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MCSE 70: 290, 291, 293 and 294 Exams Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the MCSE Exam - The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide

MCSE 70: 290, 291, 293 and 294 Exams Certification Exam Preparation Course in a Book for Passing the MCSE Exam - The How To Pass on Your First Try Certification Study Guide

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Published by Emereo Publishing

The Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer certification is designed for individuals who have knowledge and responsibility for designing, implementing, and administrating infrastructures for business solutions. The certification covers the installation, configuration, and troubleshooting of network systems using Windows Server 2003 and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server.

The Windows Server 2003 certification requires the passing of seven exams in no specified order. The Exams covered include:

- 70-290 Managing and Maintaining a Windows server 2003 Environment
- 70-291 Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure
- 70-293 Planning and maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure
- 70-294 Planning, Implementing, and Maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory Infrastructure

Once they have completed the exams successfully, administrators will find the book to be a valuable reference to core Windows administration skills.

This self-study exam preparation guide for the MCSE certification exam contains everything you need to test yourself and pass the Exam. All Exam topics are covered and insider secrets, complete explanations of all MCSE subjects, test tricks and tips, numerous highly realistic sample questions, and exercises designed to strengthen understanding of MCSE concepts and prepare you for exam success on the first attempt are provided.

Put your knowledge and experience to the test. Achieve MCSE certification and accelerate your career.

Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a "Thank You" letter?

Tens of thousands of people understand why this is a worldwide best-seller. Is it the authors years of experience? The endless hours of ongoing research? The interviews with those who failed the exam, to identify gaps in their knowledge? Or is it the razor-sharp focus on making sure you don't waste a single minute of your time studying any more than you absolutely have to? Actually, it's all of the above.

This book includes new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering numerous sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus information available nowhere else, this book will help you pass the MCSE exam on your FIRST try.

Up to speed with the theory? Buy this. Read it. And Pass the MCSE Exam.

The Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer certification is designed for individuals who have knowledge and responsibility for designing, implementing, and administrating infrastructures for business solutions. The certification covers the installation, configuration, and troubleshooting of network systems using Windows Server 2003 and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server.

The Windows Server 2003 certification requires the passing of seven exams in no specified order. The Exams covered include:

- 70-290 Managing and Maintaining a Windows server 2003 Environment
- 70-291 Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure
- 70-293 Planning and maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure
- 70-294 Planning, Implementing, and Maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory Infrastructure

Once they have completed the exams successfully, administrators will find the book to be a valuable reference to core Windows administration skills.

This self-study exam preparation guide for the MCSE certification exam contains everything you need to test yourself and pass the Exam. All Exam topics are covered and insider secrets, complete explanations of all MCSE subjects, test tricks and tips, numerous highly realistic sample questions, and exercises designed to strengthen understanding of MCSE concepts and prepare you for exam success on the first attempt are provided.

Put your knowledge and experience to the test. Achieve MCSE certification and accelerate your career.

Can you imagine valuing a book so much that you send the author a "Thank You" letter?

Tens of thousands of people understand why this is a worldwide best-seller. Is it the authors years of experience? The endless hours of ongoing research? The interviews with those who failed the exam, to identify gaps in their knowledge? Or is it the razor-sharp focus on making sure you don't waste a single minute of your time studying any more than you absolutely have to? Actually, it's all of the above.

This book includes new exercises and sample questions never before in print. Offering numerous sample questions, critical time-saving tips plus information available nowhere else, this book will help you pass the MCSE exam on your FIRST try.

Up to speed with the theory? Buy this. Read it. And Pass the MCSE Exam.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 18, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved
List Price: $29.95


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  • Foreword
  • 1 Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer
  • 2 Exam Specifics
  • 3 Physical and Logical Devices
  • 3.1. Hardware Devices
  • 3.1.1. Repeater
  • 3.1.2. Hub
  • 3.1.3. Modem
  • 3.1.4. Network Interface Card
  • 3.1.5. Media Converter
  • 3.1.6. Bridge
  • 3.1.7. Switch
  • 3.1.8. Wireless Access Point
  • 3.1.9. Router
  • 3.1.10. Firewall
  • 3.2. Disks
  • 3.2.1. Basic Disks
  • 3.2.2. Managing Partitions
  • 3.2.3. Dynamic Disks
  • 3.2.4. Dynamic Disk Volumes
  • 3.2.5. File Systems
  • 3.2.6. NTFS Compression
  • 3.3. RAID
  • 3.3.1. Storage Devices
  • 3.3.2. Converting to Dynamic
  • 3.3.3. Disk Partitioning
  • 3.3.4. Disk Problems
  • 3.3.5. Device Manager
  • 3.3.6. Driver Signing
  • 3.3.7. Hardware Profiles
  • 3.4. Media Drives
  • 3.4.1. Display Devices
  • 3.4.2. Power Management
  • 4 Network Management
  • 4.1. IP Addressing
  • 4.1.1. IPv4 Addressing
  • 4.1.2. IPv6
  • 4.1.3. Subnetting
  • 4.1.4. Classless Interdomain Routing
  • 4.1.5. Supernetting
  • 4.1.6. Public and Private Addresses
  • 4.1.7. Address Resolution Protocol
  • 4.1.8. Network Access Translation
  • 4.1.9. Port Address Translation (PAT)
  • 4.2. Domain Network Systems
  • 4.2.1. Domain Name System
  • 4.2.2. Domain Name
  • 4.2.3. Naming Standards
  • 4.2.4. DNS Server Service
  • 4.2.5. Recursive Query
  • 4.2.6. Root Hints
  • 4.2.7. Iterative Query
  • 4.2.8. Forwarders
  • 4.2.9. Server Caching
  • 4.2.10. DNS Zones
  • 4.2.11. Resource Records
  • 4.2.12. Forward and Reverse Lookup Zones
  • 4.2.13. Zone Transfers
  • 4.2.14. DNS Notify
  • 4.2.15. DNS Dynamic Updates
  • 4.2.16. Preferred and Alternate DNS Servers
  • 4.2.17. Suffixes
  • 4.3. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
  • 4.3.1. Address Allocations
  • 4.3.2. DHCP Servers
  • 4.3.3. Static and Dynamic
  • 4.3.4. Benefits of DHCP
  • 4.3.5. Lease Policies
  • 4.4. Network Protocols
  • 4.4.1. OSI Model
  • 4.4.2. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • 4.4.3. File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • 4.4.4. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
  • 4.4.5. User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • 4.4.6. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • 4.4.7. Domain Name System (DNS)
  • 4.4.8. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • 4.4.9. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)
  • 4.4.10. Transport Layer Security (TLS)
  • 4.4.11. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • 4.4.12. Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)
  • 4.4.13. Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP)
  • 4.4.14. Post Office Protocol (POP3)
  • 4.4.15. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
  • 4.4.16. Telnet
  • 4.4.17. Secure Shell (SSH)
  • 4.4.18. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
  • 4.4.19. Network Time Protocol (NTP)
  • 4.4.20. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • 4.4.21. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
  • 4.4.22. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • 4.5. Configuring TCP/IP
  • 4.5.1. Default Gateway and DNS
  • 4.5.2. Automatic TCP/IP Settings
  • 4.5.3. Alternative Configuration
  • 4.5.4. Configuring DHCP
  • 4.5.5. Manually Configuring TCP/IP
  • 4.5.6. Configuring Advanced Settings
  • 4.5.7. Configuring Network Bindings
  • 4.6. Network Monitor
  • 4.6.1. Installing Network Monitor
  • 4.6.2. Capturing Data
  • 4.6.3. Filtering Data
  • 4.6.4. System Monitor
  • 5 Network Security
  • 5.1. Managing Software Update
  • 5.1.1. Windows Update
  • 5.1.2. Automatic Updates
  • 5.1.3. Window Server Update Services (WSUS)
  • 5.1.4. Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA)
  • 5.2. Network Protocol Security
  • 5.2.1. Account Policies
  • 5.2.2. Local Policies
  • 5.2.3. System Policies
  • 5.3. Analyze Security Configurations
  • 5.3.1. Security Configuration and Analysis Tool
  • 5.3.2. Security Templates
  • 5.4. Managing Network Traffic
  • 5.4.1. IPSec Fundamentals
  • 5.4.2. The IPSec Negotiation Process
  • 5.4.3. Security Filters
  • 5.4.4. Security Methods
  • 5.4.5. Security Policies
  • 5.4.6. IPSec Authentication
  • 5.4.7. Enabling IPSec
  • 5.4.8. Configuring IPSec
  • 5.4.9. Configuring IPSec for Tunnel Mode
  • 5.4.10. IP Security Monitor
  • 5.4.11. Other Monitoring Tools
  • 5.4.12. Troubleshooting IPSec
  • 6 Users, Computers, and Groups
  • 6.1. User Profiles
  • 6.1.1. Profile Types
  • 6.1.2. Local Profiles
  • 6.1.3. Roaming Profiles
  • 6.1.4. Mandatory Profiles
  • 6.2. Managing Groups
  • 6.2.1. Domain Functionality Levels
  • 6.2.2. Group Types
  • 6.2.3. Group Scope
  • 6.2.4. Domain Groups
  • 6.2.5. Managing Group Membership
  • 6.2.6. Group Policy
  • 6.2.7. Group Policy Objects
  • 6.2.8. GPO User Configurations
  • 6.2.9. GPO Computer Configurations
  • 6.2.10. GPO Types
  • 6.2.11. GPO Updates
  • 6.2.12. GPO Considerations
  • 6.2.13. Group Policy Management Console
  • 6.3. Active Directory
  • 6.3.1. Purpose of Active Directory
  • 6.3.2. Active Directory Structure
  • 6.3.3. Domain Controllers
  • 6.3.4. Directory Searches
  • 6.3.5. Active Directory Schema
  • 6.4. User Environments
  • 6.4.1. Accessibility Options
  • 6.4.2. Fast-user Switching
  • 6.4.3. Multiple Locations and Languages
  • 6.5. Security Controls
  • 6.5.1. Group Policies and Resultant Set of Policies
  • 6.5.2. User and Group Accounts
  • 6.5.3. Configuring Accounts
  • 6.5.4. Startup and Logon Problems
  • 6.6. System Performance
  • 6.6.1. Performance Tool
  • 7 Resource Access
  • 7.1. NTFS File Permissions
  • 7.1.1. Permission Inheritance
  • 7.1.2. Simple File Sharing
  • 7.1.3. File Encryption
  • 7.2. Shared Folder Access
  • 7.2.1. Hiding Shares
  • 7.2.2. Changing Share Names
  • 7.2.3. Configuring Access Permissions
  • 7.2.4. Troubleshoot Access Denials
  • 7.3. Connecting to Print Devices
  • 7.3.1. Printing Process
  • 7.3.2. Print Management
  • 7.3.3. Network-Based Printers
  • 7.3.4. Active Directory Publication
  • 7.4. Offline Files
  • 7.4.1. Configuring Offline Files
  • 7.4.2. Configuring Synchronization
  • 8 Server Environments
  • 8.1. Monitoring Events
  • 8.1.1. Event Viewer
  • 8.1.2. Auditing
  • 8.1.3. Task Manager
  • 8.2. Managing Software Updates
  • 8.3. Remotely Managing Servers
  • 8.3.1. Using Remote Assistance
  • 8.4. Monitor File and Print Servers
  • 8.4.1. NTFS Disk Quotas
  • 8.4.2. File Server Resource Manager (FSRM)
  • 8.4.3. FSRM Quotas
  • 8.4.4. File Screening
  • 8.4.5. Print Queue Definitions
  • 8.4.6. Printer Pooling
  • 8.4.7. Roles and Priorities
  • 8.4.8. Printer Properties
  • 8.4.9. Print Spooler
  • 8.4.10. Print Management Console
  • 8.5. Monitoring and Optimizing a Server Environment
  • 8.5.1. Monitor Memory Performance
  • 8.5.2. Monitor Network Performance
  • 8.5.3. Monitor Processor Performance
  • 8.5.4. Monitor Disk Performance
  • 8.6. Web Servers
  • 8.6.1. Managing Internet Information Services (IIS)
  • 8.6.2. Running Applications in IIS
  • 8.6.3. IIS Metabase
  • 8.6.4. Virtual Servers
  • 8.6.5. Managing Authentication
  • 9 Disaster Recovery
  • 9.1. Manage backup procedures
  • 9.1.1. Windows Backup
  • 9.1.2. System State Backups
  • 9.1.3. Volume Shadow Copy
  • 9.2. Recovery from Server Failures
  • 9.2.1. Recovery Console
  • 9.3. Restoring Backup Data
  • 9.3.1. System State Recovery
  • 9.3.2. Directory Service Restore Mode
  • 9.3.3. Automated System Recovery (ASR)
  • 10.1. Refresher “Warm up Questions”

This Exam Preparation book is intended for those preparing for the Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer certification. This book is not a replacement for completing the course. This is a study aid to assist those who have completed an accredited course and preparing for the exam.

Do not underestimate the value of your own notes and study aids. The more you have, the more prepared you will be.

While it is not possible to pre-empt every question and content that may be asked in the MCSE exam, this book covers the main concepts covered within the Systems Engineer discipline.

Due to licensing rights, we are unable to provide actual MCSE Exam. However, the study notes and sample exam questions in this book will allow you to more easily prepare for a MCSE exam.

Ivanka Menken Executive Director The Art of Service

Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane, Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055

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...3............... 26 Dynamic Disks ................................................................1....... 4 1 2 3 Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer ........................... 3.......................1.....................................8............................... 27 Dynamic Disk Volumes ............. 3...........................1............................................... 3...................................3................ 3..4.. 19 Router . 3................... 1 Table of Contents ...................................................... 16 Bridge..................2.6.......... 3................. 3................... 3...................................... 3.....3................................................................................. .......................... 3.................... 24 Basic Disks ................... 12 Physical and Logical Devices ......... 3.. 14 Network Interface Card.......................................... Hardware Devices ...2..................theartofservice......... 27 File Systems ....3....................... Disks .............7..................................1..............................1.................................1..................... 3............................................................................3................. 25 Managing Partitions..........2.....................10............ 16 Switch ...........5.................. 30 3....... 41 4 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane..........3..............................org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 3.........3............................ RAID..........com Web: http://store..................................................... 3....... 3............................................... 3........ Australia│Email:service@theartofservice..................5................... 39 3..............................6............ 13 Hub ........ 32 Converting to Dynamic ...2..............4..............................................................2............................................1....................... 37 Driver Signing ........................1................. 34 Disk Problems..4............................... 24 Firewall ......5.....................................................................................3.................................. 38 Display Devices ........................6...................................................... 38 Hardware Profiles ....................... 29 Storage Devices .............. 3.......... 13 Repeater .4...................... 3........................ 14 Modem ..........Table of Contents Foreword ....................................... 36 Device Manager...................................... 3.............................................................................. 3.............................. 34 Disk Partitioning ............................. Media Drives.....com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.2.................................................................................................................7................. 17 Wireless Access Point .1...............1................1........ 3..... 25 3.. 11 Exam Specifics ....1.......................... 40 Power Management .2....1....4...................4..............2.. 3............... 3.........2..................................... 13 3........3...9...............................................................3.3.........................1............. 3................... 28 NTFS Compression ... 3................2.......1.............................................2.......... 15 Media Converter..............................

.............. 4............ 4. 56 Domain Name ....1.....2...................................... 4....... 67 Forward and Reverse Lookup Zones .. 54 Domain Name System...............5..8.................2........... 82 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) ... 4...............................................................com Web: http://store..................................2......... IP Addressing .................2....... 58 Recursive Query .................................................................1............................................................. 62 Server Caching...... Domain Network Systems ............. 4.......................................................................3.............2...................... 60 Iterative Query ................................5.... 4..1...4............................1..............2.......... 4.2... 42 4.............1..............................................9....................................... 52 Network Access Translation ....... 4................................................. 71 Preferred and Alternate DNS Servers....4....................... Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.......... 57 DNS Server Service ........... 4......... 4. 4.... 4..............2......4............................11........ 80 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) ... 68 Zone Transfers ..6....... 4.4..... 4.......... 70 DNS Dynamic Updates .......................................... 4............... Network Protocols .................4 Network Management ..4...................5.... 78 Lease Policies ....1................. 4.. 4.....2....... 76 Static and Dynamic ...................................................... 57 Naming Standards ................com │eLearning: http://theartofservice... 4................................ 4.3............... 74 4......8...................................14....2.... 4....................................................4...... 84 5 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 42 IPv6 .. 46 Classless Interdomain Routing. 75 DHCP Servers.......................................10.....................................................12...............org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 4...........................6..... 4..............................3..........................................................2........... 4...... 78 OSI Model ............................................. 4.....1........................ ................................................... 4....................... Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ... 68 DNS Notify.............................................2........1.......2...2......................................... 4....3......................15............4.... 4........................3.... 64 DNS Zones ............................ 4..... 4.................................. 77 Benefits of DHCP ..................... 53 Port Address Translation (PAT). 72 Suffixes...................3................ 51 Address Resolution Protocol ........3...... 83 Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). 80 4.... 73 Address Allocations ..........................................................................9..17..... 44 Subnetting...........1... 4..................................................2.....theartofservice... 50 Public and Private Addresses .............................2..............2.......... 42 IPv4 Addressing ......... 65 Resource Records ......................................3......1.......1...........................3........................... 4........16...2................................................................................................................... 49 Supernetting............. 4.......................1..... 60 Forwarders ............................2....13................................ 55 4..............2..................................................... 4...........4...............7............ 4............................................................................ 59 Root Hints .............3..... 4..........................................................................................................4..........

.... 118 6 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane..................... 102 Configuring Advanced Settings........................................1........... 92 Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) ........ 100 Configuring DHCP ...... 104 4............ 5..6...............................11............2.........................................3..........com Web: http://store.........5......4.. 98 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) ......2...................... ........................20............ 5 Network Security ............ 4......... 4............5..... 5................................. 109 Automatic Updates ............................................................14............................. 5...................... 4.5....6....................... 4....... 86 Domain Name System (DNS) ....................................... 109 Windows Update ...... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ...................21.............................................2..........4....................... 116 Local Policies ....4.. Network Monitor ....... Network Protocol Security ..... 99 Automatic TCP/IP Settings................... 85 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) .......... 110 Window Server Update Services (WSUS) ..........................13........4...........................................................4...22.19.......... 90 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) .........1...109 5........................3.............................7...... 94 Secure Shell (SSH) .......1..........1...................4........... 4................ 4. 96 Network Time Protocol (NTP).4........theartofservice.. 4...... 5...........17.2.... 4.... 87 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) ........................................... 95 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) ..18........ 102 Configuring Network Bindings..........................................4............................................... 91 Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) ...................org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 5.... 88 Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) ........................................... 115 5....... 111 Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA) ....2.............................8....... 4......... 96 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ..................9...5...4................6.......3............... 103 Installing Network Monitor .4.....4........1................... 94 Telnet ........ 5........... Configuring TCP/IP .......4.........6........ 4.................... 4.. 101 Manually Configuring TCP/IP ..10..................................4...............................1..... 93 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) ................... 4.......... 4.......................................... 4....4....................................... 113 Account Policies.6................ 4.................... Managing Software Update .................... 4.............. 105 Capturing Data ....5........5....6.1......................................... 4.........2...............................5... 98 Default Gateway and DNS ...........4..................4..................4.......................................4...................................... 100 Alternative Configuration........com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.. 4......................1.................5.................12........... 107 System Monitor ..... 93 Post Office Protocol (POP3)....................... 98 4...........................16.................. 4............................................4................1.......4.. 106 Filtering Data ................... 4.................................. 4..... 90 Transport Layer Security (TLS) ............ 108 4.........................4.4........ 4..................2...5. 4.. 4................... 97 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)............... 4.....15............7..............5..... Australia│Email:service@theartofservice........ 4.........6.................... 4........

...........1................................. and Groups .............. 6...................................... ....................................... 5...................... 5........3.............2...1............................. 129 Security Methods ............ 5..........5... Active Directory ............2... 145 Domain Groups ....... Analyze Security Configurations.......................................................12................................ 6........................6........ 132 Enabling IPSec ....... 133 Configuring IPSec ..................4....4................................................................. 6.. User Profiles .... 6..................... 131 IPSec Authentication...... 131 Security Policies .. 149 GPO User Configurations ..........1.8.............................. 144 6... 142 Roaming Profiles...........1........ 5......4............................................... 6..6.........4........ 140 5....2...................................11.......................... 126 5....................141 6.......................3.....1.......4.. 143 Domain Functionality Levels ...................... 151 GPO Types .......................... 124 5....................................................... 6..................10.............11......4..............2............4.........................13.. Managing Groups.......3....org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 6..5...........................1.......2.. 146 Managing Group Membership .............2............................2.....................9...........2......... 125 IPSec Fundamentals.....7......... 142 Local Profiles .....2..............................com │eLearning: http://theartofservice..... 6.... 5... 135 Other Monitoring Tools........... 6....1... 6.................... 6..................... Australia│Email:service@theartofservice................ 6.................... 121 Security Configuration and Analysis Tool .............. 5.......2................................2...............................................7......... 128 Security Filters .............3................................. 5.....3. 6............................................................................................com Web: http://store....................................................... System Policies .......... 147 Group Policy ......................... 150 GPO Computer Configurations ..............8..3........... 134 IP Security Monitor ...2.......theartofservice........................................ Computers.4......1...............4....................................................4.............4. 5...2............4........................................................1....................5................................... 151 GPO Updates ........4.......... 154 7 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane............ 6... 6.......................................................... 6............4.................................2....................2...................... 152 GPO Considerations .......... 127 The IPSec Negotiation Process ......... 145 Group Scope ..............2.... 154 6.. 139 Troubleshooting IPSec ....................... 154 Purpose of Active Directory ......... 6 Users................................ 133 Configuring IPSec for Tunnel Mode ......12..1........................... 124 Security Templates.....................10. 5............................................. Managing Network Traffic ..... 6..... 5............3.. 148 Group Policy Objects................................... 143 Mandatory Profiles ........ 153 Group Policy Management Console .............4.....................................3........... 5.......2....................................................... 5.......... 144 Group Types ...2...........................3.................................................................... 5...................4........................... 141 Profile Types ......2.... 6....9....................................

....2.......................................4...................... Shared Folder Access ...................1......................... 178 File Encryption...............................................1......1......1.............................3...... 194 8 8.......... 7.........1...........3.............1........ 7...4.... 185 7.................193 8..................................3..........................................6......2......................... System Performance ... 166 6. 193 Event Viewer ........................ NTFS File Permissions ....... 192 7.... 176 Permission Inheritance ..3.............................1......4........................................................1..............................1............. 183 Troubleshoot Access Denials ..org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 ....................................................... 7.................. 193 Auditing.......................................................... 7.......... 6......... 179 Hiding Shares........3..2....................... Monitoring Events ............................... 165 Group Policies and Resultant Set of Policies ........3.....................4..1.........................3.................................................. 6. Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.. 191 7............. 158 Active Directory Schema . 7....1.................3.... 157 Directory Searches.. 159 Accessibility Options ..... 187 Network-Based Printers ...............3.......com │eLearning: http://theartofservice..................................... 8................... 7........2..............6........................................3... 178 Simple File Sharing .........2.............3...........3......................... 170 Performance Tool ......1............................2...2..............4....5..... 7...................................................................5... Security Controls.... 166 User and Group Accounts ..... 7.................... 6........................................................... 6..........2..................... 7 Resource Access ...............................3...........4...5........................... 165 Multiple Locations and Languages ....... 6.......4....3.......... 6. 156 Domain Controllers.............................................. Offline Files ........1...2...... 6.......................... Active Directory Structure.............theartofservice.......................................... 189 Active Directory Publication .......1... 167 Configuring Accounts .................... 7............................ 190 Configuring Offline Files ..2................. 169 Startup and Logon Problems ........................ 163 Fast-user Switching ...................... 6...... 172 6............2...................5............ 7...... 173 6................................com Web: http://store.............................................2....................... 6.......3....... 7............. 186 Print Management..................................................................................5.........................176 7.. 182 Changing Share Names .............4...... Connecting to Print Devices ................. 181 7................................ 8 Server Environments ..................................4............................................. 183 Printing Process ............................6..... Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.............1.....................................2..................... User Environments .......5................ 191 Configuring Synchronization ...... 182 Configuring Access Permissions ........................................................................4....4..................... 6...... 161 6......... 7.....................

......................5............................. 8.........1...........10..... Recovery from Server Failures . 222 Directory Service Restore Mode ........1....... 8..............5........................ 216 Recovery Console ...............................................1...... 209 8. 196 Remotely Managing Servers ..............................com Web: http://store........ 207 Monitor Processor Performance ......................... 200 File Screening ....3................................................................................................6...............3...............5.................................................. 8..........................5. 212 8.................... 9....................... 203 Roles and Priorities ..................... 208 Managing Internet Information Services (IIS).............1................... 198 File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) .......................................... Managing Software Updates................................. 206 Monitor Memory Performance .................................. 8.......... 222 9. 8.....3.......... 207 8......... ..................... 8........ 9... 209 Running Applications in IIS ...........2..............................3..... 8.4................................................. 204 Print Spooler ...... 211 Managing Authentication ............ 8.........7............4....2......2.....1...........4................3........... 207 Monitor Network Performance .......................................................................3...2..4....1.......4..................3... 9................ 9.............................................................6.................9.6....... 208 Monitor Disk Performance ........... 8......... 195 8.. 201 Print Queue Definitions ..... 202 Printer Pooling........................ 203 Printer Properties .4....1.....................4....4..... 9...........................3..............1...........3....................................1....... 8......................8..........................1....... 214 Windows Backup .....................................................................................................4............3.......................... 223 9 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.......... 215 Volume Shadow Copy .............. 8............................. 218 Restoring Backup Data ........ 8.............214 9....................1....theartofservice........................ Task Manager ....................org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 9......................... Monitor File and Print Servers ....6............ 222 Automated System Recovery (ASR) .. 219 System State Recovery .... 8...... 205 Print Management Console............................3.... 199 FSRM Quotas ..5...6.............4................. 8..................................2.. 9....... 8............................3.....................................6..4..... 214 System State Backups ...............com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.................................... 9............................................... 197 NTFS Disk Quotas.....5.... 198 8.................2.............. 211 Virtual Servers .................... 8...................2.5....4.... 197 Using Remote Assistance ..4......... Australia│Email:service@theartofservice..1.............................. 209 IIS Metabase.................. Web Servers .................. 9 Disaster Recovery... 8......................6............................4............................ 8....................8..............................2.. Monitoring and Optimizing a Server Environment....... 8.. Manage backup procedures ......... 8............................

. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice....................................................................... 244 10..........com │eLearning: http://theartofservice...........................................256 10 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane..............................................1.................................................theartofservice.10 11 12 13 Practice Exam ...............244 References .. 225 Answers to Questions ..............254 Index ......................................org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 ..........1......................................225 Refresher “Warm up Questions” ................................................ Answer Guide ................. 11.com Web: http://store.....

Managing. The certification covers the installation. and Maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory Infrastructure One additional exam must be completed on an operating system and one on design.theartofservice. and administrating infrastructures for business solutions.com Web: http://store. The last exam is chosen from several elective exams. 11 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.1 Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer The Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer certification is designed for individuals who have knowledge and responsibility for designing. and Maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure 70-293 Planning and maintaining a Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure 70-294 Planning. Implementing. and troubleshooting of network systems using Windows Server 2003 and Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The mandatory exams include: • • • • 70-290 Managing and Maintaining a Windows server 2003 Environment 70-291 Implementing. implementing. configuration.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. There are two certifications available for MCSE: • • Windows Server 2003 Windows 2000 Server The Windows Server 2003 certification requires the passing of seven exams in no specified order.

com. Scheduling and location of test sites can be obtained at www.com Web: http://store. single answer Multiple Choice. In addition. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.2 Exam Specifics All Microsoft Exams are proctored by Prometric. Tests are conducted at a testing center. Two valid forms of ID are required when arriving at the center. multiple answer Drag and Drop Hot Area Build List 12 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. and timed. proctored.prometric. Exams are delivered in a secure environment.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. Specifics about the exam are: • • • Time Limit: # of Questions: Question Type: Depends on exam Depends on exam Multiple Choice. many Oracle University locations offer exams in addition to training.

Hardware Devices 3. amplifying the signals. so they cannot control broadcasts or collision domains. Repeater Repeaters connect different segments of the network by receiving incoming frames.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. regenerating the preamble.1. and sending the frame out all interfaces.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .1.1. The rule states that the maximum path between two stations cannot exceed 5 segments with 4 repeaters between those segments and no more than 3 segments populated. They are also not aware of upper-layer protocols. They operate at the physical layer of the OSI.theartofservice. The general rule for using repeaters is the 5-4-3 Rule. Repeaters are not aware of packets or frame formats.3 Physical and Logical Devices 3. A small amount of latency is introduced when using repeaters requiring a transmitting device to take into account the delay introduced in order to detect a collision with another device. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 13 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Hub Hubs work on the physical layer of the OSI model. does not regenerate the signal. Connectivity is performed through a dial-up application to a predefined phone number of the service provider which allows connection to the WAN.com Web: http://store. the user typically has connectivity to the Internet or with the proper credentials. and should be considered as part of the cable in respect to cable length.1.3. They perform the same function as repeaters. modem use is an alternative when a wireless hotspot is unavailable but a telephone line is. but through multiple ports. within their companies Intranet. From there. There are three types of hubs: • Passive – does not require an external power source.3.1. Modem Modems are used to convert analog to digital and vice versa.theartofservice.2. 3. Most homes and small offices have cable modems or ADSL modems that act as hotspots to provide wireless and wired Internet 14 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Intelligent – An active hub that provides error detection. • • Active – requires an external power source to allow for regeneration of the signal. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. For the most part. Hubs are typically found in wiring closest to concentrate Thinnet and 10BaseT networks. They are often used within the star topology to facilitate communication between network nodes.

• • Interrupt-driven I/O – the peripheral alerts the NIC when it’s ready to transfer data.1. is a hardware device to provide an interface between a computer network and devices to allow for a network-capable device to access that network. Direct Memory Access (DMA) – an intelligent peripheral assumes control of the system bus to access memory directly.connectivity. configuration is similar to setting up a Local Area Network using Ethernet.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. also called the Network interface Controller. Network Interface Card A Network Interface Card. The NIC has a ROM chip that contains a unique MAC address which allows the device to be identified on the LAN.4. 3. To access these modems from the computer.theartofservice. A NIC uses one of more techniques to transfer data: • • Polling – the status of peripherals under program control are examined by the NIC Programmed I/O – a designated peripheral is alerted by having a MAC address applied to the system's address bus. The NIC exists on Layer 1 and 3 of the OSI model. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 15 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

They will filter any incoming frames with the destination MAC addresses that are on the same segment where the frame arrived from. Bridges can do this because they have already learned the MAC layer address for each node on each segment and the interface they are located on.6. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice.1. bridges are intelligent devices working on the data link layer of the OSI model. connect different segments of a network. They can support different data communication protocols and cabling types.3. They are also protocol transparent. High port-density chassis systems are available. which is also used in broadcast frames. Media Converter Media Converters allow network traffic to be passed between different types of network ports. One can find media converters as small standalone devices or as a PC card converter. the bridge will forward the frame in a process called flooding.1. 3. If the address is unknown. preventing the frame from being forwarded. The 16 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. If a CRC error is detected. Bridges can control the collision domains on the network.com Web: http://store. Unlike repeaters.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Bridges store the entire frame until the CRC is verified and forward the frame. the frame is discarded.5. Generally this is found between twisted pair and fiber optic solutions. like repeaters.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Bridge Bridges.

cutthrough operations increase the probability that error frames are propagated on the network and most switches perform store-and forward operations. They use fast integrated circuits to reduce latency normally introduced by bridges. different bridges communicate with each other.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.7.theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Unfortunately.com Web: http://store. As a group they select a root bridge and implement the protocol which places some interfaces into a hold state while others are in a forward mode. Switches can run in cut-through mode which allows a frame to be forwarded before the entire frame enters the buffer. They generally have more ports than bridges and run faster. Two types of switches exist: • • LAN switches ATM switches 17 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. exchanging information such as priority and bridge interface MAC addresses.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Broadcasts are not controlled by switches. With the protocol. Switch Switches are more advanced than bridges. They store MAC addresses for each part and implement the Spanning-Tree Protocol. 3. resulting in a single path to send the frame.1.Spanning-tree Protocol is implemented to build a loop free network topology. Where they differ from bridges is that each part is a separate collision domain but all are part of the broadcast domain.

such as: • • • • Different interfaces and services Redundancy Sophisticated traffic management Depth of ATM internetwork software There are four types of ATM switches: • • • • Workgroup ATM Campus ATM Enterprise ATM Multiservice Access Workgroup ATM switches utilize Ethernet switch ports with an ATM uplink to a campus ATM switch.LAN switches can increase network performance and leverage investments currently in existing media and adapters. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. but different types of ATM switches provide services.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. and routers within workgroup and campus backbone environments.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Campus ATM switches are best for small-scale ATM backbones to 18 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. switches.theartofservice. VLAN functionality is possible through LAN switching. The benefits of LAN switching include: • • • Superior microsegmentation Increased aggregate data forwarding Increased bandwidth ATM switches perform cell relay services. servers. They are designed to provide highperformance switching among workstations.

A wide variety of local backbone and WAN types must be supported. The hardware is half duplex with an intelligence equivalent to a sophisticated Ethernet switch. This eliminates the need for multiple overlaying networks and allows for easier management of the network. They can also act as a single point for integrating all disparate services and technology found on the backbone into a common platform and ATM transport infrastructure. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Enterprise ATMs connect campus ATM switches.theartofservice. 19 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Enterprise ATM switches are multiservice devices designed to be part of the backbone for large.8. Their design is to support WAN and MAN services on a common infrastructure.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Access points have the ability to communicate with the client. 3. Additionally. the ability to connect multiple switches together is another important characteristic.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the network and other access points.1.com Web: http://store. Multiservice Access switches are used by service providers as customer premises equipment (CPE) and within public networks. enterprise networks and are usually used in conjunction with high-end multiprotocol routers. Wireless Access Point Access points provide an entry point into the wireless network.reduce congestion and enable new services such as Virtual LANs.

It is used when connecting the access point to a wired network backbone through a wired interface. Repeater mode provides a wireless upstream link to a wired link. Use of repeater access points is not recommended because: • • Cells around each access point must overlap by more than 50%.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . A client will connect to an access point in repeater mode. • Users attached to repeaters typically experience low 20 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Throughput is reduced since the repeater is communicating with the upstream access points and all clients. A wireless connection from the repeater is made with a root access point upstream.An access point can be configured in three modes: • • • Root mode Repeater mode Bridge mode Root mode is typically the default configuration.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Root-based access points are typically Ethernet driven. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. they are in communication with each other coordinating roaming functions Bridge mode connects two or more wired networks using wireless access points. When multiple access points are connected to the same wired network distribution. reducing the range available to clients.

11 networks to wired 812.theartofservice. Access points can be portals allowing client connectivity from wireless 802. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Protocol filtering controls what protocols can be used on a wireless link.5 networks.3 or 802. Access points can be configured to filter devices that are not listed in the MAC filter list in the administrative controls of the access point device. Some access points have the ability to add special functionality by providing Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) slots. Several hardware and software options are available. An access point may include MAC or protocol filtering capabilities which is used to prevent intruders from accessing the wireless LAN. including: • • • • • Fixed or detachable antennas Advanced filtering capabilities Removable (modular) radio cards Variable output power Varied types of wired connectivity Devices with detachable antennas allow connection to any antenna with any length of cable required.com Web: http://store.throughput and high latency. a device can have one radio 21 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. With two PCMCIA slots.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. This allows additional radios to be added or removed from the device. Some access points are shipped with diversity antennas which allow the use of multiple antennas with multiple inputs on a single receiver.

An access point is typically preconfigured with an IP address. telnet. A hardware reset button is available to reset the device to factory defaults.card to become an access point while another radio card can act as a bridge or as independent access points increasing the number of users that can connect. Fixed output access points are alternatives. Some models may include custom configuration management software. 22 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice.com Web: http://store. The more power used the greater the distance available to access the wireless network. Understanding the limitations of wired connections to the access point from the core network follows because network restrictions.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The administrator can control the power used by the access point to send data through variable power output functions. USB. Controlling power allows the range of the access point to be controlled. Changes to power can be made using: • • • • Amplifiers Attenuators Long cables High-gain antennas Access points can link to most network types. Configuring and managing access points are dependent on the feature set by the manufacturer. or built-in web server. Most devices include at least a console.

theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store.1x/EAP RADIUS client VPN client and server Static or dynamic routing Repeater functions Bridging functions Functionality support can vary drastically within the same feature. Some of the features available on Small Office.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The more features available. the greater the expense for the device. Home Office (SOHO) devices and Enterprise devices include: SOHO devices • • • • • MAC filtering WEP (64-bit or 128-bit) USB or console configuration interfacing Built-in web server configuration interface (simple) Custom configuration applications (simple) Enterprise • • • • • • • • • • Custom configuration applications (advanced) Built-in web server configuration interface (advanced) Telnet access SNMP management 802. some devices partially support the feature while others fully support. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 23 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.Several additional features are available.

theartofservice. The types of firewalls include: • • • • Packet Filter – the most common type of firewall placed between a trusted and untested network. 3. Routers are protocol aware and are capable of forwarding or limiting packets of routed protocols. Firewall Firewalls are devices designed to prevent unauthorized access and can be implemented using hardware or software. Screened Host – uses a packet filter firewall and 24 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. provide route redundancy.10. Additionally. Application Proxy – inspects all packets at the application layer to filter any specific commands. Each interface of a router is considered a different broadcast domain which is defined by the subnet and mask. and multicast routing. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.3. they have methods to filter traffic. Router Routers make forwarding decisions based on network layer addressing. hierarchical addressing.com Web: http://store. routers are the preferred method. When forwarding packets between networks of different media.1. They control collision domains and broadcast domains. load balancing.1. All packets going through the firewall are examined using a set of predefined rules.9.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Stateful Inspection – monitors packets for the purpose of filtering but also monitors the status of connections.

3. A basic disk created in Windows Server 2003 can be recognized by any earlier operating systems. Intermingling of the physical disk types require a multiple disk server.1.2. 3.2. Disks Two types of physical disk configurations are supported by Windows Server 2003: • • Basic Dynamic A single physical can be one or the other configuration. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. called partitions. The physical disk of a basic disk configuration can be subdivided into separate units of storage. • Screened Subnet – uses two packet filter firewalls and a bastion host. Basic Disks Any new disk installed in Windows 2003 is a basic disk.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .application proxy (Bastion) host. The configuration has been used in all previous versions of Windows and many other operating systems. Partitions come in two types: • • Primary Extended 25 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice.com Web: http://store.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Managing Partitions Several utilities are available to manage disk partitions.a command line utility that runs diskrelated functions like the Disk Management utility. 26 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.EXE – command-line utility to verify and repair FAT or NTFS formatted volumes.EXE – Disk Cleanup: a GUI utility used to deleted unused files DEFRAG.theartofservice.MSC – Disk Defragmenter: a GUI utility that performs like DEFRAG.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.2. including: • • • CHKDSK.A single physical disk can have up to four partitions: three primaries and one extended. recapturing and reorganizing free space in the volume. CLEANMGR.EXE. FSUTIL.EXE. DISKPART.2. 3. • • • DFRG.EXE – a command line utility that displays information about the file system and perform disk-related functions.EXE – Disk Defragmenter: a command-line utility which rearranges files contiguously. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.

and Boot.com Web: http://store. the basic disk can be converted to a dynamic disk. After the initial installation. A dynamic disk cannot be read by other operating systems in a dual boot configuration. memberships.3.2.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.3. Dynamic Disks Introduced with Windows 2000. 3.4. dynamic disks are the preferred disk type of Windows Server 2003. Dynamic Disk Volumes The volumes supported on a dynamic disk are: • • • • Boot – contains the %systemroot% files.2. Simple – a single region or multiple concatenated regions of free space on a single disk. A dynamic disk is divided into volumes.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. Any additional disks added can be of a basic or dynamic configuration. a dynamic disk uses a private region of the disk to maintain a Logical Disk Manager (LDM) database containing the volume types. When Windows Server 2003 is installed cleanly. Spanned – two or more regions of free space on 2 to 32 27 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com. not partitions like a basic disk.ini files. System – contains the Ntdetect. Nttldr. Where basic disks will use a MS-DOS-style master boot record (MBR) partition to store primary and logical disk-partitioning information. and dive letters of the volumes on the physical disk. a basic disk is created by default.

File Systems Windows Server 2003 recognizes two main file types: • • File Allocation Table (FAT) NT File System (NTFS) FAT comes in two versions: • FAT16 – a 16-bit version supported by early versions of MS-DOS and allowing a maximum size of 4 GB. • RAID 5 – Data is interleaved equally across all disks with a parity strip also interleaved across the disks. but by Windows NT 4. 28 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. The volume cannot be extended. Also known as striping with parity.2. 3.com Web: http://store. • Striped – Multiple regions of free space from two or more disks where data is evenly interleaved across the disks.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Any volumes that are present on a basic disk when upgraded to a Windows Server 2003 or after Windows Server 2003 is installed will no longer be accessible.0.physical disks linked to a single volume which can be expended but not mirrored. • Mirrored – Data on one disk is replicated on the second disk.5. The creation of these configurations on a basic disk is not supported by Windows Server 2003. Also known as RAID Level 0.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Also known as RAID Level 1. in stripes.

NTFS Compression NTFS allows native file and folder compression. A file or folder cannot be compressed and encrypted at the same time. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. • Moving a compressed file or folder to another folder on the same NTFS volume will result in a compressed file or 29 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. folder.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . secure file system supporting selective file. so the limitation is within the operating system. and volume level.047 GB. or volume. NTFS compression is mutually exclusive with EFS encryption. and volume compression or encryption and auditing. Security can be assigned at the file. Several rules apply when moving or copying compressed files or folders: • Moving an uncompressed file or folder to another folder on the same NTFS volume will remain uncompressed regardless of the compression state of the target folder. FAT32 will support 2. a compressed file can exist in an uncompressed folder or a uncompressed file can exist in a compressed folder.) NTFS provides a high-performance.theartofservice. folder. folder.com Web: http://store.• FAT32 – a 32-bit version introduced with Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2 (OSR2) and allowing a 32GB size limitation in Windows Server 2003. Since NTFS compression is a property of a file. (Theoretically. 3.6.2.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

RAID is a simplified system for managing and maintaining the storage environment. Tape devices are primarily used to back up large volumes of data. RAID Each storage device involves different technologies. The system creates a combined large storage device from smaller individual devices. Data is generally stored across different drives and different levels of RAID provide different levels of redundancy and performance. This level does not offer any redundancy and is not recommended for storing data. Copying a file from a NTFS folder to a FAT folder will lose all NTFS-specific properties. Overwriting a file of the same name causes the copied file to assume the compression state of the target file regardless of the compression state of the folder.theartofservice. • • Copying a file or folder causes the file to assume the compression state of the target folder.3. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Both technologies have the potential to fail at any point.com Web: http://store. Magnetic disks are the preferred device for primary storage. Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) provides a fault-tolerant array of drives to overcome any possibility of failure. though they are relatively stable. 3.folder regardless of the target folder. The different levels of RAID include: 30 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . • • Copying a file from a FAT folder to a NTFS folder will take on the compression state of the target folder.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The most basic level is RAID 0.

but the write speeds are typically slower than hardware implementations. Back to the different RAID levels. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. RAID Level 3 – uses parity to store the parity value on a separate drive.theartofservice. deciding which level to use is one of the most important decisions in SAN designing using RAID. Software implementation of RAID is possible. The reason for this reduction in speed is the need for the host system to calculate the parity values and perform additional I/O operations to ensure the storage of these values. To minimize host processing.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . RAID Level 5 – uses parity to store parity values across different drives.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. RAID Level 1 – uses mirroring to replicate data from one drive to the next.com Web: http://store. Damaged drives can be hotswapped without disrupting the network functions. fast RAID arrays have additional hardware caches. The level of redundancy provided by a virtual disk ensures that the data is protected from disk failures. multiple buses. RAID Level 6 – parity is stored on striped drives along with the data. Level 0 is 31 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. The technology is for large database operations. and RAID 5 and RAID 3 options are the most popular choices for large databases.• • • • • RAID Level 0 – simple level of disk striping which has data stored on all drives. and striping schemes.

Storage Devices Two types of disks are supported by Windows XP: • • Basic disks Dynamic disks Dynamic disks were introduced with Windows 2000 and converts basic disks to enable additional features. Basic disks are supported by all versions of Windows. It is best used when the primary requirements are high availability and data security. The costs are high and the write speed slower than RAID 5. Level 1 is excellent when the primary requirements are high availability and high reliability.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Windows 2000 and later versions support both basic and dynamic disks. RAID level 3 provide the best high data transfer and costs less than other levels.best used when high throughput is desired with the lowest cost possible. but write performance is low and is unsuitable for frequent transactions using small data transfers. and Windows NT. but offers no redundancy.com Web: http://store. but is costly since double the storage capacity is required. 3.theartofservice.1. MS-DOS.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Level 5 has a high read rate and is reliable.3. It is most suitable for multiple applications. but performance goes down when the drive fails though it can withstand single drive failures. Level 6 have high reliability and high read speed. 32 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

com Web: http://store.A basic disk supports: • • • Primary partitions Extended partitions Logical drives Different types of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) are supported by basic disks.theartofservice. volumes are used. but can be created on a remote computer using the Disk Management console in Windows XP.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . A dynamic disk will support: • • • • • Simple volumes Spanned volumes Mirrored volumes Striped volumes RAID-5 volumes Mirrored or RAID-5 volumes are not supported on Windows XP. Instead. including: • • • • volume sets stripe sets mirror sets stripe sets with parity With dynamic disks. partitions are no longer used. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 33 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

theartofservice. Click OK twice 3. Disk Partitioning The Disk Management console in Windows XP can be used to change the drive letter assigned to a partition or volumes. In the right pane. 34 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Converting to Dynamic All disks are initialized as basic when Windows is installed. Click Convert to Dynamic Disk 6. Place a check beside the disk to convert 7. To convert from basic to dynamic: 1.com Web: http://store. Right-click on My Computer 2.3. Click OK 8. Converting a basic disk to a dynamic disk can be done through the Computer Management console.3.3. Any volumes on the hard drive(s) can be assigned the letters C through Z. Choose Management 3.2. Click Disk Management 4. Conversion can be done without losing any personal data.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Click Convert 9.3. right-click the disk to convert 5. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The letters A and B are reserved for any floppy drives in the computer.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the simple volume cannot be extended. however.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 35 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. it must be imported into the computer's system configuration.Before changing the drive letters: • • The Disk Management console cannot be used to change the drive letter of the system or boot volume. the volume cannot be extended. the disk status is listed as foreign on the target system. System or boot volumes cannot be extended. only if the simple volume is created after the disk is converted to a dynamic disk. Extending volume means that additional free space on a different disk is used to extend the existing volume without losing any data. A primary partition will become a simple volume when a basic disk is converted to a dynamic disk. However.com Web: http://store. To access the data on the disk. Specific drive letters are used for environmental variables in MS-DOS and changing may result in non-functioning programs. It can be done on simple volumes on a dynamic disk. Disks can be moved after a conversion to dynamic disk with some additional steps. If the simple volume is created before if the conversion.theartofservice. When a disk has been physically moved between computers.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . usually because it is powered down. Disk Problems The status of each disk and volume on a computer can be seen in the Disk Management console.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. or corrupt disk. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.4. Online (error) – identifies the disk is accessible but having I/O errors.3. Unreadable – identifies the disk is not accessible. Status messages include: • • • • • • Online – identifies the disk is accessible and has no problems. or corrupt. Unrecognized – the disk signature is not supported by Disk Management. Other tools are available to diagnose and resolve disk problems in Windows XP: • • • Add Hardware is used to add hardware components. Device Manager can provide status on devices and update drivers. Foreign – identifies a disk that has been moved from another computer using Windows 1000 or Windows NT. Offline – identifies the disk not accessible. Status messages can assist in troubleshooting disk problems. 36 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice. usually because of a hardware failure. disconnected. CheckDisk can check for file system errors and bad sectors. an I/O error.3.

3. Device Manager To view a graphical representation of the hardware installed on the computer use Device Manager. configure. a connection between the device and the computer will initiate a device installation automatically. especially when the device is not plug-and-play. the device drivers and resources associated with the hardware are listed. The installation of device drivers will vary between manufacturers. 37 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Within the properties of the device.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . use the Device Manager to revert back to the previous driver through the Roll Back Driver button in the Driver tab of the device's properties. In these cases.5. The Add Hardware Wizard can also be used. Updating a device drive can cause additional problems.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. If the device is plug-and-play.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. and troubleshoot the devices physically connected to the computer system. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.3. Device Manager is used to maintain.

but will install unstable drivers. 3. Signed drivers are focused on stability over compatibility since Windows XP will not install incompatible drivers. Right-click My Computer 2. can be installed. Hardware Profiles Windows can tell which devices should be used when the computer starts up through the use of hardware profiles. Warn (default) – the user is prompted whether a specific driver should be installed or not.3.3. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Driver Signing Driver signing is a process used by Microsoft to validate that a driver isn't likely to crash. Since Windows XP automatically detects when hardware is added or removed. hardware profiles come in handy. Go to Hardware tab 4.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . signed and unsigned.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. To create a hardware profile: 1.3.com Web: http://store.6. Block – unsigned drivers cannot be installed.7. Choose Properties 3. Click the Hardware Profiles button 38 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Options for signed drivers can be found using the hardware tab in the Systems Properties dialog box and include: • • • Ignore – All drivers. hardware profiles can seem outdated. if a connected hardware device should be ignored. However.

click the CD recording drive 8. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Type a new name for the profile 7.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. and DVD-R devices. From the next dialog box. Copy This File 5. CD-RW. Media Drives Desktop computers are increasingly coming with CD-R. Select from the list of tasks: 4.theartofservice. Double-click the CD recording drive within My Computer 10.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Click OK 9. Under the profile list. select Docked or Undocked and copy 6. Click OK twice When the system boots up. Copy This Folder 6.4.com Web: http://store. files on the CD can be erased.5. 39 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. select Write These Files To The CD With a CD-RW. Windows XP allows users to write information to CD without having to install additional software. the system will prompt the user to select the desired hardware profile. select the data to write to the CD 3. Within My Computer. Copy the Selected Items 7. Under the list of tasks. Data can be copied by: 1. DVD. 3. Inserting a writable CD into the CD burner/recorder 2.

com Web: http://store. Desktop – change the background displayed on the desktop. Expand Administrative Templates 3.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Click OK CD burning features will be removed from Windows Explorer. 40 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.4. Screensaver – change the screensaver and implement a password-protected screensaver. Double-click the Remove CD Burner Features 6. 3. Click Enabled 7. Display properties can be obtained in two ways. Expand Windows Explorer 5. • • Go into Control Panel and open Display applet. The Desktop applet can be used to configure: • • • • Themes – change the display theme on the desktop. Expand User Configuration 2.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Appearance – change the font size and color schemes. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Within the Group Policy Editor: 1. Expand Windows Components 4.1.theartofservice. Right-click on any blank area of the desktop and select Properties.Administrators can prevent users from burning CDs by editing local policy. Display Devices Desktop settings are configured through the Display properties dialog box.

The APM cannot be used if the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) is currently being used.• Settings – configure multiple monitors. Power Management The Advanced Power Management (APM) is used to conserve power on mobile computer. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Windows will disable the APM. and troubleshoot display problems.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. If the system is incompatible.4. There are different modes used by the computer: • • Suspend mode o Uses minimal power Hibernate mode o o System is powered down and restarted System is in the same state when shut down 41 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. advanced settings. 3.theartofservice.2.

such as TCP. however. Over a billion unique addresses are possible through this schema. 4.4 Network Management 4. which in turn can be used to ensure delivery of packets from a source host to a destination host based on addressing.1.1.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. does provide header integrity achieved with a checksum. The combination allows for unique identifiers (IP addresses) on a particular network. routers. The protocol does not guarantee delivery. to handle. nor avoid duplication. All hosts on the same network have the same network ID. Each host has a unique host ID.1. 42 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. IP Addressing The Internet Protocol is a connection-less protocol used on packetswitched Link Layer networks.com Web: http://store. IPv4 Addressing IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses written normally in dot-decimal notation consisting of four octets separated by a period. Internet Protocol defines the addressing methods and structures for datagram (packet) encapsulation. and switches with multiple interfaces to the network have multiple IP addresses. An IP address is divided into a Network ID and Host ID. IP. but relies on upper layer transport protocols. proper sequencing. Computers.

Though the IP address is typically represented using dotted decimal notation.0.0.1 to 239.0.255. where the first octet is the network number and the remaining octets are the host address.theartofservice. • Class B – range from 128.0. Binary formatting utilizes a 2-based numeral system.0.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.0.0.Classes of networks have been defined to allow a greater number of networks to be available.1.255. Class E – are reserved for experimental networks and range from 240. Reading right to left each bit is twice the value of the preceding bit.0 to where the first two octets represent the network number and the remaining octets are the host number.0. • Class C – range from 192.0.255.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . to 126. • • Class D – are reserved as multicast addresses and range from 224. The specific classes are defined by: • Class A – range of 1.0.0 to 254.0. or bits within groupings of 8.com Web: http://store. it can also be represented in binary and Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) notations.255. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. where the first three octets are the network number and the last octet is the host number. 43 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.0.0 to 191.255.0.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Each 16bit segment converts to a 4-digit hexadecimal number with a colon separating each number.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. IPv6 IPv6 provides support to the unexpected growth of the Internet through a 128-bit address divided along 16-bit boundaries.1111 1111 255. xxx.xxx.1100 0000 4.com Web: http://store.0111 1110.1010 1010.2.255 = 1111 1111. The form of the address is xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.255.1111 1111.Examples 0000 0000 = 0 1111 1111 = 255 1111 0000 = 240 0000 1111 = 15 1010 1010 = 170 0101 0101 = 85 Binary translation Code Value 1 128 1 64 1 32 1 16 1 8 1 4 1 2 1 1 In dotted decimal format.xxx.1. 44 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.192 = 1111 1111.126.170.255.xxx. the IP address can be represented in decimal (base 10) and hexadecimal (base 16) format.1111 1111. The addresses correlate to the binary address as such: 255.

Delivery of a packet goes to the closest member interface. Efficient routing – supports hierarchical routing infrastructures.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .Zero-suppression makes address reading easier by removing any leading zeros from the address. A subnet mask is not required with IPv6 because it uses a fixed prefix that contains specific routing and subnet information. IPv6 addresses are classified into three types: • • Unicast addresses – identifies a single network interface Anycast addresses – assigned to a group of interfaces belonging to different nodes on the network. The subnet size for IPv6 is standardized to have a fixed host ID portion of 64 bits which will facilitate automatic formation of the host ID from the Link Layer MAC address.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Straightforward configuration – uses Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) and local routers for automatic IP configuration.theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. • Enhanced security – provides better protection against address and port scanning attacks. The benefits of IPv6 over IPv4 are: • • • Large address space – provides every device on the Internet with a globally unique address. • Multicast addresses – assigned to a group of interfaces 45 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

belonging to different nodes on the network. A class B address range allows 65. 61. which is a 32-bit string. Subnetting Subnetting is a method used to determine the network.3.1. the addressing format can be merged. The strict rules of IP addressing cause a problem resulting in unused addresses. Since the IPv4 address uses 32 bits. To support translations and allow for networks to have both IPv4 and IPv6 addressing.com Web: http://store. Delivery of a packet goes to all the interfaces identified in the address.534 hosts: a company of 4000 hosts.yyy Some IPv6 stacks will not support this mapped address feature.theartofservice.yyy.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The formatted address would look like: xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:yyy. The Network-layer devices use the IP address and the mask to determine which network portion the address belongs. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. it uses the last two 16 bit segments of the IPv6 address. subnetwork. The description of the problem is shown through the following scenarios: • • A class C address range allows 254 hosts: a company of 40 hosts.534 addresses would be wasted in the subnet.yyy.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 214 addresses would be wasted in the subnet. The default mask can be manipulated to create subnetworks for the LAN and WAN segments. and hosts of an IP address. Each call has a default address mask. 4. 46 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

0 To calculate the number of host IDs supported by the new subnet.777.an IP address of 201. In a class B situation.377.64.• A Class A address range allows 16.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.173.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. while the network ID has 22 bits: the subnet is 255. Using subnet masking. a large Class B network can be divided into smaller subnetworks. extending the subnet mask by 2 bits.214 hosts: a company of 400. each network handling 510 hosts. use the formula '2n-2' where n is the number of bits used for the network ID. the subnetwork can be discovered. One of these subnetworks can be divided even further with a /30 mask to provide 128 subnetworks to allow for serial links. A /23 mask will create eight subnetworks.214 addresses would be wasted in the subnet. so in the example above (222-2). so in the example above (210-2).255. the host ID as 10 bits.com Web: http://store.51 with a mask of 47 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Class-less based IP addressing allows the default subnet mask to be extended which will change the representation of the host and network IDs. To calculate the number of network IDs supported by the new subnet. use the formula '2n-2' where n is the number of bits used for the host ID.000 hosts.theartofservice. By converting the IP address and Mask into their binary notation and performing an XOR function.192. For example . A Boolean AND results in a 1 if both bits are 1 and 0 in all other cases. 16.

Find the integer multiple of the key number closet to.0000 0000 The subnetwork result is 201.1100 0000. 1111. multiply the number 48 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.x. an IP address of 198.0 would be used to calculate as such: 201. Any remaining mask octet that is not 255 or 0 is the interesting octet.0100 0000.55 and 255. sometimes called the magic number. Subtract this value from 256 to find the key number.0 = 198.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.169.255.255. To calculate all the subnets of a network. 0000. In the binary approach.128.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The mask octets of value 255 should copy the same octets for the IP address and the mask octets of the value 0 should copy 0 for the subnet address.255.55 with a mask of = 1100 1001.com Web: http://store.0000 0000 = 1100 1001. but not larger than the interesting octet's value.54.255. For example.54.theartofservice.54.0 x = the multiple 256-251 or 4 closest by not exceeding 169 x = 168 The subnetwork result is 198.173. the binary approach and a simple decimal approach.64.0 = 1111 1111. the first octet of any importance.0 would be used to calculate as such: 198.255.1010 1101.1000 0000.0011 0011 255. A shortcut method for identifying the subnet looks for the interesting octet. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.

routing tables have a problem reading the new subnet mask. 255. Classless Interdomain Routing Though IP addresses are reallocated.1 is written 255.com Web: http://store.1111 1111. For example .64.64. hence the Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) Notation. Write down values for each binary value of 1 greater than the next until the number of subnet are reached and translate.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .64.0 201.1/22 or 1111 1111. To resolve the problem. The decimal approach simply calculates similar to the key number.255.64. CIDR Notation uses the Dotted Decimal Format and the number of bits used for the network ID.0 (Invalid and discarded) 4.0 would have the following subnets: 256-192 = 64 201.64.0 with a mask of 255. a new format is required. 1100.a network address of 201.0 201.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.256. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.255.0 201.192.of subnet bits by 2n.192.0000 0000 49 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice. The difference between the number and 256 is than added to 0 until 256 is reached.

CIDR is used within the Internet. The additional unused IP addresses would be wasted. This is especially important when the number of computers on a network exceed the number of addresses available.theartofservice. Variable length subnet masks (VLSM) allow different masks to be used for different segments in the network.23. supernetting is a method for grouping networks into larger supernets through borrowing bits from the network portion of the address.com Web: http://store. VLSM requires routing protocols to support sending of the subnet mask. 4. Supernetting Where subnetting is used to divide IP addresses groups into smaller. for example Class C networks with available 254 addresses.0000 0000 In some cases.15/18 would be have a subnet notation is dotted decimal as 1111 1111.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. the number of available IP addresses on a network exceeds the number of computers. more IP addresses are available. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. more manageable groups.5.1100 0000. within an organization. VLSM is used to manage the number of hosts available in a subnetwork.1. This is especially true for point-topoint serial connections. By grouping two Class C networks together using supernets.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . When two classful networks are grouped into 50 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Variablelength subnet mask (VLSM) is used.1111 1111.4.192.

255.31. 4. RFC 1918 provides a set of unregistered network numbers that are not 51 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.255. These addresses cannot be routed to the Internet and are filtered out by Internet service provider.0 to 192. This prevents several broadcast messages each going to a single Class C networks from being sent out to the next router. For organizations.a supernet.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . a single broadcast message is sent to the autonomous system where it sends the message to the different networks. The private addresses in each of the classes are: • • • Class A – 10. Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) is a function of Internet Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing to reduce the number of Class C routes from an autonomous system. to 172.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. the IP address is used for Internet access and access to the organization's network.255 Class C – Address aggregation is a method of summarizing routing entries of a set of classful networks. a computer needs a globally unique IP address which is registered. Public and Private Addresses Some addresses within the classes have been reserved for private use by companies in their internal network. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.255 Class B – 172.1.255. Instead.16.0 to To connect to the Internet. routing is now considered classless.

To encapsulate or send other ARP requests over non-Ethernet networks. When the IP address is determined from the local address.7.theartofservice. For a device to communicate on the Ethernet.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Three forms of address resolution can be used. the association is stored in an ARP cache to be retrieved quickly later. An IP datagram is encapsulated in a link-layer frame and sent over the network. but can be used by organizations for internal use. 4. as well as reverse versions: • • • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Proxy ARP HP Probe Proxy ARP will associate IP addresses with media or MAC addresses.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.used in the public domain. When this address is determined using the IP address. The data link address is contained within the data link layer portion of the packet header. Address Resolution Protocol An IP device will typically have two addresses: a local address called a data link address or MAC addresses which uniquely identifies the device within the local segment and a network address which identifies the networks where the device belongs.com Web: http://store. the process is called reverse address resolution. Subnetwork Access 52 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. the process is called address resolution. After determining the MAC address.1. the local address of the device must be determined.

1. If the router has all of its routes to that host on other interfaces. Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is used by routers. a proxy ARP reply packet is sent with the routers own local data-link address. It is enabled by default.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. In these networks.Protocol (SNAP) is used. 53 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 4. and often require static configuration to map network layer addresses and NBMA addresses. Proxy ARP enables hosts which have no knowledge of routing to determine the media addresses of hosts on other networks.theartofservice. access servers. and hosts to discover the addresses of other routers and hosts connected to a non-broadcast multi-access (NBMA) network. As a result. packets typically have to make several hops to get to the destination. the original host will send its packets through the router which will than forward them to the intended host. which allows organizations to use private IP address on an internal network and the Internet at the same time. NHRP provides an ARP-like solution to allow systems attached to the network to dynamically learn the NBMA address of other systems within the network. Network Access Translation RFC 1631 defines Network Access Translation. Reverse ARP (RARP) works similarly as ARP but provides reverse address resolution.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . A host will send an ARP request to a router for another host on another network. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. This is done by using a valid registered IP address to represent the private address on the Internet.com Web: http://store.8.

the one-to-one relationship between the registered address and the private address still exists. Port Address Translation (PAT) Overloading allows NAT to support clients with a few global addresses. When a packet arrives that needs a NAT entry.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. creating a one-to-one relationship between the registered address and the private address. Port Address Translation (PAT) will translate the port number in addition to the IP address.theartofservice. the IP addresses are statically mapped to each other.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .Several variations of NAT are supported: • • • Static NAT Dynamic NAT Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation (PAT) With Static NAT. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. should be translated. 4. With dynamic mapping. If no global address is available. NAT 54 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.1. With Dynamic NAT. a global address is retrieved from the pool and associated to the local address. an organization can have more local addresses than global addresses.com Web: http://store. Dynamic NAT defines criteria for determining how private addresses. With Dynamic NAT. The registered addresses. or local addresses. the packet is discarded. are part of a pool of IP addresses which are dynamically used.9. or global addresses.

Domains are organized into discrete zones. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.000 port numbers. NAT will translate the source and destination IP addresses of two organizations using a network number if they are connected to the Internet.2.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The structure of a DNS distributed database is provided by a domain namespace. 55 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Though an organization has access to private addresses registered to them. The system is a distributed database systems used by more internetworking software to locate servers and map a user-friendly user name to its IP address. the source and destination addresses are changed. The NAT router keeps a table entry for every unique combination of local addresses and ports. Domain Network Systems Domain Name Systems (DNS) connect components of the network infrastructure by resolving host names to IP addresses. As the packet passes through the NAT router.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. but also a unique port number associated with that address.provides a global IP address.com Web: http://store. 4.theartofservice. With a 16-bit field for port numbers. they can also utilize network numbers registered to another organization. overloading NAT provides more than 65.

Each name server has database files which contain information on selected regions within the domain tree hierarchy. as well as an organization’s Active Directory domain-naming scheme. instead of IP addresses. In the hierarchical database that comprises the DNS solution.com Web: http://store.4.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. 56 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. This is particularly useful since resource's IP addresses can change over time. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The root. The InterNIC is delegated administration responsibilities for parts of the domain namespace and/or registering domain names. the host names are stored and the database distributed to multiple servers. The size of the database is unlimited and performance is relatively constant when more servers are added to the distribution.1. The naming convention used in DNS is a hierarchical and logical tree structure called a domain namespace. Domain Name System The DNS is the basis for Internet naming schemes. The management of domain names occurs through the distributed database system called name servers which stores name information.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .2. of this tree is managed by the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC). Hierarchical names are supported and will allow registrations of different data types that can be used in Hosts files. Resources are accessed by using alphanumeric names. or highest level. This distribution decreases the load on any specific server and allows the administration to be managed within partitions.

Together. The toplevel of the domain is a two or three character name code identifying an organizational or geographical status for the domain name. The second-level of the domain name is a unique name that is formally registered with the InterNIC to an individual or organization. The standards allow a limited 57 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. the complete name becomes the fully qualified domain name (FQDN). Domain Name The domain namespace is a hierarchy naming tree. A domain is any tree or subtree within the overall domain namespace. DNS naming has an accepted convention where each domain level is distinguished by a period which separates each subdomain of a parent domain. It is located at the furthest right of a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). Large organizations can further divide the registered domain name into distinct sections.4.theartofservice. The names in the DNS database establish the logical tree and identify the domain's position to its parent domain. The root domain contains the root node and is unnamed. It is used to identify and locate a specific host in a specific domain as it relates to the root. These subdomains are located before the second-level domain.2.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Naming Standards Naming standards allow consistent implementations of DNS names and act as global rules to allow multiple implementations to work together and allows organizations to create the same namespace for the organization and the Internet.2. 4. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store.2.3. such as business units of departments.

DNS servers running Microsoft Windows 2000 and later support extended ASCII and Unicode characters. DNS Server Service A DNS solution is comprised of a DNS server.theartofservice. These queries serve as requests for name resolution and consist of two types: • • Recursive Iterative DNS servers can also initiate queries to other DNS servers.subset of the ASCII character set.4. A DNS Client is a computer running a DNS Client service. 4. The server has authority over the domain and serves to perform the appropriate name resolutions requested by DNS clients.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.2. A 58 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. DNS client.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store. The client will send queries to the DNS server. Specified by RFC 1123. the standards allow: • • • • A-Z a-z 0-9 Hyphens Any invalid character is replaced by a hyphen. Users access resources using the alphanumeric names of the resources. and resources referenced in the DNS. The DNS server is a computer running the DNS service and hosts a namespace or a portion of the namespace.

and return the requested address. If a DNS server is non-authoritative. o If the answer is found.2. If no address is found. 59 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. A DNS server is either authoritative or non-authoritative for the namespace. the DNS client asks the DNS server to provide a complete answer to the query. 4. Recursive Query With recursive queries. This IP address is then used to access the resource. Being authoritative. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. o If the answer is not found.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Through a recursive query. it will return a “no” reply. the DNS server will forward the unresolved query to a specific server called a forwarder or use root hints. The specific steps of a recursive query are as follows: • • A query is sent by the client to the local DNS server.5. An authoritative DNS server hosts a primary or secondary copy of a DNS zone.DNS query is a request for the IP address of the supplied name.theartofservice. The only answers to a recursive query are the complete name or a reply that an address cannot be resolved. the DNS server uses a forwarder address or root hints to locate an answer.com Web: http://store. check the zone. DNS clients trust the DNS server to locate the mapping and accept any response provided by the DNS server. the DNS server will check the cache. the DNS server returns the answer to the client. The Local DNS server checks the forward lookup zone and cache for an answer.

The DNS server will continue this process down the FQDN until an authoritative domain is located. The root server will return the IP address of the domain to the left of the root domain. Iterative Query Iterative queries are made to a DNS server from DNS clients to get the best answer to request.6. It may query other DNS servers at different servers within the current domain namespace to locate the authoritative DNS server for the original query. Root hints are stored in the cache. 4.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. as well as to local DNS servers. 60 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. further assistance to get the answer is not provided by other DNS servers. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. With these types of queries. only addresses which the local DNS server refer. Often the answer to the request will be a referral to another DNS server located lower in the DNS tree. if configured. When a DNS server cannot find the answer to a query in the cache or locate an authoritative DNS server.2.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Root hints list the IP addresses for DNS root servers maintained by the InterNIC on the Internet.4. The DNS server will search its own database for an answer. Root Hints Root hints are DNS resource records that list the IP addresses for the DNS root servers. it will use root hints.dns file in the %Systemroot%\System32\Dns folder. the DNS server will query a root server for the domain left of the root domain in the query. With root hints.2. If a root hint points to a local server.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.7.

Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. the recursion ends. the querying server will follow the referral until a definitive answer is provided. or an error or time-out condition is met. The DNS client on the local DNS server will query the referred DNS server to continue the process until an Authoritative DNS server is found for the queried name. If the queried DNS server cannot find an exact match for the queried name. namely a positive or negative answer.An iterative query is generally made by a DNS server to other DNS servers after it has received a recursive query from a client. including: • • • Positive answers Negative answers Server referral A referral is a list of targets stored in the cache for a time period specified by the DNS configuration. The process for iterative queries is as follows: • A recursive query is received by the local DNS server from a DNS client. Recursion is a DNS server function where several DNS servers are sent an iterative query while the original DNS server is responding to a recursive query from the DNS client.theartofservice. The queried server will return the best answer possible.com Web: http://store. 61 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. the next best answer is a referral to a DNS server which has authority over a lower level of the domain namespace.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Only when definitive answers are obtained.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . As queried DNS servers return referrals.

may require interaction with DNS name servers across WAN links. When an answer is not found. The root server responds with a referral to the DNS server closer to the submitted domain name. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. it either does not have the authority over the domain requested or it doesn't have a record of the answer in its cache from a previous lookup. the server will attempt to find an answer to the request in its own zone files. the server must work with other name servers to resolve the request. At this point. DNS forwarders can be designated to handle and restrict this type of traffic.• • • • • An iterative query is sent from the local DNS server to the root server to obtain an authoritative name server.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 4. The response is sent to the DNS client.com Web: http://store. The process continues until the local DNS server receives an authoritative response. as typically found with global networks like the Internet. Forwarders A DNS server which is designated to forward queries for resolving external or offsite DNS domain names is called a forwarder. When a query is received by a DNS name server. DNS queries outside a local zone. The process used by the DNS forwarder after the local DNS server fails to resolve the requested name using its zone files and cached file is as follows: 62 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.8. The local DNS server sends an iterative query to the referred DNS server.2.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 63 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. No attempt is made by the forward-only server to try to resolve the query. The forwarder sends the response to the local DNS server. The root server provides a referral to a DNS server closer to the submitted domain name. An iterative query is made by the forwarder to the referred DNS server.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. which is sent back to the DNS client. The configuration can be: • Nonexclusive – the name server receiving the original query will solve the request if the forwarder is unable to resolve it. • Exclusive – the forwarding-only server will return a query failure if the forwarder is unable to resolve the request. Conditional forwarding is a situation where the DNS server will use a forwarder when the server resolves a selected set of domains. The process continues until an authoritative response is provided.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.• • • • • An iterative query is sent to the root server from the forwarded to obtain an authoritative name.theartofservice. Non-forwarding name servers can be configured to use one of more forwarding servers.

but increases Internet traffic and the load on name servers containing the name.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .9. The purpose of caching is to provide faster responses to queries and reduce the amount of DNS network traffic. When a request for name resolution is initially made and resolved. Changes in resource records may not be immediately available to the entire Internet when data is cached.4. The server administrator over the primary zone will configure the TTL for the data. When the countdown expires.theartofservice. Server Caching When recently accessed information is stored temporarily. When the next request for the same name resolution is made. After a DNS server caches data. This is fortunate since several queries may be made to find a definitive answer if the answer cannot be found in the cache. When the cached data is used to answer a query. the results are stored. the TTL will start the countdown for the information’s life in the cache. The time period is referred to as the Time to Live (TTL) and is specified in seconds. The resolver will cache the data as well as the remaining TTL. the process is called caching and the memory space where the information is stored is called a cache. the server will delete the data from the cache.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. All the information that is received from the querying process is saved in the cache for a specified time period. the answer can be found in the cache without the need for querying other DNS servers.2. The 64 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. the remaining TTL is contained in the data. Smaller TTL values ensure more consistency when data changes often.

however. They have no authority for any domain and have no primary or secondary zones. Negative responses are cached for a shorter period of time than positive responses.2.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. They contain only information cached when resolving queries. Zones 65 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. DNS Zones DNS information is stored as a resource record within a standard DNS database. cache the results. resource records can be added. A zone is a portion of the DNS database containing resource records which belong to a contiguous portion of the DNS namespace. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The purpose of caching negative caching is to prevent additional queries for nonexistent names to repeat. A DNS client resolver will also cache any information related to resolved host-to-IP mappings. both positive and negative results.theartofservice. and return the results. These resource records are used to process DNS queries and contain the host-to IP address mappings. These DNS name servers are responsible for performing queries.com Web: http://store. A zone file is a file on the DNS server’s hard drive containing all the configuration information about the zone and the resource records contained in the zone. All DNS name servers cache queries that have been resolved.10. usually no more than five minutes is the default.data stored can be positive responses to queries and negative responses. Zones are logical containers. some organizations may implement a cache only sever. After the DNS server service is installed and the properties configured. 4.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

DNS servers maintain zone files.theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. a subset of zone data consisting of SOA. For each domain name contained in a zone. 66 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. It contains a glue record. or more zones.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The different zone types are: • • • Primary – the authoritative copy of a DNS zone where resource records are created and managed. NS. Though zones are logical containers. Zones can be stored in either flat text files or in the Active Directory database. the domains must be contiguous. the zone becomes the authoritative source for the information about that domain. A single DNS server can be configured to host 0.provide a structure in the DNS for storing the resource records. Zones will hold resource records for one or more domains. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. connected by a direct parent-child relationship. Stub – a partial read-only copy of the resource records necessary to identify the authoritative DNS server for the zone. one. Secondary – a read-only copy of a DNS zone. they can also be a physical representation of a DNS domain or domains. and A records. To host records form more than one domain.com Web: http://store. Several different zones can be configured in a DNS and are dependent on the DNS needs of the environment.

The record will resolve a 67 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Resource Records Resource records are accessed by users or by networking components on the behalf of the users.com Web: http://store. • Nameserver (NS) – identifies the DNS servers for each zone and used in all forward and reverse lookup zones. the NS resource records is used to identify the DNS servers in the target zone. These types of records will resolve a host name to an IP address.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.11.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .2. • Service Record (SRV) – identifies a network service provided by the host and resolves the service name to the host name and port.4. It will resolve a domain name to a host name. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. The resource record contains information required for replication. Different resource records exist which represent different types of data stored in the DNS database. The type of resource records are: • Host (A) – represents a computer or device on the network and are the most common and frequently used records. • Start of Authority (SOA) – the first record in any zone file to identify the primary DNS name server for the zone and the e-mail address for the administrator responsible for the zone. • Pointer (PTR) – used to find a DNS name which corresponds to an IP address and is only found in reverse lookup zones to resolve an IP address to a host name. When a DNS server sends a query to a delegated zone.

the zone is based on the in-addr.domain name to a host name. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. the zone is based on DNS domain names and will hold host address resource records. In a forward lookup. These zones typically contain pointer resource records and allow the host name to be searched for the requested IP address. • • Mail Exchange (MX) – indicates the existence of a SMTP e-mail server and resolves to a host name. the process is called a zone transfer. The query process will search for IP addresses for each requested host name. DNS servers configured with a secondary zone regularly queries the master DNS servers to 68 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store.arpa domain name. 4. Alias (CNAME) – represents a host name that refers to another host name and resolves one name to the next.2. These records are contained in forward lookup zones or reverse lookup zones.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 4. Forward and Reverse Lookup Zones Resource records can identify either a host-to-IP address mapping (forward) or IP address-to-host mapping (reverse).2.13.theartofservice.12. respectively. The use of either type of zones will define users and network resources will query resource records. Zone Transfers When authoritative DNS data is synchronized between DNS servers. In a reverse lookup.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. IXFR queries are requests for an incremental zone transfer. The process for either form of zone transfer is as follows: 1.com Web: http://store. A secondary server maintains a copy of the existing DNS zone. A secondary server waits for a period of time defined by the Refresh filed of the SOA resource records attained from the master server. A master server can be either a primary DNS server or a secondary DNS server. The servers will track which changes have been made. A primary DNS server is the administrative location for the zone. AXFR queries are requests for a full zone transfer.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . as well as the master copy of the zone. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. When the time period expires. As the primary DNS server. a read-write copy of the zone database exists on the server and all changes to the zone is controlled by the server. 2. A master DNS server will transfer zone changes to another DNS server. Zone transfers ensure that DNS servers hosting the same zone have the same information about the zone. • Incremental zone transfers – an alternative query type used by some DNS servers to update and synchronize zone data when changes have been made since the last update.synchronize zone data.theartofservice. the secondary server 69 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Zone transfers fall into two categories: • Full zone transfers – a standard query type by all DNS servers to update and synchronize zone data when changes have been made.

The master server will maintain the notify list and consists of the IP addresses for the DNS servers which are configured to be secondary servers for the zone.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . DNS notify improves the time required to update zone 70 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store.queries the master server.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. A full zone transfer will send the entire zone database. the zone database is out of date and the server sends an AXFR query. The DNS servers within the zone that should be notified when changes occur are contained within a notify list.theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The secondary will compare the returned and its own serial numbers. while the incremental zone transfer will send only the changes since the last update.2. With DNS notify. These are updates to the original DNS protocol specifications. notifications are permitted to secondary servers through a DNS notify. 3. When these servers are notified of a change. o If the serial number of the resource records sent by the master server is higher. or an IXFR query if incremental zone transfers are supported. they will initiate a zone transfer with another DNS server and update the zone.14. 4. DNS Notify When zone changes occur. 4. copies of the DNS zone can be updated when unscheduled changes occur. The master server responds with the SOA resource record.

The client sends an SOA query to the DNS server which has authority over the resource record which the DNS client wants to register. the record must be updated manually by the DNS administrator to reflect changes to the resource when the IP address changes. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.data and the consistency of that data among secondary servers. The zone must be configured to enable dynamic updating. With dynamic updating. the resource records in DNS can be updated by the DNS clients or by DHCP. The server responds to the Assertion Update. 3. o If no registration exists. updates are only made at pre-defined time intervals. The process which enables a DNS client to update their own resource record is as follows: 1.15.com Web: http://store.2. 4. Without DNS notify. If a DNS resource record is created manually. The server returns the zone name and IP addresses of the DNS server that has authority over the zone the DNS client wants to register.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 2.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . DNS Dynamic Updates When resource records are not current. errors can occur. Dynamic updates allow DNS clients to automatically update and maintain their own DNS resource records. 4. The client sends the authoritative DNS server of the zone an Assertion Update to verify no existing registrations.theartofservice. the client sends a dynamic 71 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

theartofservice. then again after ten minutes. The client connects to the DNS server to update the A record. 72 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.16. If all attempts to register fail. 5. the client to register the resource record with other primary servers in the zone. 4. When DHCP is allowed to make updates to the resource record. as well as the server where the client will update its resource record. a preferred and alternate DNS server must be configured for the client.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . An alternate DNS server is used if the preferred DNS server is unreachable or cannot resolve the DNS query made by the client.update package to register the resource record.2. The DHCP server grants an IP lease. The DHCP server updates the PTR name for the client using the dynamic update protocol. A preferred server receives the DNS queries sent by the client. the client attempts the process from the beginning after five minutes.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. o If a registration exists. the following process is used: • • • • The DHCP client makes an IP lease request. To resolve these queries. Preferred and Alternate DNS Servers After installing and configuring DNS server properties and creating zones. clients must register and create resource records in DNS and use the server to resolve queries.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

If the preferred DNS server does not respond. 4. Any server which does not respond is removed from the clients list temporarily. The Suffix Selection option limits resolution for unqualified names to domain suffixes of the primary DNS suffix up to the second level domain.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The Connection Specific Suffix provides room to configure a DNS suffix for the specific connection. If the alternate DNS server does not respond.theartofservice. If none of the DNS servers respond to the query or update. the query of update is redirected to the next configured alternate DNS server. Suffixes Suffixes configured on clients allow name resolutions and updates to function correctly. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.2.The process for contacting the different DNS servers is as follows: 1.com Web: http://store. 4. then it fails. 2. Suffixes are applied by entering an FQDN.17.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 5. The preferred server responds to the query or update first. 3. The primary DNS server is queried by the DNS client 73 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. The complete process is: • • The client enters an FQDN. The client makes a query or update. The Append Parent Suffix options limits resolution for unqualified names to domain suffixes of the primary and connection specific suffix. 6. the query or update is redirected to the alternate server.

the DNS client resolver appends the parent suffix of the primary DNS suffix name until only two labels are left. • If a domain suffix search list is entered by the user. The DHCP server will respond with an IP address and a lease. thus devolving the FQDN. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a client-server process for allocating addresses. and reclaiming predetermined lists of IP addresses and other configuration information shared within the network or system.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. When a user boots a client computer within a system.resolver using the primary DNS suffix. DHCP reduces the administration workload and allows devices to be added to the network with little or no manual intervention. or period of time which the client is allowed to use the IP address. If resolution is still unsuccessful. The protocol has 74 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. • • If resolution is unsuccessful. An organization can have one of more DHCP servers. DHCP focuses on obtaining configuration information for device operation within an IP network. the primary DNS suffix and connection-specific domain name are ignored.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. 4. the system will broadcast a request for an IP address to a DHCP server. tracking the usage of those addresses. Used by network applications.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.3. the DNS client resolver appends each connection-specific DNS suffix.

Allocation of IP addresses is done using one of three methods: • Dynamic allocation – a range of IP addresses are identified for assignment by DHCP and each client computer on the network is configured to request an IP address.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. including the gateway and subnet mask. domain names.two components: a protocol for delivering host-specific configuration parameters from a DHCP Server and a mechanism for allocating network addresses to hosts. These servers manage pools of IP addresses and information about configuration parameters used by clients about default gateways.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . • Static Allocation – IP addresses are allocated by the DHCP 75 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Clients configured for DHCP will send a broadcast query when connecting to the network requesting necessary information from a DHCP server. 4. The DHCP server maintains a table of past IP address assignments to ensure that the same IP address be assigned to the same client. a lease defining the time length for the IP address and other IP configuration parameters. The server will receive the broadcasted request from the client and assign an IP address. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Address Allocations Network parameters assignments to network devices can be automated through one or more DHCP servers. • Automatic allocation – a free IP address is permanently assigned to a request client by the DHCP server from a range defined by the administrator. DNS servers. and other network specific information.3.theartofservice.1.

com Web: http://store.2. and address lease back to the client in a DHCPOFFER unicast message. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.3. they forward the request to one or more secondary DHCP Servers which have been defined by the network administrator. the server will send configuration information such as IP address. and if they can't use their own database. DHCP Servers attempt to satisfy DHCP requests from host.theartofservice. the request will include additional configuration information for the client. MAC address. The client will then send a DHCPREQUEST broadcast message with a formal request for the offered IP address to the DHCP Server. domain name. The server will pass additional information to the client and vice versa.server based on a table with pairs of MAC addresses and IP addresses which are manually completed. The client sends a DHCPDISCOVER broadcast message to find a DHCP Server. 4. When one is found. 76 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Only clients with a MAC address listed in the table can request and be allocated an IP address. The server confirms the address has been allocated by returning a DHCPACK unicast message. DHCP Servers A DHCP server will manage any assignment of an IP address and reclaiming that IP address when the lease expires.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . When a client issues a boot request to the server. The server will take this information and compare it to a database of possible parameters and respond with additional data based on the results.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

If the client is directly connected.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. mail. Static and Dynamic IP addresses are either static or dynamic. This is especially useful for servers which support print. and similar services since address changes can make it difficult to find these servers and complicate host-based access controls. When an IP address is permanently assigned to a client. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.3. central management of the configuration 77 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. the DHCP Server chooses from a pool of valid IP addresses in that subnet.When assigning an IP address to a client. it is considered a static IP address. the subnets of the secondary addresses are examined for possible allocation if the subnet associated with the primary IP address is exhausted. If secondary addresses are associated with the interface. Using static assignment with a lease. the DHCP Server will match the DHCPDISCOVER message with the DHCP pool which contains the subnets configured in the receiving interface. 4. Web. This type of address and any associated parameters will not change between system reboots.3. They are often found in the startup information of the machine.com Web: http://store. or are supplied by a remote server using DHCP.theartofservice. If the client is not directly connected.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the DHCPDISCOVER is matched with a DHCP pool that has the subnet containing the IP address in the giaddr field. Static assignment with a lease option are available to allow DHCP to issue the same address each time a server boots. file.

When the location of services are moved from host to host frequently. 4.5. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.3.3.com Web: http://store. Benefits of DHCP DHCP allows the management of IP addresses to be centralized. Lease Policies The time period a DHCP client is assigned an IP address by the server is called a lease.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Where DHCP is useful is: • • • • • More TCP/IP clients are present than network administrators. a lease policy is specified for the site which specifies the lease time and the option for renewal of the lease.4. When the server is initially configured.parameters is available. The lease time is identified in 78 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The DHCP servers serve to maintain information on various parameters. 4.theartofservice. Laptops regularly move throughout the network. By maintaining this information centrally. Diskless clients are supported. such as addresses and netmasks. rather than distributed. Fewer TCP/IP addresses are available than the number of clients who need them. the need for clients to store static network information is eliminated.

79 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.terms of hours. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. the DHCP server is allowed to allocate the IP address. These options can cause a number of problems in environments where there are more clients than addresses and should be disabled to prevent addresses from being assigned and renewed continuously. A general guideline is to make the lease time twice as long as the predicted downtime of a system. The address is owned by the client until it explicitly releases it.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Reserved IP addresses can be manually assigned to specific clients and are associated with either dynamic or permanent lease.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. This renegotiation is performed when the time on the original lease is half expired. Leases come in two types: dynamic and permanent. or weeks.theartofservice. Lease negotiation options allow a client to renew their lease with the server.com Web: http://store. With dynamic leases. days. Shorter lease times allow expired addresses to be reclaimed sooner but long enough to overcome any DHCP service disruptions. the only activity the DHCP server is allowed to perform is to assign the address. With permanent leases. detect when the address is no longer in use and reclaim the address. extend the lease time.

The sending host's software and hardware create these headers and trailers.theartofservice. the header and trailer for each layer is added or stripped away. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Headers and trailers are placed before and after the data which is given to the next layer.4.4. Network Protocols 4.1.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 80 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Each layer has a header and trailer which reside in each data packet that comprises the data flow. The model consists of seven layers: upper layers define functionality while lower three layers focus on end-to-end delivery of data Seven layers from top to bottom: • • • • • • • Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical During data transmissions between two hosts.com Web: http://store. OSI Model OSI stands for Open System Interconnection.4.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the data is processed through each OSI layer. The OSI Reference Model focuses on network communications. As data passes through the layers.

the data is handed to the Network Layer software. The data required for these interactions reside in the headers and sometimes trailers. Data is 81 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. decoding the incoming signal into a bit stream. It examines the frame check sequence (FCS) in the trailer to determine errors occurred in transmission. The Transport Layer reorders the incoming data. and performs error recovery when necessary. counters are encoded identifying error recovery and acknowledgment information. It also examines the destination address. Any received binary pattern is placed into a buffer and informs the Data Link Layer know a data frame has been received. The Network Layer ensures end-to-end delivery. If destination address matches host's address.Each layer may interact with the same layer on another computer to implement functions successfully. When errors occur.theartofservice. The Physical Layer provides delivery of a stream of bits across the medium. The Data Link Layer delivers data across the link.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. If the data is addressed to the host. processing continues and the data is sent to the Transport Layer software. The current host will examine the data link address to determine if the data is addressed to it or whether to process the data further. Within the Layer 4.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. the frame is discarded. The physical layer ensures bit synchronization.

com Web: http://store. and network congestion. Data is converted to the proper format as defined by the header. 82 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The Application Layer processes the final header and examines the data. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) The Transmission Control Protocol is a core component of the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP focuses on the reliable.2. When all flows are complete. The header typically transmitted at application initialization time only.theartofservice. The Session header includes fields signifying the sequence of the packet in the stream. TCP/IP.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the data is passed to the Presentation Layer software. The sequence provides the position of the data packet in the flow. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The Presentation Layer defines and manipulates the data format of the data transmission. ordered delivery of bytes from one computer to another program on another computer. flow control.then given to Session Layer. E-mail and file transfer are common applications of TCP because of its ability to control segment size. After data formats are converted.4. rate of data exchange. The Session Layer ensures the completion of a series of messages. Its header contains data on agreements for operating parameters and signals the values for all parameters. 4. the data is passed to the Application Layer software. Its header is typically found only in initialization flow.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .As mentioned. TCP can be used to create a single request and handle all the IP details to transmit the data. and minimizes network congestion. TCP will detect when these problems happen. TCP is part of the larger TCP/IP suite. The use of FTP is driven by the desire to: • • Promote sharing of files Encourage use of remote computing 83 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. the data can be broken up into several pieces and requests that can be handled by IP. reorder packets.theartofservice. 4.com Web: http://store. The Internet Protocol (IP) is designed to exchange pieces of information in the form of packets. When a large amount of data must be sent across the network.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. request retransmission of lost packets. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) File Transfer Protocol is a network protocol for exchanging and manipulating files over a TCP/IP based network. which are sequences of bytes combined with a header and body. This process prevents the problems of IP packets becoming lost or delivered out of order.4. The body contains the data being transmitted. FTP is found within client-server architectures and will utilize separate control and data connections between the application on the client and server sides of the connection. The header describes the destination of the packet and is used to forward the packet through the network.3.

it binds the source port to the dynamic port.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. When the client makes the connection. the control stream sits idle which can cause problems with timing out with large data transfers across the firewall.• • Shield users from variations in file storage systems Transfer data reliably and efficiently FTP works in two different transport modes to form a control stream that defines the parameters for sending data.4. 84 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.4.com Web: http://store. the FTP client opens and dynamic port to send the FTP server the dynamic port number and waits for a connection. TFTP is also used to load basic kernel that will later perform the action installation of a program.theartofservice. the FTP server will open a dynamic port and send the FTP client the server's IP address to connect to and the port which the server is listening. the client will bind the source port to port 20 on the FTP server. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) The Trivial File Transfer Protocol is a simpler version of FTP that can be implemented with very little memory. When the data connection is initiated by the server. but only the port number is transmitted. In active mode. 4. specifically thin clients and IP phones. In passive mode. It is an excellent tool for transmitting small amounts of data between network hosts. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Extended passive mode works just like passive mode. While data is being transferred through a data stream.

TFTP and online games.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . User Datagram Protocol (UDP) User Datagram Protocol is part of the Internet Protocol Suite. or data integrity. The UDP port 69 is its transport protocol.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. IPTV. 4. With UDP. VoIP. Datagram sockets are used to establish host-to-host communications 85 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Its primary purpose is to read files from remote servers and write files to remote servers. computer applications will send messages in the form of datagrams to other hosts on an IP network.4. Error checking is assumed to be performed at the application level and ignored by UDP.5. Special transmission channels or data paths are not required to send communication. ordering. UDP uses a simple transmission model without the handshakes required for guaranteeing reliability.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. UDP is popular with time-sensitive data transmissions that can be delayed with error checking processes or to answer small queries from large numbers of clients that exist in packet broadcasting or multicasting. such as DNS.theartofservice. Unlike its FTP counterpart. local networks. Several common network applications use UDP. TFTP cannot list directory contents and has no mechanisms for authentication or encryption. Unfortunately.TFTP utilizes UDP and supplies its own transport and session support. Also called the Universal Datagram Protocol. its lack of security makes it vulnerable in open Internet sessions and therefore typically restricted to use in private.

theartofservice. The server will receive the broadcasted request from the client and assign an IP address. The UDP header consists of the source port.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The packet of the UDP is structured with a header and body. Application multiplexing and integrity verification of the entire packet is provided. 4. These servers manage pools of IP addresses and information about configuration parameters used by clients about default gateways. Clients configured for DHCP will send a broadcast query when connecting to the network requesting necessary information from a DHCP server. including the gateway and subnet mask.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol focuses on obtaining configuration information for device operation within an IP network. domain names. but reliability in the transmission is provided by the application.by UDP applications. or payload.6. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. and checksum.com Web: http://store. destination port. DHCP reduces the administration workload and allows devices to be added to the network with little or no manual intervention. and other network specific information. These sockets bind the application to service ports that act as endpoints for the data transmission. DNS servers.4. length. Network parameters assignments to network devices can be automated through one or more DHCP servers. Used by network applications. Allocation of IP addresses is done using one of three methods: 86 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. a lease defining the time length for the IP address and other IP configuration parameters.

theartofservice. The DHCP server maintains a table of past IP address assignments to ensure that the same IP address be assigned to the same client. A domain name space is constructed like a tree of domain names. Only clients with a MAC address listed in the table can request and be allocated an IP address. namely the Internet of private network. • Static Allocation – IP addresses are allocated by the DHCP server based on a table with pairs of MAC addresses and IP addresses which are manually completed. The protocol is used to translate domain names to numerical identifiers (IP addresses) associated with networking equipment.7. 4.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. This allows devices connected to the network to be located and addressed. • Automatic allocation – a free IP address is permanently assigned to a request client by the DHCP server from a range defined by the administrator. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Domain Name System (DNS) The Domain Name System is a hierarchical naming system for computers.• Dynamic allocation – a range of IP addresses to assign to DHCP and each client computer on the network is configured to request an IP address. services and other resources connected to a network.com Web: http://store. Each DNS zone is a collection of connected nodes served by an authoritative 87 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.4. The tree is divided into zones starting with the root zone.

theartofservice.mil .8. The most common labels are: • • • • • • . The client is an application or computer used by a user which requests information from a website hosted by a server.com .org .nameserver.gov . Responsibility over any zone can be divided and delegated into smaller zones. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol is an application-level protocol used to retrieve inter-linked resources allowing distribution and collaboration.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.4.com Web: http://store. 4. Domain names also include subdomains and hostnames that are associated to specific IP addresses. The server stores and creates 88 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. or domains.net US Government entities Post Secondary Educational organizations Commercial organizations US Military Generic label (Miscellaneous) Network Infrastructures The top level domains can be further represented by country specific codes utilizing the two character domains established by ISO 3166.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . typically represented by a three character universally recognized label that identifies the type of domain devices reside. The rightmost label is the top-level domains. HTTP uses a request and response system to operate. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Domain names are constructed in two or more parts.edu .

The protocol defines eight methods that can be performed on a resource. • CONNECT – converts the request connection to a transparent TCP/IP tunnel. TRACE – allows changes from intermediate servers to be seen by echoing back the received request. DELETE – deletes the resource.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. POST – submits data to be processes to the resource. When an HTTP client initiates a request with a Web server.theartofservice. Resources are identified using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and Uniform Resource Locators (URLs).com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. such as TCP. OPTIONS – informs of the HTTP methods supported y the server for the specific URL and allows a functionality check of the web server.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 89 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. it establishes a TCP connection through a port.resources which are accessible by HTTP. The protocol runs on top of other protocols. including: • • • • • • • HEAD – asks for an identical response to a Get response without a response body. usually port 80. PUT – uploads a representation of the resource. GET – requests a representation of the resource. A series of network request and response transactions are performed.

4.4.9. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure is a combination of HTTP and the SSL/TLS protocol to enable encryption and secure identification of the server. Used extensively for payment transactions over the Web and other sensitive transactions, HTTPS is based on major certificate authorities installed in browser software. A HTTPS connection is considered secure and trusted if and only if: • • • • The user trusts the certificate authority to vouch for legitimate websites. The website can provide a valid certificate signed by a trusted authority. The certificate correctly identifies the website. The intervening hops between client and website are trustworthy.

4.4.10. Transport Layer Security (TLS)

Transport Layer Security is a cryptographic protocol which provides security for communications over the network by encrypting segments of the connection at the Transport layer. TLS is based on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and is used in applications for web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and VoIP.

TLS is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery of Internet communications by providing endpoint authentication and communications confidentiality. TLS supports
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unilateral and bilateral authentication and involves three basic phases: • • • Peer negotiation Key exchange and authentication Symmetric cipher encryption and message authentication

Different encryption algorithms can be used but must be agreed upon by both endpoints within a communication session.

TLS is used in conjunction with HTTP, FTP, and SMTP, running on top of them. It can be used with TCP or UDP. It is also used to create a Virtual Private Network by tunneling an entire network stack. SIP uses TLS to protect its application signaling.

4.4.11. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

Session Initiation Protocol is a signaling protocol used to control multimedia communication session over IP, such as voice and video calls. SIP will enable the creation, modification, and termination of two-party or multiparty sessions comprises of one or more media streams.

SIP utilizes several design elements to HTTP and SMTP. It is a TCP/IP based application layer protocol that can run on top of TCP or UDP. Though SIP can work with several other protocols, it is only involved in the signaling portion of a communication session and used to construct and deconstruct voice or video calls. SIP applications
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utilize another application protocol, Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP), to carry voice and video stream data. It supports the call processing functions and features found in Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and operates similar to familiar telephone operations.

4.4.12. Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)

The Real-Time Transport Protocol defines the standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. It is used in communication and entertainment systems involved with streaming media, such as telephony, video conferencing applications. RTP is designed to provide end-to-end, real-time, transfer of multimedia data.

The RTP specification describes two sub-protocols: • Data Transfer Protocol – deals with the transfer of realtime multimedia data and includes enabled timestamps, sequence numbers, and payload format. • Real time control Protocol (RTCP) – specifies QoS feedback and synchronization between media streams.

For each multimedia stream, an RTP session is established consisting of an IP address with ports for both RTP and RTCP.

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but client mail application use SMTP for sending messages to a mail server. The MDA will either store the mail or forward it over a network. To receive messages. e-mail is submitted from a message user agent (MUA). Once accepted the MTA will deliver the incoming message using a mail delivery agent (MDA) to the server designated for local mail delivery. to a mail server agent (MSA). Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Using SMTP. SMTP uses port 587 to submit to MSAs and port 25 to transfer to MTAs. SMTP defines the transport of the message.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The MSA will deliver the mail to a message transfer agent (MTA) which typically resides on the same mail server. An authenticated MUA is used to retrieve mail from the local mail server using PO or IMAP.13. not the content of the message.com Web: http://store. Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) Simple Mail Transport Protocol is an Internet standard for electronic mail. The MTA will search the DNS for destination mail exchanger records and relay the mail to the server. 4.4.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.4.14. Electronic mail servers and mail transfer units use SMTP to send and receive mail messages. The use of POP is typically associated with e-mail clients 93 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. or the client’s email application. client application use POP or IMAP. Post Office Protocol (POP3) Post Office Protocol is an application -layer Internet standard to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. Several versions have been developed and POP3 is the current standard.theartofservice.4.

Telnet works on TCP. Telnet Telnet is used to facilitate bidirectional interactive communications. however few Internet Service Providers (ISPs) support IMAP. deleting the messages from the server. and disconnecting from the mail server. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.16.15.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 4. Access to a command-line interface is provided. Unlike POP.theartofservice. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) The Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is another applicationlayer message retrieval protocol. IMAP supports both online and off-line modes of operations.connecting to mail servers. This interface is located on a remote host through a virtual terminal connection. A connection to TCP port 23 is established by the protocol to a 94 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Messages are generally left on the server until they are explicitly deleted. 4.4. Most e-mail applications will support either POP or IMAP. This allows multiple clients to access the same mailbox. retrieving all messages. Some clients have the option to continue storing messages on the server and synchronizing with the client using the POP3 Unique Identification Listing (UIDL) command.4. storing those messages on the user's computer as new messages.

It can be used to debug network services for SMTP. • Connection layer – defines channels. The protocol does not encrypt any data and offers no authentication. channel requests.17. however. SSH is primarily used on Linux and UNIX systems to access shell accounts. These weaknesses have been the primary reasons for the decline in using Telnet. • User Authentication layer -handles client authentication and several methods for authentication including password. SSH will support tunneling. Secure Shell (SSH) A more secure protocol with the same functionality of Telnet. public key. if needed. and POP. it is still used in diagnosing problems without using specialized client software. Public-key cryptography is used to authenticate remote systems and the user.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. and keyboard-interactive. and integrity verification. 4. FTP.listening Telnet server application. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. and global requests using SSH services.com Web: http://store. HTTP.4. Secure Shell allows data to be exchanged using a secure channel between two networked devices. Often used to log into remote systems and execute commands. SSH-2 has three well-separated layers: • Transport layer – handles initial key exchange and server authentication and establishes encryption.theartofservice. compression. forwarding TCP ports and X11 connections.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . IRC. 95 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

It is a component of the IP Suite and contains a set of standards for network management which consists of an application layer protocol. Using UDP port 123.4. Each level of the 96 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. It uses a hierarchical. layered system of clock sources.4.com Web: http://store. a database schema. and number of running processes. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Simple Network Management Protocol is a UDP-based network protocol used to monitor network-attached devices for conditions requiring attention of the network administrator.” The systems that are being managed are referred to as “Slaves” and will execute an agent that reports information through SNMP to the Masters. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.4. These managing systems are referred to as “Masters.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . These variables are organized in hierarchies that are described by Management Information Bases (MIBs). NTP is one of the oldest Internet protocol. one or more administrative computers monitors or manages a group of hosts on the computer network.18.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. variable-latency data networks. The management data reported by the SNMP agents are viewed as variables and consist of such measures as free memory. and a set of data objects.19. Network Time Protocol (NTP) Network Time Protocol is used to synchronize the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched. When using SNMP.theartofservice. system name. 4.

com Web: http://store. Each stratum will define its distance from the reference clock and will prevent cyclical dependencies.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.20. IP will encapsulate the message with a new IP header and transmit back to the original sending host. The traceroute command and ping utility uses ICMP messaging to function. • • Stratum 2 – consists of computers which send NTP requests to Stratum 1 servers.hierarchy is referred to as a stratum and assigned a layer number. 4. Stratum 3 – consists of computers which send NTP requests to Stratum 2 computers.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . or radio clocks that are directly connected to the local computer and not the network.4. ICMP messages are a result of errors in IP datagrams and constructed at the Internet layer. Often called time servers. 97 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. • Stratum 1 – computers attached to Stratum 0 devices which typically act as servers for timing requests from other levels. GPS clocks. IP is used to perform the tasks of ICMP making the protocol an integral part of the IP. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) The Internet Control Message Protocol is used by operating systems on networked systems to send error messages. The different levels are: • Stratum 0 – consists of atomic clocks. The message usually uses the IP datagram with the ICMP response.theartofservice.

Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) is used to direct multicast traffic from the server to the clients.4. 4.5.4.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.22. ARP is a request and response protocol that operates only across the local link that a host is connected to. it is used by client computers to connect to a local multicast router. Used in IPv4 networks [IPv6 uses the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)]. Configuring TCP/IP TCP/IP is automatically installed with Windows Server 2003 and is initially configurable in the Configure Your Server Wizard. the defaults use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) for automatic configuration.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) The Address Resolution Protocol aids in determining a host's link layer or hardware address when only its IP address or Network Layer address is known. 98 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 4.4. When installing TCP/IP. As a communication protocol.com Web: http://store. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) The Internet Group Management Protocol is used by IP hosts and adjacent routers to establish memberships to multicast groups. This is important for local area networking or routing internetworking traffic based on IP addresses when the next hop must be determined.21.theartofservice.

TCP/IP requires two pieces of information: • • IP Address Subnet Mask Configuration is possible through Windows Server 2003's Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box. each adapter can have different TCP/IP configurations. To access this dialog box: 1.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol 6.5. Open Network Connections 4.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store.theartofservice. 4. The Domain Name System (DNS) are protocols and services which enables hierarchical. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Another name for a gateway is router.1. Each router has an IP address which is used to obtain a MAC address to send outbound packets at layer 2. Open Local Area Connection 5. Select Control Panel 3. Select Start 2.To function. An internal IP routing table is used to match the destination IP address of a packet to the recipient computer. Default Gateway and DNS Default gateways are used to route traffic between a computer and computers on different subnets. user-friendly names to be used instead of IP 99 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Click on the Properties button If multiple network adapters exist on a computer.

two options are available for configuration automatic addressing: • • To option TCP/IP information from a DHCP server.addresses when looking for network resources. If no other client answers the broadcast. the client will be able to see 100 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Telnet applications. Alternative Configuration When enabling any DHCP client.5.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. FTP utilities. DNS services are utilized through web browsers. XP.xxx. select the Obtain DNS Server Address Automatically radio button. APIPA will allow a computer to pick addresses from the 169. a DHCP server should be in place to communicate with. In this situation. If a DHCP client cannot contact a DHCP server.xxx range and broadcasts it. select the Obtain an IP Address Automatically radio button. If DHCP is used for basic IP addressing and DNS server addresses form the DHCP server should be accepted as well. 4. and Server 2003 systems. the client uses the address as if manually assigned. 2000. IP addresses are translated into user-friendly names. Using the DNS protocol.theartofservice. and similar TCP/IP utilities.com Web: http://store. 4. Automatic TCP/IP Settings In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.2.5. may cause some unintended problems.3. If a server is not available. Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA). available on Windows 98.254.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

5. • For system backup in the event a DHCP server goes down. Configuring DHCP 1. Choose the LAN adapter to configure. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) from This Connection Uses the Following Items list.com Web: http://store. select the Obtain DNS Server Address Automatically radio button.xxx.xxx.4. 101 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. To turn on DHCP. If a DHCP server is unavailable.only the clients in the same range. Choose Properties. Click OK twice to close windows. Click the Properties button. To enable getting DNS server information. 4. select the Obtain an IP Address Automatically radio button. the computer will switch to an alternative static configuration instead of the 169. Another feature introduced with Windows Server 2003 is Alternative Configuration. 2. 6. 5. Select Network Connections Control Panel. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Right click Local Area Connection. 4. 7. 9. 8.254.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Alternative Configuration should be used when: • Windows Server 2003 is installed on the portable computer and making a connection with an ISP that doesn't support DHCP.theartofservice. 3.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

6. If DNS is used on the network.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. Enter the gateway or router address in the Default Gateway field.4. Configuring Advanced Settings The Advanced Settings for TCP/IP cover: • • • • IP Settings DNS WINS Options Some of the advanced features available include: • • • Multiple IP addresses assigned for a network adapter Multiple default gateways can be identified Append primary and connection specific DNS suffixes 102 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. open the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties dialog box and fill in the following fields appropriately: 1. Select the Use the Following IP Address radio button. 4. 3. Manually Configuring TCP/IP DHCP is not recommended for servers.5. check the Use The Following DNS Server Addresses radio button and enter the DNS servers to use.5.5. 5.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Enter the appropriate Subnet mask for the network. 2. To configure the TCP/IP settings manually. 4.com Web: http://store. Enter the IP Address.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Windows Server 2003 will automatically create a binding when a protocol is installed or the checkboxes in the Properties dialog box are checked or unchecked for a NIC. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.5.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .• • • • • • • • Append parent suffixes Append suffixes in order Append a default connection suffix Register the connection's addresses in DNS Use the connection's DNS suffix in DNS registration Determine NetBIOS node types Add WINS servers Activate NetBIOS over TCP/IP 4. 103 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. individual protocols can be turned on or off on a per-service basis. Configuring Network Bindings A network binding links a protocol to an adapter to allow the adapter to carry traffic using that protocol.7.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. In the Properties dialog box. The order in which protocols are used can be controlled.

4.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store. Network switches are used to send broadcast packets out of all ports and frames through specified parts to which a device is connected.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. For a Network Monitor. 104 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.6. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The driver will place the network card into promiscuous mode to allow the packets not addressed to the card to be accepted.theartofservice. These configurations should be considered when using a Network Monitor as the traffic seen by the NIC in promiscuous mode may be limited to the traffic destined for the device only. the driver must be installed. The buffered data can be analyzed by applying capture filters to screen out uninteresting packets. Network Monitor The Network Monitor is a network analyzer which captures raw traffic from the network and decodes it just as the protocol stack would. There are two parts of the Network Monitor: • • The application The driver To monitor traffic on a machine. its capture buffer is a large amount of RAM used to capture network packets and copy to the buffer in order to gather statistical data. Network hubs send all frames out of all ports.

1. Click OK 8. Select Network Monitor Driver 7. 4. Click the Add/Remove Windows Components button 3. 6. Check the box near the Network Monitor Tools item and click OK. Click the Details button 5. select the Management and Monitoring Tools item.6.Some considerations for using the Windows Server 2003 Network Monitor include: • • It only works with Windows 2000 or XP clients. 4.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Click the Properties button 3. In the Windows components Wizard. 2.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Click close twice To install the Network Monitor applications 1. Click Add 6. It can only watch traffic to and from the server that it's installed on. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Installing Network Monitor To install the Network Monitor driver: 1. Click the Install button 4. Open the Add or Remove Programs Control Panel 2. Click Next 105 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Open a Local Area Connection from Network Connections. Click Protocol in the Component list 5.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

The list provided is based on the number of NICs installed.6. Run the capture until the buffer is full. Capturing Data To capture data using the Network Monitor: • • Go to Network Monitor through the Administrative Tools in the Start Menu Use the Buffer Settings command under Capture to increase the capture buffer size to 2Mb.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Click the Stop button to stop the capture.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . • 106 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice. 4. Click Close When first starting the Network Monitor.7. Save the capture buffer to disk using the Save As command. a network has to be chosen to be monitored. Click Finish 8.2.) • • • Use the Start command under Capture to start a capture session. (This allows 4098 frames of data to be captured. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.

6. OR. and NOT modifiers can be used to create filters.com Web: http://store. Display filters are available when the capture buffer is full. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 107 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Filtering Data Two types of filters can be created in Network Monitor: • • Capture filters – screens out unwanted packets before recordi to the capture buffer. Capture filters can be created and managed through the Filters command in the Capture menu.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. the data displayed will match the selected protocols used. Use the Filter command to open the display Filter dialog box. Filters are grouped in a tree. The default filter is SAP/ETYPE which captures any Service Access Point or Ethernet Type packets. The AND.3.4. Display filters – displays specified sets of data from the capture buffer.theartofservice. Select the desired protocol for display and click the Edit Expression button. When complete. Select the Display Captured Data to open the Frame Viewer window.

6. Determine the viewing format for the data. The utility allows the following tasks to be done: • • • • • • • Collect data from the local computer or remote computers on the network. System Monitor The System Monitor utility can collect and measure real-time performance data for the local or remote computer on the network.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Create configurations for monitoring data that can be exported to other computers. Control the selection of data collected through specifying objects and counters.4. View collected data in real-time of historically.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store. Three counters are enabled in the System Monitor by default: • • • Memory: Pages/Sec PhysicalDisk: Average Disk Queue Length Processor: % Processor Time The counters that are most useful for monitoring the network subsystem are: • • Network Interface: Bytes Total/Sec TCPv4: Segments/Sec 108 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. Create HTML pages to view data. Choose sampling parameters.4.

5 Network Security 5.1. To search for new updates.1. Options available in Windows Update include: • Pick Updated To Install (in categories: Critical Updates and Service Packs. Windows Update Windows Update is used to update the Windows operating system through downloaded critical and noncritical software updates.com Web: http://store.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .1. several tools are available: • • • • Windows Update Automatic Updates Window Server Update Services (WSUS) Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA) 5. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Managing Software Update To ensure the Windows operating system up-to-date and secure.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The tool is available through the Microsoft website and provides the most current files for the Windows operating systems.theartofservice. go to the Help and Support page of the website and click the Scan For Updates link in the Welcome to Windows Update screen. Windows Server 2003 Family. and Driver 109 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

This prevents the need for multiple restarts.2. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.1.Updates) • • • • Review and Install Updates View Installation History Personalize Windows update Get Help And Support Some updates require the computer to be restarted. If more than one update requires restart. Any identified updates are downloaded using Background Intelligent Transfer Services (BITS). Windows Update utilizes a chained installation to apply all the updates before restart. a bandwidth-throttling technology using idle bandwidth to allow downloads without interrupting any other Internet traffic.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Configuration of Automatic Updates is possible through the System Control Panel. Notifications are possible as an alternative to automatic download and install of any updates.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Automatic Updates Automatic Updates extend the functionality of Windows Updates by enabling to automate capabilities to download and update critical files. Enable by checking the Keep My Computer Up To Date option. Other settings available are: • Notify me before downloading any updates and notify me 110 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice. 5.

5. Internet Information Services (IIS) is running. Automatically download the updates. This benefits clients who are limited in their access across the firewall. The tool is designed to work within medium-sized corporate networks not using Systems Management Server (SMS). All current security patches must be applied. • • Download the updates automatically and notify me when they are ready to be installed. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.3.1. Window Server Update Services (WSUS) Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) deploy a limited version of Windows Update to the corporate server. Using Internet Explorer 6.0 with Service Pack 1 or higher. and install them on the schedule that I specify.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. Administrators can use WSUS to test and have full control over what updates are deployed in the corporate environment.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The service was formally called Software Update Services (SUS). Must be connected to the network.com Web: http://store. WSUS servers must meet the following requirements: • • • • • • Running Windows 2000 Server with Service Pack 4 or higher or Windows Server 2003.again before installing them on my computer. A NTFS partition with 1000MB free space must exist to 111 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. to provide Windows updates to the client computers within a corporate network.

the WSUS server must have at least: • • Pentium III 7000 MHz processor 512MB or RAM The WSUS server software is available from the Microsoft website. • Must use Background Intelligent Transfer Services (BITS) version 2. Clients can be configured through Group Policy or editing the Registry.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Updates allowed when either an administrative or nonadministrative account is logged on. view the synchronization and approval log and monitor the WSUS server from the WSUS administration website which opens automatically after installing the software.install the WSUS server software and 6GB free space to stall all update files. An administrator can configure server options. To support up to 15.com Web: http://store.000 WSUS clients. Downloading of updated files can be scheduled.theartofservice. The WSUS clients run a special version of Automatic Updates with the following enhancements: • • • • Clients receive updates from a WSUS server instead of the public Microsoft Windows Updates site.0. Set synchronization. approve updates.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 112 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

Automatic Updates is configured through Control Panel. The tool will verify the latest security updates are installed and whether any common security violation configurations have been applied to a computer.theartofservice. Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA) The Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA) is a utility to download the most current security updates. When Active Directory is not used.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .1. MBSA scanned to following operating systems and programs: • • • • Windows NT 4 Windows 2000 Windows XP Windows Server 2003 113 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.The Client platforms that support WSUS are: • • • • • • Windows 2000 Professional with Service Pack 3 or higher Windows 2000 Server with Service Pack 3 or higher Windows 2000 Advanced Server with Service Pack 2 or higher Windows XP Home Edition with Service Pack 1 or higher Windows XP Professional with Service Pack 1 or higher Windows Service 2003 The use of Active Directory will determine how a WSUS client is configured. configuration is done through Group Policy.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. When Active Directory is being used. 5.4.

Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. versions 6.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Windows 2000. or View Existing Security Reports. Scan More Than One Computer. A security scan can incorporate checks for: • • • • • Windows Vulnerabilities Weak Passwords IIS Vulnerabilities SQL Vulnerabilities Security Updates 114 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store.01 and higher Microsoft Office 2000 and Microsoft Office XP Windows Media Player. a computer must be selected using its computer name or IP address. Windows XP.• • • • IIS 4 and 5 Internet Explorer. The first choose to make is to Scan A computer.exe.4 and higher The requirements a computer must meet to use MBSA are: • • • • • Running Windows NT 4. or Windows Server 2003 Running Windows 5.exe in the command line utility Mbsacli.theartofservice. To Scan a Computer. The name of the security report to be generated must be specified.01 or higher XML parser installed for full functionality Workstation and Server enabled Client for Microsoft Networks installed The GUI version of MBSA can be found through the Start Menu or executing Mbsa. versions 5.

will scan all computers on the local 5. there are several options available for execution: • • • • • • -h hostname will scan the specified host. If multiple computers were scanned. -d domainname will scan the specified domain. -i ip address will scan a computer based on IP will scan NetBIOS names of each address. -n network. multiple computers are defined using commas. including password policies.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . worst first score or best first score. • Local Policies – specifies the user account properties after 115 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.exe. The security report will be displayed automatically. -fh filename computer. or multiple hosts if separated by a comma. The three main options are: • Account policies – specifies the user account properties related to the logon process. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Network Protocol Security Network security settings are configured through policies. -fip filename will scan the computer's IP address from within the specified text file.2.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. and Kerberos policies. When using MBSA from the command-line utility Mbsacli. the security reports can be sorted based on issue name.theartofservice. account lockout policies.Once the selections have been made. click Start Scan.

Each of these policies is configurable through the Windows Settings under Computer Configuration in the Local Computer Policy snap-in. not for specific users. Security Settings. Password polices are used to enforce security requirements on a computer.logon. Computer Configuration. and security options. The password polices defined on Windows Server 2003 servers are: • • • • • • Enforce Password History Maximum Password Age Minimum Password Age Minimum Password Length Passwords Must Meet Complexity Requirements Store Password Using Reversible Encryption For All Users In The Domain 116 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. follow the path: Local Computer Policy. such as audit policies. Windows Settings. user rights assignment.1. Account Policies To access the Account Policies subfolders in the Group Policy MMC.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice.2. • Public key policies – used to set options for automatic submission of requests to certificate authorities to install and access public keys. and Account Policies. 5. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

it automatically becomes a key distribution center (KDC) to hold all client passwords and account information. The client uses the TGT to access the ticket-granting service (TGS) to allow the client to authenticate to services within the domain.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The KDC issues a ticket-granting ticket (TGT). or mutual authentication. The TGS issues service tickets to the client. The specific policies covered are: • • • Account Lockout Threshold Account Lockout Duration Reset Account Lockout Counter After Kerberos policies define the settings for Kerberos authentication which is used to authenticate users and network services in Windows Server 2003 in a process called dual verification. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 117 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. • The client presents a service ticket to the requested network service which authenticates the user to the service and the service to the user for mutual authentication. Kerberos authentication has the following steps: • • The client request authentication from the KDC using a password.Account lockout policies are used to limit the number of invalid logon attempts. When a Windows Server 2003 computer is installed as a domain controller.com Web: http://store.

2.theartofservice. The audit policies focus on tracking events related to user management. Computer Configuration. auditing must be enabled and manually configured. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. follow the path: Local Computer Policy.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . and Local Policies.The policy options for Kerberos are: • • • • • Enforce User Logon Restrictions Maximum Lifetime For Service Ticket Maximum Lifetime For User Ticket Maximum Lifetime for User Ticket Renewal Maximum Tolerance For Computer Clock Synchronization 5. Local Policies To access the Local Policies subfolders in the Group Policy MMC. Windows Settings. Success or failure of events is a key determiner for the audit. Security Settings.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The policy options for auditing are: • • • • • • • • Audit Account Logon Events Audit Account Management Audit Directory Service Access Audit Logon Events Audit Object Access Audit Policy Change Audit Privilege Use Audit Process Tracking 118 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. By default.2.com Web: http://store.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. not a specific object.• Audit System Events User rights are applied to the system and are different from permissions in that they focus on rights on the computer.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. The user rights options are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Access This Computer From The Network Act As Part Of The Operating System Add Workstations To Domain Adjust Memory Quotas For A Process Allow Log On Locally Allow Log On Through Terminal Services Back Up Files And Directories Bypass Traverse Checking Change The System Time Create A Pagefile Create A Token Object Create Permanent Shared Objects Debug Programs Deny Access To This Computer From The Network Deny Logon As A Batch Job Deny Logon As A Service Deny Logon Locally Deny Log On Through Terminal Services Enable Computer And User Accounts To Be Trusted For Delegation 119 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

Windows Server 2003 has over 70 potential security options which are groups under subcategories.theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Depending on how the server is configured. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Force Shutdown From A Remote System Generate Security Audits Increase Scheduling Priority Load And unload Device Drivers Lock Pages In Memory Log On As A Batch Job Log On As A Service Manage Auditing And Security Log Modify Firmware Environment Variable Perform Volume Maintenance Tasks Profile Single Process Profile System Performance Remove Computer From Docking Station Replace A Process Level Token Restore Files And Directories Shut Down System Synchronize Directory Service Data Take Ownership Of Files Or Other Objects Security Options focus on the security configurations for the computer. The subcategories include: • • • • Accounts Audit Devices Domain Controller 120 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

com Web: http://store.theartofservice.2.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The following policy settings can be configured through System Policies: • • • • • User profiles policies Logon policies Disk Quota policies Group Policy policies Windows file protection policies The most commonly configured user profile policies are: • • Delete Cached Copies Of Roaming Profiles Do Not Detect Slow Network Connections 121 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. System Policies System policies are accessible from the Local Computer Policy MMC snap-in.3. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.• • • • • • • • • • • Domain Member Interactive Logon Microsoft Network Client Microsoft Network Server Network Access Network Security Recovery Console Shutdown System Cryptography System Objects System Settings 5.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

such as scripts and access to user profiles. are configured.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The options for disk quota policies are: • • • • • • Enable Disk Quotas Enforce Disk Quota Limit Default Quota Limit And Warning Level Log Event When Quota Limit Exceeded Log Event When Quota Warning Level Exceeded Apply Policy To Removable Media Group Policy policies specify how group policies are applied to the computer.theartofservice. The most commonly configured options are: • • • • • Run Logon Scripts Synchronously Run Startup Scripts Asynchronously Run Startup Script Visible Run Shutdown Scripts Visible Maximum Wait Time For Group Policy Scripts Disk quota policies specify how the computer is used for disk quota configuration.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The commonly configured options are: 122 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.• • • • • • Slow Network Connection Timeout For user Profiles Wait For Remote User Profile Prompt user When Slow Link Is Detected Timeout For Dialog Boxes Log Users Off When Roaming Profile Fails Maximum Retires To Unload And Update User Profile Logon policies specify how log on events.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Turn Off Background Refresh Of Group Policy Apply Group Policy For users Asynchronously During Startup Group Policy Refresh Intervals For Computers Group Policy Refresh Intervals For Domain Controllers User Group Policy Loopback Processing Mode Group Policy Slow Link Detection Registry Policy Processing Internet Explorer Maintenance Policy Processing Software Installation Policy Processing Folder Redirection Policy Processing Scripts Policy Processing Security Policy Processing IP Security Policy Processing EFS Recovery Policy Processing Disk Quota Policy Processing Windows file protection is configured through the Windows file protection policies.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The most common policy options are: • • • • Set Windows File Protection Scanning Hide The File Scan Progress Window Limit Windows File Protection Cache Size Specify Windows File Protection Cache Location 123 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.

The utility compares the actual security configuration to a security template configured with the desired settings. o Select for the Open Database option from the popup menu o In the File Name text box. select the desired template to import.com Web: http://store. Or create a new template. Security Configuration and Analysis Tool Security Configuration and Analysis is a utility found in Windows Server 2003 to help analyze and configure the computer's local security settings.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. specify a working security database to use during the analysis. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 124 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.1.3. The security analysis process has the following steps: • Using the Security Configuration and Analysis utility.3. Or select an existing database and click Open. o From the Import Template dialog box.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Review the results. Analyze Security Configurations 5.5. • • Perform security analysis. • Import a security template that matches the desired settings for the computer.theartofservice. type the name of the database to create and click Open.

com Web: http://store. Existing templates can be modified (recommended) or new templates created.• Resolve any discrepancies. • System root security – defines the root permissions. Security Templates Windows Server 2003 has a variety of security templates stored in %systemroot%\Security\Templates. Secure – implements the recommended security settings for Windows 2000 and later in all security areas. Highly secure – Defines the highly secure network communication requirements for Windows Server 2003 computers. The major configuration options include: • • Account Policies Local Policies 125 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.3.theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.2. Communication to computers with other Windows versions not possible. The default template groups include: • • • • Default security – created during the installation of each computer and used to store default settings. 5. Compatible – used for backward compatibility.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Each template defines a standard set of security values based on environment requirements. • Dedicated domain controller – provides a level of security for dedicated domain controllers assuming that not serverbased application will be run from the computer.

• • • • • Event Log Restricted Groups Registry File System System Services To modify an existing security template: • • • • • In the MMC. only the template which is used to describe the desired settings and to perform analysis. IPSec operates at the Network layer and secures applications transparently.theartofservice. Managing Network Traffic A key part of system administration is the ability to control network traffic. expand the Security Templates snap-in. %systemroot%\Security\Templates. Save the template. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 5. It is not a replacement to IP. Make desired changes. Expand the folder. An IPSec client is any computer that attempts to connect to another machine. Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) Extensions allow secure communication over unsecure Internet Protocol (IP).4. Double-click the template to edit. An IPSEC server is the target of that 126 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Change will not be made to the system.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

Windows Server 2003 has several IPSec features. This is referred to as end-toend mode.connection.theartofservice. IPSec Fundamentals IPSec provides two services: • • Authentication Encryption IPSec requires two computers to authenticate each other before establishing an encrypted connection. 5.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. including: • • IP Security Monitor Stronger cryptographic master key 127 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. An authentication header (AH) will digitally sign the entire contents of every packet.1.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . or transport mode.4. The settings for client and server allow for communication between computers. Tunnel mode is another application of IPSec which secures traffic passed over someone else's wires. people can still see the data. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store. providing: • • • Protection against replay attacks Protection against tampering Protection against spoofing Even though authentication protects the data from tampering. IPSec uses Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). To provide the encryption.

This key is called the ISAKMP master key and is used to establish a secure connection. 128 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .4. The SA contains a policy agreement to control which algorithms and key lengths used by the two computers. The IPSec Negotiation Process A security agreement (SA) is used in IPSec to provide the information required to have two computers communicate securely.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.2. The negotiation process has two main steps: main mode and quick mode. as well as the actual security keys used to secure exchange information. In the main mode the two computers establish a security agreement using Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP).theartofservice. To establish an ISAKMP security agreement. the two machines can securely agree on a shared master key using the Oakley protocol. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.• • • • • Command-line management and netsh Persistent policies Removal of default traffic exemptions IPSec functionality over NAT IPSec support for Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) 5. three things must be agreed upon: • • • The encryption algorithm used The algorithm used for verifying message integrity How connections can be authenticated Once the security agreement is in place.

another round of negotiations starts called quick mode. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. the negotiations cover: • • • • Whether the AH protocol will be used for the connection Which authentication protocol will be used for the AH protocol Whether the ESP protocol will be used for the connection Which encryption algorithm will be used for the ESP protocol The AH protocol provides data integrity and authentication. called IPSec SAs: one for inbound traffic and another for outbound traffic. The ESP protocol delivers messages confidentially. two filters must be created for each connection: one inbound filter and one 129 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. the two computers have two new SAs. and the source and destination ports allowed for TCP and UDP traffic.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Security Filters Security protocols are tied to a particular network address using a security filter which contains the source and destination address involved. When negotiations are complete.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. the protocol used.theartofservice. 5. In this round.com Web: http://store.3. Since an IPSec connection has an inbound and outbound side.After the secure connection is brought up.4.

If any filters are missing or misconfigured.com Web: http://store. The Accept Unsecured Communication. an administrator can build rules to enforce complicated behaviors and distribute the rules throughout the network.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 130 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. A filter specifies a source and destination as well as the action taken when the filter criteria matches. For ease of management filters can be grouped into filter lists. • The Allow Unsecured Communication With Non-IPSec Aware Computer action will accept an unsecured connection without attempting to used IPSec. • Enabling session key perfect forward secrecy (PFS) ensures that master key doesn't create more than one session key. • The Use These Security Settings actions allow security methods to be specified to trigger the filter. Since any number of individual filters can be in a filter list. But Always Respond Using IPSec action will accept an unsecured connection for always asks for an IPSec connection before accepting an unsecured request. The Block action rejects the communications from a remote system.outbound filter. The IP Security Policy Management snap-in allows one of the following security filter actions for each filter: • • • The Permit action (passthrough action) tells the filter to take no action. the IPSec negotiation process will fail and IPSec will not be used. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

com Web: http://store. • The Secure Server (Require Security) policy specifies all 131 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. High or Medium. the ISAKMP services works through the list of methods specified using the most secure method first. Three policies from the IP Security Policy Management snap-in should be familiar to any administrator: • The Client (Respond Only) policy allows an IPSec client to negotiate IPSec security with any peer that supports IPSec but does not attempt to initiate security. When negotiating with a remote IPSec peer. A number of prebuilt policies are provided or a new policy can be created. and key lifetimes to use for a particular connection.4.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Each IPSec connection uses a security method. encryption algorithms. Security Methods A security method is a connection using pre-specified encryption algorithm with a negotiated key length and lifetime.5.5.4.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. There are two predefined security methods to use. The easiest way to apply a policy is to store it in Active Directory and use the IPSec Policy Agent to apply it to a computer. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 5. Security Policies A security policy provides some level of security by applying a set of rules and filters.theartofservice. or create a security method specifying the security protocols.4.

Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. • Preshared Keys – reusable passwords known by both computers to establish trust.6. The three methods are: • Kerberos – the default authentication protocol for any Windows 2000/2003/XP computer and widely supported open standard to offer good security and flexibility. • The Server (Request Security) policy is a combination of the previous policies.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 5. add machines to the domain are automatically issued machine certificates used for authentication. If Kerberos fails. With Windows Server 2003. • Certificates – authentication is done through public-key certification.4. 132 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . In Windows Server 2003. IPSec Authentication Three authentication methods are supported by IPSec and the right one to use is based on the kind of network that exists and the communication target.com Web: http://store. Not recommended for production machines because the unencrypted password is stored in Active Directory. the methods are used only during initial authentication to build SAs. the computer automatically switches to NT LAN Manager (NTLM) authentication.IP communication to and from the policy target use IPSec.

133 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . It accepts any person requesting a secure connection. The settings with the default rule can be customized.7. specify whether it will be used to: • • • • Manage a local IPSec policy Manage the default policy for the current domain Manage the default policy for a different domain Manage the local policy on another computer 5.4.theartofservice. The Requests for Secure Communications page will ask if the default response rule will be used or not.4. an authentication method must be configured.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.8. however it must be enabled The IP Security Policy Management snap-in is used to manage IPSec. Configuring IPSec New policies can be created by choosing the Create IP Security Policy command in the IPSec Security Policy Management snap-in. A MMC console must be created by opening an empty console and adding the snap-in. If the default response rule is used. After installing the snap-in.5. The default response rule governs security when no other filter rule is applied.com Web: http://store. Enabling IPSec The IPSec components are automatically available when Windows Server 2003 is installed. A name and description for the policy must be entered for the policy. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. This activates the IP Security Policy Wizard.

Edit or create a policy to be applied using the tools in the snap-in. the General tab covers general policy-related settings and the Rules tab allows editing of rules associated with the policy. Within Properties. To customize a policy. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. To do this: • • • Target the IPSec snap-in in Active directory and open while logged in with a privileged account.9. build a filter that matches the source and destination IP addresses in the same way as establishing a connection in transport mode. or organizational unit.Policies can be applied to the local.com Web: http://store. To establish a tunnel. removing. domain. filter lists. Customizing means adding.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The difference is choosing the right set of options in the Tunnel Setting tab when editing rules. Use the Group Policy snap-in to attach the policy to a site. Configuring IPSec for Tunnel Mode IPSec tunneling is used to connect a Windows Server 2003 network to a remote device that doesn't support L2TP+IPSec or the Point-toPoint Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). 5. If they are stored in Active Directory.4. and security action.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . namely: 134 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. they can be applied to any computer or group of computers in the domain. and managing rules. access the policy's Properties dialog box.

Details about IPSec policies at the local or domain level can be viewed as well as statistics covering the main mode and quick mode.10. the name of the server to monitor. Acquire Heap Size – the number of successful outbound 135 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.4.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. Active SAs can be viewed and complex filters can be executed using the IP Security Monitor. Send Failures – the number of outbound IKE messages that failed.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.• • This Rule Does Not Specify An IPSec Tunnel The Tunnel Endpoint Is Specified By This IP Address 5. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store. It is implemented as a Windows Server 2003 MMC snap-in. expand the IP Security Monitor. Active Receive – the number of IKE messages waiting for processing. To view details of a policy. The following Main Mode statistics can be viewed: • • • • • • Active Acquire – the number of request required to initiate an IKE negotiation to establish SAs. Receive Failures – the number of errors that occurred during the IKE message receive process. Acquire Failures – the number of requests to establish SAs that have failed. and the Active Policy. IP Security Monitor The IP Security Monitor can be used to view the security associations and traffic flows between specific computers.

• • Connection List Size – the number of pending quick mode negotiations. Key Addition Failures – the number of failed outbound quick mode SAs. IKE Main Mode – the total number of successful SAs created in main mode. Key Additions – the number of outbound quick mode SAs.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. and failed or expired main mode negotiations. Total Get SPI – the total number of requests to the IPSec driver for a unique Security Parameters Index (SPI). Key Update Failures – the number of failed inbound quick mode SAs. Get SPI Failures – the number of failed requests to the IPSec driver for a unique SPI. Authentication Failures – the number of authentication errors. Key Updates 0 the number of inbound quick mode SAs.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .requests for SAs. pending mode negotiations. Total Acquire – the total number of requests to establish a main mode SA. Negotiation Failures – the number or negotiation failures. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. ISADB List Size – the total number of successful main mode entries.com Web: http://store. • • • • • • • • • • • • Receive Heap Size – the number of successful incoming IKE messages. Invalid Cookies Received – the number of cookies that could not be matched to an active main mode SA.theartofservice. 136 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

Packets Not Decrypted – the number of packets failing to decrypt.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Offloaded Security Associations – the total number of active quick mode SAs accelerated by special hardware. Key Additions – the number of successful quick mode SAs Key Deletions – the number of successful quick mode SAs deleted. incorrect payload lengths.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. or incorrect cookie values. The following Quick Mode statistics can be viewed: • • • • • • • • • • • Active Security Associations – the total number of active quick mode SAs. Packets With Replay Detection – the number of packets 137 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Pending Key Operations – the number of IPSec key exchanges queued but not complete. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Rekeys – the total number of rekeyed quick mode SAs. Soft Associations – the number of SAs created with nonIPSec-enabled machines. Bad SPI Packets – the total number of packets affected by a bad SPI.com Web: http://store.• • • IKE Quick Mode – the total number of successful SAs created in quick mode. Packets Not Authenticated – the number of packets whose source cannot be verified.theartofservice. Invalid Packets Received – the number of IKE messages with invalid header fields. Active Tunnels – the number of active IPSec tunnels.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Offloaded Bytes Sent – the total number of bytes sent with hardware offload. Bytes Sent In Tunnels – the total number of bytes sent in tunnel mode.the total number of bytes sent in transport mode Transport Bytes Received – the total number of bytes received in transport mode. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. Confidential Bytes Received – the total number of bytes received that were encrypted using ESP.with an invalid sequence number. 138 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store. Authenticated Bytes Sent – the total number of bytes sent that were authenticated under AH or ESP. Bytes Received In Tunnels – the total number of bytes received in tunnel mode.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Transport Bytes Sent . Authenticated Bytes Received – the total number of bytes received that were authenticated under AH or ESP. Offloaded Bytes Received – the total number of bytes received with hardware offload. • • • • • • • • • • Confidential Bytes Sent – the total number of bytes sent that were encrypted using ESP.

11. or filter actions are used. There are limitations though.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . To parse the ESP packet. It has two modes: • • Static – can create and modify policies without affecting the currently active IPSec policy. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Other Monitoring Tools Windows Server 2003 provides the netsh command. shows the policy installed and where it The Network Monitor can be used to examine IP activity on a computer. indicates a SA was established. The Network Monitor cannot parse the encrypted portions of IPSecsecured ESP traffic when encryption is performed in software.com Web: http://store. specifically parsers for the ISAKMP (IKE). The most common event log messages are: • • • • • Event ID 279 came from. 139 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Dynamic – can make changes to the currently active IPSec policy if running. Event ID 284 Event ID 541 Event ID 542 Event ID 547 shows when the agent can't get a policy.5.4. indicates a SA negotiation failed. indicates a SA was closed. AH. nullencryption must be used and the full ESP packet captured.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. or ESP protocols.theartofservice. The Event Viewer can be used to audit event messages which tell what policy. filter.

so if regular IP datagrams are not received by the destination. the underlying connection is the problem.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . • • Look in the appropriate Group Policy Object to verify if an IPSec policy is assigned. perform all standard connectivity and name resolution tests.com Web: http://store. Use the IPSec Policy Management tool to ensure IPSec policies are assigned to each computer and compatible with each other. Restart the IPSec Policy Agent and check for matching SAs in the IP Security Monitor.4. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.12. If ping fails. Check the main mode in IP Security Monitor to determine if a security association is established and check the Statistics folder for failures. IPSec packets won’t be received either. Some basic steps to continue troubleshooting include: • • • Stop IPSec on both computers and attempt a ping. Troubleshooting IPSec IPSec operates above IP and UDP. To verify the appropriateness of an IPSec policy: • • Check the event log for event ID 279 to identify the policies assigned.5.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 140 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. In this case.theartofservice. Check that policies on each end match.

Program-specific data Cookies – User information and preferences Desktop – Desktop items Favorites – Shortcuts to favorite Internet locations Local Settings – Application data. and Groups 6.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Any changes to the environment are saved when the user logs off and reloaded when the user logs on again. The components of the user profile are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Application Data. User Profiles User profiles are files where the settings for a user's work environment are stored.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.6 Users.1. history. It is automatically created the first time a user logs on to a computer running any version of Windows. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Computers.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . My Documents – User documents and subfolders My Recent Documents – Shortcuts to most recently access documents and folders NetHood – Shortcuts to My Network Places items PrintHood – Shortcuts to printer folder items SendTo – Shortcuts to document-handling utilities Start Menu – Shortcuts to program items Templates – User template items 141 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. temporary files.

a local profile is created and saved in the local Documents and Settings folder for that user. A profile can be turned into a template to create a default profile for a new user.1. Local – created for every user at first logon Temporary – for users who cannot load their profile All Users – created for all users who log on to the computer Default – Created for users who log on for the first time 6. Mandatory – for administrative enforcement of settings. There are several profile types available: • • • • • • Roaming – for users who log onto different computers on the network.1.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Profile Types Several users can use the same computer running Windows because of the user profile facility. This is done whether the computer is connected to the network or not.com Web: http://store. The contents include the Start Menu and desktop items. 142 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Any changes to the profile are saved when the user logs off.theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The contents of the All users files and folders are combined with the user's profile when the user logs on to the computer. Can be shared by two or more users.6.2. Local Profiles When a user logs on to a computer.1. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.

When a user logs on to a network computer.man.6. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. When a user logs on to a network computer. To create a mandatory profile. the profile is copied locally to the computer.theartofservice.1. 6. Roaming Profiles The roaming profile is stored on a server.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .3.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Like the roaming profile. Each user account has a Profile tab in its properties sheet to identify a network location to use as a roaming profile. No changes are saved when the user logs off the server. a mandatory profile is stored on a server.4.dat file to Ntuser. any changes to the profile are copied back to the server.com Web: http://store. Mandatory Profiles A mandatory profile is a roaming profile that cannot be changed by the user. the profile is copied locally to the computer. When the user logs off the network. create a roaming profile and rename the Ntuser. 143 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.1. Any changes to the mandatory profile must be made by the Administrator.

The Windows Server 2003 level is the most advanced level of domain functionality. or Windows Server 2003. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. When all Windows NT domain controllers have been removed from the domain. There is no enhanced group functionality at this level. Managing Groups 6. Domain Functionality Levels There are four Domain Functionality Levels: • • • • Windows 2000 mixed Windows 2000 native Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2003 interim The default domain functionality level of a domain installed on a new Windows Server 2003 machine is Windows 2000 mixed which contain domain controllers on computers running Windows NT.theartofservice.2. Only domains with no Windows 2000 or Windows NT domain controllers can be raised to this level. 144 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. The Windows 2000 native level allows improved group capabilities of Active Directory with the ability to “nest” groups and make available groups of Universal scope.com Web: http://store. the domain functionality level can be increased to Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003.2.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .1. Windows 2000.6.

3.com Web: http://store. The scope determines what locations the members come from and the locations of the resources the group can be granted access.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 6. 6. Security – used to assign permissions for resource access and for email distribution. The group scopes are: • • • Domain Local Global Universal The scope of Domain Local will grant access to resources in the local domain and includes any account.The fourth level of domain functionality is the Windows Server 2003 interim. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Global groups. Windows NT and Windows Server 2003 domain controllers can exist on this level at the expense of enhanced group functionality.2.theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. or other Domain Local groups from the same domain as the group object. 145 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.2.2. Group Scope A group is classified using its scope. and Universal groups from any domain. Group Types There are two types of groups: • • Distribution – used for email distribution lists only and cannot be used to assign permissions for resource access.

• • Power Users can share resources and create or modify local user accounts Users have limited use of the computer to include personal files and folders and explicitly granted rights. only accounts from the same domain as the group object can be members. Backup Operators are allowed to run Windows Backup and can override other rights when performing backups. Domain Groups The Default Local Groups in Windows Server 2003 include: • • • Administrators have unrestricted access to the computer and include the Domain Admins Global Group.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Windows Servers 2003 that some built-in special groups including: • Anonymous Logon to not provide any default access rights 146 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.4. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store. The group can include Domain User Global groups.A global group can be granted to any resource in the forest or any domain in another forest that trusts the local domain. In the Windows 2000 native or Windows Server 2003 levels. accounts and other global groups from the same domain as the group object can be members. For Windows 2000 mixed and Windows Server 2003 interim levels. The group can include the Domain Guests Global Groups. The members are based on the domain functionality level used.2. Guests have restricted usage of the computer and limited to explicitly granted rights. 6.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice.

To deny any access this permission must be removed. • Dialup are for all users who have connected to the computer using a dial-up connection and have no specific rights.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .and granted to user accounts that Windows XP cannot authenticate locally. 6. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. use the AGDLP method: • • • Place accounts in Global Groups Place Global groups into Domain Local groups Grant or deny permissions to the Domain Local group 147 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. • • Interactive has no specific rights and granted to users who have logged on locally to the computer.5. Managing Group Membership When rights are granted to domain users. Network has no specific rights and granted to users who have established a connection to the computer's shared resource from a remote network computer. • Creator Owners are an administrators group with designated full control over resources created or taken over by a member of the Administrators group.2.com Web: http://store. • Authenticated users are not given any default access rights and granted to users with valid local user accounts on the current computer. • Everyone is for all users who access the computer and the default permission granted is Full Control.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

6. and overall user experience. or a site. GPOs are linked to a container that holds Active Directory objects. groups.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Group Policy The use of a Group Policy enables a standard collection of settings to be defined and applied to some or all the computers and/or users in the enterprise. 148 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. if a user belongs to two groups where one explicitly grants access to a resource and the other explicitly denies access to the same resource.2.6. The Group Policy Object (GPO) is created from templates stored on the workstation or server. such as users. and printers. communications. A Group Policy provides centralized control of a variety of components of a Windows network related to security. Therefore.The Deny permission overrides all other permissions for groups that a specific user or group may be members of. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. application deployment and management. workstations. servers. A Group Policy is applied by creating an abject that contains the settings that control the users' and computers' access to network and machine resources. a domain. The settings of the GPO are applied to the objects in the container which can be an Organization Unit (OU).theartofservice. They will see an access denied message. the user will be unable to access the resource.

scripts and security information for each GPO. the Registry settings return to their default.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. • GPOS are stored in two parts: as part of the Group Policy Template (GPT) and as objects inside a container of the Active Directory called the GROUP Policy Container (GPC). 149 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 6. User settings will generally take precedence when conflicts occur. like system Policies used in Windows NT. If a conflict exists between different GPOs.theartofservice. Group Policy Objects Each GPO has two sections: • • User Configuration Computer Configuration Some considerations about GPOS are: • Some settings are available in both user and computer configurations. essentially merging the settings.2. • GPTs contain settings related to software installation policies and deployments. The Registry is not changed permanently.Using a Local Policy can apply GPOs with a single computer. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .7. Group Policies work by manipulating Registry and security settings on a workstation of server. the last setting applied is honored. Multiple GPOs can be applied to a single container. After a Group Policy is removed.

The settings for users in a Group Policy apply to: • • • • • • • Operating system behavior Desktop settings Security settings Application settings Application installation Folder redirection settings Logon and logoff scripts 150 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.• GPTs are stored in the %SystemRoot%\SYSVOL\domain\Policies directory of every domain controlled and contain subfolders called Adm. 6.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.2. The settings are applied to a user on whatever computer the user logs on to.com Web: http://store. and MACHINE to separate data.theartofservice. USER. • The USER portion of the GPO is applied to keys in the HKEY_CURRENT_USER and the MACHINE portion is applied to keys in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . • GPOs can be used to control servers and workstations installed with Windows 2000 or later. GPO User Configurations User settings are applied at user logon and during the periodic refresh cycle of the Group Policy.8.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. the settings of the last GPO applied are honored. GPO Types Two types of GPOs exist: • • Local Domain Local GPOs apply to the computer first. GPO Computer Configurations The settings for computers in a Group Policy apply to: • • • • • • • Operating system behavior Desktop settings Security settings Application settings Application installation Folder redirection settings Computer startup and shutdown scripts 6.9. Group Policy in Windows 2003 works according to a hierarchy. 151 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . called SDOU: • • • Site Domain OU The effects of Group Policy are cumulative. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.2.10.theartofservice.2.6. If a conflict exists.

/Force /Wait:{value} reapplies all policy settings.11. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Changes can be implemented immediately using the gpupdate tool using the following command-line options: • • • • /Target:{Computer|User} specifies that only user of computers policy settings are refreshed. GPO Updates Changes made to existing GPOs and new GPOs are applied during the refresh cycle with the following exceptions: • • • Software installation and folder redirection settings are updated at only at reboot and logon.There are two default GPOS in Windows Server 2003: • Default Domain Policy – linked to domains and controls the default account policies such as Password Policy and Account Lockout • Domain Controllers Policy – linked to Domain Controllers OU and contains settings for domain controllers only.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.2. Domain controllers refresh Group Policies every five minutes to prevent any delay to critical settings.theartofservice. 6. Computer configuration changes will be refreshed every 16 hours despite being changed or not.com Web: http://store. /Logoff causes a logoff after settings are 152 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. sets the number of seconds to wait for policy processing to finish.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

• • /Boot causes a computer to restart after settings are refreshed. This option can be set on a per-GPO basis. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The No Override option in a Group Policy prevents a child container from blocking the GPO inherited from the parent. 6. GPO Considerations Active Directory objects lower in the hierarchy will inherit the settings from object higher in the hierarchy. or groups. For a Group Policy to be applied to an object.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The Block Policy Inheritance option is set on a per-container basis and will block all policy inheritance. /Sync causes the next foreground policy to be done synchronously.2. computers. 153 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Group Policy Filtering restricts the application of a GPO by applying permissions on the GPO that can be used by specified users.12. at least Read permissions for the GPO must be in place.com Web: http://store.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice.refreshed.

6.2.13. Group Policy Management Console

The Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) is downloadable from the Microsoft website. The GPMC can be installed on Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP SP1. It is used to manage GPOs in a Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domain.

6.3. Active Directory

Active Directory is a distributed service which is included in the Windows Server operating systems since Microsoft Windows 2000 Server. The service provides a centralized method to manage an entire network.

6.3.1. Purpose of Active Directory

A central repository is required in distributed environments to store information about the users, networked devices and services on the network. The information is made available to users, computers, and applications through services implemented by the directory service. Active Directory is, therefore, a database storage system and set of services which is used in one of the following ways: • Internal Directory – publishes information about users and resources within the enterprise and is accessible to employees when using a secure connection from outside the company’s network.
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External Directory – directories are located within the perimeter network or demilitarized zone (DMZ) between the company’s LAN and the Internet which are used to store information about customers, clients, and business partners accessing external applications or services.

Application Directory – directories that store relevant information for specific applications in a local directory.

Active Directory provides the following benefits: • • • • • • • • • • Centralization Security Scalability Flexibility Data Storage Synchronization Remote Administration Single Schema Integration LDAP support

For organizations which cannot rely solely on Active Directory, a directory service called Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) utilizes Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) to support directory-enabled applications.

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6.3.2. Active Directory Structure

Active Directory creates a logical structure of domains and forests to create a directory hierarchy. Domains manage populations of users, computers, and network resources in the enterprise. Organizational units can be created within the domains to create divisions of administration. A forest represents the security boundary for the service.

The logical structure can be viewed in a two-dimensional hierarchy representing the objects stored in a flat database file. Each object stores the name of the object and the container name directly above the object. The objects are used to store and reference data in the directory. This data is physically stored in the Active Directory database file (ntds.dit) for a single forest. Some data is stored within domains and other data is distributed within the entire forest. In Windows Server 2003, the data can be distributed to domain controllers based on the applications that use the data.

A scheme is used to define the types of objects available to the directory service. The schema is stored within the schema partition. The partition is defined as an object in the directory and stores the attributes and classes as objects called schema objects. Administrators can add classes and attributes to existing object types.

Updates to the data found in the directory are distributed automatically to domain controllers through Active Directory
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3. the schema and the configuration directory partitions for the forest.3. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Through partitions. The partition contains information about the domain. This global catalog server will contain a limited set of attributes for every object not located in the domain which the server has authority. Every domain controller stores objects from only one domain. The data is replicated using directory partitions.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . As changes are made on one domain controller. By default. new domain. the data is automatically synchronized with other domain controllers. This is done whenever a new forest. Domain Controllers A domain controller is a server with Active Directory installed and running a version of the Windows Server 2000 or 2003 operating system.theartofservice. or an additional domain controller needs to be created.com Web: http://store. A single domain controller in Windows Server 2003 can store one or more application directory partitions. This partial 157 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Active Directory can maintain a single point of administration for the data and allow the data to be synchronized on multiple domain controllers through the network.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Active Directory utilizes a connection topology that is created automatically by default to make the best use of physical network connections. simply install Active Directory. 6. A domain controller can be designated as a global catalog server which can store objects from all the domains within the forest.replication. one domain directory partition is stored by a domain controller. To configure a server as a domain controller.

The operations performed on a daily basis are generally multimaster operations for managing users.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. groups.4.replica is not writeable and cannot be updated from the global catalog server. Directory Searches For Active Directory to operate effectively. An operation performed at one place and time is not considered a multimaster operation. the location of domain controllers must be available to clients and services. By having information on all the objects in a central location. All writeable objects. the global catalog allows Active Directory searches to be performed without having to identify the domain controller with the authority over the required object. The attributes replicated are those which have the greatest probability of being searched. DNS information is used to resolve computer names to IP addresses and with Windows server application programming interfaces (APIs) which interact with domain 158 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. The global catalog server is automatically the first domain controller in a forest.3. and computers.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . By default. all Active Directory searches are sent to the global catalog server. Domain controller locations are dependent on registration in DNS and the availability of that DNS information.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. except schemas. 6. are updated to the domain controller which has authority over the object. the change is replicated automatically to other domain controllers in the same domain. When an object on a domain controller is changed.

Active Directory Schema An Active Directory schema defines all the objects and attributes used by the directory services to store data.clients and domain controllers to provide a domain controller locator service. update. it will query the schema for the object definition which is used to create 159 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store. LDAP is a core protocol of Active Directory. called Locator. and manage services by clients and administrator.5. When information is created. and replication of data more effective and efficient. create. 6.theartofservice. When the directory handles data. Objects are considered units of storage by the directory service. Publication allows client processes to find and connect to any service which is directoryenabled or to find. stored. and delete information stored within the directory service. This information comes from a wide range of applications and services and must be standardized when stored. to find service. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. and published within an Active Directory. the process is called service publication.3.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . update.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.and site-specific domain controllers. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is used to obtain information from the directory of located domain controllers. LDAP allows clients to query. connect. The schema defines all objects. This standard makes the retrieval.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Since objects are used to store information. Attributes are also objects and an object definition exists for each one. It is then replicated to each new domain controller when the directory is installed. They can be nested inside other classes.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 160 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. New objects are defined by associating smaller objects to one another in order to define the necessary attributes of the new object. the default schema contains all the necessary objects to allow windows Server 2003 to function. Classes are models used when a new object is created in the directory and define the attributes associated with the new object. Object definitions identify all the object attributes and their corresponding relationships to each other. The default schema is created during the installation of Active Directory. While some objects are simple. Object definitions define the data types stored by objects and the syntax of the stored data. others are complex.theartofservice. creating parent and child relationships between classes to create object definitions. In addition to objects and attributes.the object and store its data. At minimum. Active Directory schemas recognize classes which are groups of object definitions.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Metadata describes the characteristics of the other data. an object is a data structure consisting of multiple attributes related to the stored data and any related metadata.

The Taskbar is typically on the bottom of the desktop. User Environments Two essential components of the Windows desktop are the Start menu and Taskbar.6. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The Properties dialog box for both the Taskbar and Start Menu are available. The Start Menu is available by clinking on the Start button.theartofservice. 161 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.4. To customize these features.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store. It displays a menu to allow quick access to different programs and areas installed on the computer. The Taskbar and Start Menu are customizable in Windows XP. It has many purposes including: • • • • Access to the Start Button Check switching between open programs Quick launching of favorite programs Notifications Programs that are opened by the user will have a button on the Taskbar. right-click on the Start button and click the Properties option.

Pinned programs must be manually added to the Start Menu. and Run The All programs option contains a submenu displaying all the programs currently installed on the computer.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. To pin a program: right162 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Above All Programs are the Recently Used programs which displays those programs that have been opened in the recent past. The displayed programs will be for the currently user logged in. At the top of the left side are the pinned programs. The listing will change as different programs are opened.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The Default email program and web browser will always appear.The Taskbar tab allows the appearance of the Taskbar and Notification area to be configured including: • • • Hide clock Hide inactive icons Specify which items to hide The Start Menu has to distinct sections: • Left Side o o o • Pinned programs Recently Used programs All Programs Right Side o o o Quick links Administrative links Search. Help.

To customize the appearance and behavior of the Start Menu. The program will now appear pinned in the Start Menu and will appear for the user currently logged in.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.1.4. The General tab will allow: • • • The size of icons to be changed The number of programs in the frequently used list To specify which programs to use for Internet and Email An Advanced tab is available for other options including: • • Behavior of static menu items Number of recently used programs 6.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . access the Start Menu tab in the Taskbar and Start Menu Properties dialog box.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.click on a program and choose Pin to Start Menu. Click the Customize button to open the Customize Start Menu dialog box. The applet for Accessibility Options can be found in the Control Panel and includes tabs for: • • • Keyboard Sound Display 163 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Accessibility Options Accessibility features are specifically designed to aid users with disabilities.theartofservice.

164 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the options available include using appropriate colors and fonts and cursor options. ToggleKeys – a sound is emitted when locking key is pressed. FilterKeys – brief or repeated keystrokes are ignored. the configurable items are: • • • StickyKeys – only one key at a time for keystrokes.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice.• • Mouse General From the Keyboard tab.com Web: http://store. Within the Display tab. including the Magnifier which will enlarge the screen to make it easier to read. Several options are available for the vision impaired. The Magnifier will magnify a portion of the screen as it is being displayed. The General tab provides options for managing accessibility options. The Sound tab provides options to allow the hearing impaired to visualize the system sounds and provide captions for program sounds and speech. The Mouse tab allows the pointer to be controlled by the numeric keypad. Speed and acceleration of the mouse pointer can be adjusted.

Windows XP Home and Professional editions have a Fast User Switching feature which allows more than one user to be logged in on the same computer at the same time. The Customize button allows different regional options to be manually configured.2.3.6. The Languages tab allows input languages to be configured. you can select the specific locale which will control how items are formatted. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. the feature is disabled by default.4. if running Windows XP Professional and the computer is part of a domain.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Multiple Locations and Languages Regional Settings affect how Windows XP and programs display information. Fast User Switching is enabled if there is 64 MB or more of RAM.com Web: http://store.4. specifically: • • • numbers date and time currency Regional settings can be changed by accessing the Regional and Languages Options applet within the Control Panel. Within the Regional Options tab. Fast-user Switching A single computer is often used by multiple users.theartofservice. 6.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . By default. Support 165 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. However.

Security Controls Security settings can be configured using a local security policy provided by Windows XP. planning.5.for additional languages can be added. To view the settings.5.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Within an Active Directory Domain. The Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) can be used to troubleshoot security settings. Group Policies and Resultant Set of Policies In addition to local security policy. The Advanced tab provides support to enable non-Unicode programs to display in its native language. a GPO can be applied to a site.theartofservice. Essentially a computer and/or user can be affected by multiple policies. domain. The settings do not affect Unicode programs. 6. 166 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. and monitoring group policy settings.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. security settings can be applied through a domain-based group policy object (GPO) if the computer is a member of a domain. but does apply to all users of the computer.1. 6. Additionally. or Organization Unit (OU) level. access the Local Security Policy applet in the Control Panel. The RSoP assists administrators in troubleshooting. Policies applied locally are overwritten by the policies set by the GPO. multiple code page conversion tables can be selected.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

5. it is stored in the local security database only. Queries will display the policies a computer is affected by. 6.The RSoP allows policy settings to be seen as well as the effect of changes to policy settings. User and Group Accounts Local user accounts are specific to a single computer and allow a user to log on to a local computer and access local resources only. and the settings for the IPSec policy applied to the computer. the precedence of each policy.com Web: http://store. Two modes exist for RSoP: • • Planning mode Logging mode Planning mode allows the effect of certain policy settings to be seen.2. Domain user accounts are stored as objects within the Active Directory and provide a user the ability to log on to a domain and 167 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. When a user logs into a computer using a local account. Logging mode can perform queries to view all IPSec policies that are currently assigned to a computer which is affected by multiple policies.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Once an account is created. the authentication is verified by the local computer accessing the local security database. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice.

theartofservice.access resources where the account has been given access. the user has a single sign-on ability to access the resources. When logging on a domain. Some user accounts are built-in. 168 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The Guest account is for users who need occasional. An access token is a temporary form of identification that is presented by the user to allow computers to recognize the user when they attempt to access resources. This is enabled by the Active Directory being replicated between domain controllers in the same domain. The HelpAssistant account is provided to enable a Remote Assistance session. A domain controlled within the domain uses the information already provided through replication to authenticate the user and generate an access token. including: • • • Administrator Guest HelpAssistant The Administrator account is designed to provide rights to administer the computer. The Guest and HelpAssistant account are disabled by default. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. but not permanent. access to the computer. the user provides a valid username and password. several user accounts are automatically created.com Web: http://store. By having a domain user account. When Windows XP is installed.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Go to Local Users and Groups 3. Access the Computer Management console 2.theartofservice.6. They can be created by: 1. Click the New Group item from the action Menu 5.3. Open User Accounts applet 3.com Web: http://store. Type in the group name and optional description 6.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Go to Control Panel 2. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.5. 169 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Local groups can be created to assign rights and permissions to resources on a local computer only. Click the Add button to select user accounts for membership Rights and permissions can be granted to members of a group. 4. Walk through the process provided Each user account created will allow a user to access the computer with personalized logon and system settings. Select the groups folder which will list the built-in groups created during Windows XP installation and any manually created groups. Choose Create A New Account from list of tasks 4. Configuring Accounts To create a local user account: 1.

Insert a blank.theartofservice.5. Click Backup 6. including the Automated System Recovery (ASR).4.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Click Next 8. Click the Automated System Recovery Wizard button 7. Go to Accessories 4. a backup set is required. Click Next 10. use the ASR backup and floppy disk to restore the system to the state when these components were 170 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Go to All Programs 3. Click Finish 11. Startup and Logon Problems Several options are available to recover a computer when a failure occurs. For the ASR to work properly. formatted floppy disk The information stored on the ASR floppy includes: • • • • Registry COM+ class Registration database Boot files System files under Windows File Protection When a computer failure occurs. Select the destination for the backup and a filename 9. To create an ASR backup set: 1.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.6. Go to System Tools 5. Click Start 2.

Insert the Windows XP installation CD-ROM 2. Verify the correct username and password is being used 2. Confirm the location of the disk backup file 7. The computer will reboot and the ASR Wizard will initiate 6. Check password policy settings To troubleshoot domain user logon issues: • • • Verify the correct credentials are being used Verify the user has a valid account on the domain Identify if the user account has been disabled 171 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. press F2 to run ASR 4.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. verify all data and settings have been restored To troubleshoot local user logon issues: 1. Insert the ASR floppy disk 5. Identify the account lockout policy for the number of failed logon attempts allowed. Boot from the CD-ROM 3.created. 4.com Web: http://store. Verify a user account exists on the local computer 3. When complete. When prompted. The user may have reached the limit. To do this: 1.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

6. compared with the two found with Windows NT and the three with Windows 2000.com Web: http://store.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. However.6. there are four tabs in the Task Manager window. click the Processes tab and sort by CPU. 172 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Only one associated process to the application will be highlighted. Rightclicking on an application listed on the Application tab provides the ability to click on Go To Process which will switch to the Processes tab with the associated process highlighted.theartofservice. not all associated processes. Services and application-spawned processes will not appear on this tab. System Performance With Windows XP. To identify the processes that are using CPU time. Any entry in the Applications or Processes tab can be stopped. and services. The priority of processes can be changed to prevent long-running processes from slowing down the computer. the Process tab will display all processes that are currently running on the system from applications. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. processes. The tabs are: • • • • Applications Processes Performance Networking The Applications tab displays all active applications on the system.

173 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.6. 6. To create baselines.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Performance Tool The Performance console includes two components: • • System Monitor Performance Logs and Alerts The System Monitor displays the real-time performance of the computer. It can be used as a constant display to identify problems as they occur. Through comparison. the Performance Logs and Alerts should be used. It can be created by monitoring certain components over time when the computer is considered healthy and functioning well. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store. The baseline is stored elsewhere and used for comparison when troubleshooting problems. or status. high CPU. baseline information can better gauge where and when a computer is functioning properly or not. document activity.1. such as memory leaks. The Networking tab allows the network utilization for all installed network cards to be monitored. and track objects and counters over a period of time. A Baseline is a set of data depicting the normal operation for a particular object. or pagefile usage. event.The Performance tab is a quick graphical means of looking at the most important parts of the system.theartofservice.

Within Windows XP.The Performance Logs and Alerts is divided into three subsections: • • • Counter Logs Trace Logs Alerts Counter Logs are equivalent to what is displayed in the System Monitor. They are counter-based and are generated when a set threshold has been met.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . such as a page fault or disk I/O. and the objects/counters that the log maintains.com Web: http://store. The trace data can be viewed to identify specific information about the system at the time of a fault.theartofservice. all counters within a single object can be selected for tracking. Alerts can perform specific tasks when an event occurs and offer more flexibility in the types of events that are available and the tasks that can be performed. The events are tracked for a specific period of time and each trace log is stored in a separate file or in a single first in. 174 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Right-clicking on an empty section of the right pane enables the creation of a new log and defines a logfile.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The purpose of the Counter Log is to track information that has an impact on the system. Counters track specific events related to an object. By generating a new logfile for each event allows a quick and enhanced viewing of a number of logs can assist in identify potential problems in the future. its output type. A trace log will track everything that the system does after a specific event has occurred. first out (FIFO) bucket. or multiple counters for separate objects. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.

as well as sending network messages or run a program to send a page or email to concerned users. When a threshold has been met.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 175 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.Alerts generate events in the Event Viewer. a Counter Log that has been saved and configured can be started to handle further monitoring after the event has occurred. typically the Administrator. Administrative alerts can be configured within the Performance Logs and Alerts tool to allow notification when problems occur.

leaving all the files intact. NTFS is typically the best choice as it includes important features not found in the other two. Click the Security tab to configure the permissions you want to assign. The contents of subfolders cannot be viewed. Partitions can be converted from FAT and FAT32 to NTFS only once.7 Resource Access Three different file systems are supported by Windows XP: • • • NTFS FAT32 FAT Of the three.theartofservice. 176 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.1.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . NTFS File Permissions A file or folder on an NTFS partition can be shared with users and groups from properties dialog box. use the command: convert X:/fs:NTFS (where X is the drive letter) 7. The Standard NTFS permissions include: • Read – allows the viewing of contents in a file or folder. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. FAT and FAT32 will only be used for multi-boot configurations. To perform the action. In most cases. NTFS permissions include standard and special permissions.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .• • Write – allows files and folders to be created. Advanced permissions can be assigned to a selected user or group. executing.com Web: http://store. • • List Folder Contents – Similar to Read and Execute without the Execute. Full Control – allows reading.theartofservice. and deleting data and the ability to assign user accounts permission to the object. • Read and Execute – the Read permission with added ability to read file and folder permissions along with the contents of the subfolder. Special permissions can be used with standard permissions to provide granular access to file and folder security. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Additional allowances include reading contents of subfolders and the ability to delete files within the folder. Each standard permission is composed of several special permissions which can be viewed or modified by clicking on the Advanced button. but the contents of the files and folders created cannot be read.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 177 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. creating. Modify – provides a combination of Read and Write permissions. They are listed as special permissions in the permissions list.

theartofservice. Select the Permissions tab 5. Select the Security tab 3. To do this: 1. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Deselect the Inherit from parent the permission entries that apply to child objects 7. When moving and copying files and folders into another folder. Once a folder is shared.com Web: http://store. To restrict access from specific users or groups.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .7. This allows the Security tab to be available in the 178 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. simple file sharing must be disabled. Open the Properties dialog box 2.1. The default behavior can be changed and the permissions of the subfolder can be set to prevent inheritance. The default is to apply the permissions of a parent folder to any files and subfolder found within.2. Simple File Sharing Simple file sharing allows folders to be shared with all users in the workgroup and make folders private in your profile.1. Click on Advanced button 4. those files and folders will inherit the permissions of the destination folder and the original permissions are lost. all users on the network can access it. Permission Inheritance Permission inheritance is used by Windows XP to simplify administration.1.

unless permission is explicitly given by the owner. Only files and folders on the NTFS partitions can be encrypted using EFS. Once encrypted. If a person has not set the permissions or been provided permission. Only the person encrypting the file or folder will be able to view the contents.theartofservice. For the person(s) with access to view an encrypted file. The technology supported by Windows XP Professional is Encrypting File System (EFS). the file can only be readable by the person encrypting it. it will automatically be decrypted when it is opened. Permissions for users and groups can be set from this tab.com Web: http://store. Remove the check by Use simple file sharing (recommended) 7. File Encryption File encryption can be used to protect files.1. Go to the View tab 4.Properties dialog box. Select Folder Options from the Tools menu 3. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. To disable simple file sharing: 1. 179 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.3. they will receive an access denied message when attempting to access the file or folder.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. This feature is not available with Windows XP Home Edition.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Open Windows Explorer 2.

Click on Advanced button 5. click the Details button 6. Right-click the file to be encrypted 2. Click OK again to close the Properties Window 8.com Web: http://store. Click OK three times 180 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Choose the General tab 4. Select the user to grant access to the encrypted file 8. In the Advanced Attributes dialog box. Choose the General tab 4. Choose Properties 3. Select option: Encrypt contents to secure data 6. Click the Add button 7. To provide other people explicit access to an encrypted file: 1. Encrypt the File And The Parent Folder 11.theartofservice. Choose Properties 3. An Encryption Warning window will appear with two choices: 9.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Click OK Encryption of a folder will automatically encrypt all files found within.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.To encrypt a file on Windows XP Professional: 1. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Encrypt The File Only 10. Right-click the encrypted file 2. Click OK 7. Click on Advanced button 5.

Change . The default setting is to provide Read access to the ‘Everyone’ group of the network. the permissions can be configured to control the type of access users and groups will have: • • • Full control – allows the creation. deletion. Specify which users and groups will have access and the type of access they will have 8.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Click the Permissions button 7. and modify the contents of a folder. however. Right-clink on the appropriate folder 3.a user can create. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 10. Open Windows Explorer 2. Shared Folder Access For folders to be accessible to other users on a network.7. Choose the Sharing tab 5.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . To share a folder: 1. Click OK 9. modification.2. the folder must be shared. Read – allows users to read the contents of a folder but not modify or create content. The number of simultaneous users can be limited by clicking the Allow This Number Of Users and typing the limit number. Click OK 181 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. delete. Click the Share This Folder option 6.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Choose Properties 4. and grant share permissions to users.

Changing Share Names Once a folder is shared using the Share this folder option and the share name is typed in. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. the share name is set. the path name and share name must be typed.2. To access the folder. The only way to access hidden files is to know that it exists since it will not be visible within My Network Places. 7.2. the command prompt can be used. type: net share sharename=folder (where sharename is the file or folder to be shared and folder is where it is located) 7. Hiding Shares Shared folders are always visible to users through My Network Shares. From a command prompt. including the dollar sign. the Shared Files Wizard may prove more useful To begin or stop sharing resources.theartofservice. The only way to change the name to the shared folder is to stop sharing the folder by selecting the Do Not Share This Folder option and click OK.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 182 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.1.2. Sharing a folder and keeping it hidden from users on the network can be by appending a dollar sign character ($) to the end of the share name.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.If sharing several folders.com Web: http://store.

At this point.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Using the Effective Permissions tool can assist in determining the permissions assigned to the user. Troubleshoot Access Denials Several reasons may be present to cause Access Denied messages. the name of the folder can be changed. since the permissions assigned to groups 183 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Any specific permissions will have to be reassigned.com Web: http://store.3. 7. they are a result of a permission conflict. Share permissions have the same characteristics. No matter the reason.2.4. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. When NTFS and share permissions are used. 7. Configuring Access Permissions NTFS permissions are cumulative and the highest permission becomes the effective permission.2. Users will have to reconnect to the shared folder.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The Effective Permissions tool which comes with Windows XP can be useful when dealing with group memberships. Also helpful is exploring the group memberships the user has. the most effective permission will be the most restrictive between the two. Then follow the steps to share the folder again. NTFS-last procedure. The tool runs through both membership-inherited share permissions and membershipinherited NTFS permissions to identify the most permissive permissions in each and run them through a share-first.

When shared resources exist on the computer. Double-click on Local Security Policy 4.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the access to them can be monitored using the auditing feature. Go to the shared folder to audit 3. Right-click the folder 4. Click OK 10. Click on one or both options: 7.theartofservice. Success 8. Failure 9. the next step is to enable auditing on specific resources: 1. To enable auditing in Windows XP: 1. Go to Properties 184 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.are inherited by the user. Open Control Panel 2.com Web: http://store. Open Administration Tools 3. Auditing must be enabled in general and specifically on the shared resources that require monitoring. Double-click Audit object access. 6.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. choose Audit Policy 5. Close the Local Security Policy console Once auditing is enabled. Under Local Policies. Auditing is a security feature designed to track events that occur on a computer such as successful and unsuccessful attempts to access shared resources. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Open Windows Explorer 2.

Specify the events to audit by placing a check beside each one 12. The contents of the log can be viewed by using the Windows Event Viewer. Select the Security tab 6.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store. Click the Add button to specify users and groups to audit 9. Print Device – an output device which produces paper documentation. Network-attached Printer . Print Server – a server that manages the print operations to one or more printers.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. Type in the user or group name and click Check Names 10.3.5. Event Viewer can be access through the Administrative Tools in the Control Panel. Connecting to Print Devices • • • • Logical Printer – a printer attached to a specific workstation rather than a file server or print server. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 7. Click OK 11. Click the Advanced button 7. Click OK three times.a printer available through the 185 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Select the Auditing tab 8. Click Security to see all the audited events that have occurred. Any security related event that occurs will be written to the security log.

3. A logical printer will appear within the Printers and Faxes folder.com Web: http://store. then the print device should be physically attached to the computer. Configurable properties of the printer can be change from here.theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Once detected.1. If adding a printer has to be done manually. 7.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . • Spooler – software designed to manage the data that is sent to the printer.network using a file server or print server. Printing Process The process used to send a document to a print device is broken down into three phases: • • • Client processes Spooler processes Printer processes Plug and Play technologies are supported by Windows XP. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 186 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. the printer drivers will be installed and configured with default settings. allowing printers to be automatically detected if using a USB or IEEE 1394 compatible port.

with specified name. Server management controls the configuration of print server properties while document management manages the documents that are in the print queue. paper size and margins From the Ports tab.3. the configurable options are: • • Deleting existing print forms on the print server Creating a new form. Windows XP can function as a print server.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. Using the Forms tab. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. the configurable options are: • • • Adding new ports Deleting existing ports Configuring existing ports The Drivers tab will list all the printer drivers currently installed on the 187 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.2.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Print Management Print Management encompasses server management and document management. The Print Server Properties dialog box has four tabs: • • • • Forms Ports Drivers Advanced The form is a paper type with specific size and margins.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .7. The Printer and Faxes folder in the Control Panel will allow access to the print server properties.

print server. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Additional printer drivers can be: • • • Installed for different platforms Remove or replace existing drivers Configure printer driver properties From the Advanced tab. the configurable options are: • • • • • • • • Change the location of the spool file from the default of: %systemroot%\System32\spool\Printers Log spooler events written to the System log Log spooler warning events Log spooler information events Beep on errors of remote documents Show informational notifications for local printers Show informational notifications for network printers Printer notification Print jobs residing on the print server can be managed through the Print Queue window. A print queue for a logical printer can be accessed by double-clicking the appropriate printer icon in the Printers and Faxes folder. 188 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

users accessing the shared printer will download the drivers automatically when they connect.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. print job notifications can be configured for users who send jobs to the printer: • • • • Go to the File menu and select Server Properties Select the Advanced tab Select the options for print notification Click OK 189 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Network-Based Printers A shared printer is accessed by users on a network.7. use the Additional Drivers button By installing drivers for other versions of Windows.com Web: http://store.3.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.3. A computer becomes a printer server when a print device is connected locally to the computer and shared on the network. Using the Printers and Faxes folder. Sharing printers can be done from its Properties dialog box: • • • • Select Sharing tab Click button beside Share this printer Type the share name for the printer To install drivers required for other Windows versions.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. When Remote Documents Are Printed – (For pre-Windows 2000 clients) a message is sent to the computer from which the print job was sent. • Notify Computer. it must be shared. Not User.com Web: http://store. notification is sent. provides the opportunity to share and publish the printer in the Active Directory for others to access. its attributes are searchable. • Show Informational Notification For Network Printers – when a document has been printed on a print device attached to a remote computer. notification is sent.Options include: • Show Informational Notifications For Local Printers – When a document has been printed on a print device attached to the local computer.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Connections can be made using the Net Use command.4. A shared printer does not need to be published in Active Directory to be accessible to others on the network. To publish the printer in the Active Directory.3. Active Directory Publication Attaching a printer to a computer that is already a member of a domain. • Notify When Remote documents Are Printed – (For preWindows 2000 clients) a message is sent to the user when a print job to the print device attached to the print server is completed. By publishing the printer. 7. 190 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

Synchronization will ensure that any changes to offline copies of the files can be incorporated into the network copy when the computer reconnects. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.7. To enable: • • • Double-click the network drive that contains the file or folder Go to the File menu Click the Make Available Offline option Permissions applied to files and folders remain the same when working offline. 7.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. a folder or file can be configured to be available offline.4. 191 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Offline files feature is enabled automatically with Windows XP.theartofservice. Configuring Offline Files After enabling the Offline Files feature. Offline Files Users can access network files offline by storing copies of the shared files on user's computers.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .4. the feature can be enabled through the Offline Files tab from the Folder Options dialog box.com Web: http://store. If disabled.1.

The Synchronization Manager can be used to configure which offline files are synchronized when a network connection becomes active: • • • • • Click Start Go to All Programs Go to Accessories Click Synchronize Click the Setup button to identify Items To Synchronize Synchronization Settings allow information to be synchronized for each network connection configured on the computer.theartofservice. Additional settings allow synchronization to happen when the computer is idle or on a specific schedule.7. Synchronization can happen when logging into a computer by changing settings in the Offline Files tab of the Folder Options dialog box. Configuring Synchronization Synchronization of offline files is performed before logging off a computer by default in Windows XP.com Web: http://store.4.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 192 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.2.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

events surrounding valid and 193 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. errors. The events written to the logs represent any significant occurrence that a user or administrator should be aware of. • The Application log file – records events specific to applications. At least three logs exist for any Windows Server 2003 system: • The System log file – records events related to system operation.1. Typically.1.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .8 Server Environments 8.com Web: http://store. and warnings. the Event Viewer is the best tool. Alerts generated by the Performance Logs and Alerts tool are stored in this log.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Most of the information focuses on the stopping and starting of servers or the failure of a system component.theartofservice.1. Monitoring Events 8. and utilities not native to Windows Server 2003. Event Viewer To view event log files that are updated by the operating system and various services and application running on the server. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. programs. • The Security log file – records events related to security and auditing. The information recorded is determined by the application developer and usually consists of informational messages.

Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.1.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. the DNS log is available.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . decisions about what events to track and the objects to track them on must be made. and accessing of resources are found in this log. The File Replication Service log file – records events related to the replication of the SYSVOL folder. It records events related to the operation of the DNS service and is the first place to look when name-resolution problems occur on the network. Active Directory domain controllers have the following logs: • • The Directory Service log file – records events related to the operation of the Active Directory service.2. If the DNS service is installed on the server. When configuring auditing. These events are found in the Windows Server 2003 Security log. The types of events recorded can be configured using the audit policy which is enabled by default. 8. Auditing The process of recording user and system activities on the network is called auditing which is enabled by default in Windows Server 2003. A typical entry in the Security log will show: • • The time and date of the event occurrence The event performed 194 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.invalid logon attempts.

Different classes of priority levels assist in defining the division of processing time to application in Windows Server 2003. not setting specific priority numbers to processes. The Task Manager also provides a real-time view of system resources assigned to each application which provides an opportunity to observe applications that have stopped responding. The priority levels are assigned numbers from 0 to 31. Real-time functions are assigned levels of 16 to 31. to increase and decrease priority.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the best tool is the Task Manager.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. To create and apply audit policies. The priority classes are: • • • • Realtime – Priority 24 High – Priority 13 AboveNormal – Priority 9 Normal – Priority 8 195 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. and to terminate them. 8.3.• • The user account that performed the event The success or failure of the event Audit policies are used to define the events recorded in the Windows Server 2003 Security logs. Application and noncritical operating system functions are assigned levels of 0 to 15. sue the Group Policy snap-in. Task Manager To monitor and manage the state of active applications. The Task Manager can allow priority classes to be set.com Web: http://store.1.

Managing Software Updates Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) can be installed to download all critical updates as they are posted to Windows Update. Older versions of the Automated Update client do not support WSUS. Configuration of client computers and servers is possible through Group Policy or the Registry to contact the internal WSUS server for updates. Administrators can receive email notification when new critical updates are posted. The supported versions of the Automatic Update client are including in: • • • Windows XP Service Pack 1 or later Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 or later All versions of Windows Server 2003 196 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store.• • Below Normal – Priority 7 Low – Priority 4 8.2.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. WSUS clients can be configured to point to a specific SUS server allowing them to receive updates from the closest server on the WAN.theartofservice.

control over the desktop can be granted to the remote user to make changes and run programs.3. Remotely Managing Servers 8. In extreme cases. 197 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.8. or vocally if both users have the required sound cards and microphones.theartofservice. The invitation can be sent through: • • • Windows Messenger Email Disk To access a Remote Assistance computer behind a firewall. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.3. port 3389 must be open. After enabling Remote Assistance.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.1.com Web: http://store.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Messages can be exchanged through a chat session. Using Remote Assistance With Remote Assistance a remote user can be granted the ability to observe another user's desktop while the user is working. an invitation has to be issued before anyone can connect to the machine.

theartofservice. • • The files a user creates. not compressed file size.1. The disk quota feature can be used to monitor space use. so file compression cannot be used to prevent a user from exceeding the quota.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. • Disk quotas are not applied on a per-folder basis. NTFS Disk Quotas The key considerations about NTFS disk quotas include: • • Disk quotas do not apply to members of the local Administrators account. The feature is disabled by default.com Web: http://store. Files on volumes that have been converted from FAT to NTFS do not count against user quotas. copies. Monitor File and Print Servers Disk quotas are a way to control the amount of space a user has access to on a file server.4. Within Windows Server 2003. After conversion. files created or moved to the volume will be owned by the user. since they will be initially owned by a local administrator and count against the quota for the administrator. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.4. two types of disk quotas are found: • • NTFS Quotas FSRM Quotas 8. or takes ownership of count against disk usage. Disk quotas are based on actual file size.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .8. but can 198 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 8. The free size that an installed application sees during installation is affected by a disk quota.4. • • • • If multiple volumes exist on a physical disk. File Screening Management – creates file screens that prevent users from saving blocked file types in managed volumes and folders. However.com Web: http://store. a quota must be applied separately to each volume. Any volume or partition formatted using a version of Windows 2000 or earlier will not support disk quotas. To have disk quotas.be on a per-volume basis. File Server Resource Manager (FSRM) Starting with Windows server 2003 R2. Windows Server 2003 R2 must be installed on the managing and all managed servers. To manage servers using FSRM.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the 199 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. use a NTFS volumes or partitions formatted by Windows 2000 or later.2.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. • Storage Reports Management – creates and schedules storage reports. Disk quotas can be enabled on local or network volumes and on removable drives formatted with NTFS. It includes additional snap-ins like: • • Queue Management – creates and manages quotas on volumes and folders. The File Server Resource Management (FSRM) MMC snap-in is available.

Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. • Limits – Quotas can be set to either Hard or Soft. or generate a storage report. • • • Quotas can be implemented on multiple servers using a template that is copied between them.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . capability to send an email.4. FSRM Quotas Implementing FSRM quotas is the best option over NTFS quotas because of these differences: • • Quotas can be set on the folder and the volume levels. Some key considerations about FSRM Quotas include: • Space – can be defined in any increment from kilobytes to terabytes and can be applied to either new or existing volumes or folders. A hard quota prevents the user from saving any more files when the quota is exceeded with no grace period.com Web: http://store. Notifications have been expanded to include event logging. A soft quota provides a warning to the user when exceeding the quota 200 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Quotas are based on actual disk space used and not the actual file size. run a file or script.theartofservice.3. so file compression can be used to prevent a user from exceeding the quota. 8. Quotas are automatically created for subfolders as they are added.domain can still be Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 without R2.

and additional files can be saved during a grace period. The files listed by the File Group are either blocked or not blocked.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 8.theartofservice. A File Group can be configured for specific exceptions to override the blocking rule. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.4. File Groups are used to configure file screens. Prebuilt file groups included in Windows Server 2003 are: • • • • • • • • • Audio and Video Files Backup Files Compressed Files E-mail Files Executable Files Image Files Office Files System Files Temporary Files 201 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store.4. • Notifications – notifications to let the user and/or administrator know when quotas are nearly or fully reached can be configured. File Screening The File Server Resource Manager can provide file screening which enables the prevention from saving blocked file types to the server. These notifications can take the form of an event log or be emailed or cause a program or script to be run.

Network printer – any print device directly attached to the 202 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice. Spooler – the service managing the documents that are waiting to be printed. To do this. Print device – the physical printer connected to the computer. 8. Printer driver – the software enabling the operating system to communicate to the printing device.5.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Print server – a computer which print drivers are installed and shared.com Web: http://store.4.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Print queue – the list of print jobs currently in the spooler. attach a file group to a new file screen that overrides the screening folder and its subfolders. Local printer – any print device that is directly attached to and controlled by the print server. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.• • Text Files Web Page Files A file screen exception allows files that are blocked by other file screens. Print Queue Definitions Some key terms related to print queues are: • • • • • • • • • Print job – the sequence of data and print device commands sent to a print device. Spool file – the file which stores the print data while waiting to be printed.

4. 8. The printers must be connected to the same print server.network.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Each logical printer must use the same print driver but can have slightly different configurations and be assigned to different people. When users send a print job to the printer.theartofservice. Roles can be configured to allow the 203 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Roles can be applied to an individual or group.com Web: http://store.6. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Printer Pooling Printer pooling is a form of load balancing where two or more print devices are represented by a single virtual printer.4. The job with the highest priority will be printed first. Several logical printers can be attached to a single physical printer. The printers should be located in close proximity to each other. Priorities can be set from 1 to 00 and define the default importance of the print jobs in the queue.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Roles are used to classify different sets of users. the print server queues the print job in the order submitted.7. Roles and Priorities Different users can be assigned to different logical printers with different priorities. 8. For successful print pooling: • • • The printers must use the same print driver.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. either printing immediately or after last page is spooled. Priority – assigns a numerical priority to the printer. Enable advanced printing features – provides options like 204 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Hold mismatched documents – documents not matching the available form are held.com Web: http://store. Some predefined group-specific roles include: • • • • • • Administrators – full access Creator Owner – manage documents only Everyone – print only Power users – full access Print Operators – full access Server Operators – full access 8. Printer Properties The advanced properties that can be configured are: • • • Always available and Available from – specifies the hours of the day the printer is available. manage document.8. Keep printed documents – printed jobs are retained in the spooler. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. not start spooling.abilities to print.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Spool print documents so program finishes printing faster – enables spooling of documents.4.theartofservice. or manage printers. • • • • • Print directly to the printer – no spooling performed. Print spooled documents first – Prints documents in order they finish spooling.

Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. • • • Printing Defaults command button – default orientation and order of pages can be selected. 205 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. The spool file is located at %systemroot%\system32\Spool\Printers. The service manages print queues for all local or network printers managed by the server.com Web: http://store. On a Windows Server 2003 print server.4. Print Processor command button – the available print processes can be specified.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Print Spooler Print spoolers are a service which is part of the operating system. Separator Page command button – allows a separator page file to be specified.9.page order and pages per sheet. 8. the print spooler files can be relocated to a dedicated hard disk if loads are high. A significant impact on network and print server loads can be generated because of large print jobs.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice.

10. being paused. The snap-in can be used to view and manage printers and print servers in the organization. Included with the PMC is the Printer Filters feature which can group printers based on various criteria to be found and managed easily.com Web: http://store. the Print Management Console (PMC) is an updated Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in. Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2003 R2 can be managed through Print Management.theartofservice. out of paper. Any network printer running Windows 2000 Server. The Print Management Console is not installed by default and must be manually installed after the initial installation of Windows Server 2003 R2. • Printers with Jobs – shows all printers with print jobs currently in their print queues.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . or other reason. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.4. Print Management Console Introduced with Windows Server 2003 R2. The preconfigured printer filters include: • • All Printers – contains all printers in the organization.8. Printers Not Ready – shows any printer in a not ready condition because of an error. 206 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Print Management can be used from any computer running Windows Server 2003 R2 or later.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

Monitor Memory Performance The most common counters to monitor memory performance are: • Memory: Cache Faults/sec – usually indicates insufficient amount of RAM on a system or running a combination of memory intensive applications.1. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. causing excessive paging.5.5. the most common counters monitored are: • Network Interface: Bytes Total/sec – Communication errors or slowdowns are highly probable of the highest observed average is less than 75% of the expected value. • Network Interface: Output Queue Length – Delays are 207 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice.8. Paging File: % Usage Peak – When the numbers approaches 100% during normal operations.5. • • Memory: Available Bytes – Less than 4MB identifies insufficient RAM on the system.2. the maximum size of the paging file is too small and more RAM is required. • Memory: Page Faults/sec – identifies excess paging when the counter averages above 200 for low-end systems or above 600 for high-end systems. 8. Monitor Network Performance To identify performance problems with the network interfaces.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Monitoring and Optimizing a Server Environment 8.com Web: http://store.

at least one CPU is in a bottleneck if this value remains higher than 80% consistently. The key performance counters for monitoring the disk: • PhysicalDisk: Average Disk Queue Length – the number of queued requests must not exceed the number of spindles in use plus two.4.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 8.theartofservice. • Network Interface: Packets/sec – protocol or NIC related problems are indicated with sharp declines occur while the queue length remains nonzero.5.3.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Monitor Disk Performance Disk counters are enabled by default in Windows Server 2003. Monitor Processor Performance The key performance counters for monitoring the processor: • Processor: % Processor Time – A CPU bottleneck may be in occurrence of this counter remains above 80% for any extended period. • System: Processor Queue Length – Processor congestion is indicated if a value of 2 or higher is sustained.5. • PhysicalDisk: % Disk Time – sustained percentages over 208 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. • Processor: % Total Processor Time – for computers with multiple processors.being experienced if the average is above 2.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 8.

Running Applications in IIS During the upgrade from a previous version of Windows. 8.0 Isolation Mode Worker Process Isolation Mode 209 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Web Servers 8. 8.6.theartofservice. IIS will present static pages only. The service will need to be started manually.6. Managing Internet Information Services (IIS) In previous versions of Windows. In addition after installation. Usually happens when the Avg. Internet Information Services was installed by default.6.0 will allow web applications to run in two modes: • • IIS 5. With Windows Server 2003.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .2. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. it is not.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. IIS will be installed but disabled.90% indicate the possibility that the storage device is too slow. Disk Queue Length is constantly over 2. Any website requiring use of ASP or other dynamic content will need support for each feature to be enabled. • PhysicalDisk: Average disk sec/Transfer – Identifies the average time in seconds for a disk transfer.com Web: http://store. IIS 6.1.

0. one will find websites. These application pools are sets of one or more applications which are assigned to a set of one or more worker processes. IIS 5.0 Isolation Mode will run older IIS 5. applications and processes are separated into application pools.0 Isolation Mode is enabled when the web server is upgraded from previous versions of IIS. but not simultaneously on the same server. Within an application pool. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .0 can be managed using: • • • • The IIS Manager MMC Administration scripting Manual editing of the configuration file The Remote Administration website 210 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. When running applications in Worker Process Isolation Mode. Each application pool is isolated from the next application pool. Either IIS 5. applications.IIS 5. and virtual directories.theartofservice.0 Isolation Mode or Worker Process Isolation Mode can be run in Windows Server 2003.0-compatible applications that cannot run natively in IIS 6.com Web: http://store. Managing IIS 6. By default. This allows any failure or memory leak present with one application to affect only the processes in that application pool and not any functions found in other application pools.

Virtual Servers When hosting multiple websites on a single server. The Metabase is in XML file format.theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.3. Backups are displayed by filename and the date and time the backup was performed. IIS Metabase The IIS Metabase stores most configuration information for IIS.4.8. the last 10 Metabase backups will be kept by IIS and stored in the %system%\system32\inetsrv\history folder. To restore the IIS Metabase. select backup. Unique identifiers are available using: • • • Unique IP address – for websites access over the Internet and requiring the use of Secure Socket Layer (SSL). The IIS Manager MMC is used to back up the Metabase. The backup is stored in the %systemroot%\system32\inetsrv\ folder.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . each website must have a unique identity. 211 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. By default. Restore Configuration from the IIS Manager MMC. Host header name – used for Internet and intranet sites.6. 8. allowing easier editing. TCP port number – rarely used on production web servers.com Web: http://store.6.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. 8. authentication is required. The users IDs and passwords are stored as local accounts on the web server or in the Active Directory domain database. Four types of authenticated access are available: • Integrated Windows Authentication – if the web server and the client are members of trusted domains. the user ID and password will be passed by the browser to the web server automatically and no prompt for passwords will be issued. The user is presented a user ID and password to access website resources. but it is suitable for intranets. all users attempting access to websites will be prompted for a user ID and password.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .6. When anonymous access is disabled.To use multiple IP addresses to identify websites on the server. Managing Authentication Authenticated access will integrate the web server with Windows security.theartofservice. • Digest Authentication – supported only when the client is 212 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. The password is transmitted as a hash value.5. Some firewalls will not allow the method to be used. When website resources are protected using NTFS permissions. a unique IP address can be assigned to a different installed network interface card (NIC) or multiple IP address can be assigned to a single NIC. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.

is currently in an Active Directory domain. A default domain must be specified.theartofservice.using Internet Explorer 5 or later.NET Passport Authentication – a new feature in Windows Server 2003 using the Passport authentication system for e-commerce websites. • Basic Authentication – this method is the least-secure as it transmits the password as clear text. 213 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. • . and the password must be stored in clear text. The method is supported by any browser and is used in combination with SSL to ensure the passwords are encrypted. A single sign-on can be created which is honored across various Passport-enabled sites. A central Passport authentication server is used to perform authentication.com Web: http://store. This method will work through most firewalls and the password is transmitted as an MD5 hash value.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

1. encryption. • Copy – used to back up only the file and folders chosen 214 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. regardless of the archive bit setting. the user can back up the files they own or have at least Read permissions for. If a user is not a member of either of these groups. data backed up from an NTFS volume which is restored to a FAT volume will result in the loss of configured file and folder permission. Unfortunately. Windows Backup Files and folders on FAT16.1.1. FAT32. The backup options available for Windows Server 2003 are: • Normal – used to back up all the files and folders selected. and compression attributes.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . and NTFS volumes can be backed up using Windows Backup. The archive bit is changed.com Web: http://store.9 Disaster Recovery 9.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Manage backup procedures 9. A member of those groups on a domain controller allows any computer which is a member of the domain or in a trusted relationship with the domain to be backed up or restored by that individual.theartofservice. Only a member of the local Administrators or Backup Operators group can perform a backup and restore on a Windows Server 2003 server.

com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. System State Backups The collection of data comprising operating system configurations of the server is considered the system state data.theartofservice. • Daily – used to back up only the files and folders created or modified that day and does not read or change the archive bit. 9.2. The archive bit is read to determine which files to back up and cleared when the files has been backed up. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. The archive bit is not changed but is read to identify the files that need to be backed up.without reading or changing the archive bit. • Incremental – used to back up only the files and folders that have been created or modified since the last normal or incremental backup.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . this data includes: • • • • Registry COM+ Class Registration database System boot files The system files from the Windows File Protection area 215 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. • Differential – used to back up only the files and folders that have been created or modified since the last normal or incremental backup. Within Windows Server 2003.1.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The need for additional third-party software is eliminated. Faster backup procedure. 9. Open files are not skipped. The advantages of Volume Shadow Copy are: • • • • • • Users cannot be locked out by the Backup program.3. During a backup.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Volume Shadow Copy Volume Shadow Copy allows a snapshot of an open file to be taken during a backup session. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. applications can write data to a file. The Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) allows the contents of 216 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice. The file is copied and saved to another area on the disk. Backups can be performed during business hours.Some system state data is based on the purpose of the server.IIS Metabase or Cluster Service configuration These components cannot be backed up or restored separately because of their interdependencies.com Web: http://store. This copy is saved through the Windows Backup utility.1. such as: • • • Certificate Server – the Certificate Services database Domain Controller – the Active Directory Services database and the SYSVOL directory Either feature .

the oldest shadow copies are deleted. only the changes. as well as how often the files are updated. The entire file is not copied. though the size can be increased at any time. and to restore a previous copy of a file. If shadow copies are stored on another volume. The oldest copies will be purged as allocated space runs out or the number of shadow copies reaches 64. A configurable amount of space is set aside on the same or different volume to be used to save any changes to the files on the volume the Volume Shadow Copy is enabled on. • • • • When the storage limit is reached.shared folders to be viewed as they existed at specific points in time.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . The default configuration for shadow copies is a scheduled update at 7:00am and 12:00 pm on weekdays Heavily used file servers should have shadow copies 217 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 10% of the volume is allocated by default to storage.com Web: http://store. Changes are added by making a block-level copy of any changes that have occurred to the files since the last shadow copy. VSS follows specific guidelines: • • • • • The service is enabled at the volume level. existing shadow copies will be deleted. The number and size of the files on the volume should be considered with estimating the size to allocate.theartofservice. 100MB is the minimum storage space for shadow copies. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Storage space can be on the same volume or another volume.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

stored on a separate volume. • Dual-boot systems do not support shadow copying properly.

Windows XP, Windows 2000 Professional, and Windows 98 requires a Volume Shadow Copy client. The client is located in the %systemroot%\system32\clients\twclient folder on Windows Server Client 2003.

9.2. Recovery from Server Failures

A variety of options are available to troubleshoot and repair server startup and driver problems. From the Windows Server 2003 Advanced Options menu: • Safe Mode – Windows Server 2003 is started with basic drivers for mouse, video, monitor, mass storage, and keyboard. • • Safe Mode with Networking – Windows Server 2003 starts with basic drivers and network drivers. Safe Mode with Command Prompt – Windows Server 2003 starts with basic drivers and a command window instead of the desktop. • Enable Boot Logging – Windows Server 2003 starts normally but logs a list of all the device drivers and services and their status that the system attempts to load. • Enable VGA Mode – Windows Server 2003 starts normally but forces the basic VGA driver to load.
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Last Known Good Configuration – Windows Server 2003 starts with the contents of the Registry from the last time the user logged onto the system.

Directory Services Restore Mode – The Active Directory database and SYSVOL folder is restored on the domain controller.

Debugging Mode – Windows Server 2003 starts normally but sends debugging information over a serial cable to another computer.

Boot Normally – Windows Server 2003 starts with no modifications and the menu options are bypassed.

Safe Mode options do not update the Last Known Good Configuration information.

9.2.1. Recovery Console

The Recovery Console is a command line interface where a limited set of commands can be performed to include starting and stopping system services. Unlike booting from a DOS disk, the Recovery Console allows files to e accessed on an NTFS-formatted volume.

By default, the Recovery Console is not installed and must be installed after installing Windows Server 2003. It can be run from the Windows Server 2003 CD-ROM.

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The commands available from the Recovery Console are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Attrib changed Batch executed CD Chdir Chkdsk Cls Copy Del Delete Dir Disable Diskpart Enable Exit server Expand extracts files from the Windows CAB changes the directory changes the directory disk errors are repaired clears the screen copies files deletes files deletes files displays a list of files and directories a service or driver is disabled partitions and volumes are managed a service or driver is enabled closes the console and reboots the commands from a text file can be the attributes or files and folders can be

files or expands compressed files from the Windows Server 2003 CD-ROM • • • • • • Fixboot Fixmbr Format Help Listsvc Logon writes a new boot sector the master boot record is repaired formats a drive lists available commands installed services and drivers are listed logs on to the server
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• A file cannot be copied from the hard disk to the floppy disk. 221 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . the root partitions of the %systemdrive%.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. other partitions. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. floppy drives.• • • • • • • • • • Map are listed MD Mkdir More RD Ren Rename Rmdir Systemroot systemroot Type local drive partitions and their mappings creates a directory creates a directory contents of a text file is displayed deletes a directory renames a file renames a file deletes a directory sets the current directory to the contents of a text file is displayed Limitations in using the Recovery Console include: • Only %systemroot% and its subfolders. a CD-ROM or another hard disk to the hard disk.com Web: http://store. and CD-ROMs are accessible.theartofservice. but allows copying the file from a Floppy.

9.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .3.3. the Active Directory files are restored as part of the system state.3.1.theartofservice. Restoring Backup Data 9.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. An Authoritative Restore is an operation of restoring Active Directory from tape and forcing the replication of restored data to all other 222 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store. Directory Service Restore Mode On a domain controller. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. System State Recovery Certain system state components can be restored to an alternative location: • • • • Registry SYSVL folder System boot files Cluster configuration (if installed) Other components cannot be restored to an alternative location including: • • • • • Active Directory IIS Metabase COM+ Class Registration Certificate Services Windows File Protection folder 9.2.

When a single Active Directory object is deleted accidentally. identify: • • • The object's common name (CN) The Organization Unit (OU) The Domain (DC) where the object is located in 9.3. the server needs to be boot from the Windows Server 2003 CD-ROM. The process will restore the boot drive information. This is especially useful when the Active Directory is in a corrupted state on all domain controllers. and re-creates the 223 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. When performing this option.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .domain controllers. ASR will install a generic version of Windows Server 2003 to mount and restore the boot partition from the backup media. disk signatures.com Web: http://store. The operation will cause the data restored from tape to overwrite the corrupted data stored. insert the floppy disk that has the backup media created during the ASR process. To restore an object. Automated System Recovery (ASR) The Automated System Recovery (ASR) makes a backup of the boot partition onto tape and other media.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. that object can be restored from a backup tape by performing a partial authoritative restore. The catalog is then saved along with other operating system information to a floppy disk.3. If a problem occurs that cannot be fixed using any other repair and recovery method or the boot drive is replaced.

It will not recover or delete any data volumes.theartofservice. 224 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.boot partition or volume.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

Level 1 C. Level 3 D.com Web: http://store. Two C.1. None Question 2 What level of RAID storage uses mirroring techniques to store data? A.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Level 5 225 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Level 0 B. One B. Question 1 How many extended partitions can a single physical basic disk have? A. Three D.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice.10 Practice Exam 10. Refresher “Warm up Questions” The following multiple-choice questions are a refresher.

215. 193.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.98.214. 13. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 214.144. 172.215. 175. All of the above 226 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.214 B.78.1 Question 4 Which of the following address is a private IP address? A. Recursive query B.101.16 Question 5 Which of the following is initiated by a DNS client and often results in a referral to another DNS server? A.45 D.15 C. 172.54 B.Question 3 Which of the following IP addresses belongs to a Class B network? A.243 C.98. 192.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .13.com Web: http://store. 121.98 D. Iterative query C. Root Hint D.113.16.232.

com Web: http://store. FTP 227 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice. SRV C. PTR Question 7 Datagrams are a product of which IP suite protocol? A.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . TCP B.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. UDP D. IP C.Question 6 Which DNS resource record is used to identify the DNS servers for each zone? A. NS B. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. SOA D.

Question 8 Which type of network security policies are used to submit requests to certificate authorities? A.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Local Policy D. Account Policy B. Receive Failures C. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Send Failures B. Group Policy C. Active Acquire 228 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Public Key Policy Question 9 Using the IP Security Monitor.theartofservice. Acquire Failures D. which Main Mode statistic will provide data on the number of IKE messages being sent outbound that have failed? A.com Web: http://store.

Security Agreements D. MBSA B. Windows Update 229 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . WSUS C.Question 10 Active Directory objects are defined by what component? A. Certificates B.theartofservice. Controller B. Schema C. Domain D. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Automatic Update D.com Web: http://store. All of the above Question 12 Security updates are downloaded using which windows utility? A. Forest Question 11 What does IPSec use to provide information required to securely communicate between two computers? A.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Kerberos C.

Primary C. Network Question 14 Which of the following is considered the authoritative copy of the DNS zone? A.theartofservice. Data Link B.com Web: http://store. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Authoritative B. Transport C.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Session D. Stub 230 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.Question 13 Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for ensuring end-to-end delivery of a packet? A. Secondary D.

The number of hosts available in a subnetwork is managed using VLSM. DNS proxy server B. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. D. VSLM is used with addresses on the Internet. DNS resources Question 16 Which of the following statements is true about variable-length subnet masks? A.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . DNS server C. Routing protocols must support the sending of the source MAC address to allow VLSM use.com Web: http://store. DNS client D.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. B. C.Question 15 Which of following is not required for a complete DNS solution? A. All of the above 231 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

theartofservice. NTFS C. NTFS16 D.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .Question 17 Which of the following cannot be configured through the Windows Desktop applet? A. Appearance Question 18 Which file type was introduced with Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2? A. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. FAT16 B. Font C. Screensaver D. Theme B. FAT32 232 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store.

Repeater Mode C.theartofservice. 5 D.com Web: http://store.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Bridge Mode B. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 4 C.Question 19 Which of the following modes is the default for a wireless access point? A. Dependent on network topology 233 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 3 B. Access Mode Question 20 What is the maximum number of populated segments that are generally allowed between two points using repeaters? A. Root Mode D.

Question 21 Which of the following utilities is not a command line utility used to manage disk partitions? A. DEFRAG. FSUTIL. DFRG. CHKDSK. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. Normal copying of a compressed file or folder on the same NTFS volume.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store.EXE B.EXE Question 22 Which of the following situations for moving and copying compressed files will conclude with the copied file assuming the compression state of the target folder? A. Overwriting a file with the same name C. All of the above 234 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. D.MSC C. B. Normal copying of a file or folder between volumes.EXE D.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

C. PAT can be used with static and dynamic addressing techniques. B. Broadcasts addresses are supported by IPv6 by utilizing a combination of Anycast and multicast addressing.000 port numbers. PAT will provide no more than 65.Question 23 Which of the following statements are incorrect? A. D.com Web: http://store. Question 24 Which of the following statements is true? A. Anycast addresses identify a group of interfaces where the packet is delivered on the closest interface. D.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Unicast addresses identify a single network interface. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. B. 235 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. PAT is used to translate the IP address and port numbers C.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Multicast addresses are assigned to a group of interfaces belonging to different nodes.theartofservice. PAT is used to translate port numbers only.

All of the above.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Static B. Automatic C.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Forwarders B. Client 236 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.Question 25 Which of the following DNS components are used to resolve external DNS domain names? A.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Question 26 Which DHCP allocation method is used to provide a range of IP addresses to requesting client computers each time a request is made? A. Dynamic D. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Authoritative servers D. Root namespaces C.

TCP B. DNS D. System Policy MMC 237 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.Question 27 Which networking function will allow a computer to be assigned an IP address when a DHCP client is unavailable? A. Disk Policy MMC D.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store. IP C.theartofservice. Group Policy MMC C.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. APIPA Question 28 Where are system policies accessible? A. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Local Computer Policy MMC B.

theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Read B.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. which Quick Mode statistic provides data on the number of packets whose source cannot be verified? A. Modify D. Bad SPI Packets B. None of the above Question 30 Which NTFS permission setting provides the least level of authority to a user or group? A. Write C. Packets Not Decrypted D.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Full control 238 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.Question 29 Using the IP Security Monitor. Packets Not Authenticated C.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Default Security B.theartofservice. Which template group is used to ensure backward compatibility? A. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store.Question 31 What type of profile type is created automatically for every user at first logon? A. Highly Secure C. Temporary C. Secure D. Compatible 239 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Roaming B. Guest Question 32 Windows Server 2003 has a set of security templates available for defining groups. Local D.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store. DHCPDISCOVER D.Question 33 Which Windows update utility is used on the corporate server to provide updates to client computers within the network? A. Windows Server Update Services C. Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer Question 34 Which of the following DHCP messages is broadcasted across the network? A. Automatic Update B. DHCPACK B. DHCPOFFER C. DHCPRESPONSE 240 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Windows Update D.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Root hints Question 36 What does the second level of the domain name represent? A. Namespaces D. 184 C. Zones B.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.theartofservice. Subdomain Question 37 What is the dotted decimal translation of the binary 11010110? A. Geographical status D. 202 D. Registered name of an individual or organization C. 164 B. 214 241 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.Question 35 Which of the following is a logical container found in DNS? A.com Web: http://store. Organizational status B. Domains C.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Online (error) B. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.Question 38 Which of the following status messages identifies a disk is not accessible due to a hardware failure? A. Mirrored 242 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store. Unrecognized D. what type of dynamic disk volumes are being used? A. Offline C.theartofservice. Striped D. Unreadable Question 39 When data is evenly interleaved across two or more disks. Spanned C.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. System B.

theartofservice. Interrupt-driven I/O C.Question 40 What type of Network Interface Card technique will have the peripheral alert the card with data that is ready to be transferred? A. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Polling D.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Programmed I/O B.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Direct Memory Access 243 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.

255. for class C.255. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.168. Question 4 Answer: C Reasoning: Private addresses are found in all the network classes: for A. to 172.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.255.255. the range is 10.0 to 191.0.0. Question 2 Answer: B Reasoning: RAID level 1 will replicate data across multiple disks by using mirroring techniques.31.com Web: http://store. the range is 192.0 to 172. for class B.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .255. Answers to Questions Question 1 Answer: A Reasoning: A basic disk configuration can have up to three primary and one extended partitions.0.0.168. 244 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.theartofservice.0 to 10.0. Question 3 Answer: D Reasoning: Class B networks utilize the range of IP addresses from 128.255.11 Answer Guide 11.

Question 8 Answer: D Reasoning: A Public Key Policy is used to set options for automatically submitting requests to certificate authorities for installing and accessing public keys. Question 6 Answer: A Reasoning: The NS resource record (nameserver) identifies each zones DNS servers and is used within all forward and reverse lookup zones.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Question 7 Answer: C Reasoning: User Datagram Protocol is a part of the IP suite and sends messages between computer applications in the form of datagrams.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. The DNS server cannot use answers provided by other DNS servers.com Web: http://store. and therefore.Question 5 Answer: B Reasoning: Iterative queries are made by DNS clients to DNS servers for the best possible answer to the query. referrals are often the result of the query back to the client. 245 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Group policies are not used to configure network security settings.

com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.Question 9 Answer: A Reasoning: Send Failures is a Main mode statistic for measuring the number of outbound IKE messages that have failed. 246 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. are used to authenticate users and computers to establish secure connections. To allow the authentication process to perform.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . security agreements must be established to begin negotiation. along with preshared keys. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Question 10 Answer: B Reasoning: Schemas are used to define objects within Active Directory. Question 11 Answer: C Reasoning: Certificates and Kerberos. Question 12 Answer: A Reasoning: the Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer is a utility to download the most current security updates by verify the latest installed updates and identify any common configurations which are security violations.

while CIDR is used within the Internet. the technique is used within an organization. The Secondary zone type is a read only copy of the DNS server. while the Stub is a partial copy of read-only data. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Question 15 Answer: A Reasoning: Proxy servers are not required for a DNS server solution. Question 16 Answer: C Reasoning: When using VLSM.Question 13 Answer: D Reasoning: The Network layer of the OSI model ensures end-to-end delivery of the packet.theartofservice. The VLSM is used to manage the number of hosts available in a subnetwork and requires routing protocols to support the sending of the subnet mask.com Web: http://store. 247 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. the data is sent to the Transport layer to reorder the data and check for delivery errors. Question 14 Answer: B Reasoning: The authoritative copy is called the primary zone type. It checks the destination address and if a match is found.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.

org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. FAT 16 was its predecessor and still used. Question 18 Answer: D Reasoning: FAT32 was introduced with Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2. where 5 segments can be between two points with 4 repeaters and only 3 populated segments.Question 17 Answer: B Reasoning: Font is not configured through the Desktop applet. while NTFS is another file system. Question 20 Answer: A Reasoning: The general rule of thumb when using repeaters is the 54-3 rule. Repeater mode is used to provide a wireless upstream link to a wired link. The bridge mode is used to connect two or more wired networks using wireless access points. 248 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. There is no NTFS16 system. Question 19 Answer: C Reasoning: The Root Mode is the typical default for wireless access points and is used when the access point is connected to the wired network backbone using a wired interface.

MSC performs like DEFRAG.theartofservice.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 249 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.com Web: http://store. but the DFRG.EXE. Question 24 Answer: B Reasoning: PAT is used to translate IP addresses and port numbers. Question 25 Answer: A Reasoning: Though all these components may be in place in a solution. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. DFRG.Question 21 Answer: B Reasoning: All of the listed utilities are used to manage disk partitions.MSC and CLEANMGR. forwarders are DNS servers which are used to resolve external or offsite DNS domain names. It is used with dynamic addressing and provides more than 65.EXE (not listed) are GUI utilities.000 port number when using a 16-bit port number field. Question 23 Answer: C Reasoning: Broadcast messages are not supported by IPv6.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . not command line utilities. Question 22 Answer: D Reasoning: All of these situations will result in the compressed state of the target folder to be assumed by the copied or moved file.

logon. group policies. Question 27 Answer: D Reasoning: Automatic Private IP Addressing will assign an IP address within the 169. and windows file protection can be set. Adding privileges starts with Write. Question 29 Answer: B Reasoning: The Packets Not Authenticated statistic measures the number of packets whose source cannot be verified.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Modify. and Full Control. Read and Execute.com Web: http://store. 250 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Question 28 Answer: A Reasoning: System policies are accessible from the Local Computer Policy MMC snap-in and allow settings for user profiles.Question 26 Answer: C Reasoning: Dynamic allocation provides a range of IP addresses to assign to a client when they request an IP address using DHCP.xxx range when a DHCP server is unavailable to assign an IP address.254.xxx. ListFolderContents. Question 30 Answer: A Reasoning: The Read permission is the level with the least amount of authority.theartofservice. disk quotas.

secure. There is no DHCPRESPONSE.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. The compatible template is used for backward compatibility. Question 32 Answer: D Reasoning: The default template groups available are default security. and system root security. highly secure.Question 31 Answer: C Reasoning: The Local profile type is created for every user at first logon.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. Question 34 Answer: C Reasoning: Broadcasts messages in DHCP include DHCPDISCOVER and DHCPREQUEST. 251 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . compatible. dedicated domain controller. Question 35 Answer: A Reasoning: Zones are a logical container found within DNS to store resource records for one or more domains. Question 33 Answer: B Reasoning: Windows Server Update Services is used on the corporate server to provide updates to client computers.

com.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. With Direct Memory Access. A Simple disk is a single disk containing the Ntdetect. Question 39 Answer: C Reasoning: Striped disks are evenly interleaved data across multiple volumes.ini files.theartofservice. In mirrored configurations. Nttldr. Question 37 Answer: D Reasoning: 11010110 can be translated to 128+64+16+4+2 = 214. Question 38 Answer: D Reasoning: Unreadable identifies disks which cannot be accessible because of a hardware failure. I/O error. Question 40 Answer: B Reasoning: An Interrupt-driven I/O is a technique where the peripheral will alert the card with data is ready to be transferred.com Web: http://store. or corrupt disk. the data from one disk is replicated to another disk.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. A spanned disk will combine two or more regions of free space from multiple disks to create a single volume. and Boot. the peripheral will assume control of the system bus 252 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.Question 36 Answer: B Reasoning: The second-level of a domain is always the unique name registered with the InterNIC for an individual or organization.

directly to the memory. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.com Web: http://store. With Polling.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 253 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. the NIC will constantly examine the status of the peripherals under program control. The Programmed I/O will alert the peripheral by applying a MAC address to the address bus.

Computing Technology Industry Association: 2008. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. and Chellis. MCSA/MCSE: Managing and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment. McGraw-Hill. Matt. and Henry. James Michael. Steve. Robin. Sheltz. CompTIA A+ PC Technician.com Web: http://store. Inc: 2006. Ultimate Vista: Configuration Guide. Kevin. PrepLogic. Chicago: 2007. Stewart. Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK. MCSA/MCSE: Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure Implementation. ProProfs Windows Vista Tutorial Wright.theartofservice.microsoft. 2007 Certified Wireless Network Administrator Planet3 Wireless. Wiley Publishing. Mike. Configuring Microsoft Windows Vista Client. (ISC)2 SSCP Systems Security Certified Practitioner. Lee. Inc. Hoboken. Management. and Maintenance Study Guide. Auerbach Publications. Harold F. New Jersey: 2006. Boca Raton:2007.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .12 References Suehring. Inc.. CompTIA Network+ ExamObjectives.com 254 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. Exam Cram: 2007 Meyers.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. Bremen Georgia: 2002 Microsoft information: www. PrepLogic. Tipton. Scales. James.

theartofservice.com Web: http://store.Websites www.com.theartofservice.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 .org www.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice.com 255 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane.artofservice.au www. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice.

145-7. 229. 167. 61-2. 105. 159. 110. 127. 220 auditing 8. 180. 166. 194. 116-18. 110. 129. 25. 214. 29. 193 Alternate DNS Servers 5. 198. 184-5. 126. 204 accounts 3. 216. 147-8. 159. 81. 144. 130-1. 170-1. 132.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 197-8. 161. 163. 143. 148-9. 75. 212-13 authority 58. 153-60. 52-3. 134. 21. 185 bytes 82-3 C cache 59-62. 90. 238. 13.13 Index A ability 19. 240 B backup 170. 222-3. 16-17. 211. 250 Automatic Updates 6. 95. 157-8. 153-6. 237. 131-2. 64-5 256 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 22 buffer 17. 111-12. 169. 59. 98 ASR (Automated System Recovery) 9. 216 basic disks 4. 204 access 15. 55. 180. 167-8. 156. 177. 112-13. 223 attributes 156-60. 51. 118. 229. 67. 87. 187. 193. 81. 120. 22. 65. 201 Alerts 173-5. 106 button 100-2. 99. 172. 112 box 38. 193. 190. 93. 210. 167-9 Active Directory 7. 197. 196. 27-8. 66. 214. 166-9. 88. 45-7. 175. 178-9. 35. 219. 184. 250 applications 83. 246 administrators 22. 104. 172. 127. 196. 72 Alternative Configuration 6. 100-1 APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing) 100. 167. 86.theartofservice. 212-13.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 193-4 authentication 85. 195. 32-5 bits 43. 40. 223 backup procedures 9. 94. 191-2 bridges 4. 105. 190. 144. 181-2. 216 ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) 5-6. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 113.com Web: http://store. 124. 49-50. 71. 82.

163 D data transmissions 80. 111. 15. 37. 90. 147. 100-1. 50-1. 158-9. 74. 190 control 15-16. 222. 147-8. 203 configuration information 65. 160. 97. 247 classes 43. 141. 111. 170 devices 13. 163. 52. 197-8. 226. 50-1. 83. 161. 86-7. 55. 148. 100-2. 110-11.capture buffer 104. 21-4. 159-60. 22. 49-51. 71-2. 127. 45. 212. 165. 61. 104 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) 5-6. 116. 131. 176. 81-2. 96. 216-17. 78-9. 77-8. 134. 117. 195. 165-6. 66. 19-20. 40-1. 192 connect 16. 73. 98.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 86 database 27. 211 configure 37. 82. 189. 197. 74-5. 118. 124. 86-7. 149 computers 34-9. 181. 173-4. 131. 169. 159. 219. 131-5. 197. 99-100. 156.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 48. 24. 101-3. 60. 251 clients 19-20. 244 client computers 74-5. 22. 106-7 CD-ROM 171. 250 directory 155-6. 139-44. 236. 97. 159. 69.theartofservice. 150-4. 128. 240. 194 Disk Management 26. 229. 130. 98. 247 counters 81. 30. 185. 161. 87. 126. 245 CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing) 5. 218 destination 53. 83-90. 94-5. 58-9. 218 commands 24. 161. 176. 64. 165-73. 177. 113. 108. 63. 140. 104. 127-9. 83. 83-4. 45. 98. 113-17. 21. 189-90. 220-1 directory service 154-6. 73. 46-7. 146-8. 94. 173. 84. 108. 25. 219-20 companies 2. 76. 76. 33-6 257 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 100-1. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 228. 106. 190. 104. 238. 98. 98. 51 components 75. 249 Computer Configuration 116. 99-101. 250-1 DHCP server 74-6. 212 desktop 40. 216. 124-9. 94. 46-7. 187. 28. 196. 86-7. 56. 223 certificate authorities 90. 250. 36-9. 192 configuration 11. 157. 221. 170. 43. 67. 124. 134. 77. 51. 155. 187 copy 39. 119-20. 101-2. 71-9. 248 connection 14. 252 Control Panel 40. 74. 140. 208 customize 134. 15. 113.com Web: http://store.

83. 139 firewalls 4. 231. 232. 117. 97. 184. 56-7. 134. 102. 246 drivers 37-8. 258 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 115-17. 28-9. 39. 29-30. 65-6. 93. 198. 189. 106. 219-21. 32-5 E encryption algorithms 91. 216. 152. 188. 55-6. 219. 211. 191. 118. 188. 252 display 107. 126. 85. 79. 122. 118. 58. 173-5. 248 Faxes folder 186-9 file server 185-6.com Web: http://store. 74-6. 128-9. 34-6. 247. 81. 73. 242. 88.theartofservice. 140. 60. 185. 57-8. 186-7. 254 errors 36. 111. 156-60. 66. 217 file systems 4. 27-8. 158. 193. 196. 144-6. 142. 66-73. 119. 199-200. 88 DNS (Domain Name System) 5-6. 197. 212-13 Folder Options 181-2. 210 FAT (File Allocation Table) 26. 226. 154. 175. 132. 99. 150. 86-8. 190. 195. 144-5. 214. 193-5 F failure 30. 123. 26. 119-20. 170. 102. 77. 85. 197. 62-3. 168. 134. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 87. 24. 245. 242 Event Viewer 8. 126. 139. 141. 156 environment 11-12. 204 domain 55. 198. 129-31. 71. 27. 222-3 Domain Functionality Levels 7. 61. 28-9. 214.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 39. 146. 193 events 101. 113. 214-15. 172 distribution 56. 198. 202. 193. 191. 66-8. 109. 214. 24. 251 DNS clients 58-63. 66. 191-2 folders 29-30. 144-6 domain names 5. 135. 176-80. 166-7. 104. 189. 249 documents 141. 194. 60-1 download 110-11. 220 dynamic disks 4. 226-7. 156-8. 176. 148. 234 filters 16. 251-2 domain controllers 8. 165-8. 237. 208. 25. 248 files 27. 131 enterprise 23. 84. 107. 75. 241 domain namespace 55-7. 241. 70-2. 206. 71. 32. 65. 231 DNS servers 58-64. 86.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.disks 4. 200-2. 85. 185. 176-84. 214-17.

24. 148. 236-7. 234 forest 146. 153. 134. 90 hubs 4. 53. 46. 214 H hardware 19. 249 frame 13. 97-100. 151. 126. 39. 62-3. 116. 64-7. 158. 93-4 information 2. 49-50. 249-50 259 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 868. 227 G gateway 75. 134. 70-1. 223 interfaces 13. 228. 154-5. 209-11 IKE messages 135-7. 77. 47 HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) 6. 74-8. 219. 140. 21. 55. 91. 229 forwarders 5. 153 host ID 45.220. 116. 148-9 groups 7. 235 Internet 14. 99. 156-8. 86. 26. 192-3 install 38-9. 75-6. 69. 56. 160. 144-6. 237 Group Policy Objects 7. 106 free space 27-8. 128. 96. 228 IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) 6. 83-5. 46. 60. 80 hierarchy 96-7. 151 GPOs (Group Policy Object) 7. 163. 60. 62. 15-18. 35. 231. 94. 92-3. 104. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 24. 109-12. 83. 17. 111. 102 GPMC (Group Policy Management Console) 7. 247 InterNIC 56-7. 195-6. 252 IP (Internet Protocol) 42. 157-60. 236. 154 GPO Computer Configurations 7.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 176-9. 52. 140. 105.com Web: http://store. 54-6. 155. 120. 14 I IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) 6. 36-8.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 50-1. 60. 169. 118. 98 IIS (Internet Information Services) 9. 59. 83. 57. 226-7. 78. 153. 81. 141. 148-51. 99. 95. 44-5. 86. 148-54. 211. 16-17. 64. 112-13. 50. 181. 244-5. 53.theartofservice. 111-12 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) 5. 168. 166 Group Policy 7.

989. 175. 86-7. 240. 166.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 112. 122. 60-3. 205. 59-60. 197 management 19.IP address 22. 142. 96-7. 139-40. 140. 228. 51-2. 118. 70. 34. 54-5. 166. 36. 214 Microsoft website 109. 150. 246 media 4. 190. 95. 67. 92. 238. 241.com Web: http://store. 237. 154 modems 4. 99. 169. 145. 39. 80-1. 203. 77-9. 74-9. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 84. 165-6 layer 15. 144-6. 46-50 MBSA (Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer) 6. 220 load 24. 113-15. 193-4. 14-15 monitoring 9. 167. 78. 239. 250 list 12. 185. 184. 251 logon 116. 104. 56. 158. 76. 237. 174. 171. 229. 131. 135. 144. 128. 42-4. 152. 207-8 MS-DOS 28. 52-3. 109. 218. 202. 99. 106.theartofservice. 212. 223 members 145-8. 250 IP Security Monitor 7. 222 log 3. 253 machine 77. 86 level 30-2. 77-8. 250-1 M MAC address 15. 121. 245 L languages 8. 56. 18. 218 local address 52. 226. 126. 54 Local Computer Policy 116.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 254 mask 24. 60-1. 238 IPSec policies 135. 225. 187. 108. 218 logical containers 65-6. 173. 32. 24. 87. 114-15. 241. 148. 52. 46-8. 230 lease 74-5. 132. 62-4 NBMA (non-broadcast multi-access) 53 NDP (Neighbor Discovery Protocol) 98 260 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 64. 198. 250 location 12. 35 N name servers 56. 167 iterative query 5. 169. 235. 142. 188.

191. 185-6. 179 physical disk 25. 47-51. 145. 250 person 2. 194. 67. 169. 230. 106. 155. 107. 142-3. 230. 217. 247 P packets 13. 247. 83. 248 NTFS volumes 29. 241. 234 number 22.network 13-17. 45-8. 131-5. 232. 250 parameters 76. 199. 249 peripherals 15. 206. 53-5. 50-3. 235. 148-9. 194-5 port numbers 54-5. 199. 199 policies 8. 28-9.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. 175. 147-8. 176. 96. 214. 78-9. 103-4. 202-3 261 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 194 Network Monitor 6. 198-9. 130-1. 104. 176-9. 43-4. 252 OSI model 14-16. 54. 119. 249 ports 17. 82-3. 183. 92-3. 27-8. 171. 139-40. 189-90. 55. 89. 246-7 O objects 108. 190. 183. 21. 154. 56. 104-7. 253 nodes 16. 243. 223. 186-7. 235. 42-3. 48 offline files 8. 208. 171. 102. 137. 176. 24. 115-17. 152. 86. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 74-5. 166-7 audit 116. 84. 86-7. 163. 33-4. 173-4. 181-2. 83. 191-2 operations 17. 243. 153.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 214. 119-20. 201 NTFS (NT File System) 26. 167. 156-60. 133. 208. 222-3 order 11. 221 password 95. 153. 189-90. 235 notifications 70. 78. 117. 99. 212-13 PAT (Port Address Translation) 5. 252-3 permissions 2. 106. 45-6. 82. 57. 110. 127. 246 octets 42-3. 108. 177. 158. 42. 238. 197 print device 8. 15. 156-7.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 117. 13. 135-7. 65. 160. 184. 139 NIC (network interface card) 4. 31. 84. 181. 181. 235. 33 partitions 25-7. 168. 19. 94. 103-4. 194. 212. 45-6. 104. 74. 203-5 organizations 50-5. 84 parity 28.

206 print server 9. 62-4. 159. 89 requests 58-60. 71-2. 250 Reasoning 244-52 records 62. 245 quick mode 128-9. 192-3. 117. 101. 187. 46. 101. 71-2 Recovery Console 9. 71-3. 135-6. 103. 176 resource records 5. 238 R RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) 4. 172. 135. 87. 217. 201 properties 29-30. 66-8. 195-6. 84. 49. 97. 87-9. 82. 175. 89. 21. 83. 137. 202-3. 83. 62-4. 206 print queues 187-8. 188 protocol 16-17. 22. 37-8. 99. 194. 98. 208. 206 Print Management 8. 190. 203-6 priority 17. 173. 184. 172. 167. 40. 202-3. 59.theartofservice. 211. 71. 194-5. 20. 60-4. 198. 159. 72-3. 43. 68-9. 89. 56.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 91. 154. 67-8. 94-5. 208 Q queries 58-65. 53. 175. 52. 13-14. 184. 85. 194 response 59. 226 redundancy 30-2 referral 60-3. 69. 210 profile 39. 250 resource access 8. 185-6. 159. 158 repeaters 4. 168-9. 81. 87. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 16. 87. 236. 190. 226. 159. 70-2. 24. 79. 61. 185-8. 70. 223 262 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 189-90.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. 223 processes 16. 228. 203 problems 36-7. 248 replication 67. 64-8. 85. 202. 142-3. 197. 65. 161-3. 30-3 range 20. 42. 58-9. 236. 134. 251 resources 37. 75. 222 representation 47. 135. 38. 113. 214. 178 programs 35. 245 registration 56. 205-6 printers 148. 219-21 recursive query 5. 145. 89. 74-5. 244. 140. 83-4. 145-8. 116. 107. 170. 233.print jobs 188. 168. 89 restore 170. 129. 157. 74-6. 180-1.

93 Server Environments 8-9. 18. 134. 247 switches 4. 42. 18-19. 84. 51. 193-4. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 120. 75. 126-7. 146-7. 192. 202. 93. 199. 111. 229. 229. 217-18. 193. 250 SOA (Start of Authority) 66-7. 171. 131-3. 99 rules 13. 97-8. 205. 158-9. 99 subnetworks 46-7. 156-9. 75-9. 133-4. 90. 113. 227 Storage Devices 4. 143. 250 share 181-3. 221 subnet mask 45. 85.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 118. 50. 238. 124-6. 200. 212-16 remote 77. 102. 17-18. 196 services 2. 86. 86. 157. 77. 148-53. 65 rights 2. 125-6. 148.com Web: http://store. 168-9 Roaming Profiles 7. 117. 130-1. 180. 133. 107. 166 security templates 7. 85. 87. 241 routers 4. 107. 132. 93-4. 140 schema 42. 231. 220 settings 110. 148-9. 62-4. 226. 121-2. 137. 247 subnets 24. 185. 32. 63. 246 screen 104. 189-90 signals 13-14.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 209 subfolders 150. 135-7. 193. 143 root hints 5.theartofservice. 53. 111. 69-73. 172. 124. 105. 119. 154-6. 202. 134-5. 166-7. 239 select 17. 127. 117. 169-70. 206. 164. 139. 178. 47. 82 SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) 6. 99. 185 server 11. 246 SAs 129. 30. 46-9. 88-90. 42. 132. 250 standards 57-8. 193 Security Configuration 7. 248 S SA (security agreement) 128. 172 263 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 29.return 59-61. 91. 100-2. 59-60. 96 Start of Authority (SOA) 66-7. 124 security settings 116. 24. 207 Service Pack 109. 165. 39-40. 176-8. 124. 55-6. 227 source 55. 149. 220 security 29. 77-8. 49-50. 141-2. 58-60. 129-30. 101. 95 snap-in 121.

195 user logs 141-3. 164-5. 234 W websites 88. 138 U UDP (User Datagram Protocol) 6. 178-85. 219. 168-9. 33-6. 64. 91. 48-9. 91. 41. 89. 152. 227. 236 TLS (Transport Layer Security) 6. 171. 77. 3. 171. 107 tunnel mode 7. 90. 251 user accounts 119. 56. 251 TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) 5. 122. 205. 162 transport mode 84. 82-3. 203.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 156. 87. 60. 85-6. 35. 173-4 systemroot 27. 140. 147. 79. 74. 220. 55. 159. 207. 143. 224. 221 T tabs 163.synchronization 92. 127. 43-4. 90-1 top 80. 31. 53. 126. 53. 197-201. 108. 134. 39. 109-12. 189-91. 119. 187 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) 5. 138 tree 56-7. 218-19 System Monitor 6. 109. 255 264 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 147-50. 141. 218. 141-3. 152-4. 112. 208 Volume Shadow Copy 9.theartofservice. 217-18. 200. 67-8. 161-3. 227. 84-5 time 29. 217. 96. 134. 116-17. 173-4. 170. 172-4. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 142. 127. 89. 79. 219. 30-1. 167 user profiles 7. 186 templates 124-6. 245 updates 69-73. 91. 179. 191-2 system 30. 179. 148-9. 250 users 38-40. 240. 211. 82. 42.com Web: http://store. 211. 212. 172. 188. 194. 158. 198-200. 216-18 volumes 26-9. 70. 214 V value 1. 196. 175-6. 125-6. 209-12. 237 technologies 19. 94. 150. 100.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 141-2. 165-9.

87-8. 218 Windows Server 11. 229 Z zones 59. 124-5. 227. 36. Australia│Email:service@theartofservice. 165-6. 214-15. 198-201. 241. 205-6. 218 WSUS (Window Server Update Services) 6. 209. 32. 146. 189-90. 191-2. 116-17. 196.theartofservice.Windows 25. 156-7. 132-5. 174. 154. 111. 34.com │eLearning: http://theartofservice. 109. 38. 27. 183-4.com Web: http://store. 208-10. 41. 38-9. 199-200. 109.org │Phone: +61 (0)7 3252 2055 . 25. 193-6. 147. 114. 218-20 Windows XP 32-4. 186-7. 176. 172. 98-9. 65-72. 178-80. 144. 251 265 Copyright The Art of Service │Brisbane. 29. 161. 36. 27-9. 144-6. 100. 168.

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