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EDU 702 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Presented by Nur Zahira Bt Samsu Zaman @ Taufiq Agalita ak Joseph Marliana Bt Baharudin
Definition of Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Quantitative research generates statistics through the use of large-scale
survey research, using methods such as questionnaires or structured interviews. This type of research reaches many more people, but the contact with those people is much quicker than it is in qualitative research.
Qualitative research explores attitudes, behaviour and experiences
through such methods as interviews or focus groups. It attempts to get an indepth opinion from participants. As it is attitudes, behaviour and experiences which are important, fewer people take part in the research, but the contact with these people tends to last a lot longer. Under the umbrella of qualitative research there are many different methodologies.
Quantitative Research Methodologies
Experimental Research means, DOING EXPERIMENT. Doing experiment is the best way to establish cause-and-effect relationship among variables. Examples: Quality of learning with an active VS passive motivational set Mnemonic versus nonmnemonic vocabulary-learning strategies for children
Manipulation of the Independent Variable Comparison of Groups Randomization
Essential Characteristics of Experimental Research
COMPARISON OF GROUPS
A group receives a treatment of some sort
A group receives no treatment
MANIPULATION OF THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
The researcher manipulates the independent variables. The researcher determines what forms the independent variable will take and then which group will get which form. Independent variables that can be manipulated: teaching method, type of counseling, learning activities, assignments, materials. Independent variables that can t be manipulated: gender, ethnicity, age, religious preference. Methods to establish independent variable in experimental study? One form VS another Presence VS absence Varying degrees of the same form
Random assignments of subjects to groups. Random assignments mean every individual who is participating in an experiment has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the experimental or control conditions being compared. 3 things to consider when using random assignments of subjects to groups. It takes place before the experiment begins It is a process of assigning or distributing individuals to groups, not a result of such distribution Groups are equivalent at the beginning of the study and only differ in variables of interest.
Typically examines one participant at a time to investigate the effects of an Independent Variable (IV) on a Dependent Variable (DV) (e.g. a treatment on some behavior of that participant. Generally will use multiple (i.e. 6-10 participants) which are basically replications of the research each time an additional participant is used. 3 Characteristics of Single-Subject Research: Uses repeated measures (need reliable measurement/instrument) Requires a clear description of conditions and the DV(measurement, IV and DV operationally defined) 2 general types of phases (baseline and treatment conditions, but could have probes, etc.)
Single-Subject Graphing BASELINE Period of no treatment (Independent Variable) or traditional treatment (reflects natural state) Allows research to have a comparison for the effect of Independent Variable and to determine if extraneous variables are operating (i.e. the control condition) INTERVENTION/TREATMENT Introduction of the Interdependent Variable Phase length should be approximately at least as long as baseline (for comparison purposes) Repeated measurement of the Dependent Variable continues The Six Single-Subject Design The A-B Design The A-B-A Design The A-B-A-B Design The B-A-B Design The A-B-C-B Design Multiple-Baseline Design
Single-Subject Research The A-B DESIGN
18 Minutes spent on assignments 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Sessions (time)
Single-Subject Research The A-B DESIGN
1 baseline and 1 treatment phase Consider the example below: A child having trouble working on school work (i.e. staying on task), the treatment is setting up a reinforcement contingency that gives him a Ringgit for every minute he stays on task Problem: There is a limited control over threats to internal validity. No control for extraneous variables - that is changes in the Dependent Variable could be caused by numerous things LIMITATION!!
Single-Subject Research The A-B-A DESIGN
18 inutes spent n assi nments 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Sessi ns time)
Single-Subject Research The A-B-A DESIGN
1 baseline - 1 treatment 1 baseline phase. Advantage The withdrawal strengthens the relationship between the IV and DV Consider the example below: A child having trouble working on school work (i.e. staying on task), the treatment is setting up a reinforcement contingency that gives him a Ringgit for every minute he stays on task Problem: Doesn t completely control for extraneous variables (but more evidence!) Irreversibility (Some IVs can t be withdrawn and some behaviors can t be reversed) LIMITATION!!
Also known as associational research. Relationships among two or more variables are studied without any attempt to influence them. Investigates the possibility of relationships between two variables. There is no manipulation of variables in Correlational research.
Explanatory Studies Prediction Studies
Purposes of Correlational Research
Correlational Research Explanatory Studies
Explaining human behavior. To clarify our understanding of important phenomena by identifying relationships among variables. Examples: Identify factors which might have caused underachievement among senior high school students T Results: Study habits were highly associated with the students academic performance
Correlational Research Prediction Studies
If a relationship of sufficient magnitude exists between two variables, it becomes possible to predict a score on one variable if a score on the other variable is known. For example: Secondary school grades are highly related to university/college grades. (Secondary school grades can be used to predict university/college grades)
Prediction: A person with a high grade/CGPA in Secondary School would likely to have a high grade/CGPA in college. T The variable that is used to make the prediction = Predictor Variable The variable about which the prediction is made = Criterion Variable Predictor Variable: Secondary school grades Criterion Variable: University/college grades
Correlational Research Prediction Studies
Correlational Research Prediction Using a Scatterplots
Correlational Research Examples of Study
What is the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior? How to determine the association among levels of academic achievement, motivation and persistence for high school gifted and talented seniors in the sciences? This study is to determine the predictive ability of high school grade point average (GPA) to forecast first to fourth year College GPA. Is maternal smoking during pregnancy related to increased of crime in adult offspring?
To determine the cause of existing differences among groups. Whereas correlational research involves collecting data on TWO or more variables on ONE group, causal comparative research involves the collection of data on ONE independent variables for TWO or more groups.
Three types of causal-comparative research
Type 1 Exploration of effects (dependent variable) cause by membership in a given group Question: What differences in abilities are caused by gender? Research hypothesis: Females have a greater amount of linguistic ability than males. Type 2 Exploration of causes (independent variable) of group membership Question: What causes individuals to join a gang? Research hypothesis: Individuals who are members of gangs have more aggressive personalities than individuals who are not members of gangs. Type 3 Exploration of the consequences (dependent variable) of an intervention Question: How do students taught by the inquiry method react to propaganda? Research hypothesis: Students who were taught by the inquiry method are more critical of propaganda than are those who were taught by the lecture method.
Causal-comparative versus Correlational Research
Associational research researchers seek to explore relationship among variables. Explain phenomena of interest. Identify variables that are worthy of later exploration through experimental research Provide guidance for subsequent experimental studies. Neither permits the manipulation of variables by the researcher. Explore causation (in both cases, causation must be argued)
Causal-comparative studies typically compare two/more groups of subjects while correlational studies require a score on each variable for each subject Correlational studies investigate two (or more) quantitative variables, whereas causalcomparative studies typically involve at least one categorical variable.
Correlational studies often analyze data using scatter plots and/or correlational coefficient, while causal-comparative studies often compare averages or use crossbreak tables.
Causal-comparative versus Experimental Research
One categorical variable. Compare group performances (average score) to determine relationship.
In experimental research, the independent variable is manipulated; in causal-comparative research, no manipulation takes place. Causal comparative studies are likely to provide much weaker evidence for causation than do experimental studies. In experimental research, the researcher can sometimes assign subjects to treatment groups; in causal-comparative research, the groups are already formed the researcher must locate them.
Compare separate groups of subjects. *
In experimental studies, the researcher has much greater flexibility in formulating the structure of the design.
* Except in counterbalanced, time-series, or single-subject experimental designs (see Chapters 13 and 14)
Survey Research Major Characteristics
Information is collected from a group of people in order to describe some aspects or characteristics of the population of which that group is a part. The main way in which information is collected is through asking questions; the answers to these questions by the members of the group constitute the data of the study.
Information is collected from a sample rather than from every member of the population.
The Purpose of Survey Research
To describe the characteristics of a population
To find out how the members of a population distribute themselves on one or more variables Rarely is the population as whole studies, however. Instead, a sample is surveyed and a description of the population is inferred from what the sample reveals.
Types of Survey
A cross-sectional survey collects information from a sample that has been drawn from a predetermined population. The information is collected at just one point in time. When an entire population is surveyed, it is called a census.
Types of Survey Longitudinal survey
Information is collected at different points in time. Three longitudinal designs commonly employed in survey research are: Trend study: different samples from a population whose members may change are surveyed at different points in time. Cohort study: sample from a particular population whose members do not change over the course of the survey. Panel study: sample are the same sample of individuals at different times during the course of the survey.
Qualitative Research Methodologies
Observation and Interviewing
The Nature of the Qualitative Research
Qualitative research studies that investigate the quality of relationships, activities, situations, or materials. The natural setting is a direct source of data, and the researcher is a key part of the instrumentation process in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers are especially interested in how things occur and particularly in the perspectives of the subjects of a study. Qualitative researchers do not, usually, formulate a hypothesis beforehand and then seek to test it. Rather, they allow hypotheses to emerge as a study develops. Qualitative data are collected mainly in the form of words/pictures and seldom involve numbers. Content analysis is a primary method of data analysis. Qualitative and quantitative research differ in the philosophic assumptions that underlie the two approaches.
Approaches to Qualitative Research
To investigate various reactions to, or perceptions of, a particular phenomenon.
Data are usually collected through in-depth interviewing. Researchers seek to identify, understand, and describe some commonality to how human beings perceive and interpret similar experiences.
Examples of topics for a phenomenological study
Teachers who African American have used the Civil rights students in a inquiry approach workers in the in teaching predominantly South during the high school. ninth-grade 1960s. social studies.
Approaches to Qualitative Research
A detailed study of one or (at most) a few individuals or other social units, such as a classroom, a school, or a neighborhood. It can also be a study of an event, an activity, or an ongoing process. Intrinsic case study: the researcher is primarily interested in understanding a specific individual or situational. Instrumental case study: the researcher is interested in understanding something more than just a particular case. Multiple- (or collective) case study: a researcher studies multiple cases at the same time as part of one overall study.
Which is to be preferred, multiple or single case designs?
Multiple-case designs have both advantages and disadvantages when compared to single-case designs. The results of multiple-case studies are often considered more compelling, and they are more likely to lend themselves to valid generalization.
Certain types of cases require single-case research.
Multiple case studies often require extensive resources and time.
Observation & Interviewing Ethnographic Research Historical Research
Why observation? Certain kinds of research questions can best be answered by observing how people act or how things look.
Example: Researcher could interview teachers about how their students behave during class discussions, but a more accurate indication of their activities would probably be obtained by actually observing such discussions while they take place.
Two types of observation:
Participant Observation (researchers participate in the situation they are observing) Nonparticipant Observation (researchers do not participate in the situation they are observing)
Researcher s identity is not known to any of the individuals being observed. Interacts with members of the group as naturally as possible.
Researcher participates fully in the activities of the group being studied, but also makes it clear that he is doing research.
She identifies herself as a researcher but makes no pretense of actually being a member of the group she is observing.
The researcher observes the activities of a group without in any way participating in those activities.
Observing individuals in their natural settings.
The researcher makes no effort to manipulate variables or to control the activities, but simply observes and records what happens as things naturally occur.
Example: Jean Piaget (child psychologist)
Limitation of Observation
She/he create a situation and ask subjects to act out, or simulate certain roles.
She/he produces other than normal behavior She/he influenced by the researcher s purpose
She/he expect a certain type of behavior, which may not be how the subjects normally behave.
- To find out how they think or feel about something - To find out what is on their minds Four (4) types of interviews are: - Structured - Semi-structured - Informal - Retrospective
Structured and semi-structured interviews
Verbal questionnaires. Consist of a series of questions designed to elicit specific answers from respondents.
Much less formal than structure and semi-structured. Do not involve any specific type or sequence of questions.
Can be structured, semistructured, or formal. A researcher tries to get a respondent to recall and then reconstruct from memory something that has happened in the past.
Six types of interview questions are:
Background ( or demographic) questions Opinion (or values) questions Experience (or behavior) questions
Respect the culture of the group being studied
Respect the individual being interviewed
Develop an appropriate rapport with the participant
Don t interrupt
Particularly appropriate for behaviors that are best understood by observing them within their natural settings. Variety of approach are used in an attempt to obtain as holistic a picture as possible of a particular society. The emphasis is on documenting/portraying the everyday experience of individual observation and interview. The sample is almost always purposive.
Culture Holistic Perspective Contextualization An Emic Perspective Thick Description Member Checking A Nonjudgmental Orientation
Data Analysis in Ethnographic Research
Visual Representations Statistics
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethnographic Research
Provide a much more comprehensive perspective. Its lends itself well to topics that not easily quantified. Particularly appropriate for studying behaviors.
Highly dependent on the particular researcher s observations. Bias Generalization is practically nonexistent
The systematic collection and evaluation of data to describe, explain and thereby understand actions or events that occurred sometime in the past. An attempt is made to establish facts in order to arrive at conclusions concerning past events or predict future events. To understand present educational practices and policies more fully.
The purposes of Historical Research
To make people aware of what has happened in the past .
To learn how things were done in the past to see if they might be applicable to present-day problems.
To assist in prediction.
To test hypothesis concerning relationships or trends.
Four (4) Steps Involved in Historical Research
Defining the problem or questions to be investigated.
Locating relevant sources of historical information.
Summarizing and evaluating the information obtained from these sources.
Presenting and interpreting this information as it relates to the problem or question that originated the study.
Four Basic categories of historical source materials
Primary and Secondary Sources
One prepared by an individual who was a participant in or a direct witness to the event being described.
Document prepared by an individual who was not a direct witness to an event but who obtained his or her description of the event from someone else.
Example : Essays written during World War II by students in response to the question, original documents, artifacts. Example: A textbook on educational research, newspapers.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Historical Research
It is the only research method that can study evidence from the past .
The measures used in other methods to control for threats to internal validity are simply not possible in a historical study.
Wider range of evidence than most other methods
Quantitative Vs Qualitative
Preference for hypotheses that emerge as study develops
Preference for precise hypothesis
Data reduced to numerical score
Preference for narrative description
Much attention to assessing and improving reliability of score obtained from instruments
Preference for assuming that reliability of inferences in adequate
Assessment of validity through a variety of procedures with reliance on statistical indices
Assessment of validity through cross-checking sources of informational (triangulation)
Quantitative Vs Qualitative
Preference for specific design control for procedural bias Preference for breaking down complex phenomenon into specific parts analysis Willingness to manipulate aspects, situations, or conditions in studying complex phenomena
Primary reliance on researcher to deal with procedural bias Preference for holistic description of complex phenomena Unwillingness to tamper with naturally occurring phenomenon
Which types of educational research to use?
Quantitative Research? Mixed Research?
Mixed-Method research involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study. Strengths of Mixed-Method Research: Help to clarify and explain relationships found to exist between variables. Allow researchers to explore the relationships between variables in depth. Help to confirm or cross-validate relationships discovered between variables, as when quantitative and qualitative methods are compared to see if they converge on a single interpretation of a phenomenon. Examples: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Health Research with Minority Elders: Lessons from a Study of Dementia Caregiving Investigating Classroom Environment in Taiwan and Australia with Multiple Research Methods
Mixed-Method Research Types of Mixed-Method Design
The Exploratory Design The Explanatory Design
Qualitative Study (higher priority) Quantitative Study (lower priority) time Quantitative Study (higher priority) Qualitative Study (lower priority) time Qualitative Study (higher priority) Quantitative Study (higher priority) time Combine and interpret result Combine and interpret result Combine and interpret result
The Triangulation Design