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Modal Forms Modal verbs can be used in a variety of different forms. Study the examples below. Modal I could swim at the beach. Simple Passive Modal The room should be cleaned once a day. Passive Modal The room should be being cleaned now. Simple
Modal Continuous I could be swimming at the beach right now. Modal I could have swum at the beach yesterday. Perfect
Passive Modal Perfect The room should have been cleaned yesterday. Passive Modal Perfect Continuous The room should have been being cleaned but nobody was there. (Rare form)
Modal Perfect Continuous I could have been swimming at the beach instead of working in the office.
1 (indicating ability) forms of poder; (referring to particular skills) forms of saber; can you come to the dance this evening? ¿puedes venir al baile esta noche?; she couldn t answer the question no pudo contestar la pregunta; the house can accommodate six people en la casa se pueden alojar seis personas; I ll do what I can haré lo que pueda or lo que esté en mi mano; they did all they could hicieron todo lo que pudieron; no can do (colloq) no puedo; I can t stay long no me puedo quedar mucho rato; can t y u keep still? ¿no puedes estarte quieto?; I cannot believe o she said that no puedo creer que dijera eso; we can but try con intentarlo no se pierde nada; will things improve? we can but hope so ¿mejorarán las cosas? esperemos que sí; I can t but agreeno puedo menos que estar de acuerdo; can you swim/speak German? ¿sabes nadar/(hablar) alemán?; she could read music when she was four a los cuatro años ya sabía leer música 2 a (indicating, asking etc permission) forms of poder; I can t stay out late no uedo or no me dejan volver a casa p tarde; can I come with you?¿puedo ir contigo?; you can t go in there, madam no puede entrar ahí, señora; you can stay as long as you like te puedes quedar todo el tiempo or todo lo que quieras b (in requests) forms of poder; can you turn that music down, please?¿puedes bajar esa música, por favor?; can I have two salads, please? ¿me trae dos ensaladas, por favor? c (in offers): can I help you? ¿me permite?; (in shop) ¿lo/la atienden?, ¿qué desea?; can I carry that for you? ¿quieres que (te) lleve eso? 3 a (with verbs of perception): I can t see very well no veo muy bien; can you hear me? ¿me oyes?; I could hear every word they said oía todo lo que decían; as you can see, there s a lot of work to be done como ves or pue des ver, hay mucho que hacer b (with verbs of mental activity): I can t understand it no lo entiendo, no logro or no puedo entenderlo; can you remember her name? ¿te acuerdas de cómo se llama?; I could guess what had happened me imaginaba lo que había pasado; can t you tell he s lying? ¿no te das cuenta de que está mintiendo? 4 a (allow oneself to) (with neg or interrog) forms of poder; you can t blame her no puedes echarle la culpa; I couldn t very well tell him just then no se lo podía decir justo en es momento; how could you? pero ¿cómo se te e ocurrió hacer (or decir etc) una cosa así?, pero ¿cómo pudiste hacer (or decir etc) una cosa así? b (in suggestions, advice): can t you give it another try?¿por qué no lo vuelves a intentar?; you can t let him hve a the last word no puedes dejar que diga la última palabra
English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals
c (in orders): for a start, you can clean all this up puedes empezar por limpiar todo esto; if you don t behave you can go straight to bed si no te portas bien, te vas inmediatamente a la cama 5 a (indicating possibility) forms of poder; anything can happen now ahora puede pasar cualquier cosa; what can she be doing in there? ¿qué estará haciendo ahí?, ¿qué puede estar haciendo ahí?; it can t be true! ¡no puede ser!, ¡no es posible!; you can t be serious! ¡no lo dirás en serio!; she can t have finished already no puede haber terminado ya; he can t be her husband no puede ser su marido b (indicating characteristic): you can be really stubborn a veces eres realmente terco; she can be charming whe n she wants to es encantadora cuando quiere or cuando se lo propone; learning the piano can be fun aprender a tocar el piano puede ser divertido; she s as happy as can be está contentísima, está de lo más contenta.
2. Be able to
1 (pred) to be able to + IN F poder + INF; (referring to particular skills) saber + INF; to able to see/hear be poder ver/oír; to be able to sew/type saber coser/escribira máquina; they were finally able to expose him finalmente pudieron desenmascararlo; will you be able to go? ¿po drás ir?; I am pleased to be able to inform you that (frml) me complace poder comunicarle que (frml); Ithink he s best able to answer that question himself creo que él es quien mejorpuede contestar a esa pregunta; by then you ll be able to speak French fluently para entonces vas a (saber) hablar francés con fluidez; he proved well able to look after himself demostró que era capaz de or que podía valerse muy bien por sí mismo; those least able to afford it aquellos que menos pueden permitírselo; he was t able to convince them no n pudo or no logró convencerlos; I m afraid I m not able to confirm it me temo que no puedo or que no me es posible confirmarlo 2 abler / "eIbl@r / ablest / "eIbl@st / (proficient) politician performer / administrator hábil, capaz; / some of our ablest officers algunos de nuestros oficiales más capaces
"Can" is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or imp ossibility. Examples:
y I can ride a horse. ABILITY y We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris.OPPORTUNITY y She cannot stay out after 10 PM. PERMISSION y Can you hand me the stapler? REQUEST y Any child can grow up to be president. POSSIBILITY
Using "Can" in Present, Past, and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. Study the chart below to learn how "can" behaves in different contexts. Positive Forms Negative Forms Modal Use You can also use: 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. I can't speak Swahili. 1. I can speak Chinese. can
2. SHIFT TO "COULD" be able to 2. SHIFT TO "COULD" I couldn't speak Swahili. I could speak Chinese when I was a kid. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO"
3. 1. THIS USE IS USUALLY A GENERALIZATION OR A SUPPOSITION. can OPPORTUNITY can ABILITY DURING A SPECIFIC EVENT 3. people can't pick up something that heavy. I won't have any time later. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I will be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course. 3. people can pick up cars. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO " I was allowed to drive Susan's car while she was out of town last week. I I didn't have time yesterday. I can help her now. FUTURE. 3. With a burst of adrenaline. I be able to was able to help her at that time. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" 2. I can't drive Susan's car when she is out of town. I can drive Susan's car when she is out of town. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" he was able to lift the car off the Even the weight lifter. challenge. I have some free time. I don't have any time. I can't drive Susan's car while she is out of town next week. 1. I can drive Susan's car while she 3. may REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE. 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO " I wasn't allowed to drive Susan's may car while she was out of town last week. 2. 1. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I had some free time yesterday. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" With a sudden burst of adrenaline. 3. 1. people. 2. I can help her then. is out of town next week. I can't help her then. 1. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" Even three men working together won't be able to lift the car. couldn't lift be able to the car off the child's leg. I can't help her now.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals I won't be able to speak Swahili. can PERMISSION 3. wasn't able to help her at that time. IMPOSSIBILITY You can't be 45! I thought you were could Learning a language can be a real about 18 years old. 1. THIS USE IS USUALLY AGENERALIZATION OR A SUPPOSITION. child's leg. he will be able to lift the car. Even with a burst of adrenaline. I'll have some free time tomorrow. can POSSIBILITY. Can I have a glass of water? Can't I have a glass of water? can REQUEST Can you give me a lift to school? Can't you give me a lift to school? could. 3 . SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" With a sudden burst of adrenaline. 2. Anyone can become rich and It can't cost more than a dollar or famous if they know the right two.
and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. stole the money. I couldn t possibly agree to that de ninguna manera podría acceder a eso. you ing could at least apologize! ¡al menos podrías pedir perdón! b (indicating strong desire) forms of poder." Examples: y Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. podría llegar a tiempo. = Present 2. I would help you if I could te ayudaría si pudiera. but we have no evidence podría or pudiera ser. could might. he couldn t have treated us more kindly no podría or no podía habernos tratado mejor.PAST ABILITY y You could see a movie or go out to dinner. you could have killed us ) all! ¡podrías or podías habernos matado a todos!. they couldn t be happier están contentos a más no poder. wa the soup OK? it could have been hotter ¿qué tal la sopa? no s estaba muy caliente que digamos. la podría or podía haber matado/abrazado. we could be a little late this evening puede (ser) que or tal vez lleguemos un poco tarde esta noche. if I could just say something here si me permiten hacer una acotación b (in requests): could you please be quiet! ¿me haces el favor de callarte?.CONDITIONAL Using "Could" in Present. could you sign here please? ¿quiere firmar aquí. that could be the case. John could be the one who stole the 1. por favor? c (in offers): could I be of some assistance?(frml) ¿puedo ayudar en algo?. Study the chart below to learn how "could" behaves in different contexts. you could be right puede (ser) que tengas razón. = Future 1. may POSSIBILITY 2. = Future 1.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals 3. tal vez podría or pudiera. pero no tenemos pruebas. pero no quiero.I could get there on time si tomara un taxi. money. John could have been the one who 2. "Could" is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests. she couldn t have been there before six even if she d tried no podría haber llegado antes de las seis aunque lo hubiera intentado. don t want to bueno. = Present 2. Could 1 past of can3 2 (indicating possibility) forms of poder. Mary couldn't have been the one who stole the money.SUGGESTION y Could I use your computer to email my bos REQUEST s? y We could go on the trip if I didn't have to work this weekend. she couldn t have been there before six because she didn t leave until quarter to no pudo or no puede haber llegado antes de las seis porque no salió hasta menos cuarto. I could have killed/hugged her la hubiera matado/abrazado. I daresay I coul but I d. it could have been better podría or podía haber estado mejor. I couldn t agr more estoy completamente de ee acuerdo 3 a (asking permission): could I use your bathroom? ¿podría or me permitiría pasar al baño?. Mary couldn't be the one who stole the money. = Past 3. Positive Forms Negative Forms Modal Use You can also use: 1. 4 . you could try do it this way podrías tartar de hacerlo de esta manera. = Past 3. POSSIBILITY y Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11. that could be him now puede (serque sea él. if I took a taxi. Past. well. (in shop etc) ¿lo/la atienden? 4 a (in suggestions) forms of poder. "Could" is also commonly used in conditional sentences as the conditional form of "can.
I travel around the world. NO NEGATIVE FORMS 3. Correct Couldn't he come with us? Could I have something to drink? could POLITE REQUEST Could I borrow your stapler? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE . E y Jack could not have the key. I couldn't travel around the world. I could run ten miles in my twenties. 1.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals 3. I couldn't speak Swahili. Even if I had more time. I could have 2. Even if I had had more time. If I had more time. may. If I had more time this winter. I couldn't run more than a mile in my twenties. might second? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE . Examples: y Jack might not have the key. You could have spent your vacation in Hawaii. 3. Not Correct myself. couldn't travel around the world. 2. MAYBE HE DOES NOT HAV THE KEY. "Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens. could PAST ABILITY "COULD" CANNOT BE USED SENTENCES IN WHICH Y OU IN PO SITIVE DESCRIBE A MOMENTARY OR ONE-TIME ABILITY. I couldn't lift the couch by myself. 1. REMEMBER: "Could not" vs. could CONDITIONAL OF CAN 3. I could speak Chinese when I was a kid. "Might not" "Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen. I could 3. have traveled around the world. NO PRESENT FORM could SUGGESTION 2. Even if I had more time this winter. 5 . IT IS IMPOSSIBLE THATHE HAS THE KEY. Mary couldn't possibly go to jail for the crime. I could lift the couch by Yesterday. "COULD" CAN BE USED IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES IN be able to WHICH YOU DESCRIBE AMOMENTARY OR ONE-TIME ABILITY. I couldn't traveled around the world. You could spend your vacation in Hawaii. 1. John could go to jail for stealing the money. If I had had more time. Yesterday. I could travel around the world. Couldn't you help me with this for just a can.
3. = Past 3. had better 2. They had better be here before we They had better not forget Tom's start dinner. They had better not be late. Positive Forms Use 1. You can also use: RECOMMENDATION 2. birthday gift. Examples: y You had better take your umbrella with you today. = Present 2. I d better be off bueno. DESPERATE HOPES AND WARNINGS USUALLY DESPERATE HOPES AND WARNINGS USUA LLY REFER TO THE NEAR FU TURE. The movie had better end soon.RECOMMENDATION y That bus had better get here soon! DESPERATE HOPE y You had better watch the way you talk to me in the future!WARNING Using "Had Better" in Present. REFER TO THE NEAR FU TURE. you d better believe it! (colloq) sí señor. until you unplug it. Study the chart below to learn how "had Negative Forms 1. had DESPERATE WARNING better HOPE. = Present 2. you d better not complain! ¡más te vale no quejarte!. you d better do exactly as I say más te vale hacer exactamente lo que yo te diga. = Past 3. ought to "OUGHT TO HAVE" You shouldn't have cleaned the toaster without unplugging it first. You had better not clean the toaster before you try to clean it. and the future. Past. "Had better" is most commonly used to make recommendations.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals 4. = Future 1. "Had better" is often simply pronounced as "better" in spoken English. = Future 1. well. 6 . Had Better had better (ought): hadn t you better phone them?¿no deberías llamarlos?. I d better leave before it gets dark va a ser mejor que me vaya antes de que oscurezca. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" OR "OUGHT TO" People shouldn't clean toasters without unplugging them first. me tengo que ir. SHIFT TO "SHOULD HAVE" OR should. and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past better" behaves in different contexts. You had better unplug the toaster 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" OR "OUGHT TO" People should unplug toasters before they clean them. It can also be used to express desperate hope as well as warn people. SHIFT TO "SHOULD HAVE" OR "OUGHT TO HAVE" You should have unplugged the toaster before you tried to clean it.
Examples: y This answer has to be correct. ella 2 a (in tags): you ve been told.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals have (auxiliary) (used to form perfect tenses) haber. That has to be Jerry. necessity. = Future also use: 1. That must not be Jerry. = Past 3. pero yo no. someone has to o someone s got to lose alguien tiene que perder. I ve told her you haven t! se lo he dicho ¡no ¿en serio? 5. and obligation. They said he was 1. CERTAINTY y The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. o they have signed. = Past 3. have you got to go? ¿tienes que ir?. had I known that o if I dknown that si hubiera sabido que . They said hehas blond have got CERTAINTY hair. haven t they? han firmado ¿no?. to 2. Study the chart below to learn how "have to" behaves in different contexts. haven t you? te lo han dicho ¿no? r ¿no es cierto? or ¿no es verdad?. shealways has to interfere siempre tiene que inmiscuirse 2 (expressing certainty) have (got) to + INF tener* QUE + INF. t go out unless don you have to no salgas a menos que tengas que hacerlo. the clock has stopped so it has! el reloj se ha parado ¡es verdad! or ¡es cierto!. you have been busy ¡cómo has trabajado!. you ve got to be kidding! dices en ¡lo broma or en chiste! "Have to" is used to express certainty. That has to have been the right 7 . she cuando terminó or (liter) cuando hubo terminado. you ve forgotten something have I? te has olvidado de algo ¿sí?. ¿llevas mucho ratoesperando?. but I haven t puede que tú lo hayas perdonado. Past. have you? ¡no habrás perdido la llave ! b (elliptical use): you may have forgiven him. I have o I ve got to admit that tengo que reconocer que . it had to happen tenía que ocurrir. and Future "Have to" behaves quite irregularly in the past and the future. have to tall with bright red hair. NECESSITY y They have to leave early. = Present 2. de haber sabido que . = Present 2. you don t have to come if you don t want to no tienes que or no tienes por qué venir si no quieres. she d already gone when we arrived ya se había ido c uando llegamos. SHIFT TO "MUST" must. when he hadfinished. I have/had seen her la he/había visto. have you been waiting long? ¿hace mucho que esperas?. you don t have to be an expert to realize that no hay que or no se necesita ser un experto para darse cuenta de eso. do you have to go?. Positive Forms Negative Forms You can Use 1. you haven t lost the key. HAVE TO or HAVE GOT TO 1 (expressing obligation) have (got) to + INF tener* QUE + INF. = Future 1. recién la vi/la había visto (AmL). not red hair. I have/ had just seen her la acabo/acababa de ver. OBLIGATION Using "Have to" in Present.
You have got to be there on time 3. y You don't have to eat that. IT IS NOT ALLOWED. = Future 1. BUT IT IS NOT NECESS . = Future also use: 1.NECESSITY y I have got to be at work by 8:30 AM. 2. There were restaurants on the street. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" 2. REMEMBER: "Do not have to" vs." 1.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals restaurant. seat. "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. She has to read four books for this It's optional reading for extra credit. = Present 2. People have got to be on time if 1." She had to give a presentation must to her class. IT IS FORBIDDEN. She didn't have to write a critique of "The 2. 3. I guess there was another one around there somewhere. 3. 3. SHIFT TO "MUST" That must not have been the right restaurant. = Past 3. Have Got To "Have got to" is used to express necessity and obligation. Study the chart below to learn how "have got to" behaves in different contexts. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" must You had to be on time if you wanted You didn't have to be there on time to get a to get a seat in the crowded theater. YOU CAN IF YOU WANT T . Examples: y You must not eat that. and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. have got to NECESSITY have to. O ARY 6. Positive Forms Negative Forms You can Use 1. "Must not""Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. have to NECESSITY 3. literature class. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" they want to get a seat in the People don't have to be there on time to get a crowded theater. Examples: y Drivers have got to get a license to drive a car in the US. NONE 1. required course. She won't have to take any other literature classes. seat. American Literature 101 is the only before the final exam. She doesn't have to read "Grapes of Wrath. She had to finish the first book before Scarlet Letter. She will have to finish the other books 3. Past.OBLIGATION Using "Have Got to" in Present. = Past 3. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" 8 . the midterm. NONE no other 2. = Present 2. 2.
it may or may not be true puede o no ser cierto. May 1 a (asking. I was worried he might do something foolish tenía miedo de que hiciera un disparate. that s as may be puede ser. are you? ¿y quién es usted. please? ¿quiere darme su nombre y dirección. and who. you may ask? se preguntarán quién es el señor Preston b (indicating different options forms of poder*. wherever they may be los encontraremos.may I ask. we ll find them. he may not have seen us puede (ser) que or quizás or tal vez no nos haya visto. ¡eso (mismo) digo yo!. come what may pase lo que pase 3 (indicating sth is natural): you may well ask!¡buena pregunta!. seat. por favor?. he asked if he might see her preguntó si podía verla. granting permission) forms of poder. may I smoke? ¿puedo fumar?. may I have this dance? (frml) ¿me concede esta pieza? (frml). please? ¿podríamos ver or nos podríatraer el menú. you may wish to pay in advance tal vez or quizás ustedprefiera pagar por adelantado. but he s very hard -working no será inteligente. estén donde estén or dondequiera que estén. you may smoke if you wish pueden fumar. si se puede saber?. but it must be said esto podrá ser desagradable. por favor? 2 a (indicating probability) [El grado de probabilidad que indica may es mayor que que expresan might el o could] : we may increase the price quizás or tal vez aumentemos el precio. a lo mejor or de pronto or (RPl. just wait till it happens to you! sí. I wonder how she did so well? you may well wonder me pregunto cómo le fue tan bien eso (mismo) digo yo 4 (conceding): this may be unpleasant. ma cause drowsiness puede producir y somnolencia. you may pay in cash or by checkpuede pagar en ) efectivo o con cheque c (in generalizations): no matter what they may say digan lo que digan. . ¿me permite fumar?. be that as it may sea como sea. Haven't you got to be there by 7:00? haven't got to FUTURE OBLIGATION Haven't you got to finish that project today? "HAVEN'T GOT TO" IS PRIMARILY USED TO ASK ABOUT Don't you have to FUTURE OBLIGATIONS IT CAN BE USED IN STATEMENTS. pero es muy trabajador. may I take your coat? ¿me permites tu abrigo?. tú ríete ¡ya verás cuando te pase a ti! 5 a (indicating purpose): we have left a space so tha you may add your comments hemos dejado un t espacio para que usted pueda hacer sus comentarios. pero hay que decirlo. he may not be clever. may I have your name and address. I m worried he may do something foolish tengo miedo de que haga un disparate. let us fight. you may well feel embarrassed after last night no me extraña que te sientas avergonzado después de lo de anoche. and who is Mr Preston. that justice may prevail (liter) luchemos por que prevalezca la justicia 9 . you may well laugh.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals tonight if you want to get a seat in You won't have to be ther on time to get a e the crowded theater. BUT THIS IS LESS COM MON. 7. you may kiss the bride puede besar a la novia b (in requests): may I have your opinion on this? ¿podría darme su opiniónacerca de esto?. Per tb) de repente no nos vio. may we see the menu.
English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals b (in wishes) (liter): may that day never come que ese día no llegue nun long may she reign! ¡que ca. NO NEGATIVE FORMS can. Space After: 0 pt. Perhaps might really tell if he was annoyed or tired. although this usage is becoming less common. tired. = Past 3. Jack may not be upset. he was tired.GIVE PERMISSION y May I use your bathroom? REQUEST PERMISSION Using "May" in Present. Past. "May" is most commonly used to express possibility. You're not finished with your dinner yet. Jack may not get upset. You may leave the table now that you're finished with your dinner. = Past 3. you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner. 3. Line spacing: single 2. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO" You were allowed to leave the table after You were not allowed to leave the table can you finished your dinner. = Present 2. May I borrow your eraser? may REQUEST PERMISSION May I make a phone call? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FUTURE . I can't really tell if 1. reine por muchos años!. Jack may not have been upset. because you hadn't finished your dinner. You may not leave the table until you are finish your dinner. Jack may be upset. I couldn't 2. even if you tell him the truth 1. Jack may get upset if you don't tell him the truth. may GIVE PERMISSION 2.POSSIBILITY y Johnny. might 10 . Study the chart below to learn how "may" behaves in different contexts. may POSSIBILITY Formatted: Centered. You may leave the table when you 3. 1. and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. SHIFT TO "BE ALLOWED TO" 2. Positive Forms Negative Forms You can Modal Use 1. may the Lord be with you el Señor esté con vosotros. = Future also use: 1. Perhaps he is he is annoyed or tired. You may not leave the table. Jack may have been upset. 3. finished with your dinner. It can also be used to give or request permission. = Present 2. = Future 1. or perhaps at work. 3. Examples: y Cheryl may be at home.
might I ask? ¿quién va a pagar. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions orrequests. I might even give it all to charity ¿qué harías con el dinero? no sé. I might go with you. it might (well) have been disastrous if the police hadn t arrived podría haber sidocatastrófico si no hubiera llegado la policía. Past. It is also often used in conditional sentences. and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. haremos todo lo posible por ayudar 4 (indicating sth is natural): he rang to apologize ¡era lo menos que podía hacer! and o as well he might! Llamó para pedir perdón 5 a (conceding): the house might not be big. expressing annoyance. Might 1 past of may 2 a (asking permission) (esp BrE) podría (or podríamos etc).SUGGESTION y Might I borrow your pen? REQUEST Using "Might" in Present. I might have known she d mess it up debería haber sabido or me podría or me podía haber imaginado que lo echaría a perder 3 a (indicating possibility) [La posibilidad que indica might es más emota que la que expresan may o r Þcould]: she might be at home pudiera ser que estuvieraen casa. might I make asuggestion? si se me permite (hacer) una sugerencia . si se me permite la pregunta or si se puede saber? b (in suggestions. quizás hasta lo donaba todo a obras de beneficencia. ¿podría hacer una sugerencia?. mightn t his friends know where he is? they might (BrE) ¿nosabrán sus amigos dónde está? pudiera or podría ser que sí b (in generalizations): whatever the problem might be. we ll do our best to help cual fuere el sea problema. puede ser que la casa no sea grande. pero b (asking for information) (frml): who might that gentleman be? ¿quién es ese caballero? 6 a (indicating purpose): he died that others might live (liter) murió para que otros vivieran b (in wishes) (liter): let us pray. Examples: y Your purse might be in the living room. what would you do with the money? I don t know. who s going to pay.you might at least listen al menos podrías or podías escuchar. Study the chart below to learn how "might" behaves in different contexts. POSSIBILITY y If I didn't have to work. as you might imagine como te podrásimaginar. "Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. but la casa no será grande pero . somebody might have picked it up by mistake pudiera ser que alguiense lo hubiera llevado por equivocación.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals 8. might I leave a littleearly today? ¿sería posible que hoy me fuera un poco antes?. a lo mejor alguien se lo llevó por equivocación. although this is less common in American English. 11 . regret) forms of poder*. that our voices might be heard oremos para que escuchen nuestros se ruegos. CONDITIONAL y You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. ¿podría irme un poco antes hoy?. a dress such as Queen Victoria might have worn un vestido como el que podría or podía haber llevado la reina Victoria.
may. She might get a ride from Bill. must you make so much noise? ¿hace falta or es necesario hacer tanto ruido?. why must he always argue with everybody? ¿por qué siempre tiene que discutir con todo el mundo?. I might 2. 9. It's very calorific. = Future 1. Even if I had entered the contest. MAYBE HE DOES NOT HAV THE KEY. I might actually win. I must say everywhere looks very tidy tengo que 12 . 3. If I had entered the contest. I might not have won. tomorrow. = Past 3. she told him he must apologize le dijo que tenía que or debía disculparse. might CONDITIONAL OF MAY Modal Use might POSSIBILITY 3. Examples: y Jack might not have the key. She might be on the bus. 1. "Could not" "Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens. Must 1 a (expressing obligation) forms of tener que or deber. If I entered the contest. I ll readyou my poem oh well. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE THATHE HAS THE KEY. 1. You might not want to eat the cheese cake. She might not take the bus. TURE NEGATIVE FORMS UNCOMMON could. NO PRESENT FORM 1. Unfortunately. If I entered the contest tomorrow. I might not win. She might not have taken the could. You might have tried the cheese cake. 2. if you must(. She having problems. She might have walked home. you must) te voy a leer mi poema bueno. he must have complete rest tiene que hacer reposo absoluto. I might 3. could might REQUEST Might I have something to drink? Might I borrow the stapler? REQUESTS USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR FU . it must be remembered that hay que recordar que .English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals Positive Forms Negative Forms You can also use: 1. = Future 1. 2. She might not be on the bus. actually have won. I might not win. may how she got to work. NO PRESENT FORM might SUGGESTION 2. 3. que no se entere de que estoy aquí. 2. She might take the bus to get home. E y Jack could not have the key. 3. si no hay más remedio. I'm not sure 2. can (British form) REMEMBER: "Might not" vs. I don't think Bill will be able to give her a ride. I can't enter it. = Past 3. 1. I ll speak to her. bus. si te empeñas. "Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen. You might try the cheesecake. = Present 2. you must learn to control your temper tienes que or debes aprender a controlarte. tenemos que or debemosrecordar que . Even if I entered the contest. I think her car is 1. PAST FORM UNCOMMON 3. if I must hablaré con ella. Even if I entered the contest actually win. = Present 2. might be walking home. she must not know that I am here no debe enterarse de que estoy aquí. debe hacer reposo absoluto. She might have taken the bus.
= Present 2. must n 1 [c] (essential thing. me he de haber quedado dormido (esp AmL) there . That must not be Jerry. ha de valer una fortuna (esp AmL). la verdad es que está todo muy ordenado. ust this book is a must éste es un libro que hay que leer. Study the chart below to learn how "must" behaves in different contexts. Examples: y This must be the right address! CERTAINTY y Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this sch ool. They said he 1. I guess there is another one restaurants on this street. it must be worth a fortune debe (de) valer una fortuna. although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to. He is supposed was tall with bright red hair. NO FUTURE FORM You must not swim in that river. that wasn t very nice. must CERTAINTY 2. you must be exhausted debes (de) estar agotado. I must have dropped off he debido (de) quedarme dormido. to have red hair. you must not play in the street! PROHIBITION Using "Must" in Present. That must have been the right 2." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions. NO FUTURE FORM 3. they must nothave known about the change in plans (AmE) no se deben (de) haber enterado del cambio de planes. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation. = Future 1. and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. = Future 1. around here somewhere. It's full of crocodiles. must PROHIBITION not 13 . Positive Forms Negative Forms Modal Use You can also use: 1. tienes que venir a vernos más a menudo 2 (expressing certainty. this movie is a must for trance lovers ésta es una película que tienen que ver or que no pueden perdese los amantes r del trance. = Present 2. serán las seis. suggestions): you must come and see us more often a ver si nos vienea ver más a s menudo. éste es un libro de lectura obligada. it must be six clock deben (de) o ser or (esp AmL) han de ser las seis. activity): a car is a m here aquí es indispensable or imprescindible tener coche. me debo (de) haber quedado dormido. I must say eso no estuvo muy bien que digamos b (in invitations. = Past 3. That must be Jerry. but this sounds very severe.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals reconocer or hay que reconocer que está todo muy ordenado. = Past 3. 3.STRONG RECOMMENDATIO N y Jenny. That must not have been the right have to restaurant. Past. estarás agotado. supposition) forms of deber (de) or (esp AmL) haber* de. must be another way! ¡debe (de) or tiene que haber otra manera!. There are no other restaurant. speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than prohibit. NECESSITY y You must take some medicine for that cough. "Must" is most commonly used to express certainty.
ya tendría or tenía que estar aquí. IT IS NOT ALLOWED. no tendría or no tenía que haber dicho eso.") REMEMBER: "Must not" vs. tendrías que estar agradecido. (Americans prefer the form "should. BUT IT IS NOT NECESS . 1. the national park. you ought to be ashamed of yourself! ¡debería or debiera darte vergüenza!. You must have a permit to enter We don't have to get a permit to enter the national park. she ought r not to have said that no debería haber dicho eso. IT IS FORBIDDEN. We must get a permitto enter the 3. USUALLY REFER TO THE NEAR must STRONG RECOMMENDATION 1.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals You must not forget to take your malaria medication while your are in the tropics. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" 2. 3. the q meeting ought not to take very long la reunión no debería or debiera llevar mucho tiempo . y You don't have to eat that. you ought to have seen her face! ¡tenías or tendrías que haber visto la cara que puso! 2 (expressing logical expectation) debería (or deberías etc) + INF. she ought not o oughtn t to be so strict with her childen no debería or debiera ser tan severa con los niños. YOU CAN IF YOU WANT T . "Do not have to" suggests that someone is not required to do something. 3. "Do not have to" "Must not" suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. the national park. desirability) debería (or deberías etc) + INF. 2. she ought to be here by now ya debería or debiera estar a uí. ¡tendría que darte ve rgüenza!. 14 . SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" park next week. you ought to be grateful deberías or debieras estar agradecido. caused the accident. Ought To 1 (indicating obligation. debiera (or debieras etc) + INF. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" 1.") must NECESSITY (Americans prefer the form "have to. 2. You mustn't drink so much. That should last week to get some rest. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You should have taken some time off You shouldn't have drunk so much. We won't have to get a permit to enter the national park. PROHIBITION FUTURE. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" We had to have a permit to enter the We didn't have to get a permit to enter have to park. You must take some time off and 1. Examples: y You must not eat that. SHIFT TO "HAVE TO" 2. It's not get some rest. debiera (or debieras etc) + INF. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" 3. SHIFT TO "SHOULD" You should take some time off next You shouldn't drink at the party. good for your health. going to be the designated driver. O ARY 10. You are week to get some rest.
ADVICE AGAINST SOMETHING (NOTICE THERE IS NO"TO") Using "Ought to" in Present." Examples: y You ought to stop smoking. although Americans prefer the less formal forms "should not" or "had better not. andFuture Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. It might cause injury. = Past 3. y She ought not take such risks while skiing. PROBABILITY 2. y They ought not carry so much cash while traveling. = Future also use: 1. = Present 2. Margaret ought not exercise too 1. Positive Forms Negative Forms You can Modal Use 1. fitness center with us. 11." we say "ought not. Margaret ought to come to the front of the TV. "Ought not" (without "to") is used to advise against doing something. = Future 1. "Ought to" also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability. She ought to have received the "OUGHT NOT" IS USED PRIMARILY TO EXPRESS NEGATIVE RECOMMENDAT IONS. should Notice "Ought not" Remember that "ought to" loses the "to" in the negative. Americans prefer "should not." Examples: y You ought not smoke so much. 3. = Present 2.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals "Ought to" is used to advise or make recommendations. PROBABILITY y Mark ought not drink so much. ought to ASSUMPTION. She should go to the fitness center with us tonight. often with the idea that something is deserved. Margaret ought to exercise more. = Past 3. Study the chart below to learn how "ought to" behaves in different contexts. Margaret ought not stay at home in 3. Margaret ought not have run the more so she would be better prepared marathon. (SEE ABOVE.) package yesterday. RECOMMENDATION y Jim ought to get the promotion. y This stock ought to increase in value. 1. Instead of "ought not to. 3. Margaret ought to have exercised 2. Shall 1 (with 1st person) 15 . She wasn't in good shape. ought to RECOMMENDATION." "Ought not" is more commonly used in British English. much. EXPECTATION. should for the marathon. She ought to have the package by now. IT IS EXPECTED BECAUSE HE DESERVES IT. ADVICE 2. Past. She ought to receive the package tonight.
we shan t be able to come (BrE) no podremos or no vamos a poder venir. the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. freedom. whatever shalwe do? (BrE) ¿qué podemos hacer? l 2 (with 2nd and 3rd persons) (in commands.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals a (in statements about the future): I/we shall be very interested to see what happens tendré/tendremos mucho interés en ver qué sucede.INEVITABILITY More Examples of "Shall" Modal Use shall FUTURE ACTION Positive Forms Negative Forms You can also use: (British form) shall SUGGESTIONS I shall be replaced by someone from the New I shall not be replaced after all. "Shall" is m uch more commonly heard in British English than in American English. such as "Shall we go?" "Shall" is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. although they do sometimes use "shall" in suggestions or formalized language. obligation. will I shall not be there. promises etc): they shall not pass no pasarán. shall we? intentémoslo otra vez ¿sí? or ¿te (or le etc) parece?. shall we dance? ¿bailamos?. There's I shall never give up the fight for no need to worry. shall I? le pregunto ¿sí? or ¿te (or le etc) parece?. I shall never forget you. of the universe. Smith shall become our new director. Examples: y Shall I help you? SUGGESTION y I shall never forget where I camefrom. will shall VOLUNTEERING. recoge os juguetes ¡no quiero! l b (making suggestions. I ll ask him. shall we go out tonight? ¿qué te (or le etc) parece si salimos esta noche?. asking for assent) [The present tense is used in this type of question in Spanish] shall I open/close the window? ¿abro/cierro la ventana?. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we. We shall overcome oppression. (British form) 16 . Jenny." and is often found in suggestions. Man shall explore the distant regions of the Man shall never give up the exploration universe. I have a previous I shall be there by 8:00. thou shalt not steal (Bib) no robarás "Shall" is used to indicate future action. PREDESTINATION y I'm afraid Mr. York office. Shall we begin dinner? should Shall we move into the living room? I shall take care of everything for you. I said we should have to economize dije que tendríamos que economizar. In formal English. let s try again. PROMISE y He shall become our next king. pick up your toys shan t! (BrE) Jenny. He shall not be held back. PROMISING (British form) shall INEVITABILITY I shall make the travel arrangements. ¿quieres (or quiere etc) que abra/cierre la ventana?. Americans prefer to use other forms.
tendrías que estar estudiando. you should have thought of that before deberías or debieras haber pensado en eso antes. you shouldn t have te he traído unas flores ¡no te deberías or debieras haber molestado! or ¡no te tenías or tendrías que haber molestado!. she s a little upset I should think she is. you should ve seen the look on her face! ¡tenías or tendrías que haber visto la cara que puso!. I didn t have any breakfast you should ve said! no desayuné ¡me lo hubieras dicho! or ¡habérmelo dicho! 2 (indicating probability. I should think she must be over 80 yo diría que debe tener más de 80.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals 12. que estuve esperando el dobleque ellos! 17 . poor thing está un poco disgustada y es lógico. it should add up to 100 tendría que or debería (de) or debiera (de) dar or sumar 100. she shouldn t treat her friends like that no debería or debiera tratar así a susamigos. will they be finished by Friday? I shouldn t think so ¿terminarán antes del viernes? no creo or no me parece. she won t be askingus for any money I should think not no nos va a pedir dinero ¡faltaría más or ¡sería el colmo! 4 (subjunctive use) (with all persons): it is essential that you should be present es indispensable que estés presente. debiera (or debieras etc). what should she come out with at the critical moment but ? no va y en el ¿y momento crítico sale con que ? b (in exclamations) (iro): he said she drinks too much he should talk! dijo que ella bebe demasiado ¡mira quién habla!. why should they want to come here? ¿por qué han or habrían de querer venir aquí? 3 (with first person only) a (conditional use) (BrE frml): I should like to see her me gustaría verla. I shouldn t have mentioned it if he hadn t asked me to no lo habría or hubiera mencionado si él no me hubiera preguntado. I ve brought you some flowers oh. debiera (or debieras etc) (de). it s natural that he should want to go with her natural or lógico que quiera ir con ella. that is as it should be así es como debe ser. shall I invite them? I think you should ¿los invito? creo que deberías hacerlo. logical expectation) debería (or deberías etc) (de). tendrías or tenías que haber pensado en eso antes. they should complain!I was waiting twice as long as them ¡yo sí que me puedo quejar. ¿cómo voya saber (yo)?. Should past of shall should v mod 1 (expressing desirability) debería (or deberías etc). how should I know? ¿cómo quieres que sepa?. pobrecita c (expressing indignation): he said he was sorry I should think so too!Pidió perdón ¡faltaría más! or ¡era lo menos que podía hacer!. es I m sorry he should see it like that siento que él lo vea de esa manera. I should be grateful if you would send me the details (Corresp) le agradecería (que) tuviera lagentileza de enviarme la información b (venturing a guess) (BrE): I shouldn t think the chairs are very old no me par que las sillas sean muy ece antiguas. if you should happen to pass a bookshop si pasaras or si llegaras a pasar por una librería 5 a (expressing amused surprise): and who should turn u but her ex-husband! ¿y quién te parece que p apareció? ¡su ex-marido!. I shouldn t be surprised if they didn t turnup no me sorprendería que no aparecieran. you should be studying deberías or debieras estar estudiando.
Susan should have arrived in New York to. Susan shouldn't arrive in week. I should be at work before 9:00. = 1. should EXPECTATION 2. 2. problems. It canalso be used to express obligation as well as expectation. = Past 3. 2. 1. Past.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals "Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. Susan shouldn't be in New York yet. yesterday. to 3. Negative Forms Positive Forms You can Modal Use 1. People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods. 3. We should return the video before the video rental store closes. Sarah shouldn't smoke so much. RECOMMENDATION y You should focus more on your family and less on work. Frank should have eaten low-fat foods. 3. New York until next week. That's RECOMMENDATION. You really should start eating better. 2. Her new job starts on Monday. = Future also use: Future 1. Martha hates when people smoke in her house. Susan should be in New York by next 3. and Future Most modal verbs behave quite irregularly in the past and the future. they should already be in Dubai. Examples: y When you go to Berlin. Sarah shouldn't smoke when she visits Martha next week. Susan shouldn't have ought last week. Let's call her and see what she is arrived in New York until be supposed up to. = Present 2. 1. should OBLIGATION be to supposed 1.ADVICE y I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. Study the chart below to learn how "should" behaves in different contexts. = Present 2.OBLIGATION y By now. It's not good for her health. EXPECTATION Using "Should" in Present. "BE SUPPOSED TO" EXPRESSES A SIMILAR IDEA AND CAN EASILY BE USED IN THE PAST ORIN NEGATIVE FORMS . 18 . Susan should be in New York by now. Sarah shouldn't have should smoked so much. NO NEGATIVE FORMS "SHOULD" CAN ALSO EXPRESS SOMETHING BETWEEN RECOMMENDATION AND O BLIGATION. what caused her health ought to ADVISABILITY That might have prevented his heart attack. = Past 3.
(si se puede saber)?. ¿quieres?. you re not supposed to tell anyone nose lo tienes que decir a nadie. t the end of this a month. think hat you w will piensa lo que quieras or lo que te parezca. I ll watch anything on television yo soy 19 . won t de will not yll ve de will have 1 a (talking about the future): he ll come on Friday vendrá el viernes. it s supposed to be kept in a cool place hay que guardarlo en un lugar fresco b (indicating intention): what s that supposed to be? ¿y eso qué se supone que es?. be quiet. si se quiere or por asídecirlo con una novela policíaca b (in orders): will you stop interrupting!¡quieres dejar de interrumpirme!. what s that supposed to mean? ¿y qué quieres (or quieren etc) decir con eso. you re supposed to be the expert. will you! cállate. be supposed to + INF a (indicating obligation. he said he would come on Friday dijo que vendría or iba a venir elviernes. va a venir el viernes. he won t ever change his ways no cambiará nunca. won t they be having lunch now? ¿no estarán comiendo ahora?. will you be staying at Jack s? ¿te vas a quedar en casa de Jack?. we asked her. not me el experto se supone que eres tú. aren t yousupposed to be at home?¿tú no tendrías que estar en casa?. but she wouldn t tell us se lo preguntamos. I knew they would have finished it yo sabía que lo habrían acabado or que lo iban a haber acabado. but you wouldn t remember charlamos un rato largo. that would have been in 1947 eso debe (de) haber sido en 1947. in? you ll stay for dinner. no te a fallar voy 2 a (expressing willingness): will you do me a favor? ¿quieres hacerme un favor?. pero no nos quiso decir. we had a long chat. ¡quieres callarte! c (in invitations): will you have a drink? ¿quieres tomar algo?. you ll live to regret this te vas a arrepentir de esto. I won t stand for this no pienso tolerar esto. try as he will. he ll have been working here for a year este fin de mes hará or va a hacer un año que trabaja aquí. no logra hacerlo. they ll ve finished the bridge by then para entonces ya habrán acabado el puente. no va a cambiarnunca. where are we supposed to be meeting them?¿dónde se supone que nos vamos a encontrar con ellos? c (indicating general opinion): it s supposed to be a very interesting book dicen que es un libro muy interesante. pero tú no te acordarás o no creo que tú te acuerdes r 4 a (indicating habit. no yo 14. characteristic): she ll be quite happy and all of a sudden she ll burst out crying es capaz de estar de lo más contenta y de repente echarse a llorar. as you will! como quieras. if you will. won t you? te quedas a cenar ¿no? 3 (expressing conjecture): there s a package for you that ll be the books I ordered hay un paquete para ti deben (de) ser los libros que encargué. won t you come ¿no quieres pasar?. will a you? no te irás sin mí ¿no? b (expressing resolution) (with first person): I won t let you down no te fallaré. she won t tell us what happened no nos quiere decir qué pasó. expectation): I m supposed to start work at nine se supone que tengo que empezar a trabajar a las nueve. you won t leave without me.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals 13. to a detective novel puede comparárselo. he can t do it por mucho que lo intenta. you will have gathered that te habrás dado cuenta de que . it can be compared. Will v mod (past would) ll es la contracción de will. it was a decision he would live to regret fue una decisión de la cual se ib a arrepentir or se arrepentiría más tarde. ¿me haces un favor?.
Fred will be there by 8:00. freedom. someone from the New York office. PREDICTION Positive Forms Negative Forms The marketing director will not The marketing director will be replaced by be replaced after all. shall 15.PROMISE y I will make dinner tonight. who would have thought it? ¿quién lo hubiera or habría pensado?. habría or hubiera estado cocinando todo el día 20 . You can also use: shall will VOLUNTEERING. He has a previous obligation. visit the Simple Future section of our Verb Tense Tutorial. will vt (past & past p willed) 1 a (urge. Fred will not be there. dejar en testamento "Will" is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. so I took a taxi el coche no arrancó or no quiso arrancar. There's no I will never give up the fight for need to worry. you won t be told. if I had known.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals capaz de mirar cualquier cosa en la televisión. we all willed him on to the finish tanto lo deseábamos. oil and water won t mix el aceite y el agua no se mezclan. querer 2 (bequeath) legar. I will never forget you. these things wilhappen no te preocupes. what do you expect. I d ve been cooking all day sin tu ayuda. if you willkeep spoiling him? ¿qué quieres. will you? ¡qué cosa! ¿por qué no haces caso? b (indicating capability): it will do 40 miles per gallon hace 40 millas por galón. he d go out and get drunk every Saturday todos los sábados salía a emborracharse. VOLUNTARY ACTION y He thinks it will rain tomorrow. I was getting nervous because the car wouldn t start me estaba poniendo nervioso porque el coche no arrancaba . try to cause): I was willing her to get the answer right estaba deseando con todas mis fuerzas or con toda mi voluntad que diera la respuesta correcta. For more information on using "will" and associated exercises. without your help. así que me tomé un taxi. I will take care of everything for you. wouldn t de would not y d ve de would have 1 past of will1 2 a (in conditional sentences): I would if I could lo haría si pudiera. Examples: y I promise that I will write you every single day. que lo ayudamos a llegar a la meta b (desire. ordain) (frml) « God » disponer.wouldn t have come I si lo hubiera sabido no habría or no hubiera venido. Would v mod d es la contracción de would. son cosas que l pasan. PROMISING I will make the travel arrangements. "Will" can also be used to make predictions about the future. si lo mimas continuamente?. the car wouldn tstart. this door won t shut esta puerta no cierra or no quiere cerrar. he will jump to conclusions él siempre tiene que precipitarse a sacar conclusiones. don t worry. they d sit up all night discussing politics solían quedarse levantados toda la noche hablando de política. PREDICTION More Examples of "Will" Modal Use will FUTURE ACTION.
I wish you wouldn t worry quisiera que no te preocuparas. "would" can indicate repetition in the past. = Past 3. I said I wouldn't help you. have raised taxes. He told me he would not be here before 8:00. ¡ojalá siguiera tus consejos!.PAST OF "WILL" y When they first met. I would have cut 2. yo que tú me preocuparía. I no would have a word with her about it ¿por qué no lohablas con ella?. If I had been president. Past. If I were elected president next year. if you d sign here. the tax increase next week. It also serves as the past form of the modal verb "will. would PAST OF "WILL" He told me he would be here before 8:00. go and call him. ¿tendría la bondad de firmar aquí? (frml). If I were president. would to God she had known! ¡ojalá lo hubiera sabido! 4 a (in requests): would you type this for me please? ¿me haría el favor de pasar esto a máquina?.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals b (giving advice): I wouldn t worry no (hace falta que) te preocupes. I said I would help you. 21 . would you? ve a llamarlo ¿sí? or ¿me haces el favor?.would (that) he were with us!(liter) ¡ojalá estuviera con nosotros!. and Would Always. wou you let me say something! ld ¿me dejas decir algo a mí? b (in invitations): would you like a cup of coffee?¿quieres una taza de café?. one would have thought that cualquiera hubiera or habría pensado que 3 (expressing wishes): I wish you d stop pestering me! ¡deja de fastidiarme por Dios!. Examples: y If he were an actor. would CONDITIONAL You can also use: 2. ¡típico! or ¡no podía fallar! b (indicating sth is natural): he said no well. wouldn t he dijo que no bueno ¿qué otra cosa iba a decir? or era de espera ¿no? or es lógico ¿no? r "Would" is most commonly used to create conditional verb forms. If I were president. he would be in adventure movies. REPETITION Using "Would" in Present. por favor?. yo (que tú) lo hablaba or hablaría con ella c (tentatively expressing opinions): I would agree with Roy yo estoy de acuerdo con Roy. 3. he would. I would cut the cost of 1. = Past 3. I 3. they would always have picnics on the beach." visit the following tutorials:Conditional Tutorial. = Future 1. If I had been president. I would not raise education. For more information on the grammar behind the modal verb "would. I would not the cost of education. = Future 1. if only she d take your advice ¡si siguiera tus consejos !. I would not sign would cut the cost of education." Additionally. and Future Positive Forms Negative Forms Modal Use 1. = Present 2.CONDITIONAL y I knew that she would be very successful in her career. would you be kind enough to openthe door for me? ¿tendría la amabilidad or la bondad de abrirme la puerta? (frml). taxes. would you like to come with us? I d love to ¿quieres or te gustaría venir con nosotros? me encantaría 5 a (expressing criticism): she would (have to) spoil the surprise tenía que estropear la sorpresa. yo diría que Roy tiene razón.Future in the Past. If I were president. please ¿me firma aquí. = Present 2.
I sometimes used to read that paper de vez en cuando leía or solía leer ese periodic. rather. rather ¿estás cansado? sí. I m used to being treated like that estoy acostumbrado a que me traten así. I got used to the idea me hice a la idea. his homework. to get used TO sth/ING acostumbrarse A algo/+ INF. I d rather not think about that prefiero no pensar en eso. Rather 1 a (stating preference): I d rather you didn t smoke preferiría que no fumaras. it s rather a o a rather good book el libro es bastantebueno or no está nada mal. do you play chess? I used to ¿juegas al ajedrez? antes solía jugar or ya no. Used to v mod (indicating former state. usedn t there to be a park here?(BrE dated) ¿no había aquí un parque?. I rather think that me da la impresión or tengo la sensación de que . he would never do homework. o mejor dicho un puesto c (instead): he wasn t upset about it. water by myself.English Modal Auxiliaries or Modals When I was a kid. (somewhat) algo. no somos amigos. I m not used to this heat/getting up early no estoy acostumbrado a tantocalor/a madrugar. or rather a stall tiene una tienda. I used to work in that shop (antes) trabajaba en esa tienda. would REPETITION IN PAST 16. I wouldn't go into the beach.are you tired? yes. shehas a shop. bastante. used to When he was young. which would you rather have. I got used to him me acostumbré a él. she looks rather like Janet se parece algo or un poco a Janet. I would always go to the When I was a kid. 22 . I d do anything rath than give up ballet haría cualquier cosa antes que er dejar de bailar. habit) (only in past) used to (+ INF): there used to be a shop next door antes había una tienda al lado de casa. Used to (accustomed) (pred): to be used TO sth/-ING estar acostumbrado A algo/+ INF. it s rather a long way quedabastante lejos. más que amigos. I am. we grew used to the food nos acostumbramos a la comida. things aren t what they used to be (set phrase) las cosas ya no son lo que eran. he was relieved no estaba disgustado sino más bien aliviado 2 (fairly) bastante. I rather suspect you re right yo diría que ti enes razón. una manzana o una naranja?. they used not o (BrE colloq) usedn t to charge for deliveries antes no cobraban el reparto a domicilio. you ll soon get used to getting up early pronto te acostumbrarás a madrugar. an apple or an orange? ¿qué prefieres. rather you than me! ¡menos mal que eres tú y no yo! b (more precisely): we re acquaintances rather than friends somosconocidos. he would always do his When he got older. I d rather die than preferiría morir a . 17. un poco. más bien conocidos.
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