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Published by Bhanu Gautam

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Bhanu Gautam on Aug 18, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Frequency ranges


GSM 900 890 MHZ ± 915 MHZ Uplink and 935 MHZ ± 960 MHZ Downlink .There are 124 carriers per channel and carrier width is 200 KHZ, Bandwidth 25 MHZ, Wavelength 33cm. and Channel separation 20 MHZ. ( Freq MHz = 890 + 0.2 * n ) where 1” n ”124 GSM 1800 in Europe, Asia Pacific and Australia. With 1710 ± 1785 MHZ Uplink and 1805 ± 1880 MHZ Downlink. The carrier width is 200 khz , Band width 75 Mhz, and channel Separation is 20 Mhz. There are 375 carriers per channel. Freq. MHz = 1710 + 0.2 * (n ± 512) , where 512 ” n ” 885 GSM 1900 US , Canada, Latin America and Africa.With 1850 ± 1910 MHZ Uplink and 1930 ± 1990 MHZ Downlink. There are 300 Careers per channel, 60 MHZ Band width, Channel Separation is 20 MHZ.

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma



Broadcast Channels: - operates on forward link and transmit data on first time slot. It Contains. SCH (Synchronization Channel) it is used to identify the serving BS and allowing each mobile to frame synchronize with the BS. The frame no. is sent with the BSIC during SCH burst. And also 6 bit BSIC. FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel) The FCCH allows each MS to synchronize its internal freq. with exact freq. of the BS. BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel) It carries information¶s such as cell and network identity. It also broadcast a list of channels that are currently in use within a cell. CBCH (Cell Broadcast Channel) Used to transmit short alphanumeric text msg. to all MS within a cell. Common Control Channels (CCCH): - CCCH helps to establish the call from the MS. Three different types of CCCH are defined. The Paging Channel (PCH). It is used to alert the MS of an incoming call. The Random Access Channel (RACH). Is used by MS to access the network. The Access Grant Channel (AGCH). Is used by the Base Station to inform the MS that which channel it should use. Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH): - These channels are used for message exchange between several mobiles or a mobile and network. Two types of DCCH are there. Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channels (SDCCH). Authentication, Registration, Location area updation, SMS etc. needed for setting up a TCH. Slow Associated Control Channels (SACCH). Associated Control Channels: - Associated with the TCH. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH). Associated with TCH, Channel quality, Signal power level. Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH). Uses time slots from TCH, Handover info.

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma


The timing of the bursts transmissions is very important. Mobiles are at different distances from the base stations. Their delay depends, consequently, on their distance. The aim of the timing advance is that the signals coming from the different mobile stations arrive to the base station at the right time. The base station measures the timing delay of the mobile stations. If the bursts corresponding to a mobile station arrive too late and overlap with other bursts, the base station tells, this mobile, to advance the transmission of its bursts. 1 TA = 554m.

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Objective of Drive test
Following steps are taken to fulfill the objective of using a drive test tool. ‡a) Collection of Data and extraction of relevant information from it. ‡b) Analysis of the extracted data. ‡c) Suggesting changes in the network configurations based on the analysis.
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

a) Collection of Data
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Rx Level Rx Quality Timing Advance Handover messages Details of six best neighbor cells Layer 2 and layer 3 messages.
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma




Rx level -10 to ±120 dbm RX Quality 0 to 7  Speech Quality Index (SQI) -20 to 30. -20 to 30 Maximum value is good. Carrier to Interference (C/I) or Co-channel interference ratio. -5 to 25 db > 15 Good  Carrier to Adjacent Interference Ratio (C/A) > 23. FER should be 0 Spech Q 0-5 5 is good

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Abt level 

RX Lev Full: is nothing but the Mobile transmit the measurment report(SACCH multiframe) for every 480ms. this multiframe containes 104 TDMA frames, in 104 TDMA frames 4 TDMA frames for Decode the BSIC and remaining 100 TDMA frames for Average measurment of serving cell and neighbouring cell This average measurment of 100 TDMA frames are RX Lev Full RX Lev Sub: DTX is a discontinouse trasmission, When the mobile conversation 40% of the time either Trasmitter or Receive is idle. When DTX is ON, DTX will switch off the Trasmitter or Receiver when they is no speech Pulses. only few TDMA frames will trasmit, the average of this TDMA

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Hsn Ang MAIO 

HSN - MAIO HSN (values 0-63) is basically an Algorithm that assigns frequency to the cell from block/list of frequencies... Assignment of frequency from the list whatever HSN value is totally random/algorithm dependent (HSN=0 being cyclic)... normally HSN assigns frequency after each TDMA frame (4.615msec)... this hopping rate is changable... MAIO is used as an offset from the frquency, assigned by HSN, to avoid
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

a) Extraction of relevant information

2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Coverage probability (edge & area prob. can be extracted for cell/site if detail drive test is done for cell/site Speech quality Frequency and BSIC reuse Neighbor cells details Handover details Additional features like Hopping, DTX, power control etc. Typical n/w settings such as LAC, CI, Tx power, RLT


Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

RxQual measurement
RXQUAL, is the Bit error rate (BER) derived from the 26 bits midamble on TDMA burst. Speech quality is inferred by the RXQUAL measurements during the drive test. Its level characterizes speech quality where 0 indicates the highest quality and 7 the worst. Thus during drive test, poor quality areas can be found and marked by looking over the quality on the scale of 0 to 7. RXQUAL can be poor due to poor RXLEV, Co-channel interference, adjacent channel interference or Multipath. RXQUAL is measured and tested for all the categories of clutters. Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Frequency & BSIC reuse
The frequency plan& BSIC (Base Station Identity Codes) planning for the cells can be obtained from the collected data . This gives an idea of the freq reuse pattern & reuse distance.

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Neighbor Cell details
With the help of collected data, details of 6 best serving neighbours can be determined. The details like‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ BSIC BCCH ARFCN Cell Id Rx Lev C1 & C2
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Layer 2 & 3 messages
Decoding of layer 2 and 3 messages helps in analysing the cause of call set-up failures, delayed call set-ups, blocking, drop calls, causes of handovers, reasons for selecting particular target call & handover failures or any other abnormality in the performance of the network.

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Drive test¶s applications
Drive test activity can be utilized for the following applicationsa) b) c) d) e) f) g) CW test RF coverage verification Optimization Troubleshooting Competitive analysis Interference Monitoring Planning Tool Model Tuning
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

The optimisation of the network, is done to check the performance of the network, just after it is made operational and to get best possible quality of service. Optimization includesSuggesting changes in the defined parameters & configurations on the basis of drive test data analysis. Changes can be of two types - Hard & Soft conf. changes

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Hard configuration
The hard configuration parameters include antenna type, antenna gain, antenna orientation, effective height of antenna and effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP), TRX, cables/feeder cables Changes are made to meet the requirements and to deal with the analysed problems.

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Soft configuration
The soft configuration parameters include categories such as common BTS parameters, cell access parameters etc. GSM defines around 150 soft parameters for each cell. e.g. ± BSIC, BCCH, neighbors cells, Tx power, Handover margin, enable or disable add-on features etc-

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Optimisation of the network using drive test system is an iterative process. Thus after deploying discussed changes in the network,drive test is done again and mentioned steps are repeated until required performance objective is fulfilled. Drive test is very effective part of the optimisation of the network but drive test data is not very effective to find out some of the very specific problems their cause and solutions to rectify them. On the other hand drive test is the only medium with the help of which user¶s perspective of quality of service can be visualised hence
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma


Mechanical tilt:- in this you bend the antenna mechanically without any change in the internal ckt. Electrical tilt:this is done with the help of phase shifters 

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Effect of tilts 

Mechanical Tilt Causes: Beam Peak to Tilt Below Horizon Back Lobe to Tilt Above Horizon At 90° No Tilt Electrical Tilt Causes: Beam peak to tilt below horizon Back lobe to tilt below horizon At 90° to tilt below horizon

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Window in tems   

Current chaneel parameter- CELL

Radio param-RX level,QL,BER,FER,SQI,C/I,TA

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma 

Handover failures other than Co-Bcch and Neighbour 1. Weak cell boundaries,
2. Congestion on target cell, 3. Bcch and TCH interference, 4. Too many neighbouring cell, and 5. incorrect handover paramerets 

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma


1) Bad Radio link quality (any sort of interference, if highly destructive) 2) Non availability of TCH timeslots. 3) could b a problem at NSS end. 4) hardware problem

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma


The IMSI attach/detach operation is an action taken by an MS to indicate to the network that it has entered into idle mode/inactive state. When an MS is powered on, an IMSI attach message is sent to the MSC/VLR. When an MS is powered off, an IMSI detach message is sent
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma 


Reason for Call Drop Poor Rx Level. Poor Rx Quality. Handover Failure Interference. Power Budget (Mobile can not transmit with enough power ). Hardware issues (like TRx is faulty or disconnection in TRx) .
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Reason for Handover 

Poor Rx level Poor Rx Quality. Offloading due to congestion. Interference (in this case, intracell handover takes place) . Power Budget ( Mobile can not transmit with enough power ).
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Reason for Handover Failure 

Neighbor relations not defined. Timer T3124 expires. Threshold not properly defined. (improper threshold level) Hardware issues ( like TRx is faulty or disconnection in TRx) . Congestion.
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

main functions of SDCCH 

Call set-up and its Authentication. Ciphering initiation. SMS (Short Messages Sending) Location Updation.

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

main functions of SACCH? 

Uplink Measurement Reports. Downlink Timing Advance . Downlink Power Control Information

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Types of Drive Tests    

Test New Site Drive Test (Coverage Drive) Bench-marking Drive Test (Comparative Drive) Migration Drive Test (Night activity and Software Up-gradation) Roaming Drive.
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

Main Factor 

IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN (11) LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC CGI = MCC(3) + MNC(2) + LAC(165536) + CI(1-65) BSIC = NCC + BCC(1-7)

Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

SIM is used to provide storage on subscriber 

IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity). Temporary network data like TMSI, LAI, Location update status. Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki) and Ciphering Key (Kc) which are used for security purposes. BCCH information : List of carrier frequencies to be used for cell selection. Forbidden PLMN. Language preference. PIN number (Personal Identification Number) and PIN error counter. PUK number (Personal Unlock Key) and PUK error counter
Prepared By : Shashank Sharma

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