This concept has been widely used in less densely populated areas where walk-by isn’t an economical solution. Drive-by is quite popular in US but there is only limited use in EU. Components often consist of a vehicular roof-top mounted antenna, a transceiver, a laptop and a software, RF receiver/transceiver, and external vehicle antennas. Meters Gas Water Heat Electr Billing center

GPS

Local network Data colector/ house gateway UHF radio link

Cellular networks

Drive-by interrogator & data collector Figure 4-3: Drive-by concept 4.4.2 Technologies

For drive-by meter reading the following wireless technologies/standards are commonly employed: •
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ZigBee based on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC & PHY operating in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz
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Proprietary or industrial radio standards (e.g. ZigBit 900) operating in the UHF ISM banda (433 MHz or 868 MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in North America) or frequencyhopping-based long range UHF RFID (Wavenis).
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Transmit power may be in the order of 10 mW. To wirelessly forward meter readings/data to a central computer (billing center) the following communications technologies/standards are commonly used: •
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2G/2.5G GSM/GPRS/EDGE
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3G UMTS
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For navigation and positioning: •
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GPS

4.5 Fixed network
4.5.1 Basic concept

Networks that are permanently installed to automatically capture meter readings are commonly referred to as Fixed Networks. Fixed Networks consist of a permanently installed infrastructure to collect meter readings/data from AMR capable meters and to transfer these data to a central computer without a person in the field to collect them.
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In general, a fixed network infrastructure can be subdivided into an access and a back-haul or core segment (ref. Figure 4-4). A fixed network infrastructure may be 100% public e.g. cellular mobile or heterogeneous e.g. private network for access and public network for back-hauling. Various wireless or wired technologies may be used in each segment depending on available infrastructure and suitability.

Meters Gas Water Heat Electr Local network Data & management center of energy related services

Data collector/ House gateway Wired Access network

Wireless access NW Hub/Data concentrator Backhaul network

Figure 4-4: Fixed network concept 4.5.2 Network topologies

Different network topologies have been used in the access domain of Fixed Networks to forward meter readings/data to a central computer. A star network is the most common, where a meter transmits its data directly to a hub/data concentrator (ref. Figure 4-5).
HTU UTH

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Some systems use a tree network topology with repeater nodes that forward data received from meter nodes to the next higher network hierarchy level (ref. Figure 4-6). Meter nodes may be promoted to repeater nodes to extend coverage of an AMR network. This assignment may be on a static or dynamic basis. Moreover, concentrator nodes may also take the role of repeaters (store and forward) in case there is no back-haul connectivity. In any case there is no communication between the nodes of the same hierarchy level in a tree network. The tree topology is particularly suitable in conjunction with powerline communications and to increase reliability of a system. More advanced solutions use mesh network principles, but mainly in conjunction with wireless technologies. A mesh approach may reduce infrastructure costs, but may add significant complexity to the meter/house gateway, possibly increasing cost and power consumption. One issue in this context are battery operated meters. These may need more power due to the increased frequency of transmission. However, these disadvantages may be outweighed by savings in infrastructure. Mesh topologies with their self healing capability are potentially resilient against link failures thus more reliable since they can dynamically reroute data via any node in a manner that is more flexible than e.g. by reconfiguring a tree network.
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Hub/Data concentrator

Meter node House gateway Figure 4-5: Star network topology

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Hub/Data concentrator Repeater node

Hierarchy level 0 meter repeater node (Hierarchy level 1)

meter node/house gateway (Hierarchy level 2) Figure 4-6: Tree network topology

Hub/Data concentrator

Hub/Data concentrator

Meter node/ house gateway

Figure 4-7: Mesh network topology 4.5.3 Technologies

In the access network segment the following technologies are commonly used •
U

ZigBee based on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC & PHY operating in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz
U

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WiFi/PWLAN based on IEEE 802.11 operating in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz band
U


U

Proprietary or industrial radio standards e.g. operating in the VHF or UHF ISM bands (174 MHz, 433 MHz, 868 MHz) e.g. Plextek so-called Ultra Narrow Band (UNB) telemetry based on low data rate frequency hopping techniques.
U


U

Public cellular, 2G GSM/GPRS
U U

• •
U

Proprietary or industrial standard powerline communications like solutions based on Echelon LONworks (ANSI/EIA-709) or Intellon/homePlug, etc.
U

Analogue modem standards over PSTN or xDSL
U

For back-hauling following technologies are commonly in use: •
U

Public cellular networks (2G GSM/GPRS, 3G UMTS) Cellular core network technologies (if access segment is based on public cellular)
U

• •
U

Proprietary or industrial standard powerline communications solutions over MV
U


U

Microwave links WiMAX IEEE 802.16
U

• •
U

Analogue modem standards over PSTN or xDSL
U

4.6 Hybrid systems
Some fixed network systems are also capable of being installed as a hybrid system. In a hybrid system a part of the meters are read by fixed network, and the other parts may be read by drive-by. A fixed network may not be justified in certain service areas. So they may be used only in densely populated zones or for commercial accounts.
U U

Some hybrid networks also allow meter reading by different methods concurrently to provide redundancy. In the event of a network failure, a mobile reading system will likely be available as a back-up means to data collection via fixed network.

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5 WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES
5.1 General
Wireless communications solutions in fixed networks are always attractive, since they do not require new wiring. This is particularly true if a wireless network infrastructure that already exists could be used e.g. public mobile network, municipal WiFi or WiMAx networks, etc. On the other hand, solid buildings with concrete walls, together with the installation of meters predominantly in basements- which is typical for European countries - are obstacles for radio-based metering solutions. In these cases, additional equipment e.g. house gateway/repeaters installed at more favourable places become necessary. Therefore, wireless metering solutions so far have been mainly successful in countries like the USA, where houses typically are built less solid and without basements. Technologies that can use existing wiring such as PLC do not require new wiring either but may need some non-negligible investments in infrastructure equipment in both access and back-haul segment as such systems normally do not exist yet.

5.2 Proprietary wireless technologies
5.2.1 Wavenis

Wavenis Wireless Technology is a 2-way wireless system designed to operate in UHF ISM bands . The main features of Wavenis technology are: • • • Low data rate communications in the range from 4.8 kbps to 100 kbps (19.2 kbps typical) meeting requirements for metering applications Device radio transceivers with ultra-low-power consumption in devices (meters) to reach multi-year operation with battery-powered devices high link budget to attain large radio reach and in-house signal penetration.

The Wavenis protocol defines the 3 lowest layers of the OSI reference model. The specified physical layer provides worldwide use by operating in major license-free ISM bands, and complies with following regulatory standards: • • • • 868 MHz (EU EN300-220) 915 MHz (US FCC15-247, 15-249) 433 MHz (Asia) 2400 MHz (worldwide)

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The data link and network layers provide a reliable communication for a consistent M2M communication: •
• •

Point-to-Point, Point-to-Multipoint (broadcast, polling), and repeater modes Tree, star, and mesh network topologies self-configuration and dynamic routing algorithm optimised for Ultra Low Power networks

Current applications for the Wavenis technology are Telemetry, industrial Automation, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Automatic meter reading (AMR) utility meter monitoring, home comfort, alarms for protecting people and property, home healthcare, centralized building management, etc. Wavenis was originally a proprietary technology created by Coronis Systems in 2001. In 2008 Coronis opened the technology and offered it up to the market for industry standardization. The Wavenis Open Standard Alliance, Wavenis-OSA, was created to manage and govern the technology in much the same way the Bluetooth SIG manages and drives Bluetooth technology. 5.2.2 Plextek (UNB)

Plextek is a low cost radio solution for wide area telemetry, automatic meter reading, control and data monitoring applications with modest data rate requirements. Plextek is based on a proprietary Ultra Narrow Band (UNB) technology with additional frequency hopping and proprietary digital signal processing techniques to enhance receiver’s sensitivity in the presence of interference as typical in licence free bands. The system operates in the 868MHz or 915MHz ISM frequency bands. As far as the communication protocol is concerned, the Plextek radio protocol includes forward error correction, error detection, automatic retransmissions, power control, automatic base station selection and all signalling to setup and maintain data connections.

Figure 5-1: Example of a PLEXTEK's radio communication network topology

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The key system characteristics are: • • • • • • Low cost outstation equipment Point-to-multipoint architecture Short range (100m) ‘relay mode’ which enables one outstation to relay information from another. 2 - 20km typical cell radius depending on antenna heights and propagation environment. Can Handle large numbers of outstations (typically 5,000 - 10,000) per hub (base station). Actual number of outstations depends upon the data transmission volumes. Complete system including full radio protocol, data logging facilities, broad range of standard interfaces and protocols for hub communications. Suitable for direct connection of hubs to the Internet.

5.2.3

Everblu

EverBlu is a radio-based AMR system using a wireless mesh point-to-multipoint communication infrastructure. It is an ultra-low-power, bi-frequency, long-range (300m), wireless mesh technology. EverBlu operates in license-free bands e.g. 433/868 MHz in Europe with a transmit power of 200 mW. The network layer of EverBlu originates from the former Radian protocol defined by an European user association. EverBlue endpoints can be read in dual mode either using EverBlu fixed network or walk-by collection system compatible with Radian protocol. EverBlu is suitable for multi-energy applications involving water, gas electricity and heat metering. As it is a long-range mesh radio network, it is convenient for urban, suburban or rural environments. EverBlu endpoints can be read in dual mode either using EverBlu fixed network or walk-by collection systems that are compatible with the Radian protocol. About 1 million EverBlu radio modules for water, gas and heat meters have been installed worldwide with major installations in France, UK, Italy, Australia. Typically, EverBlu gateways (base stations) are backhauled via public mobile networks (e.g. GPRS). Using one gateway for up to 1200 endpoints limits the infrastructure investment and significantly reduces the operation costs related with communication fees over GPRS.

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5.3 Open standard wireless technologies
5.3.1 IEEE 802.15.1 (Bluetooth)

Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs). It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. The Bluetooth standard and communications protocol was primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent: 1 meter (Class 1), 10 meters (Class 2), 100 meters (Class 3)) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Bluetooth makes it possible for these devices to communicate with each other when they are in range. Because the devices use a radio (broadcast) communications system, they do not have to be in line-of-sight of each other. The original Bluetooth specification, the Bluetooth v1, which was ratified later on as IEEE 802.15.1 standard, was developed in 1994. From this date, several enhancements to this standard have been done. Currently in Bluetooth v 2.1, fully backward compatible with the oldest versions; the main features are the following: • Extended inquiry response: provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection. This information includes the name of the device, a list of services the device supports, plus other information like the time of day and pairing information. Sniff subrating: reduces the power consumption when devices are in the sniff lowpower mode, especially on links with asymmetric data flows. Encryption Pause Resume & Secure Simple Pairing: enables an encryption key to be refreshed, enabling much stronger encryption for connections that stay up for longer. The Secure Simple Pairing radically improves the pairing experience for Bluetooth devices, while increasing the use and strength of security Near Field Communication (NFC) cooperation: automatic creation of secure Bluetooth connections when NFC radio interface is also available. This functionality is part of the Secure Simple Pairing where NFC is one way of exchanging pairing information.

• •

The more prevalent applications of Bluetooth include: • • • Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands-free headset. This was one of the earliest applications to become popular. Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required. Wireless communication with PC input and output devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard and printer.

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Transfer of files, contact details, calendar appointments, and reminders between devices with OBEX. Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in test equipment, GPS receivers, medical equipment, bar code scanners, and traffic control devices. IEEE 802.15.4 (WPAN)

5.3.2.1 PHY and MAC IEEE 802.15.4 is a standard which specifies the physical layer and media access control (MAC) layer for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). It is maintained by the IEEE 802.15 working group. This standard intends to offer the fundamental lower network layers of a type of wireless personal area network (WPAN), which focuses on low-cost, low-speed ubiquitous communication between devices (in contrast with other, more end user-oriented approaches, such as Wi-Fi). The emphasis is on very low cost communication of nearby devices with little to no underlying infrastructure, intending to exploit this to lower power consumption even more. The basic framework conceives a 10 to 75 meter communications area with a transfer rate of 250 kbps. Tradeoffs are possible to favour more radically embedded devices with even lower power requirements, through the definition of not one, but several physical layers. Lower transfer rates of 20, 40 and 100 kbps are defined in the standard as well. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard operates on one of three possible unlicensed frequency bands: • • • 868-868.8 MHz: Europe, allows one communication channel 902-928 MHz: North America, up to thirty channels 2400-2483.5 MHz: worldwide use, up to sixteen channels

Important features ofIEEE 802.15.4 include real-time suitability by reservation of guaranteed time slots, collision avoidance through CSMA/CA and integrated support for secure communications. Devices also include power management functions. Networks can be built as either peer-to-peer (point-to-point) or star networks: • Peer-to-peer networks can form arbitrary patterns of connections, and their extension is only limited by the distance between each pair of nodes. They are meant to serve as the basis for ad hoc networks capable of performing self-management and organization A more structured star pattern is also supported, where a network coordinator isassigned and plays the role of the central node.

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Since the standard does not define a network layer, routing is not directly supported, but such an additional layer can add support for multi-hop communications. The network topology can be extended as a generic mesh network. Regarding secure communications, the Medium Access Control (MAC) sublayer offers facilities that can be harnessed by upper layers to achieve the desired level of security. Higher-layer processes may specify keys to perform symmetric cryptography to protect the payload and restrict it to a group of devices or just a point-to-point link; these groups of devices can be specified in access control lists. Finally, indicate that the IEEE 802.15.4 is the basis for such upper layer specifications as ZigBee, 6loWPAN, WirelessHART or MiWi. These specifications attempt to offer a complete networking solution by developing the upper layers that are not covered by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. 5.3.2.2 ZigBee ZigBee standards-based protocols that provide the network infrastructure required for wireless sensor network applications. ZigBee is the communications protocol (network and applications layer) that is based on IEE 802.15.4 MAC and PHY layers. ZigBee mesh networks are ideal for some metering applications because of their inherent redundancy, self-configuring and self-healing capabilities. The interoperable nature of ZigBee means that different applications can work together. This feature is however not unique to ZigBee. The ZigBee specification provides a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh networking technology. The low cost allows this technology to be widely deployed in wireless control and monitoring applications, the low power-usage allows longer life with smaller batteries, and the mesh networking provides high reliability and larger range. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, lowpower digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). ZigBee devices are required to conform to the IEEE 802.15.4, which specifies the lower protocol layers—the physical layer (PHY), and the medium access control (MAC) portion of the data link layer (DLL)

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Figure 5-2: ZigBee communication stack Therefore, the ZigBee specification focuses only on upper layers: starting from the network layer to the final application layer, including the application objects themselves. The responsibilities of the ZigBee network layer include: • • • • • • Starting a network: The ability to successfully establish a new network. Joining and leaving a network: The ability to gain membership (join) or relinquish membership (leave) a network. Configuring a new device: The ability to sufficiently configure the stack for operation as required. Addressing: The ability of a ZigBee coordinator to assign addresses to devices joining the network. Synchronization within a network: The ability for a device to achieve synchronization with another device either through tracking beacons or by polling. Security: applying security to outgoing frames and removing security to terminating frames. For this purpose, the network layer also makes use of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and the security suites are all based on the CCM mode of operation. Routing: routing frames to their intended destinations.

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The ZigBee application layer consists of the Application Support sub-layer (APS), the ZigBee Device Object (ZDO) and the manufacturer-defined application objects. The responsibilities of the APS sub-layer include maintaining tables for binding, which is the ability to match two devices together based on their services and their needs, and forwarding messages between bound devices. Another responsibility of the APS sub-layer is discovery, which is the ability to determine which other devices are operating in the personal operating space of a device. The responsibilities of the ZDO include defining the role of the device within the network (e.g., ZigBee coordinator or end device), initiating and/or responding to binding requests and establishing a secure relationship between network devices. The manufacturer-defined application objects implement the actual applications according to the ZigBee-defined application descriptions Depending on the implemented ZDO and manufacturer-defined applications, several application profiles can be defined. At the current state, the list of application profiles either published or in the works are: • • • • • Home Entertainment and Control — Smart lighting, advanced temperature control, safety and security, movies and music Home Awareness — Water sensors, power sensors, smoke and fire detectors, smart appliances and access sensors Mobile Services — m-payment, m-monitoring and control, m-security and access control, m-healthcare and tele-assist Commercial Building — Energy monitoring, HVAC, lighting, access control Smart Metering

5.3.2.3 6loWPAN 6loWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. 6LoWPAN is the standard from the Internet Engineer Task Force IETF published in 2007, which optimises IPv6 for use with low-power, low-bandwidth communication technologies such as the IEEE 802.15.4. The 6loWPAN group aimed at defining header compression mechanisms that allow IPv6 packets to be sent to and received from over IEEE 802.15-based networks. The base specification developed by the 6lowpan IETF group is the RFC 4944. Whereas IEEE802.15.4 devices are intentionally constrained to reduce costs, IPv6 requires a considerable higher bandwidth. Therefore, header compression mechanisms standardized in RFC4944 can be used to provide header compression of IPv6 packets over such networks. Furthermore, RFC 4944 proposes an adaptation layer to allow the transmission of IPv6 datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4 networks. Moreover, since the compression is completely stateless, it means that it creates no binding state between the compressor-

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decompressor pair. Stateless compression gives nodes the flexibility to communicate with any neighbour in compact form at all times. 6loWPAN brings the advantages already described in the IEEE 802.15.4 standard: offer the fundamental lower network layers of a type of wireless personal area network (WPAN), which focuses on low-cost, low-speed ubiquitous communication between devices; and the IP protocol advantages which has proven itself a long-lived, stable, and highly scalable communication technology that supports both a wide range of applications, devices, and underlying communication technologies. Finally, it shall be noted that the ZigBee specification and the 6lowpan RFC are not competing technologies but on the contrary, they can be well complementary as it can be shown in the diagram below:

Figure 5-3: ZigBee over IPv6 Recently, the IETF has launched collaboration with the ZigBee alliance in order to approve an IETF specification for using ZigBee profiles over UDP/IP.

5.3.3

IEEE 802.11 (WLAN/WiFi)

In the last ten years, broadband wireless technologies based on the IEEE 802.11 standard have found broad acceptance worldwide for wireless local area networking (WLAN). These WLAN technologies are designed to operate either in the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz ISM frequency bands. WLAN supports services similar to those offered by wired LANs (e.g. Ethernet) and can be used to build either stationary or mobile computer networks. Current WLAN systems provide data rates of typically 54 Mbit/s, with vendor-specific extensions reaching up to 108 Mbit/s. Due to channel access and signalling overhead, roughly 50% of the physical layer data rates are available as actual user throughput. Today, the IEEE 802.11 standard family is the most established. Its variants operate in the ISM-band, at either 2.4 GHz providing up to 11 Mbit/s, or in the 5 GHz range offering up to 54 Mbit/s.

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WLAN equipment that is truly tested and certified by the Wireless Internet Compatibility Alliance (WICA) in accordance to the IEEE 802.11 family of wireless LAN standards is also known as WiFi (Wireless Fidelity). Public WLANs (PWLAN) (WiFi hot spots) are deployed in many cities and areas as the most important commercial use of the WLAN technology today.

IEEE Standard

Frequency band [GHz]

Max. RF power in EU [mW]

Modulation

PHY data rate [Mbps]

TCP Through put [Mbps]

UDP Through put [Mbps]

802.11b

2.4

200

DSSS with CCK OFDM OFDM

11

6

7

802.11g 802.11a 802.11d

2.4 5.2/5.3/5.7

200 40/200/800

54 54

24 24

30 30

supports specific adaptations/selection of MAC, frequencies, bandwidth, power levels, technology (a,b,h,g) needed to operate WLAN systems globally (‘World mode’), and particularly in regulatory domains (countries) where systems based on standard 802.11 would not be allowed to operate. 802.11a/b/g + advanced MAC and QoS mechanism for multi-media and VoIP applications 802.11a + Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) and Transmit Power Control (TPC) to allow for higher transmission power 802.11a/b/g + new security protocol Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), includes rules for the usage of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for data encryption 802.11a/b/g + MIMO techniques to increase throughput 802.11a/b/g + support of Mesh networks, Wireless Distribution System (WDS), Automatic/Ad-hoc routing protocols, roaming for mobility

802.11e

802.11h

802.11i

802.11n 802.11s

Table 5-1: WLAN IEEE 802.11 standards overview The use of WLANs for AMR has been frequently reported. In the US, several cities (e.g. Santa Clara, CA) already use WLANs to automatically collect readings from electricity, gas, and water meters. Since indoor coverage and particularly coverage in basements at frequencies above 2 GHz is relatively poor, WLAN-based AMR solutions require either meters mounted above ground level and outside wall of houses or an in-house wired or wireless local network with a WLAN equipped house gateway/data collector mounted at position well covered by an 802.11-based access network.

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Using 802.11s technology supporting mesh (e.g. MetroMesh™ from Tropos) may provide a technically attractive solution for AMR. This is particularly true, since bandwidth needed in an AMI is less of an issue. Nevertheless, it would take a number of years until investments pay off. In cities or areas where there is already a public Wi-Fi network (e.g. a Metropolitan Area Network), the WLAN-based access solution may result in a more attractive business case, also taking into consideration that community-wide WiFi networks will become prevalent in future in many areas.

802.11 network (e.g. municipal PWLAN)

Mesh Gas Meters Water Heat Electr. Data collector/ house gateway

Inhouse Local network

Figure 5-4: AMR using WLAN access network 5.3.4 IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX)

WiMAX (Worldwide Inter-operability for Microwave Access) is a Wireless Broadband Access (BWA) technology based on the IEEE 802.16 series standard. It has been designed to provide transmission speeds up to 72 Mbit/s in both directions and supports point-to-point and point-to-multi-point network topologies and a multitude of transmission modes and bandwidths to adapt to the different propagation conditions and user demands. The basic characteristics of the WiMAX air interface (IEEE 802.16e-2005) are a scalable OFDM scheme, bandwidths ranging from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz, adaptive coding and modulation using BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM or 64-QAM, multiple antenna support (MIMO techniques), and FDD as well as TDD modes. To certain extent, WiMAX can support robust transmissions at reduced speeds for non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions and indoor overage. Communication range typically varies between a few Kilometres in NLOS conditions up to 50 km in LOS conditions using omni-directional antennas. The primary purpose of WiMAX has been a wireless alternative to xDSL and other wired local access (last mile) solutions in rural areas, suburban or urban areas. Today, in some areas, WiMAX is also competing with 3G mobile networks providing broadband services to

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mobile or semi-mobile (nomadic) users. Clearly, the WiMAX technology is also applicable to point-to-point line-of-sight microwave links e.g. in back-haul networks. Concerning spectrum issues, there is no globally harmonized spectrum allocation for WiMAX network deployments. Several frequency bands below 4 GHz are currently in use for licensed WiMAX operation. Frequency bands for license exempt usage of WiMAX have been granted above 5 GHz. Frequency range 500 – 800 MHz Usage licensed Remarks Under consideration in Europe and elsewhere, but awaiting roll-out of digital/mobile TV Several frequency chunks already in use by licensed operators or use under consideration Mainly for back-hauling

2.3 GHz – 4.0 GHz

licensed

5.0 – 5.8 GHz

unlicensed

Table 5-2: Frequency ranges foreseen for WiMAX Up to now, WiMAX networks have been deployed only partially in specific areas either to compete with incumbent xDSL or cable operators or to complement broadband Internet access in areas underserved by the latter e.g. in rural areas or Eastern Europe. In some U.S. cities, WiMAX networks are operated by municipalities (Municipal Metropolitan Area Networks). Since indoor coverage at frequencies above 2 GHz is still an issue and the lower UHF bands (ref. Table 5-2) will likely not be available in the near future, the use of WiMAX in the access segment is not straight forward. In many cases, it would require installation of WiMAXenabled house gatways/data collectors or repeaters at well selected places e.g. above ground level and directly behind outer walls or windows, similarly concepts as described in section 5.3.3. In geographic areas where meter boxes are mounted typically outdoors, a WiMAX-based access solution may be more attractive. It is however felt, that WiMAX is more suitable e.g. as back-haul technology e.g. in conjunction with a meshed WLAN access. Deployment of a dedicated WiMAX network solely for the purpose of an AMI likely cannot be justified. In those areas where public WiMAX services are available (e.g. municipal networks), WiMAX may principally be an option. WiMAX-based AMR solutions are in discussion, but no real deployments are known to the authors. 5.3.5 2G/2.5G GSM/GPRS/EDGE

In Europe, coverage of public cellular mobile networks is approaching 100% of civilised areas. Today, mobile services are available almost everywhere making the cellular infrastructure extremely valuable for all kind of applications including AMR.

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2G cellular mobile networks commonly provide data services at net data rates up to several kbps or several tens of kbps. These data services are optimally tailored to most telemetry and remote metering applications. Network operators also provide special data call numbers and data-only SIM cards for GSM data modem devices and offer data services at special tariffs. For AMR applications, data is typically transmitted either via SMS or the circuit-switched non-transparent GSM data service (CSD) based on Radio Link Protocol (RLP) providing 9.6 kbps net throughput in both directions. If higher transmission speed is required, HSCSD supporting multi-slot transmission and higher rate coding (FEC) schemes can be used. GPRS or EGPRS (EDGE) enhanced GSM networks can provide packet-oriented data services at even higher speed up to 80 kbps and 237 kbps, respectively, depending on link quality. A summary of GSM-based data services and corresponding data rates is given in the table below.

Transmission mode CSD HSCSD HSCSD GPRS GPRS EDGE EDGE

Down-link [kbps] 9.6 28.8 43.2 80.0 60.0 236.8 177.6

Up-link [kbps] 9.6 14.4 14.4 20.0 40.0 59.2 118.4

Number of slots

(DL/UL)
1/1 2/1 3/1 4/1 3/2 4/1 3/2

Table 5-3: 2G/2.5G GSM data services and user data rate In Europe GSM networks operate at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. Though 900 MHz signals penetrate walls reasonably well, there are still many areas and locations where GSM services are not available e.g. in the basement of a house where meters are often located. To get a reliable solution, GSM antennas often have to be installed above ground level resulting in some non-negligible installation costs. Typically, to limit antenna cable length thus RF losses, GSM data modems are installed remotely, connected via a wired or wireless link to the meters.

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No investments neither into access nor backhaul network infrastructure (CAPEX) are needed for cellular network-based AMR solutions. However, fees to be paid to network operators for use of data services (OPEX) and some in-house installation and equipment costs would have to be taken into account in a business case. 5.3.6 3G UMTS

Similarly to 2G/2.5G technologies, the W-CDMA-based 3G/UMTS technologies and evolutions thereof (HDSDPA, HSUPA) are principally able to provide data-only services suitable for telemetry and metering applications. These services are normally packetoriented and IP based. Likely, operators could offer 3G data services at more economical conditions than 2G services. Today, deployment of 3G networks operating at 2 GHz is still far behind 2G. This is particularly true in less populated and rural areas. This may however change in future, since 3G/UMTS is considered a strong candidate to provide broadband Internet access in those areas currently not served by xDSL and cable. Nevertheless, indoor penetration at 2 GHz must be considered less effective than at 900 MHz requiring house gateways or 2 GHz antennas to be mounted at well selected positions. 5.3.7 LTE

The main advantages with LTE are high throughput, low latency, plug and play from day one. LTE will support seamless connection to existing networks, such as GSM, CDMA and WCDMA. However LTE requires a completely new RAN and core network deployment and is not backward compatible with existing UMTS systems. The 3GPP (LTE) is defining IP-based, flat network architecture as part of the System Architecture Evaluation (SAE) effort. LTE–SAE architecture and concepts have been designed for efficient support of mass-market usage of any IP-based service.

5.3.8

PMR (TETRA, TETRAPOL)

TETRA (TErrestrial Trunked Radio) is a European digital radio standard originally developed in ETSI for all sorts of Private Mobile Radio (PMR) and Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR) applications such as police, ambulance, fire, transport and security services. TETRA uses time division multiple access (TDMA) technology with four slots on one radio carrier and 25 kHz carrier spacing. TETRAPOL is a proprietary standard originally developed by MATRA for the French Gendarmerie (RUBIS system) but that has later been promoted to an ETSI standard as well. Today, TETRA and TETRAPOL systems are mainly used by public safety, the military, and closed user groups such as utilities, factories, and transport/logistic enterprises. Currently, TETRA or TETRAPOL cellular PMR networks are deployed in several areas in Europe and worldwide. A list of frequency bands currently allocated for TETRA is given in table below.

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Uplink [MHz] 380 - 383 383 - 395 385 - 390 410 – 420 450 - 460 870 – 876

Downlink [MHz] 390 - 393 393 - 395 395 - 400 420 - 430 460 - 470 915 – 921

Extension band for public safety and emergency Civil services Civil services Civil services Civil services

Table 5-4: Frequency bands allocated for TETRA in Europe Though typically operating in lower UHF ranges where signals penetrate into homes more easily, indoor coverage of PMR networks is considered far worse compared to GSM, since cell radius is generally much larger for PMR. Indeed, some PMR operators are currently reconsidering use of outdated radio paging systems as a way to more reliably alert their staff indoors without having to rely on public mobile infrastructure (see subsection 5.3.9). Regarding AMR applications, TETRA could offer suitable and efficient packet data and circuit data transfer services at data rates similar to those provided by 2G/GSM. On the other hand, the use of existing PMR networks in an AMI concept may be difficult by the following reasons: • • • PMR landscape will remain heterogeneous in Europe (TETRA, TETRAPOL, old analogue PMR), Use of nation-wide or area-wide systems is exclusive to public safety and emergency services Most utilities no more operate an own PMR system but rather rely on public mobile infrastructure

Deploying new TETRA infrastructure solely for metering, smart grid and house automation purposes could hardly be justified.

5.3.9

2-way radio paging (ERMES, ReFLEX)

Before GSM networks have been deployed in large scale, radio paging system enjoyed great popularity to alert people and for short messaging. Some of these systems are still in operation, locally and new deployments are apparently under consideration for public safety organisations (see subsection 5.3.8).

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Radio paging systems have the potential to provide a nation-wide or area-wide coverage with a minimum of infrastructure (large cell radius). Data rates are in the order of 10 kbps or higher. Some paging standards also support a return channel (2-way paging), which makes them potentially suitable for AMR applications. Moreover, paging systems are typically operated at VHF e.g. 138 MHz, providing good penetration into buildings. The European ERMES specifies a return channel transmitting at 50 bps, which is considered rather low in regards to a future AMI. However, the proprietary standard ReFLEX (Motorola) seems to support higher transmission speed in the return link (9.6 kbps). Since operation of paging systems have been discontinued in many areas, they cannot anymore be considered as attractive for remote metering and related applications. Deploying new paging infrastructure for these purposes may principally be possible, however in this case more advanced and future-proof proprietary technologies are available (see section 5.2). 5.3.10 European Radio Ripple control

European radio ripple control is a low data rate long wave (VLF) broadcast system presently used in Germany and Hungary for various energy related applications such as • • • • remote control of street lighting (lighting management) Power plant load management Customer tariff switching and load management Etc.

Carrier frequencies are at 129.1 kHz (Mainflingen, D), 139.0 kHz (Burg, D), and 135.6 KHz (Lakihegi, H). The system is transmitting at 200 Bd using binary FSK (340 Hz shift). Radio telegram formats are specified by IEC 60870-3 and DIN 19244. Coverage radius by a single transmitter is typically 300 to 500 km thanks to ground wave propagation along earth curvature, which are peculiar at VLF. These long waves also penetrate deep into the ground making reception possible also in basements in general. (Steel reinforced concrete may shield the signal to some degree). Users of the system send their control applications to the host computer via Datex-P, ISDN or via the Internet using the user control station. From there, the switch commands are passed on to the high power (100 kW) broadcast transmitter. Appliances then receive control signal using radio receiver/decoder modules. Though transmission speed of this system is much faster than classical audio frequency ripple control via power lines, the system cannot meet data capacity requirements a future AMI. Furthermore, it is unidirectional, thus requiring extra communications infrastructure for the return link resulting in no real advantage over other solutions.

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Satellite systems

The use of satellite systems for metering and energy related end-user services in areas where there is no suitable terrestrial communication infrastructure may be an alternative solution. Today, a number of satellite systems offering low speed data services would be available. Candidates are Iridium that is based on a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) non-stationary multi-satellite constellation and SpaceChecker using a geostationary (GEO) space segment.
U U U U

Iridium can provide relatively high link margin enabling in-house coverage to a certain extent. Moreover, there is no requirement for directional antennas and placing antennas is also less critical compared to GEO-based systems. SpaceChecker provides 2-way low speed data communications for global asset tracking such as Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) and telemetry & telecommand (SCADA) with worldwide coverage using existing GEO satellite infrastructure. The service is already used for remote metering e.g. along oil/gas pipelines and similar etc. SpaceChecker offers cost efficient solutions in terms of both modem equipment and airtime, but requires installation of RF antennas in line-of-sight to the satellite, a disadvantage, if this solution was used extensively.

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6 WIRE-LINE TECHNOLOGIES
6.1 Data over PSTN
Data transmission over the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) has been used since long. With advances in voice-band modem technologies in the recent years, transmission speed has been steadily increasing virtually reaching Shannon limit of the bandwidth limited end-to-end analogue phone line channel (0.3 – 3.1 kHz) with the V.34 standard. The V.34bis standard achieves a maximum throughput of 33.4 kbps over an entirely analogue channel. It is based on trellis coded higher order modulation and sophisticated equalization techniques. With the digitalisation of the PSTN behind local exchange (end office) providing a 64 kbps digital channel per phone call (the basic DS0 circuit), the use of even faster modem standards have become possible to bridge the remaining analogue ‘last mile’ segment only. The V.92 standard e.g. provides 56 kbps downstream and approximately 33 kbps upstream. The use of the PSTN is principally an interesting option for AMR and related applications, since today in Europe every house is connected to the PSTN via at least one twisted pair. Data rates achievable with PSTN compatible modem standards (V.34 and V.92) would be adequate for these purposes. Apart from the modem equipment in the house gateway and possible installation costs to connect the house gateway to the POTS, there are no CAPEX. However, since there is typically only one customer phone line available, dial-in charges would be on customers account. Moreover, the use of the analogue phone line by both customer and AMI may lead to conflicts particularly, if the PSTN is frequently accessed. The use of an ISDN technology providing at least 2 independent channels at even higher speed may be an alternative to circumvent this problem. However, ISDN is not available in every household.

6.2 xDSL
ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a data communications technology that enables much faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than conventional voiceband modems can provide. It does this by utilising frequencies well above the voice band (> 25 kHz). The band from 25.875 kHz to 138 kHz is used for the upstream, whilst 138 kHz – 1104 kHz is used for the downstream.
HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH HT TH

Offering ADSL services to end users requires a so-called DSL Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) in the local exchange/end office. Data carried by the ADSL is typically routed over the telecom operators data networks and the Internet. The latest ITU G.992.1 Annex A standard (ADSL over POTS/twisted pair copper) supports up to 12 Mbps down-stream and 1.3 Mbps upstream. In real channel conditions, achievable data rates are usually significantly lower depending on line length and cross-talk interference
HT TH

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levels. ADSL can generally only be used over line length typically less than 4km assuming a minimum service offer of a few hundred kbps. Today a high percentage of households in Europe use ADSL for Internet access over POTS lines. If correctly installed, ADSL does not conflict with the use of the PSTN. In cities, where telephone lines are typically shorter, the VDSL technology using frequencies far into the MHz range (<20 MHz for VDSL and <30 MHz for VDSL2) are presently deployed. These ADSL evolution standards can support data rates up to 100 Mbps under optimum conditions enabling high quality IP-based TV services typically requiring several Mbps. Today in Western Europe, a high percentage of PSTN local loops are equipped with ADSL. Its use at flat-rate tariff makes this technology an interesting candidate in an AMI concept. However, since ADSL cannot support point-to-multi-point connections, bandwidth cannot be shared with a second ADSL modem that is part of the AMI house gateway. An ADSL terminal equipment common to both AMI and customer Internet access may principally be possible. However, its practical implementation would require introduction of new business concepts where infrastructure is shared among energy and telecom service providers.

6.3 FTTB, FTTH
Fiber to the premises (FTTP) is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery in which an optical fiber is run directly onto the customers' premises. This contrasts with other fiber-optic communication delivery strategies such as fiber to the node (FTTN), fiber to the curb (FTTC), or hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC), all of which depend upon more traditional methods such as copper wires or coaxial cable for "last mile" delivery.
HTU UTH HTU UTH HTU UTH HTU UTH HTU UTH HTU UTH HTU UTH

Fiber to the premises can be further categorized according to where the optical fiber ends:
• •

FTTH (fiber to the home) is a form of fiber optic communication delivery in which the optical signal reaches the end user's living or office space. FTTB (fiber to the building) is a form of fiber optic communication delivery in which the optical signal reaches the private property enclosing the home or business of the subscriber or set of subscribers, but where the optical fiber terminates before reaching the home living space or business office space, with the path extended from that point up to the user's space over a physical medium other than optical fiber.

Different companies like telecom or electricity have started to invest in this new technology.

6.4 M-Bus
M-Bus “Meter bus” is a European standard, used mainly for one-way or two-way data exchange with gas, water and heat meters. It can also be used with various sensors and actuators. M-bus also supports remote powering of communication devices via the data wires (power over data) It is standardised by CEN TC 294, "Communication systems for meters and remote reading of meters" in the EN 13757 series. TC 294 covers data exchange with all utility meters except electricity meters, which are covered by IEC / CENELEC TC 13.

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EN 13757-1 is a general standard for meter data exchange, covering several physical media, protocols and the COSEM application data model. The parts EN 13757-2 ... EN 13757-6 specify the M-Bus protocol layers. M-Bus uses an OSI three-layer (collapsed) protocol architecture, consisting of: • • • the wired or the wireless physical layer; the data link layer based on IEC 60870-5-1 and IEC 60870-5-2; the (M-Bus) dedicated application layer.

M-Bus can alternatively be used with DLMS/COSEM: the COSEM Application layer specified in IEC 62056-53, the COSEM objects specified in IEC 62056-62 and the OBIS identification system specified in IEC 62056-61 (electricity) and in EN 13757-1 (other than electricity). On the other hand, devices using DLMS/COSEM – e.g. electricity meters or house gateways – may be set up as M-Bus masters, exchanging data with devices using M-Bus. M-bus supports the following physical interfaces: • • twisted pair local bus with base band signalling, according to EN 13757-2; wireless in the unlicensed 868 – 980 MHz SRD (Short Range Device) band, according to EN 13757-4. It is suitable for in-house data exchange, up to 15 m. The action radius can be extended by using the relaying methods specified in EN 137575; local bus, according to EN 13757-6.

M-Bus is a protocol optimised from the point of view of the meter, allowing simple and low cost implementations and long battery life. Additional more detailed information on M-Bus is provided in an Appendix to this document.

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7 POWERLINE COMMUNICATIONS (PLC)
7.1 General
The use of existing powerlines (MV and LV) for communications in a future open AMI providing energy-related end-user applications is obvious, since most devices and appliances of interest are already connected to the power grid. Today, many proprietary technologies and industrial (open) standards exist for communications over powerline (PLC) and systems have already been deployed in large scale. Normally, a distinction is made between • Narrowband PLC systems operating in the so-called CENELEC band essentially below 148.5 kHz based on a commonly accepted normative basis. (for utility-related services CENELEC Band A from 3 to 95 kHz applies) Broadband PLC systems typically operating between 2 – 30 MHz on an interim normative basis not yet commonly accepted

In the U.S., there exist commonly accepted standards enabling PLC solutions for MV and LV networks at frequencies up to about 450 KHz. Apart from EMC concerns and regulatory issues not yet resolved, PLC operating in the MHz (HF) range has advantages over systems running at low frequencies in the CENELEC band. These are • • • Coupling and surge/transient protection becomes simpler Higher access impedance Signal propagation is lesser affected by changing network loading

An important issue of PLC-based AMR in general is the intermeshing of the power distribution network which may pose problems in certain cases, e.g. when parts of the LV grid are disconnected and reconnected to another feeding transformer or other similar scenarios. A PLC based AMI should be capable of handling such situations.

7.2 Non-standardised narrowband PLC technologies
7.2.1 Echelon and others

Echelon Corporation (US) has developed a CENELEC band powerline technology based on a BPSK scheme enabling very low cost AMR solutions.

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In the CENELEC band A, it uses two frequencies, the primary at 86 kHz and the secondary at 75 kHz to increase reliability of communication. If the primary is blocked by noise, the system jumps to the secondary. If configured to the upper CENELEC bands e.g. for in-house communications, the system operates at 123 kHz (Band C) and 115 kHz (Band B), respectively. The PHY layer, as specified in CEA 709.2 specification, is based on a 5482.45 bit/s BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) modulated signal operating in CENELEC C Band at a center frequency of 131.579 kHz. LonWorks®, previously known as LonTalk®, is a protocol suite defined by Echelon Corp. in the early ‘90s that became a standard in Europe (EN 14908), America (ANSI/CEA 709) and China (GB/Z 20177). Though using the LonTalk protocol that has been accepted as a standard for control networking, the Echelon’s PLC system itself cannot be considered as an open standard. Supported data rates may also be too low with respect to requirements of a future AMI providing supplementary services.

7.2.2

PRIME

PRIME (PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution) is the specification of the lower layers of a system to provide an open, royalty free narrowband PLC solution for PHY and MAC layer, together with certain convergence layers definition. PRIME is intended to operate in CENELEC band A in LV power grids. PRIME seeks interoperability for different vendors’ equipment and systems. PRIME members, involved in the definition of the technology, include Advanced Digital Design, CURRENT Group, ERDF - Electricité Réseau Distribution France, Iberdrola, Landis+Gyr, STMicroelectronics, uSyscom and ZIV Medida. The PRIME PHY layer is based on channel adaptive OFDM along with FEC. The advantage of OFDM is its ability to cope with severe channel conditions such as frequency selective attenuation and narrowband interference without complex additional mechanisms (e.g. equalisation filters). Furthermore OFDM is spectrally efficiencient, thus allowing for higher data rates given the limited usable frequency range in CENELEC band A. A total of 96 data subcarriers are transmitted between 42 kHz and 89 kHz using convolutionally coded frequency differential M-ary PSK where M can be 2, 4 or 8.

BPSK With FEC Without FEC 21.4 kbps 42.9 kbps

QPSK 42.9 kbps 85.7 kbps

8PSK 64.3 kbps 128.6 kbps

Table 7-1: PRIME PHY data rates for the different transmission modes

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7.2.3

Telegestore -DLC

Telegestore that is ENELs AMR system uses a proprietary narrowband PLC technology called DLC (Distribution Line Carrier Communication). DLC is designed for the LV part of the power distribution network and operates in CENELEC band A with a net speed of 2.4 kbps. No detailed information is available. 7.2.4 ZIV

ZIV is a proprietay narrowband technology developed by the Spain based company ZIV Medida to bidirectionally communicate via the LV network in CENELEC band A. No detailed information available.

7.3 Open narrowband PLC technology standards
7.3.1 IEC 61334-5-1 S-FSK

IEC 61334-5-1, specifying the physical and the MAC layers, is the only PLC standard (DLC in IEC terminology) supported by IEC. It uses Spread Frequency Shift Keying modulation (SFSK). The IEC 61334 series provide the specification of all OSI layers necessary for efficient PLC communication. In particular, the application models of IEC 62056-61/62 (DLMS/COSEM) with the IEC 52056-53 application layer can be connected via the IEC 61334-32 link layer to IEC 61334-5-1. The physical and MAC layers are supported by chips from several manufacturers. Smart metering systems based on IEC 61334-5-1 are offered by several meter/system providers. The IEC 61334-5-1 standard is part of the Dutch NTA DSMR specification. PLC systems based on the Spread Frequency Shift Keying standard achieve reliable communication by combining frequency diversity, a robust repeating scheme, extensive error control with a lean protocol stack. However, supported data rates may be too low with respect to requirements of a future AMI. 7.3.2 IEC 61334-5-2

IEC 61334-5-2 describes an FSK based Physical Layer for PLC. The PHY layer relies on a binary differential FSK modulation. Its main characteristics are: • • • 7.3.3 Half Duplex operation Synchronous transmission Bit rate of 600 bit/s or 1200 bit/s IEC61334-5-4

IEC61334-5-4 describes an OFDM-based PHY layer for communication via power lines. The basic modulation scheme is DPSK. Carrier spacing is 4.5 kHz leading to a brut data rate per

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carrier of 4.5 kbps. To increase the robustness with respect to channel impairments, a rate ½-convolutional code is used. 7.3.4 CENELEC EN50090 (KNX – PL)

The Konnex protocol is a communication protocol suite for home automation approved as International Standard (ISO/IEC 14543-3), European Standard (CENELEC EN 50090 and EN 13321-1) and Chinese Standard (GB/Z 20965). Konnex supports communications via several physical media, among others: power line, twisted pairs, RF, and IP tunnelling. Regarding power line two profiles are defined: • PL110 profile is an S-FSK scheme based on the EIB PL110 physical layer. Center Frequency is 110 kHz (CENELEC band B) with maximum signalling speed of 1.2 kbps. PL132 profile is an FSK scheme based on EHS physical Layer. Center frequency is 132.5 kHz (CENELEC band C) with maximum signalling speed of 2.4 kbps.

7.4 Non-standardised broadband PLC (BPL) technologies
7.4.1 Homeplug

HomePlug 1.0 and HomePlug AV are the two major industrial standards for Broadband Powerline Communications (BPL) specified by The HomePlug Alliance, a large stakeholder group encompassing about 70 companies. A further standard HomePlug BPL mainly for ‘last mile’ access solutions is under development. HomePlug 1.0 has been specified with a specific focus on home networking (in-house LANs on existing power wiring), whilst HomePlug AV aims at home audio and video distribution over powerlines. In May 2008, ANSI/TIA incorporated HomePlug 1.0 powerline technology into the newly published TIA-1113 international standard. Similarly to WLAN 802.11a/g, HomePlug 1.0 is based on OFDM and a CSMA/CA protocol but uses the frequency range 4 – 21 MHz over powerline. To reduce probability of interfering with residentially operated amateur radio, HomePlug notches the shortwave amateur radio bands by default. The baseline standard supports a maximum PHY layer payload rate of approximately 14 Mbps (half-duplex) with an effective throughput comparable to 10BASE-T Ethernet, with provisions for extensions to higher rates. Chip provider Intellon e.g. has been providing HomePlug 1.0 compatible chipsets supporting proprietary modes at speeds up to 85 Mbps. HomePlug 1.0/Intellon technology is already in use for smart grid and broadband end-user applications in the United States. Thanks to the CSMA/CA-based access protocol, HomePlug 1.0 is capable to form ad hoc networks easing deployments in LV and MV power grids. It also supports robust transmission modes (< 1 Mbps) to maintain connectivity in adverse channel conditions, which is considered particularly interesting in the context of smart grid and remote metering applications.

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Since there exist other BPL standards as well (e.g. HomePlug AV, HD-PLC from Panasonic and OPERA/UPA from DS2), co-existence may be an issue e.g. in a scenario where HomePlug 1.0 was used in an AMI access network and HD-PLC as inhome private network. For such reasons HomePlug, along with other organizations such as CEPCA, UPA and HDPLC, is participating in developing the IEEE P1901 standard for powerline communications. P1901 defines a set of multiple non-interoperable PHY and MAC specifications and a coexistence protocol between them. Although different P1901 devices may not interoperate, they will coexist with each other.
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HomePlug 1.0 is certainly an interesting candidate for smart grid applications and in particular in regards to inhouse extensions to provide end-user services requiring increased data rates. However, it has to be considered that the technology (chip sets) is still relatively expensive and power hungry and there is not yet a clear normative/regulatory basis for BPL in the MHz-range. The HomePlug standard has been filed to IEEE to become an open standard. 7.4.2 Panasonic

The Panasonic BPL technology is a proprietary solution designed for providing in-home audio/video distribution. The Panasonic BPL technology is based on a wavelet OFDM scheme and concatenated RS and convolutional coding providing a maximum PHY data rate of 210 Mbps. The technology uses the frequency range from 2 to 28 MHz. Medium access is based on a CSMA/CD scheme. The technology can provide transmission speeds up to 90 Mbps at MAC layer and up to 65 Mbps at TCP layer. The technology supports different higher layers such as IPv4, IPv6, TCP and UDP. 7.4.3 OPERA/UPA (DS2)

OPERA/UPA is another industrial standard for BPL, which has been promoted by the Universal Powerline Association (UPA) and specified by the Open PLC European Research Alliance, a consortium of about 26 partners, within EC-funded projects OPERA I and OPERA II. OPERA/UPA is based on the technology developed by the Spanish Valencia-based chip design house DS2 with a specific focus on the ‘last mile’ access market. Today, the OPERA standard also includes enhancements for in-house networking. OPERA/UPA operates in the frequency range from 2 to 32 MHz using a thoroughly designed OFDM scheme with narrow carrier spacing (typically <10 kHz) and a well-defined transmit spectrum. It supports various bandwidth mode (10, 20, 30 MHz) and configurable highly efficient frequency notching to protect radio services if required. The standard supports a maximum PHY layer payload rate of 205 Mbps (half-duplex) with an effective throughput at Ethernet port in the order of 130 Mbps. The OPERA standard is based on a centrally-managed medium access using a token-pass protocol. It also supports a robust transmission mode (Hurto-mode, <1 Mbps) to maintain connectivity in adverse channel conditions, which is considered particularly interesting in the context of smart grid and metering applications.

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The OPERA/UPA standard is an interesting candidate for smart grid applications and in particular in regards to in-house extensions requiring increased data rates. A centrallymanaged access based on master – slave principals is however less suitable with respect to easy deployment and installation likely requiring ad hoc and mesh networking capability rather than ultimate throughput performance. DS2 is currently working on a new solution specifically for AMI applications, which shall be released within 2009 and should include among other features: automatic mesh network capability with automatic repetition, and handling up to 300 nodes in the same cell. Therefore, its use is worth to be considered not only in MV backbone networks but also on the LV portion (AMI). The OPERA/UPA standard has been filed to IEEE and ETSI to become an open standard.

7.5 Open broadband PLC technology standards
7.5.1 IEEE P1901

IEEE P1901 “Draft Standard for Broadband over Power Line Networks: Medium Access Control and Physical Layer Specifications" is a draft standard for broadband over power line networks covering medium access control and physical layer specifications. The standard is one of the most important initiatives for a global BPL standard that could cover, among others, BPL application to smart grids and metering. This standard is in a drafting stage yet.
H H H H H H

Its initial scope, as defined when the group was created back in June 2005, was to develop a standard for high speed (>100 Mbit/s PHY layer rate via powerlines. The standard will use transmission frequencies below 100 MHz and support Access BPL (‘last mile’) as well as Inhome BPL for in-building LANs.
H H H H

The standard focuses on the balanced and efficient use of the power line medium by all classes of BPL systems, defining detailed mechanisms for coexistence and interoperability, and ensuring that desired bandwidth and quality of service may be delivered. P1901 also addresses security to ensure privacy of communications between users and allow the use of BPL for security sensitive services. The standard is limited to the physical layer and the medium access sub-layer of the data link layer, as defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Basic Reference Model.
H H H H H H

The adopted baseline currently includes three separate options for PHY and MAC. • • • Option 1: largely based on the original proposal, which uses an OFDM scheme Otion 2: largely based on Panasonic Wavelet-OFDM technology Option 3: Introduced by DS2 and other P1901 access companies. It is also OFDMbased and tries to be compatible with a similar standardization effort in ITU-T, called

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H H

G.hn/G.9960, which is a home networking standard being developed by ITU-T for operation over power lines, phone lines and coaxial cable (see subsection 7.5.2). MAC layers on top of the three different PHYs also differ currently. So it is to be seen which option is finally favored by the market. Clearly, the biggest hurdle for 1901 technologies to be used in metering will be price, so a fundamental issue will be how the massive adoption of a certain option for in-home positively impacts its costs for Access applications. The applicability of the P1901 standard to metering solutions and smart grid applications will depend on the market success of BPL in general 7.5.2 ITU-T G.hn

G.hn is an ITU-T working group defining a standard for high-speed networking over power lines, phone lines and coaxial wiring. The Physical layer proposed by G.hn (Recommendation G.9960) was adopted by ITU in Dec 2008, and has wide industry support from silicon vendors, equipment manufacturers, service providers and various industry groups (HomeGrid Forum, UPA, HomePNA and CEPCA). Although initially conceived for home networking applications, G.hn’s PHY and MAC includes all the features required for long distance access applications, such as repeating/relaying capabilities, end-to-end AES encryption, low-power modes of operation, programmable spectrum, remote management, etc. The G.hn standard is an interesting candidate for smart grid applications. In the long term, it is expected to become the dominant standard for home networking, so smartgrid applications that make use of it would benefit from the extremely high volume currently generated by the consumer networking market.

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8 DATA/APPLICATION MODELS
8.1 General
The data/application model describes the basic principles on which Objects are built. (An Object is a collection of attributes and methods.)It also gives a short overview on how interfaces are used for communication purposes. Data collection systems and metering equipment from different vendors, following these specifications, can exchange data in an interoperable way. However, a data/application model is not necessarily object based. ANSI C.12.19 e.g. uses tables.

8.2 Proprietary data/application models
Proprietary data/application models are typically created and maintained by equipment manufacturers. It is up to the manufacturer to make the models publically available or to make them available only to selected partners and to protect them by IP rights. Because there is no “public organization” guaranteeing proper maintenance of these models, typically the specifications are not stable and may vary with equipment type changes. Interoperability with proprietary data/application models may be achieved on central system level by providing different “drivers” to handle equipment from different manufacturers (or even different types of the same manufacturer). This solution is not very cost effective but guarantees a recurring business for the central system providers.

8.3 Open data/application models standards
8.3.1 IEC 62056-61/62 COSEM

The application models cover classical AMR and smart metering applications for Electricity Gas, heat and Water. Besides the application models the standards also contain a unified object identification system (OBIS). The standards are permanently maintained by the DLMS-User Association considering the latest market needs and technology developments. The COSEM standards define the applications independently of the supporting communication media and protocols. The use of the COSEM standards on PSTN or GSM IP-based communication channels as well as for PLC communication is specified in the IEC 62056 series. The IEC 62056-61/62 standard is part of the Dutch NTA DSMR specification.

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9 SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS
The generic architecture of an AMI has been identified and structured. An overview on stateof-the-art meter reading concepts is provided mainly in regards to communications technologies presently used. A number of communications technologies that are considered potentially interesting for use in an AMI and in particular in the access and back-haul segment of an AMI have been briefly reviewed and discussed (major PROs and CONs). More detailed considerations of a subset of these technologies however will follow in the other parts of the D2.1 report. A thorough assessment of a subset of technologies (candidates) is then part of T2.2 which is reported in deliverable D2.2.
U U

A summary of preliminary conclusions is given in the following: Wireless access solutions may profit from existing public network infrastructure (e.g. GSM) but generally require some non-negligible investments (CAPEX) to install antennas or RF transceivers at suitable places at customer premises in order to provide reliable connections at all locations and in all areas. This is particularly true in areas where coverage is weak and/or meters are located in basements. Use of public wireless networks generates OPEX depending on the amount of traffic and contracts with operators. Toll-free utility-owned and operated wide area PMR networks normally do not exist. Wide range low data rate radio systems operating in UHF-ISM-bands using robust transmission techniques are attractive solutions for AMR as they are potential to reach meters in basements with a minimum of antenna sites, thus low infrastructure CAPEX. However, system capacity of these systems likely cannot meet capacity requirements for provisioning of future end-user services. Wired solutions e.g. via phone lines of the local loop are interesting alternatives. However, since there is typically only one subscriber line available, the use of phone line technologies would be charged on customers account. The use of subscriber lines by both customer and AMI operator may lead to conflicts and responsibility issues. Moreover, in most cases the PSTN connection is not where the meter is and therefore may involve some additional installation costs. Fibre optical networks may provide multi-subscriber capability, but FTTH deployments in the near future will be only locally and not area wide. Wired solutions via the powerline are particularly interesting as many devices (meters, smart appliances, etc.) are already connected to the power grid. However, they still require • a solution to communicate with those devices not connected to the power network (e.g. gas, water and heat meters) • PLC equipment to be installed in meters and substations

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• a solution for the back-haul network that may be PLC-based as well This all may add significantly to the CAPEX. However low OPEX may be expected relative to other solutions e.g. relying on public networks operated by telecom companies.

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10 COPYRIGHT
T

“Copyright and Reprint Permissions. You may freely reproduce all or part of this paper for non-commercial purposes, provided that the following conditions are fulfilled: (i) to cite the authors, as the copyright owners (ii) to cite the OPEN meter Project and mention that the European Commission co-finances it, by means of including this statement “OPEN meter. Energy Project No 226369. Funded by EC” and (iii) not to alter the information.”

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11 APPENDIX
11.1 M-Bus standard
11.1.1 The relevant standards

EN 60870-5-1, Telecontrol equipment and systems – Part 5: Transmission protocols – Section 1: Transmission frame formats (IEC 60870-5-1:1990) IEC 60870-5-2:1992, Telecontrol equipment and systems – Part 5: Transmission protocols – Section 2: Link transmission procedures EN 13757-1:2002, Communication system for meters and remote reading of meters – Part 1: Data exchange EN 13757-2:2002, Communication system for meters and remote reading of meters – Part 2: Physical and Link layer EN 13757-3:2004, Communication systems for and remote reading of meters – Part 3: Dedicated application layer EN 13757-4:2005, Communication systems for meters and remote reading of meters - Part 4: Wireless meter readout (Radio meter reading for operation in the 868 MHz to 870 MHz SRD band) EN 13757-5:2008, Wireless meter readout — Communication systems for meters and remote reading of meters — Part 5: Relaying EN 13757-6: 2007, Communication systems for and remote reading of meters. Part 6: Local bus EN 1443-3:2008, Heat Meters - Part 3: Data exchange and interfaces CEPT/ERC/REC 70-03 E, Relating to the use of short range devices (SRD) ETSI EN 300 220-1, V1.3.1:2000, ElectroMagnetic Compatibility and Radio Spectrum Matters (ERM); Short range devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 25 MHz to 1 000 MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500 mW; Part 1: Technical characteristics and test methods Dutch Smart Metering Requirements (DSMR) – P2 Companion Standard, V2.31 8th January 2009
P P

DLMS User Association 1000-1:2009, Ed. 9.0: Blue Book: COSEM identification system and interface classes.

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The EN 13757-1 standard

EN 13757-1 is a standard covering data exchange with utility meters (other than electricity). It covers the possibilities summarized in Error! Reference source not found..

Hardware interface type

Physical layer IEC 62056-21 Current loop: Clause 4.1

Data link layer Mode C: (ASCII) IEC 62056-21 Clause 6.3 Mode E (binary) IEC 62056-46 HDLC based data link layer

Application layer

Application data model

Local

V.24/V.28: Clause 4.2 Optical: Clause 4.3.

IEC 62056-53 COSEM Application layer EN 13757-3 M-Bus dedicated application layer

IEC 62056-62 COSEM interface classes IEC 62056-61 OBIS –

Twisted pair baseband signalling (M-Bus)

EN 13757-2 Clause 4

EN 13757-2 Clause 5

IEC 62056-53 COSEM Application layer

IEC 62056-62 COSEM interface classes IEC 62056-61 OBIS

Twisted pair carrier signalling (Euridis) without DLMS with DLMS with DLMS/COSEM
1
P P

IEC 62056-31 Clause 3.1 Clause 3.1. Clause 3.2 Clause 4.2. Clause 3.3 Clause 4.3 – IEC 61334-4-41

under consideration EN 13757-4 Relaying: EN 13757-5 IEC 62056-53 COSEM IEC 62056-62 COSEM interface classes IEC 62056-61 OBIS IEC 62056-46 HDLC based data link layer IEC 62056-53 COSEM Application layer IEC 62056-62 COSEM interface classes IEC 62056-61 OBIS EN 13757-3 –

Wireless M-bus

With Mode Q relaying (specified in EN 13757-5)

PSTN

IEC 62056-42

1
P P

This is a new evolution, not covered by EN 13757-1:2002

Table 11-1: Interfaces and protocols in EN 13757-1 EN 13757-1 uses the COSEM interface classes specified in IEC 62056-61. It specifies OBIS codes for utility meters other than electricity. Note, that the evolutions of the DLMS/COSEM specification since the 2002 edition of EN 13757-1 are not covered in this table.

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M-Bus System architecture

The system architecture is different in the case of the wired – twisted pair – and the wireless – SRD radio – media. Figure 11-1 shows the wired infrastructure with 4 meters. NOTE: Figures below are from the Dutch DSMR P2 interface specification.

Figure 11-1: M-Bus wired infrastructure – example Figure 11-2 shows the wired infrastructure with 4 meters.

Figure 11-2: M-Bus wireless infrastructure – example with T1 or T2 mode The M-Bus Master / Listener stores and forwards data read from the M-Bus slaves to a central system, and issues and / or forwards commands from a central system to the M-Bus slaves, using a suitable protocol. In the Dutch smart metering system, the Master/ Listener is an electricity meter, using the DLMS/COSEM object model and the GPRS or S-FSK PLC DLMS/COSEM communication profile. See also 11.1.10.

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11.1.4 EN 13757-2: The physical and the link layer of the wired (twisted pair) M-Bus profile The physical and the data link layers for data exchange via twisted pairs with base band signalling (there is no carrier signal) are specified in EN 13757-2. Information from the master to the slave is transmitted via voltage level changes. All slaves are constant current sinks: space (0) corresponds to a high current and mark (1) corresponds to a low current. The two wires can be exchanged and they are protected against short circuit. The slave interface can be equipped with an optional reversible mains protection. This option is interesting for devices powered from the mains. Most meters using M-Bus would run on a battery supply, but meters on the twisted pair bus can be optionally supplied from the bus. The total cable length can be a few kilometers. The default baud rate is 300 Bd. Baud rates up to 38,400 Baud are supported. The number of devices on the bus may limit the baud rate to lower values. The link layer is based on IEC 60870-5-1 and IEC 60870-5-2. The frame format is FT1.2. 11.1.5 EN 13757-4: The physical and the link layer of the wireless M-Bus profile

The physical and the data link layers for wireless data exchange are specified in EN 137574. Three modes of operation are available: • “Stationary mode", mode S, intended for unidirectional or bi-directional communications between stationary or mobile devices: The S1 mode provides oneway and the S2 mode provides two-way communication. The S2 mode is compatible with KONNEX. "Frequent transmit mode", mode T. In this mode, the meter transmits a very short frame (typically 2 ms to 5 ms) every few seconds thus allowing walk-by and/or driveby readout. There are two sub-modes: Transmit only sub-mode T1. It is the minimal transmission of a meter ID plus a readout value, which is sent periodically or stochastically. The bi-directional sub-mode T2 transmits frequently a short frame containing at least its ID and then waits for a very short period after each transmission for the reception of an acknowledge. Reception of an acknowledge will open a bi-directional communication channel. "Frequent receive mode", mode R2. In this mode, the meter listens every few seconds for the reception of a wakeup message from a mobile transceiver. After receiving such a wakeup, the device will prepare for a few seconds of communication dialog with the initiating transceiver. In this mode a “multi-channel receive mode”

• •

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allows simultaneous readout of several meters, each one operating on a different frequency channel. • The link layer is also based on IEC 60870-5-1 and IEC 60870-5-2 with format class FT3. The frame formats depend on the mode.

The baud rates are the following: • • • T: 67/16 kBaud; S: 16/16 kBaud R: 2.4 / 2.4 kBaud.

An M-Bus device may support one, several or all modes. The M-Bus wireless protocol is optimised for power consumption and low cost. A battery life of 14 years and a BOM of <1 € is claimed. 11.1.6 EN 13757-5: M-Bus wireless relaying

EN 13757-5 specifies relaying for wireless networks, to extend the action radius of the radio signal. The following modes are specified: • • • 11.1.7 Mode P, using routers, Mode R2, protocol using gateways; Mode Q, protocol DLMS/COSEM. supporting precision timing. This mode allows using

EN 13757-6: The physical layer for local bus

This is an alternative to M-Bus. It is intended for small systems with up to 5 meters, which can be read by a battery operated master. The total cable length is max 50 m. The bus has to be switched on before data exchange. 11.1.8 EN 13757-3: The M-Bus dedicated Application layer

The M-Bus dedicated Application layer is specified in EN 13757-3. All application data are encoded in the bits and bytes of the M-Bus telegrams, carried by the data link layer. An M-Bus telegram contains the following information: • the CI field identifies the type of the telegram: e.g. master to slave, slave to master, lower layer management information. A range of CI fields are reserved for DLMS based applications;

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the Data header, which can be 12, 4 or 0 bytes long: the 12 bytes “long” header identifies the device, the device type – e.g. gas, heat, water etc. meters – basic status information and encryption information; the Variable Data Blocks: A VDB consists of the Data Information Block (DIB), the Value Information Block (VIB) and the Data: o The DIB consists of one or more Data Information Fields (DIF). The DIF identifies the data type, the function (instantaneous, minimum, maximum, during error) and whether the data is current and historical. Extensions are available to identify storage numbers (identifiers of historical data), tariffs and sub-units within a physical device; o The VIB consist of one or more Data Information Fields (VIF). Primary VIFs identify the kind of data: energy, average, instantaneous parameter, the unit and the scaler. VIF extensions are available to further precise the identification. o The Data field carries the data identified by the DIB and the VIB.

manufacturer specific data.

The DIB and VIB serve roughly the same purpose as the OBIS codes specified in IEC 62056-61 (electricity) and EN 13757-1 (other than electricity). It should be possible to map the M-Bus identifiers to OBIS codes. 11.1.9 Data security

M-Bus supports data security by encrypting the M-Bus telegrams, using the DES standard, and more recently, the AES standard. Authentication is not supported. 11.1.10 Data exchange between devices using DLMS/COSEM and M-Bus: the Dutch project This possibility is the result of the Dutch Smart metering project and it is specified in the DLMS UA Blue Book Edition 9. DLMS/COSEM devices, e.g. electricity meter can be set up, using the appropriate interface classes, as M-Bus clients (M-Bus masters) to exchange data with M-Bus slaves, e.g. gas, water, and heat meters. The M-Bus client can retrieve data form M-Bus masters and store these data in COSEM objects. It can also send commands to the M-Bus slave devices. For wireless systems, the T1 and the T2 mode are used. For simple meters, Mode T1 is used. The meters (M-Bus slaves) send their data at regular intervals to the electricity meter ( M-Bus master). For more complex meters, Mode T2 is used providing two way data exchange. This allows sending command to the M-Bus slaves to set the date and time and for example actuating a gas valve.

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The data collected are stored in COSEM objects and can be collected by the Data Collecting System. Whereas EN 13757-3 specifies only DES encryption, the DSMR specification specifies AES. The DSMR specification contains a number of extensions and deviations to the EN 13757 M-Bus standards. Some application supported: • • • • • scan and install new M-Bus slaves; send operational encryption key; read / receive M-bus meter registers: hourly or real time values; set date and time in M-Bus slave; command M-Bus gas meter valve.

11.1.11 Evolution of M-Bus in the German OMS specification In the German OMS specification there are the following evolutions for the M-Bus: • • • • Improvement of the Encryption/Decryption/Verification process. AES encryption is used including unique key definition Improvement of the bidirectional communication Substantiation of the relaying function (/-5 Standard) Conversion Table from DIF/VIF to OBIS

All points will go to TC294. The harmonisation process to NTA is started.

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12 COPYRIGHT
“Copyright and Reprint Permissions. You may freely reproduce all or part of this paper for non-commercial purposes, provided that the following conditions are fulfilled: (i) to cite the authors, as the copyright owners (ii) to cite the OPEN meter Project and mention that the European Commission co-finances it, by means of including this statement “OPEN meter. Energy Project No 226369. Funded by EC” and (iii) not to alter the information.”

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