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Modal Forms

Modal Forms

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Modals in English
Modals in English

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Published by: Héctor Reynaldo Acosta Espinal on Aug 18, 2010
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English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals

Modal Forms Modal verbs can be used in a variety of different forms. Study the examples below. Modal I could swim at the beach. Simple Passive Modal The room should be cleaned once a day. Passive Modal The room should be being cleaned now. Simple

Modal Continuous I could be swimming at the beach right now. Modal I could have swum at the beach yesterday. Perfect

Continuous

Passive Modal Perfect The room should have been cleaned yesterday. Passive Modal Perfect Continuous The room should have been being cleaned but nobody was there. (Rare form)

Modal Perfect Continuous I could have been swimming at the beach instead of working in the office.

1. Can
1 (indicating ability) forms of poder; (referring to particular skills) forms of saber; can you come to the dance this evening? ¿puedes venir al baile esta noche?; she couldn t answer the question no pudo contestar la pregunta; the house can accommodate six people en la casa se pueden alojar seis personas; I ll do what I can haré lo que pueda or lo que esté en mi mano; they did all they could hicieron todo lo que pudieron; no can do (colloq) no puedo; I can t stay long no me puedo quedar mucho rato; can t y u keep still? ¿no puedes estarte quieto?; I cannot believe o she said that no puedo creer que dijera eso; we can but try con intentarlo no se pierde nada; will things improve? we can but hope so ¿mejorarán las cosas? esperemos que sí; I can t but agreeno puedo menos que estar de acuerdo; can you swim/speak German? ¿sabes nadar/(hablar) alemán?; she could read music when she was four a los cuatro años ya sabía leer música 2 a (indicating, asking etc permission) forms of poder; I can t stay out late no uedo or no me dejan volver a casa p tarde; can I come with you?¿puedo ir contigo?; you can t go in there, madam no puede entrar ahí, señora; you can stay as long as you like te puedes quedar todo el tiempo or todo lo que quieras b (in requests) forms of poder; can you turn that music down, please?¿puedes bajar esa música, por favor?; can I have two salads, please? ¿me trae dos ensaladas, por favor? c (in offers): can I help you? ¿me permite?; (in shop) ¿lo/la atienden?, ¿qué desea?; can I carry that for you? ¿quieres que (te) lleve eso? 3 a (with verbs of perception): I can t see very well no veo muy bien; can you hear me? ¿me oyes?; I could hear every word they said oía todo lo que decían; as you can see, there s a lot of work to be done como ves or pue des ver, hay mucho que hacer b (with verbs of mental activity): I can t understand it no lo entiendo, no logro or no puedo entenderlo; can you remember her name? ¿te acuerdas de cómo se llama?; I could guess what had happened me imaginaba lo que había pasado; can t you tell he s lying? ¿no te das cuenta de que está mintiendo? 4 a (allow oneself to) (with neg or interrog) forms of poder; you can t blame her no puedes echarle la culpa; I couldn t very well tell him just then no se lo podía decir justo en es momento; how could you? pero ¿cómo se te e ocurrió hacer (or decir etc) una cosa así?, pero ¿cómo pudiste hacer (or decir etc) una cosa así? b (in suggestions, advice): can t you give it another try?¿por qué no lo vuelves a intentar?; you can t let him hve a the last word no puedes dejar que diga la última palabra

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English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals
c (in orders): for a start, you can clean all this up puedes empezar por limpiar todo esto; if you don t behave you can go straight to bed si no te portas bien, te vas inmediatamente a la cama 5 a (indicating possibility) forms of poder; anything can happen now ahora puede pasar cualquier cosa; what can she be doing in there? ¿qué estará haciendo ahí?, ¿qué puede estar haciendo ahí?; it can t be true! ¡no puede ser!, ¡no es posible!; you can t be serious! ¡no lo dirás en serio!; she can t have finished already no puede haber terminado ya; he can t be her husband no puede ser su marido b (indicating characteristic): you can be really stubborn a veces eres realmente terco; she can be charming whe n she wants to es encantadora cuando quiere or cuando se lo propone; learning the piano can be fun aprender a tocar el piano puede ser divertido; she s as happy as can be está contentísima, está de lo más contenta.

2. Be able to
1 (pred) to be able to + IN F poder + INF; (referring to particular skills) saber + INF; to able to see/hear be poder ver/oír; to be able to sew/type saber coser/escribira máquina; they were finally able to expose him finalmente pudieron desenmascararlo; will you be able to go? ¿po drás ir?; I am pleased to be able to inform you that (frml) me complace poder comunicarle que (frml); Ithink he s best able to answer that question himself creo que él es quien mejorpuede contestar a esa pregunta; by then you ll be able to speak French fluently para entonces vas a (saber) hablar francés con fluidez; he proved well able to look after himself demostró que era capaz de or que podía valerse muy bien por sí mismo; those least able to afford it aquellos que menos pueden permitírselo; he was t able to convince them no n pudo or no logró convencerlos; I m afraid I m not able to confirm it me temo que no puedo or que no me es posible confirmarlo 2 abler / "eIbl@r / ablest / "eIbl@st / (proficient) politician performer / administrator hábil, capaz; / some of our ablest officers algunos de nuestros oficiales más capaces

"Can" is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or imp ossibility. Examples:
y I can ride a horse. ABILITY y We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris.OPPORTUNITY y She cannot stay out after 10 PM. PERMISSION y Can you hand me the stapler? REQUEST y Any child can grow up to be president. POSSIBILITY

Using "Can" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "can" behaves in different contexts. Positive Forms Negative Forms Modal Use You can also use: 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. I can't speak Swahili. 1. I can speak Chinese. can
GENERAL ABILITY

2. SHIFT TO "COULD" be able to 2. SHIFT TO "COULD" I couldn't speak Swahili. I could speak Chinese when I was a kid. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO"

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English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals
I won't be able to speak Swahili. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I will be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course. 1. With a burst of adrenaline, 1. Even with a burst of adrenaline, people can pick up cars. people can't pick up something that heavy. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" With a sudden burst of adrenaline, 2. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" he was able to lift the car off the Even the weight lifter, couldn't lift be able to the car off the child's leg. child's leg. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" With a sudden burst of adrenaline, he will be able to lift the car. 1. I have some free time. I can help her now. can
OPPORTUNITY

can
ABILITY DURING A SPECIFIC EVENT

3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" Even three men working together won't be able to lift the car. 1. I don't have any time. I can't help her now.

2. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" 2. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I had some free time yesterday. I I didn't have time yesterday. I be able to was able to help her at that time. wasn't able to help her at that time. 3. I'll have some free time tomorrow. I can help her then. 1. I can drive Susan's car when she is out of town. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO " I was allowed to drive Susan's car while she was out of town last week. 3. I won't have any time later. I can't help her then. 1. I can't drive Susan's car when she is out of town. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO " I wasn't allowed to drive Susan's may car while she was out of town last week.

can
PERMISSION

3. I can drive Susan's car while she 3. I can't drive Susan's car while she is out of town next week. is out of town next week. Can I have a glass of water? Can't I have a glass of water? can
REQUEST

Can you give me a lift to school?

Can't you give me a lift to school?

could, may

REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. FUTURE. Anyone can become rich and It can't cost more than a dollar or famous if they know the right two. people. can
POSSIBILITY, IMPOSSIBILITY

You can't be 45! I thought you were could Learning a language can be a real about 18 years old. challenge. THIS USE IS USUALLY A GENERALIZATION OR A SUPPOSITION. THIS USE IS USUALLY AGENERALIZATION OR
A SUPPOSITION.

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English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals

3. Could
1 past of can3 2 (indicating possibility) forms of poder; if I took a taxi,I could get there on time si tomara un taxi, podría llegar a tiempo; I would help you if I could te ayudaría si pudiera; we could be a little late this evening puede (ser) que or tal vez lleguemos un poco tarde esta noche; that could be him now puede (serque sea él; you could have killed us ) all! ¡podrías or podías habernos matado a todos!; you could be right puede (ser) que tengas razón; that could be the case, but we have no evidence podría or pudiera ser, pero no tenemos pruebas; well, I daresay I coul but I d, don t want to bueno, tal vez podría or pudiera, pero no quiero; I couldn t possibly agree to that de ninguna manera podría acceder a eso; she couldn t have been there before six because she didn t leave until quarter to no pudo or no puede haber llegado antes de las seis porque no salió hasta menos cuarto; she couldn t have been there before six even if she d tried no podría haber llegado antes de las seis aunque lo hubiera intentado; it could have been better podría or podía haber estado mejor; wa the soup OK? it could have been hotter ¿qué tal la sopa? no s estaba muy caliente que digamos; he couldn t have treated us more kindly no podría or no podía habernos tratado mejor; they couldn t be happier están contentos a más no poder; I couldn t agr more estoy completamente de ee acuerdo 3 a (asking permission): could I use your bathroom? ¿podría or me permitiría pasar al baño?; if I could just say something here si me permiten hacer una acotación b (in requests): could you please be quiet! ¿me haces el favor de callarte?; could you sign here please? ¿quiere firmar aquí, por favor? c (in offers): could I be of some assistance?(frml) ¿puedo ayudar en algo?; (in shop etc) ¿lo/la atienden? 4 a (in suggestions) forms of poder; you could try do it this way podrías tartar de hacerlo de esta manera; you ing could at least apologize! ¡al menos podrías pedir perdón! b (indicating strong desire) forms of poder; I could have killed/hugged her la hubiera matado/abrazado, la podría or podía haber matado/abrazado. "Could" is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests. "Could" is also commonly used in conditional sentences as the conditional form of "can." Examples:
y Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. POSSIBILITY y Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11.PAST ABILITY y You could see a movie or go out to dinner.SUGGESTION y Could I use your computer to email my bos REQUEST s? y We could go on the trip if I didn't have to work this weekend.CONDITIONAL

Using "Could" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "could" behaves in different contexts. Positive Forms Negative Forms Modal Use You can also use: 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. John could be the one who stole the 1. Mary couldn't be the one who stole the money. money. could might, may POSSIBILITY 2. John could have been the one who 2. Mary couldn't have been the one who stole the money. stole the money.

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English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals

3. John could go to jail for stealing the money. 1. If I had more time, I could travel around the world. could
CONDITIONAL OF CAN

3. Mary couldn't possibly go to jail for the crime. 1. Even if I had more time, I couldn't travel around the world.

2. If I had had more time, I could have 2. Even if I had had more time, I couldn't traveled around the world. have traveled around the world. 3. If I had more time this winter, I could 3. Even if I had more time this winter, I travel around the world. couldn't travel around the world. 1. NO PRESENT FORM

could
SUGGESTION

2. You could have spent your vacation in Hawaii. NO NEGATIVE FORMS 3. You could spend your vacation in Hawaii. I could run ten miles in my twenties. I could speak Chinese when I was a kid. I couldn't run more than a mile in my twenties. I couldn't speak Swahili. "COULD" CAN BE USED IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES IN be able to WHICH YOU DESCRIBE AMOMENTARY OR ONE-TIME ABILITY.

could
PAST ABILITY

"COULD"

CANNOT BE USED SENTENCES IN WHICH Y OU

IN PO SITIVE DESCRIBE A

MOMENTARY OR ONE-TIME ABILITY.

Yesterday, I could lift the couch by Yesterday, I couldn't lift the couch by myself. Not Correct myself. Correct Couldn't he come with us? Could I have something to drink? could
POLITE REQUEST

Could I borrow your stapler? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE .

Couldn't you help me with this for just a can, may, might second? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE .

REMEMBER: "Could not" vs. "Might not" "Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen. "Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens. Examples:
y Jack might not have the key. MAYBE HE DOES NOT HAV THE KEY. E y Jack could not have the key. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE THATHE HAS THE KEY.

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English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals

4. Had Better
had better (ought): hadn t you better phone them?¿no deberías llamarlos?; I d better leave before it gets dark va a ser mejor que me vaya antes de que oscurezca; well, I d better be off bueno, me tengo que ir; you d better do exactly as I say más te vale hacer exactamente lo que yo te diga; you d better not complain! ¡más te vale no quejarte!; you d better believe it! (colloq) sí señor.
"Had better" is most commonly used to make recommendations. It can also be used to express desperate hope as well as warn people. Examples:
y You had better take your umbrella with you today.RECOMMENDATION y That bus had better get here soon! DESPERATE HOPE y You had better watch the way you talk to me in the future!WARNING

Using "Had Better" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past better" behaves in different contexts. Positive Forms Use 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" OR "OUGHT TO" People should unplug toasters before they clean them. had better 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD HAVE" OR "OUGHT TO HAVE" You should have unplugged the toaster before you tried to clean it. and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "had Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" OR "OUGHT TO" People shouldn't clean toasters without unplugging them first. You can also use:

RECOMMENDATION

2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD HAVE" OR should, ought to "OUGHT TO HAVE" You shouldn't have cleaned the toaster without unplugging it first.

3. You had better unplug the toaster 3. You had better not clean the toaster before you try to clean it. until you unplug it. The movie had better end soon. They had better not be late. had
DESPERATE WARNING

better HOPE,

They had better be here before we They had better not forget Tom's start dinner. birthday gift. DESPERATE
HOPES AND WARNINGS USUALLY

DESPERATE

HOPES AND WARNINGS USUA LLY

REFER TO THE NEAR FU TURE.

REFER TO THE NEAR FU TURE.

"Had better" is often simply pronounced as "better" in spoken English.

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English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals

have (auxiliary)
(used to form perfect tenses) haber; I have/had seen her la he/había visto; I have/ had just seen her la acabo/acababa de ver, recién la vi/la había visto (AmL); have you been waiting long? ¿hace mucho que esperas?, ¿llevas mucho ratoesperando?; you have been busy ¡cómo has trabajado!; she d already gone when we arrived ya se había ido c uando llegamos; had I known that o if I dknown that si hubiera sabido que , de haber sabido que ; when he hadfinished, she cuando terminó or (liter) cuando hubo terminado, ella 2 a (in tags): you ve been told, haven t you? te lo han dicho ¿no? r ¿no es cierto? or ¿no es verdad?; o they have signed, haven t they? han firmado ¿no?; you haven t lost the key, have you? ¡no habrás perdido la llave ! b (elliptical use): you may have forgiven him, but I haven t puede que tú lo hayas perdonado, pero yo no; the clock has stopped so it has! el reloj se ha parado ¡es verdad! or ¡es cierto!; you ve forgotten something have I? te has olvidado de algo ¿sí?; I ve told her you haven t! se lo he dicho ¡no ¿en serio?

5. HAVE TO or HAVE GOT TO
1 (expressing obligation) have (got) to + INF tener* QUE + INF; do you have to go?, have you got to go? ¿tienes que ir?; you don t have to come if you don t want to no tienes que or no tienes por qué venir si no quieres; I have o I ve got to admit that tengo que reconocer que ; you don t have to be an expert to realize that no hay que or no se necesita ser un experto para darse cuenta de eso; t go out unless don you have to no salgas a menos que tengas que hacerlo; shealways has to interfere siempre tiene que inmiscuirse 2 (expressing certainty) have (got) to + INF tener* QUE + INF; someone has to o someone s got to lose alguien tiene que perder; it had to happen tenía que ocurrir; you ve got to be kidding! dices en ¡lo broma or en chiste!
"Have to" is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation. Examples:
y This answer has to be correct. CERTAINTY y The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. NECESSITY y They have to leave early. OBLIGATION

Using "Have to" in Present, Past, and Future "Have to" behaves quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "have to" behaves in different contexts. Positive Forms Negative Forms You can Use 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future also use: 1. That has to be Jerry. They said he was 1. SHIFT TO "MUST" must, have to tall with bright red hair. That must not be Jerry. They said hehas blond have got CERTAINTY hair, not red hair. to 2. That has to have been the right

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English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals
restaurant. There were restaurants on the street. 3. NONE no other 2. SHIFT TO "MUST" That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there was another one around there somewhere.

have to
NECESSITY

3. NONE 1. She doesn't have to read "Grapes of Wrath." 1. She has to read four books for this It's optional reading for extra credit. literature class. 2. She didn't have to write a critique of "The 2. She had to finish the first book before Scarlet Letter." She had to give a presentation must to her class. the midterm. 3. She will have to finish the other books 3. She won't have to take any other literature classes. American Literature 101 is the only before the final exam. required course.

REMEMBER: "Do not have to" vs. "Must not""Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. Examples:
y You must not eat that. IT IS FORBIDDEN, IT IS NOT ALLOWED. y You don't have to eat that. YOU CAN IF YOU WANT T , BUT IT IS NOT NECESS . O ARY

6. Have Got To
"Have got to" is used to express necessity and obligation. Examples:
y Drivers have got to get a license to drive a car in the US.NECESSITY y I have got to be at work by 8:30 AM.OBLIGATION

Using "Have Got to" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "have got to" behaves in different contexts. Positive Forms Negative Forms You can Use 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future also use: 1. People have got to be on time if 1. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" they want to get a seat in the People don't have to be there on time to get a crowded theater. seat. have got to
NECESSITY

have to, 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" must You had to be on time if you wanted You didn't have to be there on time to get a to get a seat in the crowded theater. seat. 3. You have got to be there on time 3. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO"

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English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals
tonight if you want to get a seat in You won't have to be ther on time to get a e the crowded theater. seat. Haven't you got to be there by 7:00? haven't got to
FUTURE OBLIGATION

Haven't you got to finish that project today? "HAVEN'T
GOT TO" IS PRIMARILY USED TO ASK ABOUT

Don't you have to

FUTURE OBLIGATIONS IT CAN BE USED IN STATEMENTS, . BUT THIS IS LESS COM MON.

7. May
1 a (asking, granting permission) forms of poder; may I smoke? ¿puedo fumar?, ¿me permite fumar?; he asked if he might see her preguntó si podía verla; and who,may I ask, are you? ¿y quién es usted, si se puede saber?; may I take your coat? ¿me permites tu abrigo?; you may smoke if you wish pueden fumar; you may kiss the bride puede besar a la novia b (in requests): may I have your opinion on this? ¿podría darme su opiniónacerca de esto?; may we see the menu, please? ¿podríamos ver or nos podríatraer el menú, por favor?; may I have this dance? (frml) ¿me concede esta pieza? (frml); may I have your name and address, please? ¿quiere darme su nombre y dirección, por favor? 2 a (indicating probability) [El grado de probabilidad que indica may es mayor que que expresan might el o could] : we may increase the price quizás or tal vez aumentemos el precio; you may wish to pay in advance tal vez or quizás ustedprefiera pagar por adelantado; ma cause drowsiness puede producir y somnolencia; it may or may not be true puede o no ser cierto; he may not have seen us puede (ser) que or quizás or tal vez no nos haya visto, a lo mejor or de pronto or (RPl, Per tb) de repente no nos vio; I m worried he may do something foolish tengo miedo de que haga un disparate; I was worried he might do something foolish tenía miedo de que hiciera un disparate; and who is Mr Preston, you may ask? se preguntarán quién es el señor Preston b (indicating different options forms of poder*; you may pay in cash or by checkpuede pagar en ) efectivo o con cheque c (in generalizations): no matter what they may say digan lo que digan; we ll find them, wherever they may be los encontraremos, estén donde estén or dondequiera que estén; come what may pase lo que pase 3 (indicating sth is natural): you may well ask!¡buena pregunta!, ¡eso (mismo) digo yo!; you may well feel embarrassed after last night no me extraña que te sientas avergonzado después de lo de anoche; I wonder how she did so well? you may well wonder me pregunto cómo le fue tan bien eso (mismo) digo yo 4 (conceding): this may be unpleasant, but it must be said esto podrá ser desagradable, pero hay que decirlo; he may not be clever, but he s very hard -working no será inteligente, pero es muy trabajador; be that as it may sea como sea; that s as may be puede ser; you may well laugh, just wait till it happens to you! sí, tú ríete ¡ya verás cuando te pase a ti! 5 a (indicating purpose): we have left a space so tha you may add your comments hemos dejado un t espacio para que usted pueda hacer sus comentarios; let us fight, that justice may prevail (liter) luchemos por que prevalezca la justicia 9

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals b (in wishes) (liter): may that day never come que ese día no llegue nun long may she reign! ¡que ca; reine por muchos años!; may the Lord be with you el Señor esté con vosotros;
"May" is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to give or request permission, although this usage is becoming less common. Examples:
y Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work.POSSIBILITY y Johnny, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner.GIVE PERMISSION y May I use your bathroom? REQUEST PERMISSION

Using "May" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "may" behaves in different contexts. Positive Forms Negative Forms You can Modal Use 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future also use: 1. Jack may be upset. I can't really tell if 1. Jack may not be upset. Perhaps he is he is annoyed or tired. tired. may
POSSIBILITY

Formatted: Centered, Space After: 0 pt, Line spacing: single

2. Jack may have been upset. I couldn't 2. Jack may not have been upset. Perhaps might really tell if he was annoyed or tired. he was tired. 3. Jack may get upset if you don't tell him the truth. 1. You may leave the table now that you're finished with your dinner. 3. Jack may not get upset, even if you tell him the truth 1. You may not leave the table. You're not finished with your dinner yet.

may
GIVE PERMISSION

2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO" 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO" You were allowed to leave the table after You were not allowed to leave the table can you finished your dinner. because you hadn't finished your dinner. 3. You may leave the table when you 3. You may not leave the table until you are finish your dinner. finished with your dinner. May I borrow your eraser?

may
REQUEST PERMISSION

May I make a phone call? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE .

NO NEGATIVE FORMS

can, might

10

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals

8. Might
1 past of may 2 a (asking permission) (esp BrE) podría (or podríamos etc); might I leave a littleearly today? ¿sería posible que hoy me fuera un poco antes?, ¿podría irme un poco antes hoy?; might I make asuggestion? si se me permite (hacer) una sugerencia , ¿podría hacer una sugerencia?; who s going to pay, might I ask? ¿quién va a pagar, si se me permite la pregunta or si se puede saber? b (in suggestions, expressing annoyance, regret) forms of poder*;you might at least listen al menos podrías or podías escuchar; I might have known she d mess it up debería haber sabido or me podría or me podía haber imaginado que lo echaría a perder 3 a (indicating possibility) [La posibilidad que indica might es más emota que la que expresan may o r Þcould]: she might be at home pudiera ser que estuvieraen casa; somebody might have picked it up by mistake pudiera ser que alguiense lo hubiera llevado por equivocación, a lo mejor alguien se lo llevó por equivocación; what would you do with the money? I don t know, I might even give it all to charity ¿qué harías con el dinero? no sé, quizás hasta lo donaba todo a obras de beneficencia; it might (well) have been disastrous if the police hadn t arrived podría haber sidocatastrófico si no hubiera llegado la policía; a dress such as Queen Victoria might have worn un vestido como el que podría or podía haber llevado la reina Victoria; as you might imagine como te podrásimaginar; mightn t his friends know where he is? they might (BrE) ¿nosabrán sus amigos dónde está? pudiera or podría ser que sí b (in generalizations): whatever the problem might be, we ll do our best to help cual fuere el sea problema, haremos todo lo posible por ayudar 4 (indicating sth is natural): he rang to apologize ¡era lo menos que podía hacer! and o as well he might! Llamó para pedir perdón

5 a (conceding): the house might not be big, but la casa no será grande pero , puede ser que la casa no sea grande, pero b (asking for information) (frml): who might that gentleman be? ¿quién es ese caballero? 6 a (indicating purpose): he died that others might live (liter) murió para que otros vivieran b (in wishes) (liter): let us pray, that our voices might be heard oremos para que escuchen nuestros se ruegos.
"Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions orrequests, although this is less common in American English. Examples:
y Your purse might be in the living room. POSSIBILITY y If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. CONDITIONAL y You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit.SUGGESTION y Might I borrow your pen? REQUEST

Using "Might" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "might" behaves in different contexts.

11

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals
Positive Forms Negative Forms You can also use: 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. She might be on the bus. I think her car is 1. She might not be on the bus. She having problems. might be walking home. 2. She might have taken the bus. I'm not sure 2. She might not have taken the could, may how she got to work. bus. She might have walked home. 3. She might take the bus to get home. I don't think Bill will be able to give her a ride. 1. If I entered the contest, I might actually win. might
CONDITIONAL OF MAY

Modal Use

might
POSSIBILITY

3. She might not take the bus. She might get a ride from Bill. 1. Even if I entered the contest, I might not win.

2. If I had entered the contest, I might 2. Even if I had entered the contest, actually have won. I might not have won. 3. If I entered the contest tomorrow, I might 3. Even if I entered the contest actually win. Unfortunately, I can't enter it. tomorrow, I might not win. 1. NO PRESENT FORM 1. NO PRESENT FORM

might
SUGGESTION

2. You might have tried the cheese cake. 3. You might try the cheesecake.

2. PAST FORM UNCOMMON 3. You might not want to eat the cheese cake. It's very calorific.

could

might
REQUEST

Might I have something to drink? Might I borrow the stapler? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FU . TURE NEGATIVE FORMS UNCOMMON could, may, can

(British form)

REMEMBER: "Might not" vs. "Could not" "Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens. "Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen. Examples:
y Jack might not have the key. MAYBE HE DOES NOT HAV THE KEY. E y Jack could not have the key. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE THATHE HAS THE KEY.

9. Must
1 a (expressing obligation) forms of tener que or deber; he must have complete rest tiene que hacer reposo absoluto, debe hacer reposo absoluto; you must learn to control your temper tienes que or debes aprender a controlarte; she told him he must apologize le dijo que tenía que or debía disculparse; it must be remembered that hay que recordar que , tenemos que or debemosrecordar que ; she must not know that I am here no debe enterarse de que estoy aquí, que no se entere de que estoy aquí; must you make so much noise? ¿hace falta or es necesario hacer tanto ruido?; why must he always argue with everybody? ¿por qué siempre tiene que discutir con todo el mundo?; I ll readyou my poem oh well, if you must(, you must) te voy a leer mi poema bueno, si te empeñas; I ll speak to her, if I must hablaré con ella, si no hay más remedio; I must say everywhere looks very tidy tengo que 12

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals reconocer or hay que reconocer que está todo muy ordenado, la verdad es que está todo muy ordenado; that wasn t very nice, I must say eso no estuvo muy bien que digamos b (in invitations, suggestions): you must come and see us more often a ver si nos vienea ver más a s menudo, tienes que venir a vernos más a menudo 2 (expressing certainty, supposition) forms of deber (de) or (esp AmL) haber* de; it must be worth a fortune debe (de) valer una fortuna, ha de valer una fortuna (esp AmL); it must be six clock deben (de) o ser or (esp AmL) han de ser las seis, serán las seis; I must have dropped off he debido (de) quedarme dormido, me debo (de) haber quedado dormido, me he de haber quedado dormido (esp AmL) there ; must be another way! ¡debe (de) or tiene que haber otra manera!; you must be exhausted debes (de) estar agotado, estarás agotado; they must nothave known about the change in plans (AmE) no se deben (de) haber enterado del cambio de planes.

must n
1 [c] (essential thing, activity): a car is a m here aquí es indispensable or imprescindible tener coche; ust this book is a must éste es un libro que hay que leer, éste es un libro de lectura obligada; this movie is a must for trance lovers ésta es una película que tienen que ver or que no pueden perdese los amantes r del trance.
"Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than prohibit. Examples:
y This must be the right address! CERTAINTY y Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this sch ool. NECESSITY y You must take some medicine for that cough.STRONG RECOMMENDATIO N y Jenny, you must not play in the street! PROHIBITION

Using "Must" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "must" behaves in different contexts. Positive Forms Negative Forms Modal Use You can also use: 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. That must be Jerry. They said he 1. That must not be Jerry. He is supposed was tall with bright red hair. to have red hair. must
CERTAINTY

2. That must have been the right 2. That must not have been the right have to restaurant. There are no other restaurant. I guess there is another one restaurants on this street. around here somewhere. 3. NO FUTURE FORM 3. NO FUTURE FORM You must not swim in that river. It's full of crocodiles.

must
PROHIBITION

not

13

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals

You must not forget to take your malaria medication while your are in the tropics. PROHIBITION
FUTURE. USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR

must
STRONG RECOMMENDATION

1. You must take some time off and 1. You mustn't drink so much. It's not get some rest. good for your health. 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" 2. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You should have taken some time off You shouldn't have drunk so much. That should last week to get some rest. caused the accident. 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You should take some time off next You shouldn't drink at the party. You are week to get some rest. going to be the designated driver. 1. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" 1. You must have a permit to enter We don't have to get a permit to enter the national park. the national park. 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" 2. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We had to have a permit to enter the We didn't have to get a permit to enter have to park. the national park. 3. We must get a permitto enter the 3. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" park next week. We won't have to get a permit to enter the national park.

(Americans prefer the form "should.")

must
NECESSITY

(Americans prefer the form "have to.")

REMEMBER: "Must not" vs. "Do not have to" "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. Examples:
y You must not eat that. IT IS FORBIDDEN, IT IS NOT ALLOWED. y You don't have to eat that. YOU CAN IF YOU WANT T , BUT IT IS NOT NECESS . O ARY

10. Ought To
1 (indicating obligation, desirability) debería (or deberías etc) + INF, debiera (or debieras etc) + INF; you ought to be grateful deberías or debieras estar agradecido, tendrías que estar agradecido; she ought not o oughtn t to be so strict with her childen no debería or debiera ser tan severa con los niños; she ought r not to have said that no debería haber dicho eso, no tendría or no tenía que haber dicho eso; you ought to be ashamed of yourself! ¡debería or debiera darte vergüenza!, ¡tendría que darte ve rgüenza!; you ought to have seen her face! ¡tenías or tendrías que haber visto la cara que puso! 2 (expressing logical expectation) debería (or deberías etc) + INF, debiera (or debieras etc) + INF; she ought to be here by now ya debería or debiera estar a uí, ya tendría or tenía que estar aquí; the q meeting ought not to take very long la reunión no debería or debiera llevar mucho tiempo .

14

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals
"Ought to" is used to advise or make recommendations. "Ought to" also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. "Ought not" (without "to") is used to advise against doing something, although Americans prefer the less formal forms "should not" or "had better not." Examples:
y You ought to stop smoking. RECOMMENDATION y Jim ought to get the promotion. IT IS EXPECTED BECAUSE HE DESERVES IT. y This stock ought to increase in value. PROBABILITY y Mark ought not drink so much. ADVICE AGAINST SOMETHING (NOTICE THERE IS NO"TO")

Using "Ought to" in Present, Past, andFuture Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "ought to" behaves in different contexts. Positive Forms Negative Forms You can Modal Use 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future also use: 1. Margaret ought not exercise too 1. Margaret ought to exercise more. much. It might cause injury. ought to
RECOMMENDATION, ADVICE

2. Margaret ought to have exercised 2. Margaret ought not have run the more so she would be better prepared marathon. She wasn't in good shape. should for the marathon. 3. Margaret ought not stay at home in 3. Margaret ought to come to the front of the TV. She should go to the fitness center with us tonight. fitness center with us. 1. She ought to have the package by now.

ought to
ASSUMPTION, EXPECTATION, PROBABILITY

2. She ought to have received the "OUGHT NOT" IS USED PRIMARILY TO EXPRESS NEGATIVE RECOMMENDAT IONS. (SEE ABOVE.) package yesterday. 3. She ought to receive the package tonight.

should

Notice "Ought not" Remember that "ought to" loses the "to" in the negative. Instead of "ought not to," we say "ought not." "Ought not" is more commonly used in British English. Americans prefer "should not." Examples:
y You ought not smoke so much. y She ought not take such risks while skiing. y They ought not carry so much cash while traveling.

11. Shall
1 (with 1st person) 15

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals a (in statements about the future): I/we shall be very interested to see what happens tendré/tendremos mucho interés en ver qué sucede; I said we should have to economize dije que tendríamos que economizar; we shan t be able to come (BrE) no podremos or no vamos a poder venir; Jenny, pick up your toys shan t! (BrE) Jenny, recoge os juguetes ¡no quiero! l b (making suggestions, asking for assent) [The present tense is used in this type of question in Spanish] shall I open/close the window? ¿abro/cierro la ventana?, ¿quieres (or quiere etc) que abra/cierre la ventana?; shall we go out tonight? ¿qué te (or le etc) parece si salimos esta noche?; shall we dance? ¿bailamos?; I ll ask him, shall I? le pregunto ¿sí? or ¿te (or le etc) parece?; let s try again, shall we? intentémoslo otra vez ¿sí? or ¿te (or le etc) parece?; whatever shalwe do? (BrE) ¿qué podemos hacer? l 2 (with 2nd and 3rd persons) (in commands, promises etc): they shall not pass no pasarán; thou shalt not steal (Bib) no robarás
"Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions, such as "Shall we go?" "Shall" is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. "Shall" is m uch more commonly heard in British English than in American English; Americans prefer to use other forms, although they do sometimes use "shall" in suggestions or formalized language. Examples:
y Shall I help you? SUGGESTION y I shall never forget where I camefrom. PROMISE y He shall become our next king. PREDESTINATION y I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director.INEVITABILITY

More Examples of "Shall" Modal Use shall
FUTURE ACTION

Positive Forms

Negative Forms

You can also use:

(British form) shall
SUGGESTIONS

I shall be replaced by someone from the New I shall not be replaced after all. York office. will I shall not be there. I have a previous I shall be there by 8:00. obligation. Shall we begin dinner? should Shall we move into the living room? I shall take care of everything for you. I shall never forget you. will

shall
VOLUNTEERING, PROMISING

(British form) shall
INEVITABILITY

I shall make the travel arrangements. There's I shall never give up the fight for no need to worry. freedom. Man shall explore the distant regions of the Man shall never give up the exploration universe. of the universe. We shall overcome oppression. He shall not be held back.

(British form)

16

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals

12. Should
past of shall should v mod 1 (expressing desirability) debería (or deberías etc), debiera (or debieras etc); you should be studying deberías or debieras estar estudiando, tendrías que estar estudiando; she shouldn t treat her friends like that no debería or debiera tratar así a susamigos; you should have thought of that before deberías or debieras haber pensado en eso antes, tendrías or tenías que haber pensado en eso antes; I ve brought you some flowers oh, you shouldn t have te he traído unas flores ¡no te deberías or debieras haber molestado! or ¡no te tenías or tendrías que haber molestado!; shall I invite them? I think you should ¿los invito? creo que deberías hacerlo; that is as it should be así es como debe ser; you should ve seen the look on her face! ¡tenías or tendrías que haber visto la cara que puso!; I didn t have any breakfast you should ve said! no desayuné ¡me lo hubieras dicho! or ¡habérmelo dicho! 2 (indicating probability, logical expectation) debería (or deberías etc) (de), debiera (or debieras etc) (de); it should add up to 100 tendría que or debería (de) or debiera (de) dar or sumar 100; how should I know? ¿cómo quieres que sepa?, ¿cómo voya saber (yo)?; why should they want to come here? ¿por qué han or habrían de querer venir aquí? 3 (with first person only) a (conditional use) (BrE frml): I should like to see her me gustaría verla; I shouldn t have mentioned it if he hadn t asked me to no lo habría or hubiera mencionado si él no me hubiera preguntado; I shouldn t be surprised if they didn t turnup no me sorprendería que no aparecieran; I should be grateful if you would send me the details (Corresp) le agradecería (que) tuviera lagentileza de enviarme la información b (venturing a guess) (BrE): I shouldn t think the chairs are very old no me par que las sillas sean muy ece antiguas; I should think she must be over 80 yo diría que debe tener más de 80; will they be finished by Friday? I shouldn t think so ¿terminarán antes del viernes? no creo or no me parece; she s a little upset I should think she is, poor thing está un poco disgustada y es lógico, pobrecita c (expressing indignation): he said he was sorry I should think so too!Pidió perdón ¡faltaría más! or ¡era lo menos que podía hacer!; she won t be askingus for any money I should think not no nos va a pedir dinero ¡faltaría más or ¡sería el colmo! 4 (subjunctive use) (with all persons): it is essential that you should be present es indispensable que estés presente; it s natural that he should want to go with her natural or lógico que quiera ir con ella; es I m sorry he should see it like that siento que él lo vea de esa manera; if you should happen to pass a bookshop si pasaras or si llegaras a pasar por una librería 5 a (expressing amused surprise): and who should turn u but her ex-husband! ¿y quién te parece que p apareció? ¡su ex-marido!; what should she come out with at the critical moment but ? no va y en el ¿y momento crítico sale con que ? b (in exclamations) (iro): he said she drinks too much he should talk! dijo que ella bebe demasiado ¡mira quién habla!; they should complain!I was waiting twice as long as them ¡yo sí que me puedo quejar, que estuve esperando el dobleque ellos!

17

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals
"Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It canalso be used to express obligation as well as expectation. Examples:
y When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. RECOMMENDATION y You should focus more on your family and less on work.ADVICE y I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM.OBLIGATION y By now, they should already be in Dubai. EXPECTATION

Using "Should" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "should" behaves in different contexts. Negative Forms Positive Forms You can Modal Use 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future also use: Future 1. Sarah shouldn't smoke so much. It's not good for her health. 1. People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods. 2. Sarah shouldn't have should smoked so much. That's RECOMMENDATION, 2. Frank should have eaten low-fat foods. what caused her health ought to ADVISABILITY That might have prevented his heart attack. problems. 3. You really should start eating better. 3. Sarah shouldn't smoke when she visits Martha next week. Martha hates when people smoke in her house.

I should be at work before 9:00. We should return the video before the video rental store closes. NO NEGATIVE FORMS "SHOULD" CAN
ALSO EXPRESS SOMETHING BETWEEN RECOMMENDATION AND O BLIGATION. "BE SUPPOSED TO" EXPRESSES A SIMILAR IDEA AND CAN EASILY BE USED IN THE PAST ORIN NEGATIVE FORMS .

should
OBLIGATION

be to

supposed

1. Susan should be in New York by now.

1. Susan shouldn't be in New York yet.

should
EXPECTATION

2. Susan should have arrived in New York to, 2. Susan shouldn't have ought last week. Let's call her and see what she is arrived in New York until be supposed up to. yesterday. to 3. Susan should be in New York by next 3. Susan shouldn't arrive in week. Her new job starts on Monday. New York until next week.

18

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals

13. be supposed to + INF
a (indicating obligation, expectation): I m supposed to start work at nine se supone que tengo que empezar a trabajar a las nueve; aren t yousupposed to be at home?¿tú no tendrías que estar en casa?; you re not supposed to tell anyone nose lo tienes que decir a nadie; it s supposed to be kept in a cool place hay que guardarlo en un lugar fresco b (indicating intention): what s that supposed to be? ¿y eso qué se supone que es?; what s that supposed to mean? ¿y qué quieres (or quieren etc) decir con eso, (si se puede saber)?; where are we supposed to be meeting them?¿dónde se supone que nos vamos a encontrar con ellos? c (indicating general opinion): it s supposed to be a very interesting book dicen que es un libro muy interesante; you re supposed to be the expert, not me el experto se supone que eres tú, no yo

14. Will
v mod (past would) ll es la contracción de will, won t de will not yll ve de will have 1 a (talking about the future): he ll come on Friday vendrá el viernes, va a venir el viernes; he said he would come on Friday dijo que vendría or iba a venir elviernes; he won t ever change his ways no cambiará nunca, no va a cambiarnunca; will you be staying at Jack s? ¿te vas a quedar en casa de Jack?; they ll ve finished the bridge by then para entonces ya habrán acabado el puente; I knew they would have finished it yo sabía que lo habrían acabado or que lo iban a haber acabado; t the end of this a month, he ll have been working here for a year este fin de mes hará or va a hacer un año que trabaja aquí; you ll live to regret this te vas a arrepentir de esto; it was a decision he would live to regret fue una decisión de la cual se ib a arrepentir or se arrepentiría más tarde; you won t leave without me, will a you? no te irás sin mí ¿no? b (expressing resolution) (with first person): I won t let you down no te fallaré, no te a fallar voy 2 a (expressing willingness): will you do me a favor? ¿quieres hacerme un favor?, ¿me haces un favor?; she won t tell us what happened no nos quiere decir qué pasó; we asked her, but she wouldn t tell us se lo preguntamos, pero no nos quiso decir; I won t stand for this no pienso tolerar esto; think hat you w will piensa lo que quieras or lo que te parezca; as you will! como quieras; try as he will, he can t do it por mucho que lo intenta, no logra hacerlo; it can be compared, if you will, to a detective novel puede comparárselo, si se quiere or por asídecirlo con una novela policíaca b (in orders): will you stop interrupting!¡quieres dejar de interrumpirme!; be quiet, will you! cállate, ¿quieres?, ¡quieres callarte! c (in invitations): will you have a drink? ¿quieres tomar algo?; won t you come ¿no quieres pasar?; in? you ll stay for dinner, won t you? te quedas a cenar ¿no? 3 (expressing conjecture): there s a package for you that ll be the books I ordered hay un paquete para ti deben (de) ser los libros que encargué; won t they be having lunch now? ¿no estarán comiendo ahora?; you will have gathered that te habrás dado cuenta de que ; that would have been in 1947 eso debe (de) haber sido en 1947; we had a long chat, but you wouldn t remember charlamos un rato largo, pero tú no te acordarás o no creo que tú te acuerdes r 4 a (indicating habit, characteristic): she ll be quite happy and all of a sudden she ll burst out crying es capaz de estar de lo más contenta y de repente echarse a llorar; I ll watch anything on television yo soy 19

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals capaz de mirar cualquier cosa en la televisión; he d go out and get drunk every Saturday todos los sábados salía a emborracharse; they d sit up all night discussing politics solían quedarse levantados toda la noche hablando de política; don t worry, these things wilhappen no te preocupes, son cosas que l pasan; oil and water won t mix el aceite y el agua no se mezclan; he will jump to conclusions él siempre tiene que precipitarse a sacar conclusiones; what do you expect, if you willkeep spoiling him? ¿qué quieres, si lo mimas continuamente?; you won t be told, will you? ¡qué cosa! ¿por qué no haces caso? b (indicating capability): it will do 40 miles per gallon hace 40 millas por galón; this door won t shut esta puerta no cierra or no quiere cerrar; the car wouldn tstart, so I took a taxi el coche no arrancó or no quiso arrancar, así que me tomé un taxi; I was getting nervous because the car wouldn t start me estaba poniendo nervioso porque el coche no arrancaba .

will vt (past & past p willed)
1 a (urge, try to cause): I was willing her to get the answer right estaba deseando con todas mis fuerzas or con toda mi voluntad que diera la respuesta correcta; we all willed him on to the finish tanto lo deseábamos, que lo ayudamos a llegar a la meta b (desire, ordain) (frml) « God » disponer, querer 2 (bequeath) legar, dejar en testamento
"Will" is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. "Will" can also be used to make predictions about the future. For more information on using "will" and associated exercises, visit the Simple Future section of our Verb Tense Tutorial. Examples:
y I promise that I will write you every single day.PROMISE y I will make dinner tonight. VOLUNTARY ACTION y He thinks it will rain tomorrow. PREDICTION

More Examples of "Will" Modal Use will
FUTURE ACTION, PREDICTION

Positive Forms Negative Forms The marketing director will not The marketing director will be replaced by be replaced after all. someone from the New York office. Fred will be there by 8:00. I will take care of everything for you. Fred will not be there. He has a previous obligation. I will never forget you.

You can also use:

shall

will
VOLUNTEERING, PROMISING

I will make the travel arrangements. There's no I will never give up the fight for need to worry. freedom.

shall

15. Would v mod d es la contracción de would, wouldn t de would not y d ve de would have
1 past of will1 2 a (in conditional sentences): I would if I could lo haría si pudiera; if I had known,wouldn t have come I si lo hubiera sabido no habría or no hubiera venido; who would have thought it? ¿quién lo hubiera or habría pensado?; without your help, I d ve been cooking all day sin tu ayuda, habría or hubiera estado cocinando todo el día 20

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals b (giving advice): I wouldn t worry no (hace falta que) te preocupes, yo que tú me preocuparía; I no would have a word with her about it ¿por qué no lohablas con ella?, yo (que tú) lo hablaba or hablaría con ella c (tentatively expressing opinions): I would agree with Roy yo estoy de acuerdo con Roy, yo diría que Roy tiene razón; one would have thought that cualquiera hubiera or habría pensado que 3 (expressing wishes): I wish you d stop pestering me! ¡deja de fastidiarme por Dios!; I wish you wouldn t worry quisiera que no te preocuparas; if only she d take your advice ¡si siguiera tus consejos !, ¡ojalá siguiera tus consejos!;would (that) he were with us!(liter) ¡ojalá estuviera con nosotros!; would to God she had known! ¡ojalá lo hubiera sabido! 4 a (in requests): would you type this for me please? ¿me haría el favor de pasar esto a máquina?; would you be kind enough to openthe door for me? ¿tendría la amabilidad or la bondad de abrirme la puerta? (frml); if you d sign here, please ¿me firma aquí, por favor?, ¿tendría la bondad de firmar aquí? (frml); go and call him, would you? ve a llamarlo ¿sí? or ¿me haces el favor?; wou you let me say something! ld ¿me dejas decir algo a mí? b (in invitations): would you like a cup of coffee?¿quieres una taza de café?; would you like to come with us? I d love to ¿quieres or te gustaría venir con nosotros? me encantaría 5 a (expressing criticism): she would (have to) spoil the surprise tenía que estropear la sorpresa, ¡típico! or ¡no podía fallar! b (indicating sth is natural): he said no well, he would, wouldn t he dijo que no bueno ¿qué otra cosa iba a decir? or era de espera ¿no? or es lógico ¿no? r
"Would" is most commonly used to create conditional verb forms. It also serves as the past form of the modal verb "will." Additionally, "would" can indicate repetition in the past. For more information on the grammar behind the modal verb "would," visit the following tutorials:Conditional Tutorial,Future in the Past, and Would Always. Examples:
y If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies.CONDITIONAL y I knew that she would be very successful in her career.PAST OF "WILL" y When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. REPETITION

Using "Would" in Present, Past, and Future Positive Forms Negative Forms Modal Use 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. If I were president, I would cut the cost of 1. If I were president, I would not raise education. taxes. would
CONDITIONAL

You can also use:

2. If I had been president, I would have cut 2. If I had been president, I would not the cost of education. have raised taxes. 3. If I were elected president next year, I 3. If I were president, I would not sign would cut the cost of education. the tax increase next week. I said I wouldn't help you. I said I would help you.

would
PAST OF

"WILL"

He told me he would be here before 8:00.

He told me he would not be here before 8:00.

21

English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals
When I was a kid, I would always go to the When I was a kid, I wouldn't go into the beach. water by myself. used to When he was young, he would always do his When he got older, he would never do homework. his homework.

would
REPETITION IN PAST

16. Used to
(accustomed) (pred): to be used TO sth/-ING estar acostumbrado A algo/+ INF; I m not used to this heat/getting up early no estoy acostumbrado a tantocalor/a madrugar; I m used to being treated like that estoy acostumbrado a que me traten así; to get used TO sth/ING acostumbrarse A algo/+ INF; I got used to him me acostumbré a él; I got used to the idea me hice a la idea; we grew used to the food nos acostumbramos a la comida; you ll soon get used to getting up early pronto te acostumbrarás a madrugar. Used to v mod (indicating former state, habit) (only in past) used to (+ INF): there used to be a shop next door antes había una tienda al lado de casa; usedn t there to be a park here?(BrE dated) ¿no había aquí un parque?; things aren t what they used to be (set phrase) las cosas ya no son lo que eran; I used to work in that shop (antes) trabajaba en esa tienda; do you play chess? I used to ¿juegas al ajedrez? antes solía jugar or ya no; they used not o (BrE colloq) usedn t to charge for deliveries antes no cobraban el reparto a domicilio; I sometimes used to read that paper de vez en cuando leía or solía leer ese periodic.

17. Rather
1 a (stating preference): I d rather you didn t smoke preferiría que no fumaras; I d rather not think about that prefiero no pensar en eso; which would you rather have, an apple or an orange? ¿qué prefieres, una manzana o una naranja?; I d do anything rath than give up ballet haría cualquier cosa antes que er dejar de bailar; I d rather die than preferiría morir a ; rather you than me! ¡menos mal que eres tú y no yo! b (more precisely): we re acquaintances rather than friends somosconocidos, más que amigos, no somos amigos, más bien conocidos; shehas a shop, or rather a stall tiene una tienda, o mejor dicho un puesto c (instead): he wasn t upset about it; rather, he was relieved no estaba disgustado sino más bien aliviado 2 (fairly) bastante; (somewhat) algo, un poco; it s rather a long way quedabastante lejos; it s rather a o a rather good book el libro es bastantebueno or no está nada mal; she looks rather like Janet se parece algo or un poco a Janet; I rather suspect you re right yo diría que ti enes razón; I rather think that me da la impresión or tengo la sensación de que ;are you tired? yes, I am, rather ¿estás cansado? sí, bastante.

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