Program Course Code

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Bachelor in Mechanical Engineering (Hons.) Manufacturing and Technology Processes Lab MEM 564

TITLE Study of Chip Formation

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (PO) Programme Outcomes PO1 Details Ability to acquire and apply knowledge of engineering fundamental PO2 Ability to communicate effectively, not only with engineers but also with community at large. PO3 Having in depth technical competence in a specific engineering discipline PO4 Ability to undertake problem identification, formulation and solution creatively PO6 Ability to function effectively as an individual and in a group with a capacity to be a leader or manager as well as an effective team member. PO8 Recognizing the need to undertake lifelong learning, having entrepreneurship vision and possessing/acquiring the capacity to do so. PO9 Ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data


layers from metal are removed systematically from a work piece by the action of the cutting tool. The metal removed referred as chips. copper and aluminum at high cutting speed and/or high rakes angles. particularly in automated machine tools. There are three types of chip: 1) Continuous chip Continuous chips are usually formed while machining ductile material such as mild steel. Knowing about chip formation and control is very important because among others.OBJECTIVE The objective of this report is to illustrate various types of chip that can be produced during metal cutting process. Basically. it affect tool life. Roundly. a device clamped to the top of the tool that encourages the chip to curl more tightly. Besides that. the geometry and the speed of the cutting process and the existence or absence of lubrication. the chip produced in the different formed sizes due to various conditions. This problem can be overcome by the use of chip-breakers. we have to examine the effect of lubrication on chip formation. The secondary zone becomes deeper as tool-chip friction increase. Although they generally produce good surface finish. INTRODUCTION In the metal cutting process. hitting the work piece and breaking off. the chip develop secondary shear zone at the tool-chip interface. surface finish of type product. 2 . different chip formed different quality of surface finish and tolerance. iron. The type of chip produced depends on the work and tools materials. Caused by friction. the condition for each type and how they look like. the primary shear zone. The deformation takes place along a narrow shear zone. disposal problem and also cost. continuous chips are always desirable.

Increasing the rake angle. Using an effective cutting tool. 3 . Ductile materials and high stresses. Metallic bonding. 3) Discontinuous chip This is formed in small segments separately due to periodic rupture ahead of the cutting tool due to high stress applied by the cutting tool. y Workpiece materials that contain hard inclusions and impurities. Discontinuous chip usually form under the following condition: y Brittle workpiece material.s can effect change the geometry of the cutting edge and the rough surface finish produced. consisting of layers of material from the workpiece that are gradually deposited on the tool (additional molten material sticking to it) and may form at the tip of the tool during cutting. High temperature. BUE. Condition for BUE formation: y y y y y Mating metals must be mixable with each other. Low rakes angles. Low stiffness of the machine tool. or have structures such as the graphite flakes in gray cast iron. y y y y Large depth of cut. Velocity must be low. because they do not have the capacity to undergo the high shear strains involved in cutting. Lack of an effective cutting fluid. Using a sharp cutting tool. The tendency for BUE reduced by any following practices: y y y y Decreasing the depth of cut.2) Continuous chip with a built-up-age A built-up edge (BUE).

and the usage of the cutting fluid or coolant. 4) For each single variation of the discussed parameter. work piece material. etc. OPERATION PROCEDURE 1) The lecturer briefing about lathe machine and types of chip formation 2) The expert machinist do the demonstration by varying the cutting speed. feed rate. with coolant and without coolant. 5) Discussion into group for each chip formed. 3) The machine carried out two situations. cutting fluids. the chips formed were taken out and put on the table for clearer observation of the type of chips formed. cutting tools.EQUIPMENT Lathe machine. 4 .

2 1 Discontinuous. silver. silver with little burn. short (built up age) Continuous. black.O. silver. long 5 .RESULTS Cutting Speed (RPM) Feed Rate Depth of Cut (D.C) (mm) 130 0. short Continuous. silver. long Continuous. long (built up age) 1200 0. blue.0 2 Discontinuous. long Continuous. blue.1 2 With Coolent Without Coolent Chip Formation Discontinuous. short 790 0.04 3 Continuous. silver. long 200 1.

200 1. high temperature cutting process due to friction and high feed rate with cutting fluid.DISCUSSION 1. long and also with built up age due to low cutting speed and high feed rate. the chip colour become more darker. Cutting Speed (RPM) Feed Rate Depth of Cut (D. Without using cutting fluid.04 3 From observation.O.C) (mm) 130 0. Without using cutting fluid.0 2 From the observation. 1200 0.1 2 From the observation. There are differences between using cutting fluid and not using cutting fluid. Discuss the result of the demonstration. Observation The chip formation without cutting fluid is continuous. 790 0. The chip colour is black. the chip formation is continuous chip because the high cutting speed. the chip that been produce is continuous due to high cutting speed and fine feed rate. the chips colour is become little dark that chips colour with cutting fluid. fine feed rate. the chip that been produce is discontinuous due to low cutting speed and high feed rate. The differences between chip 6 . the chips colour is become little dark that chips colour with cutting fluid. the chip that been produce is discontinuous and short with built up age because of low cutting fluid. This due to the high cutting temperature. This due to the high cutting temperature.2 1 From the observation.

2. Dry machining is machining processes that not use any cutting fluid or called also as coolant. Explain / give reasons why. At the same time. The trend in machining now is dry machining.formation with and without cutting fluid only the colour. Dry machining also help in save the environment by reduce the using of cutting fluid. the chip that not use coolant is darker that use coolant. 3. Dry machining also known as green machining. Long continuous chips will damage the machine tools and also even hurt the machinist that operates the machine. depth of cut and cooling fluid that being set is suitable or not with the workpiece and cutting tools. we can see whether the parameter like feed rate. Dry machining is a trend because it cut the cost of manufacturing process compared to machining that use cutting fluid. Why the knowledge on chip formation is very important in metal cutting. The cost of management and dispose 7 . cost and many more. safety factor. everyone talks about green technology that can save environment. Nowadays. same as the dry machining here. From survey that has been conducted in European country. Knowledge of chips formation also important because it affects the tools life. Knowledge of chip formation in metal cutting is very important because from the chip that formed from the machine. commonly continuous chips produce good and better surface finish while discontinuous chips produce bad surface finishing. approximately 800 tonnes of the used cutting fluid has to be process and dispose last year. That is very harmful to environment. The type of chip that was produced by machine depends on the work and tool materials. That why the knowledge of chip formation is important to make sure that thing mention above not happen. the operating cost also will also increase because tools machine need to be replaced many time. Chip formation also affects the surface finishing of the workpiece. cutting speed.

Another reason why dry machining becomes trend is much material like to stay dry like aluminium. Chucks are used to grip the workpiece. We must always use coolant to avoid any unwanted burning effects and colour on the workpiece itself. The material must be easily cut by the cutting tools to avoid the cutting tools become blunt and disable. About 16 percent of the manufacturing cost is spending to manage the used cutting fluid and dispose it. In order to manage the chips efficiently. This type of material is easy to cut with the dry machining because the relative cutting temperature is low. The process of lubrication must be done to avoid the surface of workpiece become burn and black in colour. Give three important accuracy aspects/procedures in metal cutting process. Used to hold the square. 5. Three jaws universal chuck is used to hold the round and hexagonal bar or other symmetrical work. After that the cutting speed and the feed rate of the machine must be fit to each other to avoid built up age and long chips.the used cutting fluid is very expensive. octagonal and also can be used ti clamp the irregular workpiece or odd shape of the workpiece. All jaws move together call the life jaws. This types of jaws is very important to centre the workpiece and to make sure securely to heavy feeds and depth of cuts. the cutting tools and the material of the workpiece must be chosen properly. The jaws can clamp the outside or inside the work piece. cast iron and alloys. 6. Discuss/give three ways for you to manage chips efficiently. The position of the workpiece must be in the correct coordinates to obtain the precise cutting process. Other type of chuck is four jaws chuck. Built up age chips will cause the cutting tools become blunt and long chips bring dangerous impact to the user and the machine itself. 8 . The important aspects that important such as cutting speed. 4. Example of dry machining machine is like drilling machine. depth of cut must be suitable to each other in other to good cutting action. Three jaws chuck can be divided into two categories that are life jaws and death jaws. feed rate. There are 2 various chuck used in lathe machining that is three jaws and four jaws. Comment on the various chuck used by lathe machines.

The cutting fluid is a big factor to the chip formation where if the cutting process is done without the cutting fluid. 2003 3.. discontinuous. Manufacturing Processes. The formation of the chips depend on the cutting speed. Manufacturing Process. cutting speed and cutting fluid. Wiley. Prentice Hall. 2001 2.H. Amstead. B. Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. and built up age chips. Mohd Yusuff bin Haji Mohd al-Rangi. the chip results in blue and black colour. et al.. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. 8th Edition. feed rate. Schmid. New York 9 . This show that cutting fluid have many effects on chip formation. REFERENCES 1.CONCLUSION As a conclusion for the study of the chips formation which are continuous. 4th Edition.

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