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Teacher - How to Land a Top-Paying Job: Your Complete Guide to Opportunities, Resumes and Cover Letters, Interviews, Salaries, Promotions, What to Expect From Recruiters and More!

Teacher - How to Land a Top-Paying Job: Your Complete Guide to Opportunities, Resumes and Cover Letters, Interviews, Salaries, Promotions, What to Expect From Recruiters and More!

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Put Your Career on the Fast Track. Get this book Now and Get Noticed By Top Employers Today for Top Paying Jobs as Teacher.

For the first time, a book exists that compiles all the information candidates need to apply for their first Teacher Job, or to apply for a better job, loaded with hundreds of strategies for applying your strengths.

The book comes filled with useful cheat sheets. It helps you get your career organized in a tidy, presentable fashion. It also will inspire you to produce some attention-grabbing cover letters that convey your skills persuasively and attractively in your application packets.

After studying it, too, you'll be prepared for interviews, or you will be after you conducted the practice sessions where someone sits and asks you potential questions. It makes you think on your feet!

This book makes a world of difference in helping you stay away from vague and long-winded answers and you will be finally able to connect with prospective employers, including the one that will actually hire you.

Highly recommended to any harried Teacher jobseeker, you'll plan on using it again in your efforts to move up in the world for an even better position down the road.

What you'll find especially helpful are the worksheets. It is so much easier to write about a work experience using these outlines. It ensures that the narrative will follow a logical structure and reminds you not to leave out the most important points. With this book, you'll be able to revise your application into a much stronger document, be much better prepared and a step ahead for the next opportunity.

This book offers excellent, insightful advice for everyone from entry-level to senior professionals. None of the other such career guides compare with this one. It stands out because it:

1) explains how the people doing the hiring think, so that you can win them over on paper and then in your interview;

2) has an engaging, reader-friendly style;

3) explains every step of the job-hunting process - from little-known ways for finding openings to getting ahead on the job.

This book covers everything. Whether you are trying to get your first Teacher Job or move up in the system, get this book.
Put Your Career on the Fast Track. Get this book Now and Get Noticed By Top Employers Today for Top Paying Jobs as Teacher.

For the first time, a book exists that compiles all the information candidates need to apply for their first Teacher Job, or to apply for a better job, loaded with hundreds of strategies for applying your strengths.

The book comes filled with useful cheat sheets. It helps you get your career organized in a tidy, presentable fashion. It also will inspire you to produce some attention-grabbing cover letters that convey your skills persuasively and attractively in your application packets.

After studying it, too, you'll be prepared for interviews, or you will be after you conducted the practice sessions where someone sits and asks you potential questions. It makes you think on your feet!

This book makes a world of difference in helping you stay away from vague and long-winded answers and you will be finally able to connect with prospective employers, including the one that will actually hire you.

Highly recommended to any harried Teacher jobseeker, you'll plan on using it again in your efforts to move up in the world for an even better position down the road.

What you'll find especially helpful are the worksheets. It is so much easier to write about a work experience using these outlines. It ensures that the narrative will follow a logical structure and reminds you not to leave out the most important points. With this book, you'll be able to revise your application into a much stronger document, be much better prepared and a step ahead for the next opportunity.

This book offers excellent, insightful advice for everyone from entry-level to senior professionals. None of the other such career guides compare with this one. It stands out because it:

1) explains how the people doing the hiring think, so that you can win them over on paper and then in your interview;

2) has an engaging, reader-friendly style;

3) explains every step of the job-hunting process - from little-known ways for finding openings to getting ahead on the job.

This book covers everything. Whether you are trying to get your first Teacher Job or move up in the system, get this book.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Aug 19, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved
List Price: $19.95


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  • Signification Points
  • Nature of the Work
  • Employment
  • Job Outlook
  • Projections Data
  • Earnings
  • Related Occupations
  • Sources of Additional Information
  • Where to Learn About Job Openings
  • Job Search Methods
  • Applying for a Job
  • Job Interview Tips
  • Evaluating a Job Offer
  • Step 1
  • Step 2
  • Step 3
  • Step 4
  • Responsible
  • Likeable
  • Believable
  • Outgoing
  • Unflappable
  • Planning
  • Confirming/Scheduling Interview
  • Conducting the Interview
  • Closing
  • Follow Up
  • Questions/ Assessment Tools
  • Interview Questions To Get You Started
  • Supervisor and Manager Competencies
  • Interviewing People With Disabilities
  • Interview Do’s and Don’ts
  • Which References Should I Check?
  • Tips for Checking References
  • The Reference Check Questions To Ask
  • Prohibited Questions and Practices
  • Supervisory and Managerial Competencies:
  • Building Coalitions/Communication:
  • Before Submitting the Vacancy
  • When the Vacancy Announcement is Open
  • Once the Certificate is Received
  • After The Selection is Made

Getting and Finding Teachers—Preschool, Kindergarten, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Jobs – The Ultimate Guide for Job Seekers and Recruiters

Copyright Notice of Rights All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. No Claim to Orig. U.S. Govt. Works. Notice of Liability The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book.


emereo. simply follow their procedures. You can find examples of product reviews in Amazon.g. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY WRITE A REVIEW – RECEIVE ANY FREE EBOOK FROM OUR CATALOG .TEACHERS . 3 . IF you purchased from another online store.$99 VALUE If you recently bought this book we would love to hear from you! Benefit from receiving a free eBook from our catalog at http://www. the online store where you purchased this book) about your last purchase! How does it work? To post a review on Amazon. ELEMENTARY.org if you write a review on Amazon (e.PRESCHOOL. just log in to your account and click on the Create your own review (under Customer Reviews) button of the relevant product page. KINDERGARTEN.

Pick any book you like from the catalog. send us an email at review@emereo. and the eBook you'd like as our thank you from http://www.TEACHERS .emereo. 4 . You will receive an email with your eBook as download link. It's that simple.PRESCHOOL.org. up to $ 99 RRP.org with the link to your review. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY What happens when I submit my review? Once you have submitted your review. ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN.

............ MIDDLE AND SECONDARY – THE LOWDOWN ............................................ 38 Job Outlook ................................ ELEMENTARY............. 76 5 ................. 27 Employment ......PRESCHOOL... 56 Where to Learn About Job Openings ... 51 Sources of Additional Information ..... 10 TEACHERS ............................. 68 Job Interview Tips .... 15 Nature of the Work........................... 16 Training......... 45 Earnings .............................................................................. KINDERGARTEN......................... 39 Projections Data ...... ELEMENTARY............................................ KINDERGARTEN... ELEMENTARY.................. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...............................................PRESCHOOL........................ 14 Signification Points ........................... KINDERGARTEN.................. 52 FINDING AND APPLYING FOR TEACHERS PRESCHOOL........ 57 Job Search Methods .. 58 Applying for a Job .. Other Qualifications and Advancement ......... 49 Related Occupations ................................... MIDDLE AND SECONDARY JOBS AND EVALUATING OFFERS .TEACHERS .....

................................ 125 Responsible ....................... 152 TIPS ON INTERVIEWING................................. 111 Step 4 ..................................................................................... 114 SAMPLE CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUSED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS .................. 96 Step 2 ........................................................... 143 Planning .................... 125 Likeable .. ELEMENTARY........................ 150 Follow Up ........................................................................................................... KINDERGARTEN..... 143 Confirming/Scheduling Interview .. 147 Closing ................... 140 INTERVIEWING ....... 129 Believable .... 154 6 ......................................................... 146 Conducting the Interview ... 94 Step 1 ......................................... MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Evaluating a Job Offer ................TEACHERS .............. 136 Unflappable ................. 154 Questions/ Assessment Tools .................. 133 Outgoing............ 80 WHAT TO EXPECT FROM THE OTHER SIDE OF THE TABLE…HIRING THE BEST ................... 99 Step 3 ............PRESCHOOL............................................................. 92 THE INTERVIEW AND SELECTION PROCESS ..............................

.. 182 RECORDING A PROFILE OF IMPRESSIONS .... 196 After The Selection is Made . ELEMENTARY........... 175 The Reference Check Questions To Ask . 167 CHECKING REFERENCES ... 156 Supervisor and Manager Competencies ....... MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Interview Questions To Get You Started ....................................... Elementary......... 178 Prohibited Questions and Practices ....... 171 Which References Should I Check? ............................. 173 Tips for Checking References ....... and Secondary .................TEACHERS ....... 199 7 . 158 Interviewing People With Disabilities ............ 188 RECRUITING Teachers—Preschool....................................... 189 Before Submitting the Vacancy ..... 161 Accommodating Persons With Disabilities For An Interview ........ 190 When the Vacancy Announcement is Open ................ Kindergarten............ Middle.. 184 Supervisory and Managerial Competencies: ................... 164 Interview Do’s and Don’ts .............. 194 Once the Certificate is Received .....PRESCHOOL...................... 186 Building Coalitions/Communication: ........................................................ KINDERGARTEN.

TEACHERS ....... MIDDLE AND SECONDARY ASSESSING YOUR RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PRACTICES .PRESCHOOL......... 201 Recruitment Strategies . KINDERGARTEN....................................... 201 Policies and Procedures. 204 8 ....................... ELEMENTARY.


and Secondary job. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY INTRODUCTION For the first time. The book comes filled with useful cheat sheets. KINDERGARTEN. It also will inspire you to produce some attention-grabbing cover 10 . It is so much easier to write about a work experience using these outlines. presentable fashion. What you'll find especially helpful are the worksheets. Middle. or to apply for a better job. It helps you get your career organized in a tidy. you'll be able to revise your application into a much stronger document.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. It ensures that the narrative will follow a logical structure and reminds you not to leave out the most important points. be much better prepared and a step ahead for the next opportunity. With this book. Kindergarten.TEACHERS . Elementary. a book exists that compiles all the information candidates need to apply for their first Teachers—Preschool.

" for example). including the one that will actually hire you. it deliberately challenges conventional job search wisdom. Instead. or you will be after you conducted the practice sessions where someone sits and asks you potential questions. 11 . KINDERGARTEN. It makes you think on your feet! This book makes a world of difference in helping you stay away from vague and longwinded answers and you will be finally able to connect with prospective employers. you'll be prepared for interviews.PRESCHOOL. This book successfully challenges conventional job search wisdom and doesn't load you with useful but obvious suggestions ("don't forget to wear a nice suit to your interview. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY letters that convey your skills persuasively and attractively in your application packets.TEACHERS . and in so doing. After studying it. ELEMENTARY. too. offers radical but inspired suggestions for success.

ELEMENTARY. The triumphant jobseeker is the one who not only recognizes these inconsistencies and but also uses them to his advantage. whether you want to work for the government or a company. Elementary. and good business acumen and consistency?" Think that "the most qualified candidate gets the job?" Think again! Time and again it is proven that finding a job is a highly subjective business filled with innumerable variables. Elementary. Middle. Highly recommended to any harried Teachers— Preschool. Kindergarten.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Think that "companies approach hiring with common sense. and Secondary jobseeker. KINDERGARTEN. You'll plan on using it again in your efforts to move up in the world for an even better position down the road. 12 . logic. and Secondary Job guides the way. Kindergarten. Not sure how to do this? Don't worry-How to Land a Top-Paying Teachers—Preschool. Middle.

get this book. Elementary. reader-friendly style. 13 . Whether you are trying to get your first Teachers—Preschool. KINDERGARTEN. so that you can win them over on paper and then in your interview. 2) has an engaging. Middle. It stands out because it: 1) explains how the people doing the hiring think. 3) explains every step of the job-hunting process . None of the other such career guides compare with this one.TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. and Secondary*job or move up in the system.from little-known ways for finding openings to getting ahead on the job. Kindergarten. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY This book offers excellent. This book covers everything.PRESCHOOL. insightful advice for everyone from entry-level to senior professionals.

ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN. KINDERGARTEN.PRESCHOOL.PRESCHOOL. Other Qualifications. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY TEACHERS .TEACHERS . and Advancement Employment Job Outlook Projections Data Earnings Related Occupations Sources of Additional Information • • • • • • 14 . ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY – THE LOWDOWN • • Nature of the Work Training.

which typically requires a bachelor’s degree and completion of an approved teacher education program. KINDERGARTEN. • • 15 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Signification Points • Public school teachers must be licensed. ELEMENTARY. Job prospects should be favorable.PRESCHOOL. especially for hard-to-fill positions. opportunities will vary by geographic area and subject taught.TEACHERS . Many States offer alternative licensing programs to attract people into teaching.

and assign lessons.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . mathematics. 16 . prepare. evaluate. ELEMENTARY. administer. Teachers act as facilitators or coaches. Whether in preschools or high schools or in private or public schools. They plan. using classroom presentations or individual instruction to help students learn and apply concepts in subjects such as science. Teachers observe and evaluate a student’s performance and potential and increasingly are asked to use new assessment methods. The education that teachers impart plays a key role in determining the future prospects of their students. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Nature of the Work Teachers play an important role in fostering the intellectual and social development of children during their formative years. KINDERGARTEN. For example. teachers provide the tools and the environment for their students to develop into responsible adults. or English. and maintain classroom discipline. and grade tests. listen to oral presentations.

To be prepared for success later in life. they teach the concepts of numbers or of addition and subtraction by playing board games. For example.TEACHERS . They then can provide additional assistance in areas in which a student needs help.PRESCHOOL. Teachers also grade papers. As the children get older. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY teachers may examine a portfolio of a student’s artwork or writing in order to judge the student’s overall progress. teachers use more sophisticated materials. Many teachers use a “hands-on” approach that uses “props” or “manipulative” to help children understand abstract concepts. or computers. solve problems. cameras. students must be able to 17 . and meet with parents and school staff to discuss a student’s academic progress or personal problems. such as science apparatus. They also encourage collaboration in solving problems by having students work in groups to discuss and solve problems together. prepare report cards. ELEMENTARY. and develop critical thought processes.

Preschool children learn mainly through play and interactive activities. KINDERGARTEN. rhyming games.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. Preschool. kindergarten. science. computers. and their personal lives.TEACHERS . music. What children learn and experience during their early years can shape their views of themselves and the world and can affect their later success or failure in school. films. books. work. Preschool. artwork. improve social skills (having the children work together to build a neighborhood 18 . and acting games). They use games. adapt to new technology. and think through problems logically. kindergarten. and elementary school teachers play a vital role in the development of children. and elementary school teachers introduce children to mathematics. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY interact with others. and other tools to teach basic skills. Preschool teachers capitalize on children’s play to further language and vocabulary development (using storytelling. and social studies. language.

and learning through creative activities such as art. a teacher may teach one special 19 . Most elementary school teachers instruct one class of children in several subjects. Letter recognition. two or more teachers work as a team and are jointly responsible for a group of students in at least one subject. ELEMENTARY. is adopted to teach preschool children. Play and hands-on teaching also are used by kindergarten teachers. introduced at the preschool level. a less structured approach. phonics. and awareness of nature and science. but academics begin to take priority in kindergarten classrooms.TEACHERS . In other schools. numbers. including small-group lessons. dance. KINDERGARTEN. In some schools. and music.PRESCHOOL. are taught primarily in kindergarten. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY in a sandbox). Thus. one-on-one instruction. and introduce scientific and mathematical concepts (showing the children how to balance and count blocks when building a bridge or how to mix colors when painting).

arithmetic.TEACHERS . such as English. and. science. auto repair. who may provide input into the curriculum and offer internships 20 . art. instruct and train students to work in a wide variety of fields. They also may teach subjects that are career oriented. increasingly. history. They often teach courses that are in high demand by area employers. A small but growing number of teachers instruct multilevel classrooms. Middle and secondary school teachers specialize in a specific subject. Middle school teachers and secondary school teachers help students delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school and expose them to more information about the world. with students at several different learning levels. ELEMENTARY. or physical education—to a number of classes. reading. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY subject—usually music. mathematics. such as healthcare. KINDERGARTEN. Vocational education teachers. also referred to as career and technical or careertechnology teachers. or biology.PRESCHOOL. Spanish. technology. business. communications.

Secondary school teachers occasionally assist students in choosing courses. teachers oversee study halls and homerooms. colleges. Additional responsibilities of middle and secondary school teachers may include career guidance and job placement. 21 . and careers. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. as well as follow-ups with students after graduation.) In addition to conducting classroom activities. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY to students. Teachers also participate in education conferences and workshops. supervise extracurricular activities. and accompany students on field trips. (Special education teachers—who instruct elementary and secondary school students who have a variety of disabilities—are discussed separately in this section of the Handbook. They may identify students with physical or mental problems and refer the students to the proper authorities. Many vocational teachers play an active role in building and overseeing these partnerships.TEACHERS .

PRESCHOOL. racial. Resources such as educational software and the Internet expose students to a vast range of experiences and promote interactive learning. KINDERGARTEN. it is important for teachers to 22 . from solving math problems to learning English as a second language. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Computers play an integral role in the education teachers provide. Teachers also may use computers to record grades and perform other administrative and clerical duties. Teachers often work with students from varied ethnic. Computers are used in other classroom activities as well. They must continually update their skills so that they can instruct and use the latest technology in the classroom. Through the Internet. allowing them to share experiences and differing viewpoints. With growing minority populations in most parts of the country. Students also use the Internet for individual research projects and to gather information. and religious backgrounds. ELEMENTARY. students can communicate with other students anywhere in the world.TEACHERS .

has gained popularity. to address the needs of all students. regardless of their cultural background. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY work effectively with a diverse student population. Occasionally. teaching may be frustrating when one is dealing with unmotivated or disrespectful students. Accordingly. In recent years. ELEMENTARY. Seeing students develop new skills and gain an appreciation of knowledge and learning can be very rewarding. some schools offer training to help teachers enhance their awareness and understanding of different cultures.PRESCHOOL. which allows teachers and parents to participate actively in management decisions regarding school operations. teachers 23 . site-based management. KINDERGARTEN. curriculum design. In many schools. and teaching methods. teachers are increasingly involved in making decisions regarding the budget. personnel. textbooks. Teachers may also include multicultural programming in their lesson plans.TEACHERS . Work environment. However.

Their students also tend to be more motivated. or old schools that are run down and lack many modern amenities. Teachers in private schools generally enjoy smaller class sizes and more control over establishing the curriculum and setting standards for performance and discipline. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY must cope with unruly behavior and violence in the schools. Teachers may experience stress in dealing with large classes.TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. Accountability standards also may increase stress levels. Teachers are sometimes isolated from their colleagues because they work alone in a 24 . with teachers expected to produce students who are able to exhibit satisfactory performance on standardized tests in core subjects. particularly in public schools. heavy workloads. since private schools can be selective in their admissions processes. Many teachers. are also frustrated by the lack of control they have over what they are required to teach. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL.

some schools allow teachers to work in teams and with mentors to enhance their professional development. Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule typically work 8 weeks. and have a 25 . Many enroll in college courses or workshops to continue their education. ELEMENTARY. those on the 10-month schedule may teach in summer sessions. some kindergarten teachers still teach two kindergarten classes a day. Part-time schedules are more common among preschool and kindergarten teachers. KINDERGARTEN. are on vacation for 1 week.PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY classroom of students. During the vacation break. However. travel. Most teachers work the traditional 10-month school year with a 2month vacation during the summer.TEACHERS . Although most school districts have gone to all-day kindergartens. or pursue personal interests. take other jobs. Including school duties performed outside the classroom. many teachers work more than 40 hours a week.

Tenure does not absolutely guarantee a job.PRESCHOOL. 26 . ELEMENTARY. Most States have tenure laws that prevent public school teachers from being fired without just cause and due process. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 5-week midwinter break. normally 3 years. KINDERGARTEN. Teachers may obtain tenure after they have satisfactorily completed a probationary period of teaching.TEACHERS . but it does provide some security. Preschool teachers working in day care settings often work year round.

PRESCHOOL. A bachelor’s degree may not be needed by preschool teachers and vocational education teachers. music. most States now offer alternative routes to licensure for those who have a college degree in other fields. art. These courses include mathematics. as well as prescribed professional 27 . Private school teachers do not have to be licensed but still need a bachelor’s degree. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Training. Other Qualifications and Advancement The traditional route to becoming a public school teacher involves completing a bachelor’s degree from a teacher education program and then obtaining a license. Traditional education programs for kindergarten and elementary school teachers include courses designed specifically for those preparing to teach. ELEMENTARY. social science. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . and literature. However. who need experience in their field rather than a specific degree. Education and training. physical science.

Many 4-year colleges require students to wait until their sophomore year before applying for admission to teacher education programs. and teaching methods.TEACHERS . Graduation from an accredited program is not necessary to become a teacher.PRESCHOOL. Aspiring secondary school teachers most often major in the subject they plan to teach while also taking a program of study in teacher preparation. Teacher education programs are accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. 28 . but it may make fulfilling licensure requirements easier. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY education courses. ELEMENTARY. teacher education programs are now required to include classes in the use of computers and other technologies. KINDERGARTEN. such as philosophy of education. psychology of learning. Most programs require students to perform a student-teaching internship. To maintain their accreditation.

a secondary-education subject area (usually grades 7 through 12). KINDERGARTEN. or 29 . All 50 States and the District of Columbia require public school teachers to be licensed. ELEMENTARY. Students enter these 1-year programs after completion of their bachelor’s degree.PRESCHOOL. under professional guidance. Teachers may be licensed to teach the early childhood grades (usually preschool through grade 3). Licensure is not required for teachers in most private schools. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Many States now offer professional development schools. Licensure and certification. the middle grades (grades 5 through 8).TEACHERS . Professional development schools merge theory with practice and allow the student to experience a year of teaching firsthand. which are partnerships between universities and elementary or secondary schools. Usually licensure is granted by the State Board of Education or a licensure advisory committee. the elementary grades (grades 1 through 6 or 8).

A number of States require that teachers obtain a master’s degree in education within a specified period after they begin teaching. However. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY a special subject. all States require general education teachers to have a bachelor’s degree and to have completed an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and education credits.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. Some States also require technology training and the attainment of a minimum grade point average. Many school systems are presently moving toward implementing performance-based systems for 30 . as well as supervised practice teaching. Requirements for regular licenses to teach kindergarten through grade 12 vary by State. KINDERGARTEN. and in teaching. Almost all States require applicants for a teacher’s license to be tested for competency in basic skills.TEACHERS . such as reading or music (usually grades kindergarten through 12). such as reading and writing. Almost all also require teachers to exhibit proficiency in their subject.

PRESCHOOL. the most common type of certification. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY licensure. Most States require teachers to complete a minimum number of hours of continuing education to renew their license. KINDERGARTEN. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers licensed in one State to become licensed in another. while others require an associate’s degree. The Child Development Associate (CDA) credential. Some States require a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education.TEACHERS . Requirements for public preschool teachers are generally more stringent than those for private preschool teachers. and still others require certification by a nationally recognized authority. which usually require teachers to demonstrate satisfactory teaching performance over an extended period in order to obtain a provisional license. Licensing requirements for preschool teachers also vary by State. ELEMENTARY. in addition to passing an examination in their subject. requires a mix of 31 .

Many of these alternative licensure programs are designed to ease shortages of teachers of certain subjects. Other programs provide teachers for urban and rural schools that have difficulty filling positions with teachers from traditional licensure programs. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY classroom training and experience working with children. KINDERGARTEN.PRESCHOOL. In some programs. individuals begin teaching quickly under provisional licensure 32 . Alternative licensure programs are intended to attract people into teaching who do not fulfill traditional licensing standards. including recent college graduates who did not complete education programs and those changing from another career to teaching.TEACHERS . such as mathematics and science. ELEMENTARY. but who lack the necessary education courses required for a regular license. along with an independent assessment of the teacher’s competence. Nearly all States now also offer alternative licensure programs for teachers who have a bachelor’s degree in the subject they will teach.

If they progress satisfactorily. knowledge and experience in a particular field are important. In other programs. In many States. so some States will license vocational 33 . KINDERGARTEN. This approach may take 1 or 2 semesters of fulltime study. States may issue emergency licenses to individuals who do not meet the requirements for a regular license that let them begin teaching immediately. vocational teachers have many of the same licensure requirements as other teachers. they receive regular licensure after working for 1 or 2 years.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . However. ELEMENTARY. when schools cannot attract enough qualified teachers to fill positions. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY under the close supervision of experienced educators while taking education courses outside school hours. The coursework for alternative certification programs often leads to a master’s degree. college graduates who do not meet licensure requirements take only those courses that they lack and then become licensed. In extreme circumstances.

TEACHERS . A minimum number of hours in education courses may also be required. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY education teachers without a bachelor’s degree. and motivate students. In addition to being knowledgeable about the subjects they teach. Teachers must be able to recognize and 34 . as well as understand the students’ educational and emotional needs. ELEMENTARY. they prefer candidates who have a bachelor’s degree in the subject they intend to teach. or in childhood education for elementary school teachers.PRESCHOOL. They seek candidates among recent college graduates as well as from those who have established careers in other fields. For secondary school teacher jobs. Other qualifications. inspire trust and confidence. Private schools are generally exempt from meeting State licensing standards. KINDERGARTEN. provided they can demonstrate expertise in their field. teachers must have the ability to communicate.

ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN. In some cases. and members of the community.TEACHERS . Teachers also must be able to work cooperatively and communicate effectively with other teachers.PRESCHOOL. experienced teachers must prove their aptitude by compiling a portfolio 35 . support staff. parents. patient. Private schools associated with religious institutions also desire candidates who share the values that are important to the institution. teachers of kindergarten through high school may attain professional certification in order to demonstrate competency beyond that required for a license. Additional certifications and advancement. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY respond to individual and cultural differences in students and employ different teaching methods that will result in higher student achievement. dependable. and creative. They should be organized. To become nationally certified. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards offers a voluntary national certification.

teachers may become certified in a variety of areas. KINDERGARTEN. In addition. and many States and school districts provide special benefits to teachers who earn certification.PRESCHOOL. many States allow nationally certified teachers to carry a license from one State to another. instructional coordinators.TEACHERS . teachers may move into such positions as school librarians. on the basis of the age of the students and. reading specialists. ELEMENTARY. in some cases. Currently. Benefits typically include higher salaries and reimbursement for continuing education and certification fees. or guidance counselors. For example. or they may become certified as early childhood generalists. teachers may obtain a certificate for teaching English language arts to early adolescents (aged 11 to 15). Teachers may become 36 . All States recognize national certification. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY showing their work in the classroom and by passing a written assessment and evaluation of their teaching knowledge. With additional preparation. the subject taught.

Preschool teachers usually work their way up from assistant teacher. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while keeping most of their own teaching responsibilities. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY administrators or supervisors. Teaching at these higher grades often results in higher pay.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. to director of the center. to lead teacher—who may be responsible for the instruction of several classes—and. with higher pay and additional responsibilities. In some systems. highly qualified. KINDERGARTEN. finally. to teacher. 37 . Preschool teachers with a bachelor’s degree frequently are qualified to teach kindergarten through grade 3 as well.TEACHERS . experienced teachers can become senior or mentor teachers. although the number of these positions is limited and competition for them can be intense.

held about 4. about 1.000 are kindergarten teachers. are most often employed in child daycare services (59 percent). and 170.5 million are elementary school teachers. public and private educational services (16 percent). except special education. 1. middle school. and secondary school teachers.PRESCHOOL.1 million are secondary school teachers. except special education. Preschool teachers.000 are preschool teachers. ELEMENTARY. Employment of teachers is geographically distributed much the same as the population. 38 . elementary school. Of the teachers in those jobs. 437. KINDERGARTEN. kindergarten. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Employment Preschool.TEACHERS . 674.000 are middle school teachers. and religious organizations (15 percent).0 million jobs in 2006. The vast majority work in elementary and secondary schools.

middle.TEACHERS . and bilingual education. and secondary school teachers is projected to grow about as fast as average. Through 2016. middle.PRESCHOOL. elementary.000 additional teacher positions. science. kindergarten. with particularly good prospects for teachers in high-demand fields like math. KINDERGARTEN. Employment change. this growth will create 479. about as fast as the average for all occupations. Employment of school teachers is expected to grow by 12 percent between 2006 and 2016. and secondary schools—a key factor in the demand for teachers—are 39 . Job prospects are expected to be favorable. more than all but a few occupations. or in less desirable urban or rural school districts. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Job Outlook Employment of preschool. because of the size of the occupations in this group. overall student enrollments in elementary. However. ELEMENTARY.

Projected enrollments will vary by region. and Georgia—will experience the largest enrollment increases. there has been a large increase in funding for education. Fast-growing States in the South and West—led by Nevada. This will cause employment of teachers from kindergarten through the secondary grades to grow as fast as the average.TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. Teachers who are geographically mobile and who obtain licensure in more than one subject should have a distinct advantage in finding a job. Arizona. 40 . Texas. ELEMENTARY. The number of teachers employed is dependent on State and local expenditures for education and on the enactment of legislation to increase the quality and scope of public education. At the Federal level. Enrollments in the Midwest are expected to hold relatively steady. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY expected to rise more slowly than in the past as children of the baby boom generation leave the school system.PRESCHOOL. while those in the Northeast are expected to decline.

many beginning teachers decide to leave teaching for other careers after a year or two—especially those employed in poor. Most job openings will result from the need to replace the large number of teachers who are expected to retire over the 2006-16 period. Also. Job opportunities for teachers over the next 10 years will vary from good to excellent.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . urban schools—creating additional job openings for teachers. which are expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations. will create many new jobs for preschool teachers. These programs. grade level. Job prospects. 41 . and subject taught. depending on the locality. Also. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY particularly for the hiring of qualified teachers in lower income areas. such as offering full day kindergarten and universal preschool. KINDERGARTEN. along with projected higher enrollment growth for preschool age children. ELEMENTARY. some States are instituting programs to improve early childhood education.

Increasing enrollments of minorities. bilingual education. Also. Job prospects should be better in inner cities and rural areas than in suburban districts. Many inner cities—often characterized by overcrowded. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY The job market for teachers also continues to vary by school location and by subject taught. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. coupled with a shortage of minority teachers. and foreign languages. creating demand for bilingual teachers and for those 42 .TEACHERS . should cause efforts to recruit minority teachers to intensify. science (especially chemistry and physics). KINDERGARTEN. ill-equipped schools and higherthan-average poverty rates—and rural areas— characterized by their remote location and relatively low salaries—have difficulty attracting and retaining enough teachers. many school districts have difficulty hiring qualified teachers in some subject areas—most often mathematics. Currently. the number of non-English-speaking students will continue to grow.

Specialties that have an adequate number of qualified teachers include general elementary education. But many States have implemented policies that will encourage even more students to become teachers because of a shortage of teachers in 43 . substitute teachers. more teachers may be drawn from a reserve pool of career changers. and teachers completing alternative certification programs. In recent years. The supply of teachers is expected to increase in response to reports of improved job prospects. Qualified vocational teachers also are currently in demand in a variety of fields at both the middle school and secondary school levels. and social studies.PRESCHOOL. physical education. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY who teach English as a second language.TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. and greater public interest in education. In addition. KINDERGARTEN. the total number of bachelor’s and master’s degrees granted in education has been increasing slowly. more teacher involvement in school policy. better pay.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY certain locations and in anticipation of the loss of a number of teachers to retirement.TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. 44 .PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY.

954.00 0 26 25607. KINDERGARTEN. and secondary Preschool and en teachers Preschool teachers. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Projections Data Projections data from the National Employment Matrix SOC Cod e Projected Employme employme nt.433.000 0 kindergart 201 143. kindergart en. elementar y.00 0 23 -3.PRESCHOOL.000 750.000 552. 2006-16 Numb Perce er nt Occupation al title Teachers— preschool. ELEMENTARY. 2016 Change.000 479.000 115.000 4. middle. 25except special education 201 1 437. 2006 nt.TEACHERS .00 0 12 45 .

2006-16 Numb Perce er nt Occupation al title Kindergart en teachers. 2006 nt. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Projections data from the National Employment Matrix SOC Cod e Projected Employme employme nt.214.00 0 13 25201 2 170. except special education Elementar y and middle school teachers Elementar y school teachers.00 0 25202 2.000 282.540.000 11 25202 1.000 28. KINDERGARTEN.000 0 2.000 198.749.TEACHERS .000 209. except special education Middle school teachers.000 732.PRESCHOOL.000 74. 2016 Change. except 25202 2 658.000 16 14 46 .496. ELEMENTARY.000 1 1.

25except vocational education Vocational 25education 203 teachers.187.000 15.096.000 59.000 -800 -5 47 .000 54.133.000 91.TEACHERS .000 1.000 5 3 16.000 6 special and 1 203 1.000 -4.400 -5 203 1.038.PRESCHOOL. 2006-16 Numb Perce er nt Occupation al title special and vocational education Vocational education 25teachers. 2016 Change.000 0 1. 202 middle school Secondary 25school teachers Secondary school teachers. 2 96. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Projections data from the National Employment Matrix SOC Cod e Projected Employme employme nt. 2006 nt. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY.

2006 nt.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. 2016 Change. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Projections data from the National Employment Matrix SOC Cod e Projected Employme employme nt. 2006-16 Numb Perce er nt Occupation al title secondary school 48 .

490 to $76. The estimated average salary of all public elementary and secondary school teachers in the 2004–05 school year was $47. KINDERGARTEN.070.680.602.TEACHERS . Median earnings for preschool teachers were $22. elementary.753 in the 2004–05 school year. ELEMENTARY. and secondary school teachers belonged to unions—mainly the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association—that bargain with school systems over salaries.PRESCHOOL. and other 49 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Earnings Median annual earnings of kindergarten.690 in May 2006. beginning teachers with a bachelor’s degree earned an average of $31. middle. the lowest 10 percent earned $28. the top 10 percent earned $67. more than half of all elementary.580 to $48. and secondary school teachers ranged from $43. middle.590 to $33. According to the American Federation of Teachers. hours.100. In 2006.

Some teachers earn extra income during the summer by teaching summer school or performing other jobs in the school system. as does acting as a mentor. they may be given other benefits. such as free or subsidized housing. Teachers can boost their earnings in a number of ways. teachers receive extra pay for coaching sports and working with students in extracurricular activities.PRESCHOOL. Fewer preschool and kindergarten teachers were union members—about 17 percent in 2006. Getting a master’s degree or national certification often results in a raise in pay. KINDERGARTEN. Although private school teachers generally earn less than public school teachers. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY terms and conditions of employment. 50 . In some schools. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS .

administrative. and creativity. and recordkeeping abilities. teacher assistants. elementary school. ELEMENTARY. and athletes. and secondary school teaching requires a variety of skills and aptitudes. patience. motivate. public relations specialists. organizational. 51 . the power to influence. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Related Occupations Preschool. research and communication skills. librarians. coaches. and train others. including a talent for working with children. childcare workers. kindergarten. counselors. umpires. middle school.PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . and related workers. education administrators. social workers. Workers in other occupations requiring some of these aptitudes include teachers—postsecondary.

org • A list of institutions with accredited teacher education programs can be obtained from: • National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. 2010 Massachusetts Ave. NW.. Washington. ELEMENTARY. DC 52 .org National Education Association. 555 New Jersey Ave.PRESCHOOL. Washington. DC 20036. Information on teachers’ unions and educationrelated issues may be obtained from the following sources: • American Federation of Teachers. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Sources of Additional Information Information on licensure or certification requirements and approved teacher training institutions is available from local school systems and State departments of education. Washington.aft. DC 20001. NW. Suite 500.nea. KINDERGARTEN. NW. Internet: http://www. Internet: http://www..TEACHERS . 1201 16th St..

org • Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Internet: http://www. Suite 300.org Information on alternative certification programs can be obtained from: • National Center for Alternative Certification..org Information on National Board Certification can be obtained from: • National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.nbpts.PRESCHOOL. Suite 201. Suite 500. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 20036-1023.. Washington. Internet: http://www.teac. Washington. contact: 53 . Internet: http://www. VA 22209.teach-now. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. Internet: http://www.TEACHERS . Arlington.ncate. 1901 Pennsylvania Ave NW. One Dupont Circle. DC 20036.org For information on vocational education and vocational education teachers. 1525 Wilson Blvd. DC 20006.

VA 22314.org • 54 .PRESCHOOL. Internet: http://www. contact either of the following organizations: • National Association for the Education of Young Children. Washington. ELEMENTARY.naeyc.cdacouncil.org Council for Professional Recognition. 2460 16th St..TEACHERS .. NW.acteonline. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Association for Career and Technical Education. DC 20009-3575. 1509 16th St. Washington. Alexandria. 1410 King St. NW. Internet: http://www. Internet: http://www. DC 20036.org For information on careers in educating children and issues affecting preschool teachers.. KINDERGARTEN.


• • • • • Where to learn About Job Openings Job Search Methods Applying for a Job Job Interview Tips Evaluating a Job Offer 56 . KINDERGARTEN. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY FINDING AND APPLYING FOR TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. ELEMENTARY. but knowing more about job search methods and application techniques can increase your chances of success.TEACHERS . And knowing how to judge the job offers you receive makes it more likely that you will end up with the best possible job. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY JOBS AND EVALUATING OFFERS Finding—and getting—a job you want can be a challenging process.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Where to Learn About Job Openings • • • • Personal contacts School career planning and placement offices Employers Classified ads: i.PRESCHOOL. Trade magazines • • • • • • • • Internet resources Professional associations Labor unions State employment service offices Federal Government Community agencies Private employment agencies and career consultants Internships 57 . Professional journals iii.TEACHERS . National and local newspapers ii. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY.

join student. People get them by talking to friends. KINDERGARTEN. Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggest that people who use many job search methods find jobs faster than people who use only one or two. ELEMENTARY. acquaintances. teachers. or professional organizations. former coworkers.TEACHERS . Be sure to tell people that you are looking for a job because the people you know may be some of the most effective resources for your search. To develop new contacts. neighbors. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Job Search Methods Finding a job can take months of time and effort. Many jobs are never advertised. Personal contacts. But you can speed the process by using many methods to find job openings. High school and college placement offices help 58 . family. and others who know of an opening.PRESCHOOL. School career planning and placement offices. community.

career testing.TEACHERS . develop a list of potential employers in your desired career field. They also may have lists of open jobs. letter writing. and job search advice. 59 . Some have career resource libraries. host workshops on job search strategy. KINDERGARTEN. Even if no open positions are posted. Then call these employers and check their Web sites for job openings. Employers. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY their students and alumni find jobs. and sponsor job fairs. conduct mock interviews. Web sites and business directories can tell you how to apply for a position or whom to contact. Most also offer career counseling. ELEMENTARY. Directly contacting employers is one of the most successful means of job hunting. and effective interviewing. resume writing.PRESCHOOL. critique drafts of resumes. do not hesitate to contact the employer: You never know when a job might become available. Some invite recruiters to use their facilities for interviews or career fairs. Through library and Internet research.

do not rely solely on the classifieds. In addition to giving you career information. and what type of personality succeeds in that position. Answer ads promptly. because openings may be filled quickly.TEACHERS . and they can keep you in mind if a position opens up. and many people find work by responding to these ads. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Consider asking for an informational interview with people working in the career you want to learn more. keep the following in mind: • • Follow all leads to find a job.PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. Ask them how they got started. what they like and dislike about the work. they may be able to put you in contact with other people who might hire you. Classified ads. 60 . what type of qualifications are necessary for the job. But when using classified ads. The "Help Wanted" ads in newspapers and the Internet list numerous jobs.

TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. others are general. Internet resources. and personal qualifications required for the position.PRESCHOOL. including the specific skills. Also look for the sites of related professional associations. which usually includes the most listings. The Internet includes many job hunting Web sites with job listings. • Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded. begin with an Internet search using keywords related to the job you want. others are local. KINDERGARTEN. particularly the Sunday edition. To find good prospects. Some job boards provide National listings of all kinds. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY even before the ad stops appearing in the paper. Some relate to a specific type of work. educational background. • Read the ads every day. 61 .

These are online discussion groups where anyone may post and read messages. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Also consider checking Internet forums. KINDERGARTEN. educational programs.TEACHERS . job listings. Many professions have associations that offer employment information. and job placement. also called message boards. information can be obtained directly from an 62 . so begin your search using keywords. ELEMENTARY. To use these services. remember that job listings may be posted by field or discipline. Professional associations. Many Web sites allow job seekers to post their resumes online for free. associations usually require that you be a member.PRESCHOOL. In online job databases. Use forums specific to your profession or to career-related topics to post questions or messages and to read about the job searches or career experiences of other people. including career planning.

Contact the appropriate labor union or State apprenticeship council for more information. Labor unions. look in the State government telephone listings under "Job Service" or "Employment." Job matching and referral. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY association through the Internet. Labor unions provide various employment services to members and potential members. To find the office nearest you.S. At the State employment service office. operates in coordination with the U. State employment service offices. ELEMENTARY. found nationwide. sometimes called the Job Service. or by mail.TEACHERS . Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration. including apprenticeship programs that teach a specific trade or skill. by telephone. Local offices. KINDERGARTEN. help job seekers to find jobs and help employers to find qualified workers at no cost to either. The State employment service.PRESCHOOL. an interviewer will 63 .

a veterans’ employment representative can inform you of available assistance and help you to deal with problems.PRESCHOOL. veterans are entitled to priority job placement at State employment service centers. ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN. you may examine available job listings and select openings that interest you. Services for special groups.TEACHERS . State employment service offices also refer people to opportunities available under the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998. A staff member can then describe the job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers. Educational and career services and referrals are provided to employers and job seekers. After you are job ready. By law. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY determine if you are "job ready" or if you need help from counseling and testing services to assess your occupational aptitudes and interests and to help you choose and prepare for a career. If you are a veteran. 64 .


including adults, dislocated workers, and youth. These programs help to prepare people to participate in the State's workforce, increase their employment and earnings potential, improve their educational and occupational skills, and reduce their dependency on welfare. Federal Government. Information on obtaining a position with the Federal Government is available from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) through USAJOBS, the Federal Government’s official employment information system. This resource for locating and applying for job opportunities can be accessed through the Internet at http://www.usajobs.opm.gov or through an interactive voice response telephone system at (703) 724-1850 or TDD (978) 461-8404. These numbers are not toll free, and charges may result. Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations, including religious institutions 65


and vocational rehabilitation agencies, offer counseling, career development, and job placement services, generally targeted to a particular group, such as women, youths, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers. Private employment agencies and career consultants. Private agencies can save you time and they will contact employers who otherwise might be difficult to locate. But these agencies may charge for their services. Most operate on a commission basis, charging a percentage of the first-year salary paid to a successful applicant. You or the hiring company will pay the fee. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying associated fees before using the service. When determining if the service is worth the cost, consider any guarantees that the agency offers. Internships. Many people find jobs with business and organizations with whom they have interned or volunteered. Look for 66


internships and volunteer opportunities on job boards, career centers, and company and association Web sites, but also check community service organizations and volunteer opportunity databases. Some internships and long-term volunteer positions come with stipends and all provide experience and the chance to meet employers and other good networking contacts.


education. Resumes and application forms give employers written evidence of your qualifications and skills. ELEMENTARY. accomplishments. gather the following facts: 68 .TEACHERS . the next step is to apply for them. As a first step. Resumes and application forms. The goal of these documents is to prove—as clearly and directly as possible—how your qualifications match the job’s requirements. you will probably need to go on interviews to meet with employers face to face. Resumes and application forms both include the same information.PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN. Later. Gathering information. You will almost always need to complete resumes or application forms and cover letters. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Applying for a Job After you have found some jobs that interest you. and skills that most closely fit the job you want. Do this by highlighting the experience.

• Education. KINDERGARTEN. and major subject or subjects studied. ELEMENTARY. • Experience. • Type of work or specific job you are seeking or a qualifications summary. which describes your best skills and experience in just a few lines. paid and volunteer. including school name and its city and State. highest grade completed or diploma or degree awarded. and telephone number. months and years of attendance. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Contact information. For each job. Also consider listing courses and awards that might be relevant to the position. include the job title. Include a grade point average if you think it would help in getting the job. including your name.TEACHERS . e-mail address (if you have one you check often). 69 .PRESCHOOL. mailing address.

proficiency in foreign languages. In a resume. KINDERGARTEN.PRESCHOOL. for example. and dates of employment. ELEMENTARY. Good references could be former employers." • Special skills. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY name and location of employer. write. Be ready to provide references if requested. You might list computer skills. coworkers. Briefly describe your job duties and major accomplishments. • References. "Supervised 10 children" instead of writing "I supervised 10 children. achievements.TEACHERS . or teachers or anyone else who can describe your abilities and job-related traits. You will be asked to provide contact information for the people you choose. use phrases instead of sentences to describe your work. or and membership in organizations in a separate section. 70 .

for instance. But make sure you fill it out completely and follow all instructions. You can even use the job announcement as a guide. Do not omit any requested information. KINDERGARTEN. Choosing a format. finished a task in half the usual time. After gathering the information you want to present. ELEMENTARY. or received three letters of appreciation from customers.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. the format is set. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Throughout the application or resume. the next step is to put it in the proper format. you might say that you increased sales by 10 percent. Just fill in the blanks. 71 . When describing your work experience. using some of the same words and phrases to describe your work and education. Look for concrete examples that show your skills. In an application form. focus on accomplishments that relate most closely to the job you want. Consider making a copy of the form before filling it out.

have someone else look over the form before submitting it. Still other applicants choose a format that combines these two approaches in some way. organizing their work experience under headings that describe their major skills. employers. Most applicants list their past jobs in reverse chronological order. and dates of employment. Many experts recommend that 72 . Whatever format you choose.TEACHERS . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY in case you make a mistake and have to start over. keep your resume short. In a resume. ELEMENTARY. describing their most recent employment first and working backward.PRESCHOOL. They then include a brief work history section that lists only job titles. there are many ways of organizing the information you want to include. But some applicants use a functional format. If possible. Choose the style that best showcases your skills and experience. KINDERGARTEN. but the most important information should usually come first.

Consider using bullets to highlight duties or key accomplishments. Are the headings clear and consistently formatted with bold or some other style of type? Is the type face large enough? Then. For example. Keep in mind that many employers scan resumes into databases.TEACHERS . make sure that it is easy to read. Identify keywords by reading the job description and qualifications in the job ad. if the job description 73 . education. personal characteristics. use these same words in your resume. or industry buzz words. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY new workers use a one-page resume. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. ask at least two people to proofread the resume for spelling and other errors and make sure you use your computer’s spell checker. The keywords are usually nouns referring to experience. Before submitting your resume. KINDERGARTEN. Avoid long blocks of text and italicized material. which they then search for specific keywords or phrases.

PRESCHOOL. e-mail an electronic version. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY includes customer service tasks. ELEMENTARY. make it scannable by using a simple font and avoiding underlines. So. if you know that your resume will be scanned. Cover letters. and you have the option. When sending a resume. and usually should include the following information: 74 . Your cover letter should capture the employer’s attention. follow a business letter format. which could mean some of your keywords don’t get into the database. italics. most people include a cover letter to introduce themselves to the prospective employer. and graphics. Most cover letters are no more than three short paragraphs. with a note on each marking its purpose. use the words "customer service" on your resume. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . Scanners sometimes misread paper resumes. If you must submit a paper resume. It is also a good idea to send a traditionally formatted resume along with your scannable resume.

75 . KINDERGARTEN. As with your resume. it may be helpful to look for examples on the Internet or in books at your local library or bookstore. Request for an interview.TEACHERS . Your home and work telephone numbers.PRESCHOOL. but be sure not to copy letters directly from other sources. • • • • Reason for your interest in the company or position. italics. you should also include a scannable cover letter. Your main qualifications for the position. and underlines. ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Name and address of the specific person to whom the letter is addressed. which avoids graphics. If you send a scannable resume. fancy fonts.

PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN. The following information provides some helpful hints. Be ready to briefly describe your experience. such as "Why should I hire you?" "Why do you want this job?" "What are your strengths and weaknesses?" • Practice an interview with a friend or relative. showing how it relates it the job.TEACHERS . Review your qualifications for the job. 76 . ELEMENTARY. so it pays to be well prepared. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Job Interview Tips An interview gives you the opportunity to showcase your qualifications to an employer. Have a specific job or jobs in mind. • Be ready to answer broad questions. Preparation: • • • • Learn about the organization.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Personal appearance: • • • Be well groomed. 77 . Be cooperative and enthusiastic. Relax and answer each question concisely. KINDERGARTEN. Learn the name of your interviewer and greet him or her with a firm handshake. Dress appropriately. Do not chew gum or smoke. Use body language to show interest—use eye contact and don’t slouch. ELEMENTARY. Use proper English—avoid slang.TEACHERS . The interview: • • Be early. • • • • • Use good manners with everyone you meet.PRESCHOOL.

Send a short thank you note.TEACHERS . Information to bring to an interview: • • • Social Security card.PRESCHOOL. you should be able to furnish the interviewer information about your education. Government-issued identification (driver’s license). Resume or application. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Ask questions about the position and the organization. and previous employment. KINDERGARTEN. • Also avoid asking questions about salary and benefits unless a job offer is made. Although not all employers require a resume. • • Thank the interviewer when you leave and shake hands. ELEMENTARY. but avoid questions whose answers can easily be found on the company Web site. 78 . training.

ELEMENTARY. 79 .PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. Employers may require an official copy of transcripts to verify grades. Make sure that they will give you a good reference. Get permission before using anyone as a reference. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • References. • Transcripts. Try to avoid using relatives as references. and highest grade completed or degree awarded. coursework. Employers typically require three references. dates of attendance.

size. KINDERGARTEN. most organizations will give you a few days to accept or reject an offer. age. The organization. Fortunately. and location. 80 . Background information on an organization can help you to decide whether it is a good place for you to work. There are many issues to consider when assessing a job offer. financial condition.TEACHERS . Will the organization be a good place to work? Will the job be interesting? Are there opportunities for advancement? Is the salary fair? Does the employer offer good benefits? Now is the time to ask the potential employer about these issues—and to do some checking on your own. you must decide if you want the job. ELEMENTARY. Factors to consider include the organization’s business or activity.PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Evaluating a Job Offer Once you receive a job offer.

ELEMENTARY. and financial status. A public company’s annual report to the stockholders tells about its corporate philosophy. check the library for reference directories that may provide basic facts about the company.TEACHERS . company newsletters or magazines. particularly a large organization. KINDERGARTEN. goals. on its Internet site or by telephoning its public relations office. If you cannot get an annual report. Most government agencies can furnish reports that describe their programs and missions. If possible. Some directories widely 81 . products and services.PRESCHOOL. products or services. speak to current or former employees of the organization. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY You generally can get background information on an organization. Background information on the organization may be available at your public or school library. and recruitment brochures also can be useful. history. such as earnings. Ask the organization for any other items that might interest a prospective employee. Press releases. and number of employees.

TEACHERS . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY available in libraries either in print or as online databases include: • • • Dun & Bradstreet’s Million Dollar Directory Standard and Poor’s Register of Corporations Mergent’s Industrial Review (formerly Moody’s Industrial Manual) • • Thomas Register of American Manufacturers Ward’s Business Directory Stories about an organization in magazines and newspapers can tell a great deal about its successes. it probably will not be useful to look back more than 2 or 3 years. 82 . and plans for the future. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. or by using one of the Internet’s search engines. However. failures. You can identify articles on a company by looking under its name in periodical or computerized indexes in libraries.PRESCHOOL.

economy. Ask a career center representative how to find out about a particular organization. KINDERGARTEN.S.gov/oco/cg. Long-term projections of employment and output for detailed industries. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. are developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and revised every 2 years.) Trade magazines also may include articles on the trends for specific industries. online at www.bls. During your research consider the following questions: 83 . covering the entire U. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY The library also may have government publications that present projections of growth for the industry in which the organization is classified.TEACHERS . (See the Career Guide to Industries. Career centers at colleges and universities often have information on employers that is not available in libraries.

and a chance to clearly 84 .TEACHERS . However. many jobs in large firms tend to be highly specialized.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. a closer working relationship with top management. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Does the organization’s business or activity match your own interests and beliefs? • It is easier to apply yourself to the work if you are enthusiastic about what the organization does. more managerial levels for advancement. • How will the size of the organization affect you? Large firms generally offer a greater variety of training programs and career paths. Large employers also may have more advanced technologies. KINDERGARTEN. Jobs in small firms may offer broader authority and responsibility. and better employee benefits than do small firms.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY see your contribution to the success of the organization.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. the more likely you are to make the right choice. The job. the excitement of helping to create a company and the potential for sharing in its success more than offset the risk of job loss. it may be just as exciting and rewarding to work for a young firm that already has a foothold on success. KINDERGARTEN. However. Determining in advance whether you will like the work may be difficult. However. Should you work for a relatively new organization or one that is well established? New businesses have a high failure rate. Even if everything else about the job is attractive. but for many people. you will be unhappy if you dislike the day-to-day work.TEACHERS . the more you find out about the job before accepting or rejecting the offer. Consider the following questions: 85 .

PRESCHOOL. you should consider the time and expense of commuting.TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. Does the work match your interests and make good use of your skills? The duties and responsibilities of the job should be explained in enough detail to answer this question. the availability of housing and transportation. you need to consider the cost of living. ELEMENTARY. Even if the job location is in your area. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Where is the job located? If the job is in another section of the country. How important is the job to the company or organization? An explanation of where you fit in the organization and how you are supposed to 86 . and the quality of educational and recreational facilities in that section of the country.

KINDERGARTEN. In addition. ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY contribute to its overall goals should give you an idea of the job’s importance. or to better serve customers.TEACHERS . during the day. weekend. 87 . Monday through Friday. What will the hours be? Most jobs involve regular hours—for example. some jobs routinely require overtime to meet deadlines or sales or production goals. How long do most people who enter this job stay with the company? High turnover can mean dissatisfaction with the nature of the work or something else about the job. or holiday work. 40 hours a week. Consider the effect that the work hours will have on your personal life.PRESCHOOL. Other jobs require night.

A good job offers you opportunities to learn new skills. What is the next step on the career ladder? If you have to wait for a job to become vacant before you can be promoted. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Opportunities offered by employers.PRESCHOOL. increase your earnings. ELEMENTARY. and rise to positions of greater authority. will you compete with applicants from outside the company? Can you apply for jobs for which you qualify elsewhere within the organization. or are mobility within the firm limited? 88 . The company should have a training plan for you. What valuable new skills does the company plan to teach you? The employer should give you some idea of promotion possibilities within the organization.TEACHERS . A lack of opportunities can dampen interest in the work and result in frustration and boredom. how long does this usually take? When opportunities for advancement do arise. responsibility. KINDERGARTEN. and prestige.

friends. ELEMENTARY. You will want to research to determine if the offer is fair. When an employer makes a job offer. If you choose to negotiate for higher pay and better benefits. 89 . objective research will help you strengthen your case. information about earnings and benefits are usually included. or acquaintances that recently were hired in similar jobs. Helpwanted ads in newspapers sometimes give salary ranges for similar positions. You should also look for additional information.PRESCHOOL. specifically tailored to your job offer and circumstances. Ask your teachers and the staff in placement offices about starting pay for graduates with your qualifications. KINDERGARTEN. Check the library or your school’s career center for salary surveys such as those conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers or various professional associations. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Salaries and benefits. Try to find family.TEACHERS .

or rural area. town. many organizations do it every year. Find out how many hours you will be expected to work each week and whether you receive overtime pay or compensatory time off for working more than the specified number of hours in a week. ELEMENTARY. Your salary should be reviewed on a regular basis. which may be significantly higher in a large metropolitan area than in a smaller city. You also should learn the organization’s policy regarding overtime. you may or may not be exempt from laws requiring the employer to compensate you for overtime. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY If you are considering the salary and benefits for a job in another geographic area. make allowances for differences in the cost of living.TEACHERS . or 3 or more years? An employer cannot be specific about 90 . How much can you expect to earn after 1. 2. Also take into account that the starting salary is just that—the start. KINDERGARTEN. Depending on the job.PRESCHOOL.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY the amount of pay if it includes commissions and bonuses. 91 .PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . Find out exactly what the benefit package includes and how much of the cost you must bear. Benefits also can add a lot to your base pay. but they vary widely.

TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. but people make the difference. Hiring the Best makes it clears just how valuable it is to hire and work with the best.PRESCHOOL. your manager and your candidates. ELEMENTARY. The process will allow you and 92 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY WHAT TO EXPECT FROM THE OTHER SIDE OF THE TABLE…HIRING THE BEST This chapter is all about clarity of the total hiring process – for you. Computers and equipment are wonderful tools. but still ensures that you will be able to hire the best. You will need or encounter a Great Process to Hire the Best. The mistakes you will avoid make the investment very valuable. This chapter guides you to how to perform a truly in-depth hiring process and interview for candidates. Hiring the Best provides you with a process that reduces trial and error in recruiting a lot.

This will. in short.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY your company to select the best candidates for key positions. use this Guide. let you go from hoping your next hire works out to being confident your next hire will be a star. giving you insight into the candidates experience. You will be able to use the materials shown here as an outstanding tool. KINDERGARTEN. Before you make your next hire. performance history. and growth allowing you to determine what they are capable of today and in the future. 93 . ELEMENTARY.

TEACHERS . and interviewing the previous and current holders of the job and the immediate supervisor will be helpful in determining the competencies required and the performance standard. What will a person in this job have to do on a regular basis to succeed. What are the necessary competencies and skills the person will need in order to achieve the desired results of the position. Ask questions such as: • • • What would the “perfect” candidate’s competencies and skills look like. KINDERGARTEN. 94 . observing the job being performed. Asking a series of questions will help you in establishing the technical competencies. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY THE INTERVIEW AND SELECTION PROCESS A position description.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY.

TEACHERS . direct and specific. list the top five most important technical competencies the candidate MUST have to succeed in the job. Avoid questions that require overly specific knowledge. ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN. and Why have people left this job in the past? After you have analyzed the job and developed several technical competencies. simple. 95 . Base all the questions on the job description and the top five technical competencies.PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • • How will a person hired for this job know he or she is succeeding. Below is a sample Technical Competency Assessment Guide for use in determining the technical competencies and developing relevant interview questions. Remember when developing your interview questions to keep the questions open-ended.

) • What would the “perfect” candidate’s competencies and skills look like? • What will a person in this job have to do on a regular basis to succeed? • What are the necessary competencies and skills the person will need in order to achieve the desired results of the position? 96 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Step 1 Technical Competencies Assessment Guide Job Title: _____________________________________ A. Analyze Technical Aspects of Job. (Answer questions and list competencies in the space. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS .

KINDERGARTEN. List the top five most important technical competencies the candidate MUST have to succeed in the job. 2.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS . 3. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • How will a person hired for this job know he or she is succeeding? • Why have people left this job in the past? B. 4. 97 . 5. 1.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY C.PRESCHOOL. Develop a Technical Question for Each of the Five Required Technical Competencies. 98 . ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS . • Keep the questions open-ended. direct and specific. KINDERGARTEN. • Base all your questions on the job description and the technical competencies you listed above. • Ask for assistance developing technical questions if you are not the technical expert. simple. • Avoid questions that require a specific knowledge of your division.

They also need some degree of friendliness for welcoming the public and some degree of extroversion.PRESCHOOL. an individual working in a receptionist position will need to be flexible and unflappable in order to handle the pressure of multiple phone calls and simultaneous visitors. ELEMENTARY. Identifying the customer service focused competencies needed to successfully perform the job and determining if the candidate possesses those competencies is critical. For example. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Step 2 Determine the Customer Service Focused Competencies of the Job A large percentage of employees who did not succeed in a position had the technical skills but did not have the customer service focused skills required for the job. since most people calling an organization would like to be met by someone with enthusiasm. KINDERGARTEN. 99 .TEACHERS .

But in order to get the BEST candidate for the position. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Assessing customer service focused competencies during the interview process is something we may not be typically used to doing as managers. • • What will a person in this job have to do on a regular basis to succeed. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. customer service focused competencies need to be determined and assessed also. questions similar to those asked to determine the technical competencies should be answered: • What would the “perfect” candidate’s customer service focused competencies look like. What are the necessary customer service focused competencies the person will 100 . We are experienced in determining if the candidate has the technical skills and abilities to perform the job. To determine what customer service focused competencies are needed for the position.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL.

• How will a person hired for this job know he or she is meeting the customer service focused expectations.TEACHERS . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY need in order to achieve the desired results of the position. and being tolerant of stressful events. KINDERGARTEN.PRESCHOOL. are examples of the skills critical to success on the job. and • Related to customer service reasons. such as paying attention to detail. why have people left this job in the past? As you think about the job vacancy you need to fill. ELEMENTARY. Depending on the specific job under consideration. focus on the customer service focused competencies or behaviors that an individual needs to exhibit in order to succeed in this job. having leadership qualities. 101 . getting along with others. being self-motivated. Below you will find five descriptive elements of personality to assist you in determining customer service focused competencies. customer service focused characteristics.

Outgoing and Unflappable. Believable. tasks. you will find a list of questions to correspond to each personality factor. Likeable. ELEMENTARY. and having a well developed sense of ethics and integrity.TEACHERS . The ability to organize or schedule people.PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Descriptive words have been added to give you ideas and help you determine what behaviors are required for the position. and self. KINDERGARTEN. to develop realistic action plans while remaining sensitive to time constraints and resource availability. Towards the end of this document. Definitions: Responsible. These questions can be used to develop the examination portion of the recruiting announcement or they can be used in the interview process. Characterized by high levels of 102 . The five descriptive elements of personality are Responsible.

cautious. and well organized. cost-conscious. nurture 103 . and kind. exact. quality-focused. disciplined. They are agreeable. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY responsibility and behaviors these employees are controlled. highly systematic. casual. easygoing.PRESCHOOL. committed. and businesslike. helpful. and understanding individuals.TEACHERS . Descriptors: detail-oriented. ELEMENTARY. high-integrity. In the moderate to high range of likeability. Describes a person’s ability to modify their behavioral style to respond to the needs of others while maintaining one’s own objectives and sense of dignity. Likeable. precise. They approach life as a series of tasks to be accomplished and goals to be reached. we find sympathetic. Their behavior is consistent. compassionate. They appear to accept things as they are. KINDERGARTEN. persistent. dependable. disciplined. trustworthy. responsible. thoughtful. scrupulous. and their work is purposeful. and reliable.

PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . compromising. flexible. friendly. 104 . we find people who are open. They often form the emotional “back bone” of an organization.” Highly believable people can be described as practical. Descriptors: creative. Capable of eliciting belief or trust. empowering. supportive. easygoing. ELEMENTARY. accommodating. willing to reexamine tenets and consider new ideas. empathetic. congenial. curious. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY others. open-to-new-ideas. Descriptors: amicable. willing to follow procedures without question. In the middle to low range of believable thinking. They are capable of reasonable levels of professional and personal risk taking and are willing to work outside their “comfort zone. predictable and conventional. helpful. KINDERGARTEN. independent. original. untraditional. Believable. spontaneous. collaborative. and are obviously friendly and caring people.

They demonstrate leadership. uninhibited. ELEMENTARY. methodical. energizing. quiet. KINDERGARTEN. down-to-earth. team-building capability. practical. and are able to coach or facilitate a work team’s progress. Individuals who are moderately introverted are often viewed as self-contained. cheerful. self-contained. entrepreneurial. task-oriented. and able to work well either alone or in small groups. Describes the ability to work with people in such a manner as to build high morale and group commitments to goals and objectives.PRESCHOOL. Individuals in the moderately high range of extroversion are upbeat. concrete. forceful. systematic. risktaking.TEACHERS . traditional. Outgoing. persuasive. and appropriately assertive. generally well balanced. They tend to be enterprising. ambitious. enthusiastic. outgoing. assertive. dominant. Descriptors: active. positive. conventional. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY venturesome. 105 . and energetic.

Unflappable. problem-solving attitude while dealing with a range of stressful conditions. hostility. unassuming. They demonstrate maturity that is not necessarily related to age. thoughtful. Descriptors: calm. personal rejection. 106 . even-tempered. secure.TEACHERS . but to the ability to maintain a clear perspective under stressful conditions as well as those that elicit little or no stress. or time demands. and able to cope effectively across a wide range of situations and circumstances. selfreliant. KINDERGARTEN. self-assured. realistic. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY restrained. well adjusted. formal. The ability to maintain a mature. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. They are steady. such as interpersonal conflict. hazardous conditions. At moderately high levels of stress tolerance we find relaxed. and hardy individuals who are poised and adaptive in a wide range of situations. unflappable. reserved. secure.

accommodating. committed. poised. dependable. 107 . List the most typical Customer Service Focused behaviors required on this job on a daily basis. ELEMENTARY. Likeable – amicable. self-confident. high-integrity. composed. compromising. helpful. Use the previously identified personality factors to help you. CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUSED BEHAVIORS ASSESSMENT GUIDE Job Title: _____________________________________ A. Responsible – detail-oriented. easygoing. KINDERGARTEN. disciplined. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY resilient. responsible. optimistic. cautious. exact. cost conscious. trustworthy.TEACHERS . casual. qualityfocused. supportive.PRESCHOOL.

secure. venturesome. task-oriented. entrepreneurial. friendly. down-to-earth. easygoing. assertive. empathetic. ELEMENTARY. systematic. untraditional. uninhibited. self-confident. Believable – creative. self-contained. original. restrained. ambitious. conventional. enthusiastic. congenial. poised. flexible. open-to-new-ideas. Outgoing – active. methodical. practical. quiet. Unflappable – calm. persuasive. unflappable. well-adjusted. formal. 108 . risktaking. composed. dominant.TEACHERS . independent. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY collaborative. empowering. unassuming. self-assured. outgoing. reserved. traditional. energizing. even-tempered. concrete. forceful. thoughtful. KINDERGARTEN. spontaneous. curious.PRESCHOOL. resilient. optimistic.

4. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS . 3. 3. 4. C. List of Customer Service Focused Behaviors 1. 2. 5. Develop a Question for Each of the Customer Service Focused Behaviors 1.PRESCHOOL. 109 . 2. 5. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY B.


I work with difficult customers all the time.TEACHERS . If five questions are asked. depending upon the type of job. ELEMENTARY. Think of a time when you had to deal with a difficult customer and tell us what you did. Always ask open-ended questions. If you 111 . Ask.PRESCHOOL. at least two of them should be customer service-type questions. KINDERGARTEN.” But it won’t tell you HOW the individual works with difficult customers.” Don’t ask. “Have you ever dealt with difficult customers?” You probably will get an answer like. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Step 3 Develop Interview Questions to Assess Both Technical and Customer Service Focused Competencies Decide how long the interviews will be and select a reasonable number of questions to ask. “Yes. “This job involves dealing with difficult customers. In a half-hour interview. only about 5 behavioral-based questions can comfortably be asked.

Don’t ask a question about using equipment if they don’t use that equipment to do their job. You can ask for the candidate to think of another example to use in answering the question. or is giving you a “canned” answer. Only ask technical questions that relate to that particular job.” Generally. ask a probing question or two to get more detail. Using the list of most important tasks you developed during the review of the Position Description. ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN. if they have read a book on “most commonly asked interview questions” and memorized an answer. a probing question will generally fluster them and they will not be as confident in giving an answer.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. or are making up the situation. develop open-ended questions to determine if the candidate has the technical skills necessary for the job. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY feel the candidate is making up an answer. 112 . “What exactly did you say to the customer to get them to stop yelling.

PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Using the list of customer service focused skills you identified from the position description are needed to do the job. There is a list of sample interview questions at the end of this document to help you. 113 .TEACHERS . They are arranged by the five personality factors identified above. ELEMENTARY. develop open-ended questions to determine the candidate’s customer service focused competencies.

be sure to discuss interviewing procedures and confidentiality of candidate information with the employee prior to the interviews.PRESCHOOL. establish the criteria used for scoring and then meet with the interview panel to discuss the process and review the questions and criteria used for scoring. It is encouraged that all interview panels be as diverse as possible. Before the interview starts. some managers may also wish to include a non-management employee with special knowledge of the position duties as part of a panel. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Step 4 Conducting the Interview Have an interview panel of at least two managers/supervisors.TEACHERS . If you choose to include a non-management employee on your interview panel. KINDERGARTEN. 114 . ELEMENTARY.

PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN. Explaining the interview process can also help ease a candidate’s nervousness and also gives them information about the process. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Welcome the candidate and establish rapport by introducing them to the members of the interview panel. approximate length of the interview. ask if they have any questions about the position or organization. Ask easy questions such as “Did you have any difficulty finding the office?” or “Would you like a glass of water before we begin?” Give a brief explanation of the organization or section and show the organization chart so they understand how this position fits within the organization. the interview will be a series of prepared questions asked by the interview panel designed to get to know the candidate.TEACHERS . including. 115 . and the panel will be taking notes during the interview. If you have handed the position description and organization chart out while they waited for the interview to start.

KINDERGARTEN. “Let’s get a bit more focused and start asking the interview questions. give “canned” speeches. 60. You might simply say. sometimes a candidate will need to think for a few seconds to come up with an appropriate example. one person should act as “facilitator” and make sure the interview stays focused. You may have to wait 30. you need to diplomatically interrupt and redirect the candidate to the question at hand.” Even though the interview process is accomplished through a panel.PRESCHOOL.” To clarify a response or to get a candidate to give specific examples you can ask. Let me restate my question. or even 90 seconds for the candidate to start 116 . Some candidates tend to wander. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Transition into the main purpose of the interview by saying. or simply try to deliver a monologue.TEACHERS . In such cases. “I think we’ve gotten a little off target here. “Please give me a specific example about when you…” Because behavior-based questions require specific examples to answer them successfully. ELEMENTARY.

ELEMENTARY. 117 . An option available to the hiring manager is to hand out the list of questions to the candidates a few minutes before the interview starts.PRESCHOOL. Resist the temptation to talk during this silence! It takes time to recall specific behavioral examples that clearly answer your questions and you want the candidate to do their best during the interview. so the candidate can start thinking of specific examples ahead of time and organizing their thoughts.TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. If an answer does not give you the information you need to rate the candidate’s answer. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY answering the question. use open-ended probes such as: “Could you review your role in…” “Please describe how you…” “What happened after…” If after the first or second try to get an answer more relevant to the question move on to the next question.

while taking into consideration Affirmative Action goals. ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY After each interview take a few minutes for the panel members to summarize their thoughts and score the questions. Affirmative Action Organizations value diversity in the workplace. KINDERGARTEN. All employment decisions will be based on the most suitable candidate relative to a position. 118 . or complete the rating process.PRESCHOOL. Every effort will be made to reach out to the broadest possible labor market.TEACHERS .

and will evaluate whether the individual giving the reference sounds like he/she is struggling to carefully select each word.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS . persons listed by the candidate as references. In these instances. The Background Investigator listens for subtle innuendoes and long pauses after posing questions. more specific probing questions will be asked. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Step 5 Background and Reference Checks The final stage of the hiring process is the background and reference checks. KINDERGARTEN. 119 . and others who are thought to be able to provide information about the competencies of a candidate. The Human Resources Background Investigator will verify information provided by the applicant by contacting former and current supervisors.

TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. In these cases. a finalist will indicate they do not wish you to contact their current employer. 120 . you need to explain that the organization needs to contact this employer to assist with the hiring decision and that we don’t hire anyone without completing a background and reference check with the current employer.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Occasionally.

Before you contact the candidate. Classification Salary Range Rate of pay and timing of first pay increase Vacation accrual rate and ability to transfer vacation accruals from another State organization Trial Service period Eligibility for Personal benefits 121 . ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . interview. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Making a Job Offer When you have identified the candidate to whom you would like to make a job offer based on the information gathered through the application.PRESCHOOL. and the Director or Deputy Director. please work closely with Human Resources staff to verify certain information. you may contact that candidate and offer him/her the position. and you have the approval of your supervisor. evaluation of background and references. examination. For example.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Confirming Job Offer Letter Human Resources staff will send a confirming job offer letter. It is important that all information in this letter of confirming letter of hire be correctly stated because it is an implied employment contract. 122 . KINDERGARTEN. Informing Unsuccessful Candidates After the selected candidate formally accepts your job offer. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS . each of the remaining candidates should be contacted to notify them that the hiring decision has been made.PRESCHOOL. The letter will outline the terms of the job offer and will provide a space for the candidate to sign his or her name confirming that he/she accepts the terms of employment. This signed copy must be returned to Human Resources to document the understanding and the acceptance of the terms. Human Resources can help you with this step.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY If a candidate contacts you directly to ask why he or she was not hired.PRESCHOOL. the best thing to do is to simply tell them that we hired the most suitable candidate for the position. ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN. 123 . Retention of Interview Materials Please collect all interview and selection materials and notes and return them promptly to Human Resources.TEACHERS . If they continue to ask for information. contact your Human Resources staff for guidance in how to answer the candidate’s questions.


ELEMENTARY. What facts did you consider? How long did it take you to make a decision? 3 Jobs differ in the extent to which people work independently or as part of a team. How did you attend to them? 2 Describe a time when you had to make a difficult decision on the job. KINDERGARTEN.PRESCHOOL. 4 It is often easy to blur the distinction between confidential information and public knowledge.TEACHERS . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY SAMPLE CUSTOMER SERVICE FOCUSED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (Grouped by customer service based behaviors) Responsible 1 Tell us about a time when the details of something you were doing were especially important. Have you ever been faced with this dilemma? What did you do? 125 . Tell us about a time when you worked independently.

10 Tell us about a time when you achieved success through your willingness to react quickly. What did you do and what was the outcome? 7 There are times when we have a great deal of paperwork to complete in a short time. How do you do to ensure your accuracy? 8 Give an example of a time you noticed a process or task that was not being done correctly. KINDERGARTEN. How did you discover or come to notice it.TEACHERS . 126 . ELEMENTARY. Give us a specific example of when you had to give yourself that extra push. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 5 Tell us about a time when you put in some extra effort to help move a particular project forward. How did you do it and what happened? 6 Tell us about a demanding situation in which you managed to remain calm and composed. and what did you do? 9 We often have to push ourselves harder to reach a target.PRESCHOOL.

personally or professionally? 17 What can you tell us about yourself that you feel is unique and makes you the best candidate for this position? 127 . what will they say about you? 15 What are two or three examples of tasks that you do not particularly enjoy doing? Tell us how you remain motivated to complete those tasks. 13 How do you determine what constitutes a top priority in scheduling your work? Give a specific example. 16 What has been your greatest success. What was your reaction and how did you implement the procedure or policy? 12 What kinds of measures have you taken to make sure all of the small details of a project or assignment were done? Please give a specific example. 14 If I call your references.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 11 Tell us about a time when you disagreed with a procedure or policy instituted by management. ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN.

TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. How did you go about it? What did you do when you discovered a problem? 20 How do you determine what constitutes a top priority in scheduling your time (the time of others)? 21 Do you have a system for organizing your own work area? Tell us how that system helped you on the job.PRESCHOOL. 22 Have you planned any conferences. workshops or retreats? What steps did you take to plan the event? 128 . KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 18 What strengths do you have that we haven’t talked about? 19 Tell us about a time when you had to review detailed reports or documents to identify a problem.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Likeable 1 Tell us about a time when you were able to build a successful relationship with a difficult person.PRESCHOOL. Tell us about a time when you encountered such a person. 3 Give us an example of how you establish an atmosphere at work where others feel comfortable in communicating their ideas. ELEMENTARY. 2 Give us an example of how you have been able to develop a close.TEACHERS . How did you handle it? 129 . positive relationship with one of your customers. KINDERGARTEN. How did you react and what was the outcome? 5 How would you describe your management style? How do you think your subordinates perceive you? 6 Some people are difficult to work with. 4 Describe a particularly trying customer complaint or resistance you had to handle. feelings and concerns.

How did it work out? 8 It is important to remain composed at work and to maintain a positive outlook. Give us a specific example of when you had to vary your work style with a particular individual. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 7 In working with people. KINDERGARTEN. Give us an example of a time when you achieved success through attaining insight into the other person’s perspective. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS . we have to be flexible in our style of relating to others. we find that what works with one person does not work with another. 10 Have you ever had difficulty getting along with a co-worker? How did you handle the situation and what was the outcome? 130 . Give us a specific example of when you were able to do this. Therefore.PRESCHOOL. 9 Having an understanding of the other person’s perspective is crucial in dealing with customers.

Give us an example of when you offered assistance to someone with whom you worked. What did you do? What was the outcome? 12 There are times when people need extra assistance with difficult projects.TEACHERS . 13 Tell us about a situation in which you became frustrated or impatient when dealing with a coworker.PRESCHOOL. Describe the qualities of that work environment. Give us an example of a time when you worked on a team to complete a project. How did it work? What was the outcome? 15 Tell us about a job where the atmosphere was the easiest for you to get along and function well. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 11 Tell us about a time when you needed someone’s cooperation to complete a task and the person was uncooperative. What did you do? What was the outcome? 14 Many jobs are team-oriented where a work group is the key to success. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. 131 .

What was the outcome? Would you do anything differently today? 17 Describe a time when you weren’t sure what a customer wanted. Give us an example of an unpopular decision you have made.TEACHERS . If you have had such an experience. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 16 On occasion we may be faced with a situation that has escalated to become a confrontation. How did you handle the situation? 18 We don’t always make decisions that everyone agrees with.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. How did you communicate the decision and what was the outcome? 132 . tell me how you handled it.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Believable 1 Describe your ideal supervisor.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . What did you do? 5 It is important that performance and other personnel issues be addressed timely. 2 What were some of the most important things you accomplished on your last job? 3 What is your management style? How do you think your subordinates perceive you? 4 Give us an example of when someone brought you a new idea. Give examples of the type of personnel issues you’ve confronted and how you addressed them. 6 Give us an example of how you establish an atmosphere at work where others feel 133 . Including examples of the process you used for any disciplinary action taken or grievance resolved. KINDERGARTEN. particularly one that was odd or unusual. ELEMENTARY.

134 .PRESCHOOL. 7 Give a specific example of how you have involved subordinates in identifying performance goals and expectations. Why were they frustrating and what did you do? 9 Jobs differ in the degree to which unexpected changes can disrupt daily responsibilities. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY comfortable in communicating their ideas. Tell what you did and us about a time when this happened. Describe some specific tasks or conditions that have been frustrating to you.TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. 10 What are your standards of success in your job and how do you know when you are successful? 11 Sometimes supervisors’ evaluations differ from our own. 8 All jobs have their frustrations and problems. What did you do about it? 12 What do you do differently from other (__________)? Why? Give examples. ELEMENTARY. feelings and concerns.

TEACHERS . Give us an example of an unpopular decision you made. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 13 We don’t always make decisions that everyone agrees with. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. What did you do? 15 Describe a situation in which you had to translate a broad or general directive from superiors into individual performance expectations. How did you communicate the decision and what was the outcome? 14 Describe a situation in which you received a new procedure or instructions with which you disagreed. KINDERGARTEN. How did you do this and what were the results? 16 Give an example of how you monitor the progress your employees are making on projects or tasks you delegated. 135 .

136 . Give us the details surrounding a situation when you had to insist on doing something “your way”. we have to be firm and assertive in order to achieve a desired result. What did you do.TEACHERS . What was the outcome? 5 On occasion. 4 There are times when we need to insist on doing something a certain way. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Outgoing 1 Describe a time when you were able to effectively communicate a difficult or unpleasant idea to a superior.PRESCHOOL. Tell us about a time when you had to do that. what was the outcome? 3 Tell us about a time when you delayed responding to a situation until you had time to review the facts. even though there was pressure to act quickly. 2 Tell us about a time when you had to motivate a group of people to get an important job done. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY.

7 In job situations you may be pulled in many different directions at once. Therefore. (restrained) 9 In working with people. ELEMENTARY. we find that what works with one person does not work with another. How did you manage yourself? 8 Many of us have had co-workers or managers who tested our patience. we have to be flexible in our style of relating to others. KINDERGARTEN. Tell us about a time when you restrained yourself to avoid conflict with a coworker or supervisor. How did it work out? 137 . Tell us about a specific achievement when you had to work especially hard to attain the success you desired.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. Give us a specific example of when you had to vary your work style with a particular individual. Tell us about a time when you had to respond to this type of situation. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 6 Being successful is hard work.

What did you do and what was the outcome? 138 . KINDERGARTEN. What did you do? What was the outcome? 13 Tell us about a situation in which you became frustrated or impatient when dealing with a coworker. Think of a time when you had to handle unreasonable requests. What did you do? What was the outcome? 14 Sooner or later we all have to deal with a customer who has unreasonable demands. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 10 Describe some particularly trying customer complaints or resistance you have had to handle. How did you react? What was the outcome? 11 Have you ever had difficulty getting along with co-workers? How did you handle the situation and what was the outcome? 12 Tell us about a time when you needed someone’s cooperation to complete a task and the person was uncooperative.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS .

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY 15 Tell us about a time when you were effective in handling a customer complaint. Why were you effective? What was the outcome? 16 How do you know if your customers are satisfied? 139 . KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS .

What was the outcome? 4 We have to find ways to tolerate and work with difficult people. Describe such a situation and tell us how you handled the conflict.TEACHERS . 2 Give us an example of a demanding situation when you were able to maintain your composure while others got upset. we experience conflict with our superiors. Tell us about a time at work when you had to change focus onto another task. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Unflappable 1 There are times when we all have to deal with deadlines and it can be stressful.PRESCHOOL. ELEMENTARY. 3 On occasion. Tell us about a time when you have done this. a job requires you to quickly shift your attention from one task to the next. 5 Many times. negative feedback by a co140 . Tell us about a time when you felt pressured at work and how you coped with it. What was the outcome? 6 Tell us about a time when you received accurate.

ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . How did it turn out? 9 Tell us about a time when you put in some extra effort to help move a project forward.PRESCHOOL. How did you handle your feelings? 8 Give us an example of when you made a presentation to an uninterested or hostile audience. How did you do that? What happened? 10 Describe suggestions you have made to improve work procedures. How did it turn out? 141 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY worker. or customer. How did you handle the evaluation? How did it affect your work? 7 Give us an example of when you felt overly sensitive to feedback or criticism. boss.


TEACHERS . You should: • Review the position description and qualification requirements (refer to the vacancy announcement). ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY INTERVIEWING A Practical Guide for Selecting THE INTERVIEW PROCESS Planning Time spent planning will ensure the interview process proceeds smoothly and that you obtain the information needed to assess the candidates. • Thoroughly the review all candidate of this applications. KINDERGARTEN.PRESCHOOL. Ask yourself: – What are strengths/weaknesses candidate? 143 .

ELEMENTARY. This will help ensure you ask all candidates the same questions. 144 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • What is the candidate’s relevant skills/experience? – Does the education fit the job requirements? • Is there evidence of the ability to communicate with individuals and groups from diverse backgrounds in a variety of situations? • Is there evidence of the ability to lead and accomplish work through others? • Decide who you will interview.TEACHERS . think about the perception of other candidates if you interview only one person. KINDERGARTEN. • Formulate questions and write them down. Although you are not required to interview all candidates.PRESCHOOL.


146 . ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Confirming/Scheduling Interview Selecting officials are encouraged to confirm scheduled interviews with applicants in writing.

TEACHERS . • • Ask questions and listen. (Although it is important that you write down a list of questions before you begin the interviews. you are not prohibited from asking additional questions. KINDERGARTEN.) Indirect probing is also an effective way to elicit more information. If you are silent for a few seconds after the candidate responds. spend a few minutes chatting informally. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. Ask the candidate to elaborate on or clarify what was just said. Probe for additional information. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Conducting the Interview After welcoming the candidate. that may allow them time to think of additional 147 . • Give a brief overview of the job and mission of the organization. It will help you both relax.

TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY things to say. it is the candidate who should be doing most of the talking. TIPS ON INTERVIEWING. ELEMENTARY. 148 . your lab. The point is that in this phase of the interview.PRESCHOOL. etc. benefits. such as: I see. This is where you can elaborate on the Organization. you and try to It’s the capture distracting candidate. Some suggested interview questions can be found in Section III. holidays. • every Allow the candidate time to ask questions. and/or the specific job. but to don’t word. oh? That may prompt the candidate to elaborate further. leave. • Inform the candidate about maxi flex. • Take notes. or you may use neutral phrases. or.


TEACHERS . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Closing If the candidate won’t be considered further. • 150 Write up your notes.PRESCHOOL. • Thank the candidate for coming for the interview. KINDERGARTEN. close the interview diplomatically. you may: • Ask if the candidate is still interested in the position. • Inform the candidate of the next step. If you are interested in the candidate. applying for the position. • Inform the candidate that references will be checked. and/or having an interest in the Organization and position. Be prepared to advice on the timeframe for selection and how the selectee will be notified. . ELEMENTARY.


PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Follow Up A good customer service practice is to write all candidates acknowledging the interview and thanking the person for showing an interest in the organization. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. 152 . You may wish to do so after a selection has been made.TEACHERS .


the kind of questions you ask will determine the type of person you select for your position. The panel is facilitated by a person trained in the method. orientation. There are various assessment tools available to evaluate candidates including: A. and interviewing. Together with the KSAs (knowledge. and abilities) and SPFs (selective placement factors) you used in the vacancy announcement.PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY TIPS ON INTERVIEWING Questions/ Assessment Tools Careful thought should be given to constructing the interview. The phases of the process include planning. ELEMENTARY. The candidate describes. in detail. skills. 154 . The Behavioral Event Inventory (BEI).TEACHERS . a past experience that demonstrates the KSA or competency to a panel.

activity. Asking yes and no questions will severely limit the kind of information you obtain from the interview. B. • Encourage the candidate to give an example of a real situation. and the outcome. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY debriefing. The same basic questions are asked of each candidate. KINDERGARTEN. The Traditional Interview. and follow-up documentation.TEACHERS . evidence or characteristics of the audience. The only yes or no question you should ask is. the action taken. or environment. ELEMENTARY. Questions are developed prior to the interview.PRESCHOOL. “Are you still interested in this position?” 155 . Additionally the interviewer can. or problem that includes: a description of the context. • Ask open-ended questions.

TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. 156 . KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Interview Questions To Get You Started • What interests you most about our position? • • What role do you take in a group situation? Give an example.PRESCHOOL. Why do you want to work for our organization? • What are your short-term and long-term goals? • What are the two biggest accomplishments in your life? • What has been your greatest technical achievement in your current position? Your career? • Describe your participation in professional associations.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • What planning processes have you found useful? In what way do you feel you have improved in your planning abilities/methods? • How does your past experience impact your qualifications for this position? 157 .PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS .

and integrity/honesty (either work related or outside experience). Ask each candidate to describe a situation. • Ability to instill trust and confidence in others. This competency includes conflict management. 158 . mentoring. ELEMENTARY. team building. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Supervisor and Manager Competencies When preparing for supervisory or managerial interviews (whether using traditional or BEI). cultural awareness. all candidates must be evaluated using the following two competencies: A. problem. KINDERGARTEN. Ability to prevent or mediate a conflict or disagreement or overcome dissension in a group.TEACHERS . or event that demonstrates: • • Ability to work with a diverse group.PRESCHOOL. Leading People.

• Negotiating approval modification skills for to to gain or change programs. Ask each candidate to describe a situation. influencing/negotiating. B. problem or event that demonstrates: • Ability to express not ideas or or give instructions easily readily understood by their audience. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Use of skills and abilities as a leader under stressful conditions. Building Coalitions/Communications. and political savvy. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. interpersonal skills. partnering. • Ability to make presentations to groups in order to gain acceptance of an idea by the group. 159 . This competency includes oral and/or written communication.



Interviewing People With Disabilities Concentrate on the applicant’s technical and professional knowledge, skills, abilities, experiences and interests, not on the disability. Remember, you cannot interview a disability, hire a disability or supervise a disability. You can interview a person, hire a person, and supervise a person. The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) separates the hiring process into three stages: pre-offer, post-offer and employment. At each stage, the rules differ regarding the permissibility of disability-related questions and medical examinations. Definition of a “Disability-Related Question” means a question that is likely to elicit information about the disability. Definition of “Medical Examination” is a procedure or test that seeks information about an individual’s physical or mental impairments or health.



Therefore, the two most important questions for employers to address are: • Is the question disability-related or is the examination medical? And • Where are we (i.e., at which stage pre-offer, post-offer, or employment) in the employment process? At the first stage (the pre-offer stage), the ADA prohibits all disability-related questions and medical examinations, even if the questions or examinations are related to the job. At the second stage (after the applicant is given a conditional job offer), the law allows all disability-related questions and medical examinations, as long as all entering employees in the job category are asked the questions or given the examinations. At the third stage (after the employee starts work), the law permits disability-related questions 162


and medical examinations only if they are job-related and consistent with business necessity. The law requires that medical information collected at any stage must be kept confidential. For examples of some commonly asked questions on “Pre-employment Disability Related Questions and Medical Examination Questions,” please refer to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission website at www.eeoc.gov/docs/preemp.html.


• Agencies employment offices and interviewing location(s) are to be accessible to applicants with mobility. hearing or cognitive disabilities. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Accommodating Persons With Disabilities For An Interview • Application and interviewing procedures should comply with the American with Disabilities Act (ADA). visual.PRESCHOOL. When setting up the interview explain what the hiring process involves and ask the individual if he or she will need reasonable accommodations for any part 164 .TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. • Be willing to make appropriate and reasonable accommodations to enable a job applicant with a disability to present him or herself in the best possible light. KINDERGARTEN. The ADA prohibits disability-related questions or medical exams before a real job offer is made.

For example. if a person who is blind states he or she will need help filling out forms. if he or she requests one. as well as why.PRESCHOOL. • Make sure that all questions asked during the interview are job-related. • Do not let a rehabilitation counselor. provide an interpreter for an applicant who is deaf. Do not 165 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY of the interview process. social worker or other third party take an active part in or sit in on an interview unless the applicant requests it.TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. Speak to essential job functions regarding the position for which the applicant is applying. where. provide details or specific instructions to applicants with cognitive disabilities. if this type of accommodation is required. how. when and by whom each task or operation is performed. provide the assistance. ELEMENTARY.

ELEMENTARY. 166 . because such information is likely to reveal whether or not the individual has a disability. KINDERGARTEN. This is an ADA requirement to ensure that an applicant with a disability in not excluded before a real job offer is made.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY ask whether or not the individual needs an accommodation to perform these functions.

• Note the kinds of questions the candidate asks.PRESCHOOL.. Keep the interview under control. Do they concern opportunities for self-improvement 167 . KINDERGARTEN. it’s your job to get back on track. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Interview Do’s and Don’ts DO. • • Listen attentively. • Use professional terminology to evaluate the candidate’s knowledge.TEACHERS . help the candidate feel at ease. ELEMENTARY.. If the interviewee becomes verbose or drifts off the subject. • Consider potential as well as current ability. • Be friendly to establish rapport.

. • • Observe the candidate..TEACHERS . stereotypes. • • 168 Talk too much. Just don’t overemphasize it. even if it means saying something negative (e.g. • Be honest. • Understand that we tend to hire people who look like us. ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY and increased responsibilities..PRESCHOOL. Use a rigid or overly standardized . Know yourself and your DON’T. Relax and enjoy the interview. or only pay and fringe benefits? • Be objective. KINDERGARTEN. the facility is old and there is not much office space).

TEACHERS . You’ll become more flexible and react easily to different situations and personalities as you gain experience. • Be satisfied with surface facts. KINDERGARTEN. If you’ve prepared your questions. Look for reasons. • Hide demands of the job. • Take detailed notes. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY approach. and probe. • Make commitments you may regret or are not authorized to make. • Try to impress the interviewee with your knowledge. ELEMENTARY. A good candidate reacts favorably to these.PRESCHOOL. It may keep you from observing nonverbal responses and maintaining the 169 . knowing that you can easily get back on track. you can be flexible during the interview.

• • Be aggressive or evasive.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. • Ask questions in a way that indicates the answers you want. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY conversational flow. Raise candidates’ hopes when they are not likely to be selected. • Ask convoluted or over-defined questions. KINDERGARTEN. 170 . ELEMENTARY.

• You gain insight into who your candidates are and how they behave in the workplace. you will conduct a reference check on the one or two finalists. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY CHECKING REFERENCES You have completed the interviews.PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN. Normally. Reference checks will help: • Verify information the candidate provided both in the application and during the interview. but you are not done yet. but the reference check is really the only way you have to verify information given by the candidates. 171 . A resume and interview are great tools.TEACHERS . Reliability of the reference check is based on the concept that past performance is a good predictor of future performance. ELEMENTARY.

PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Never make an offer (remember. ELEMENTARY. you can only make a tentative offer) without first doing an exhaustive check of the candidate’s background. A comprehensive reference check goes back 5 years and includes contacting a minimum of three sources that are knowledgeable about the candidate’s abilities. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . 172 . Contact Enough references to confirm the quality of your selection.

• Your network of professional associates/associations. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Which References Should I Check? • • Academic references–institutions and teachers/professors. • Candidate’s personal references–they will generally provide a favorable reference.TEACHERS . • Candidate’s colleagues–business or work associates will sometimes provide an objective analysis of the candidate’s strengths and weaknesses.PRESCHOOL. Current and former supervisors– immediate supervisors are often the best sources for reliable information about a candidate’s work performance. 173 . KINDERGARTEN. Ask them for names and positions of other persons who know the candidate and contact them. ELEMENTARY.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Seek your own who independent know the sources candidate.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. 174 . KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY.

If you speak • to the person in a relaxed manner. Seek out judgmental comments and try to read between the lines of what the person is telling you.PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN. A reference who says the candidate tried hard or is a people person may be saying such things to avoid talking 175 . ELEMENTARY. you will get better results. keep listening and asking more questions.TEACHERS . Use telephone reference checks rather than mail inquiries since they are faster and less time consuming. If the reference provider keeps talking. • • Ask open-ended questions and probe. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Tips for Checking References • Ask only job-related questions and ask the same questions about each candidate. • Keep the conversation casual.

let the other person do most of the talking. • Do not use leading questions such as “He’s a good manager. Too many details may bias the reference person in formulating their answers.PRESCHOOL. • Always check dates and times the person giving the reference worked with or supervised the candidate. isn’t he?” 176 . • Give only a general description of the vacant position. and then • Determine if there is a personal relationship. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS . As in the case of the employment interview. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY about real problems or issues. • Do not eliminate one candidate because of poor references and then neglect to check references from the remaining candidate(s).

such as a poor leave record. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS . • Listen carefully to the answers you are given and take notes. 177 . A dishonest supervisor may try to unload a problem employee by giving a glowing reference. • Speak to someone in addition to the current supervisor. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Do not let a prominent characteristic. such as a good academic record. overshadow less obvious or possibly negative traits.PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN.

PRESCHOOL. we may become obligated to disclose the information to the applicant or others involved in the selection or review process.TEACHERS . The information you provide will be considered along with other information submitted by the applicant and other references. Please be aware that under the Federal government’s employment policies. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. we recommend you begin with. ask and record the answers to the following: • • How long have you known the candidate? In what capacity were you associated with the candidate? 178 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY The Reference Check Questions To Ask When contacting a reference. “Thank you for taking a few moments to provide information about our job candidate.” Then.

PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . RATINGS 12345 ______ Work ethic? Work quality? Technical skills? Writing skills? Communication skills? Interpersonal skills? Reliability & dependability? Receptivity to feedback? Adaptability to change? Ability to deal with job stress? ______ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ 179 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • As employer? Friend? Supervisor? Co-worker? Other? • Using a scale of 1-5. ELEMENTARY. with 1 being poor and 5 being excellent. KINDERGARTEN. how would you rate the candidate in comparison to most others you have known.

KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • What would you consider to be some of this candidate’s most positive attributes or strengths? • What would you consider to be some areas where this person is not as strong or needs to improve? • What type of work environment does the candidate require to excel? • Describe the candidate’s initiative. • How does the candidate get along with customers? Co-workers? Supervisors and managers? • Is the candidate reliable? Honest? Trustworthy? Of good character? • Would you rehire the candidate? 180 . personality.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . and negative habits.

KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Is there any other information concerning the candidate’s qualifications. conduct and general fitness I should know about? 181 .TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. character.

ELEMENTARY. • Deceive or willfully obstruct any person with respect to such person’s right to compete for employment. gender. recommend. color. political beliefs. and marital or family status.PRESCHOOL. national origin. age.TEACHERS . sexual orientation. or approve any personnel action. religion. As a selecting official with the authority to take. disability. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Prohibited Questions and Practices Please do not put yourself in a position of engaging in a prohibited personnel practice related to employment and selection. direct others to take. you must not: • Discriminate for or against any employee or candidate for employment on the basis of race. KINDERGARTEN. • Influence any person to withdraw from competition for any position for the 182 .

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY purpose of improving or injuring the prospects of any other person for employment.PRESCHOOL. over which you exercise jurisdiction or control as a selecting 183 . KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. • Take or fail to take a personnel action with respect to a candidate for employment as a reprisal. • Discriminate for or against a candidate for employment on the basis of conduct which does not adversely affect the performance of the candidate or the performance of others (except for criminal behavior). • Appoint or employ a relative to a position official.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY RECORDING A PROFILE OF IMPRESSIONS Candidate’s Name_______________________ 1. What are the candidate’s strongest assets in relation to the requirements for this position? 2. Contradictions or inconsistencies noted 184 .TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. The candidate seemed knowledgeable about/ interested in: 4.PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN. What position? are the candidate’s shortcomings in relation to this 3.

KINDERGARTEN.) Examples? 7.g. Overall.. openness. glibness.TEACHERS . the candidate responded to questions with: (e. Overall. mediocre. evasiveness. less than positive. poise. confidence. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY were: 5. The candidate was evasive about: 6.PRESCHOOL. directness. Examples/key descriptions or characteristics? 185 . etc. ELEMENTARY. reference checks were positive.

ELEMENTARY. Ability to deal with morale and employee 186 . KINDERGARTEN. Ability to foster cooperative working environment among employees? 5. Ability to gain commitment and support from others? 2. Ability to establish performance objectives? 4.TEACHERS . Ability to develop solutions to management problems? 3.PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Supervisory and Managerial Competencies: Leading People is there evidence demonstrating: 1.


PRESCHOOL. Working as a member of a team? 3. Conflict resolution? 2. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Building Coalitions/Communication: Is there evidence demonstrating: 1. ELEMENTARY. Expression of ideas and views that others understand and that influence (persuade) them to act? 188 .TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN.

Considering these suggestions can help minimize the time required for recruitment on YOUR end and also help the Human Resources (HR) Specialist speed up the process. KINDERGARTEN. Middle. Kindergarten. ELEMENTARY. This chapter provides suggestions on steps YOU should take to ensure YOUR recruitment activity works for YOU.PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . 189 . Simply posting the vacancy on job websites will not guarantee that you receive quality applications for the job. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY RECRUITING Teachers—Preschool. and Secondary It Takes More Than A Job Announcement! One of the critical steps in the recruitment process involves the actions you take to speed up the process and reach the largest. Elementary. desirable pool of candidates.

TEACHERS . o Ensure that the KSAs can be directly related back to duties and responsibilities in the position description. ELEMENTARY. o Determine if it accurately reflects the knowledge. o Develop your “Quality Experience” definition. Identify experience a candidate will need to bring to the job on day one. KINDERGARTEN. and USDA Direct Hire Authority. skills. and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the job.PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Before Submitting the Vacancy • Review and rethink the position description o Ensure that the duties and responsibilities reflect the needs (or discipline) of the position at this time. Federal Career Intern Program. special 190 . Career Enhancement Program. • Consider alternative hiring methods o Determine if the position can be filled using the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP).

TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. or other hiring methods. and Professors if you are located on a campus to promote and highlight the many career opportunities available with ARS. o Determine if you will need to recruit nationwide or if there will be sufficient candidates in the local commuting area to give you a diverse applicant pool from which to select. Deans. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY hiring authorities for individuals with disabilities or veterans. o Visit or contact the Career Center. ELEMENTARY. KINDERGARTEN. • Think about the vacancy announcement o Determine who the applicants are you are trying to reach. • Develop a strategy to reach your candidate o Identify ways to market the job announcement to reach potential applicants. 191 .

as well as expectations for completion of the action. o Identify colleges and universities or professional societies and organizations where the announcement should be mailed. o Keep in touch with your HR Specialist by e-mail during the recruitment process. or online advertising sites that might be useful in marketing the job. KINDERGARTEN. journals. ELEMENTARY. o Contact the Recruitment Office and your Area Civil Rights Manager for ideas on how to reach a diverse candidate pool.TEACHERS . 192 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY o Identify colleagues (both within and outside the organization) who can help in marketing the job.PRESCHOOL. o Identify newspapers. • Contact your servicing HR Specialist o Discuss recruitment strategies and alternatives. • Submit all required paperwork o Submit all position descriptions and forms needed to request the personnel action.

o Submit your “Quality Experience” definition. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY o Submit draft ad text along with the request to save time (remember.TEACHERS . 193 . KINDERGARTEN. your servicing HR Specialist must review and approve all ads prior to being placed).

stakeholders. schools and colleges.PRESCHOOL. and place ads in newspapers. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS . colleagues. magazines. however. and online job boards. o Document your efforts. and don’t give the impression they will get the job. • Identify a Diverse Group of Interview Panel Members and Set Up Panel Dates 194 . or organizations you have identified. o E-mail the announcement to co-workers. KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY When the Vacancy Announcement is Open • Conduct your Marketing o Be PROACTIVE! o Personally identify potential candidates and send a note with the announcement or call to encourage them to apply – be cautious. and peers with a brief note asking for assistance in publicizing the job. o Send the vacancy announcement to individuals.

Ask your HR Specialist to scan applications received to get an idea of the quality of applicants before making a decision to extend the closing date. 195 .PRESCHOOL.TEACHERS . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY o Ask your HR Specialist for an approximate timeframe for receipt of the certificate of eligibles. o Determine if you need to extend the closing date. replace panel members immediately. o Ask interview panel members to block out time on their calendars for the interview process. ELEMENTARY. o Clear your calendar also! o Keep your interview panel members informed throughout the recruitment process – if conflicts arise. • Contact Your HR Specialist Throughout The Process o Ask if you are receiving applications. • Develop Interview Questions o Share interview questions with the panel members for comments and suggestions. KINDERGARTEN.

TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. Set a timeframe to complete the interviews. KINDERGARTEN. o Have an open mind – interview “Preference Eligible” (Veterans and Displaced) candidates before making judgments on their ability to do the job. Remember. Ask for help from colleagues as needed. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Once the Certificate is Received • Schedule the Interviews Immediately So The Best Candidates Are Still Available o Review the certificate right away and identify the candidates you believe should be interviewed. o Schedule the interviews close together to minimize losing a desirable candidate and to maximize the likelihood of remembering individual candidates’ strengths and weaknesses. Talk to your HR Specialist if you have concerns. ELEMENTARY. they meet the qualifications for the position. if they are on the certificate. 196 .

• Conduct Reference Check o Always conduct reference checks on top candidates! This is more critical than ever before. • Make Your Tentative Selection o Contact the candidate selected to advise that their name is being recommended to Human Resources. o Advise the candidates of the process you will use to conduct interviews (for example.PRESCHOOL. o Notify HR Specialist of your decision and discuss options for offering recruitment incentives. Ask if any issues with pay. Remember. EOD. incentives. etc. 197 .TEACHERS . KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY o Advise applicants of your timeframe for conducting the interviews – if they are interested. they will make themselves available. interview panel – give them guidelines). the HR Specialist must make the official offer of employment.

KINDERGARTEN. o Ask the HR Specialist to issue the written employment offer including information on negotiated pay.TEACHERS . 198 .PRESCHOOL. and EOD date. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY o Obtain required area/organization approvals of the selection and incentives being proposed. ELEMENTARY. recruitment incentives and bonuses.

PRESCHOOL. procedures. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. • Prepare for the new employee/s arrival o Make copies of appropriate policies. 199 . • Share impressive applications o Share other impressive applications with colleagues who may be recruiting for similar jobs – they can contact and encourage quality applicants to apply for their positions. o Share a copy of other impressive applications with the Recruitment Office – this office can refer the applications to others recruiting for similar positions. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY After The Selection is Made • Notify other candidates interviewed of your decision o HR will notify all non-selected candidates of the final outcome. and other documents the new employee should read. o Contact the candidates interviewed and encourage them to apply for other positions.

TEACHERS . and let the employee know they can ask questions. provide time to read through materials. o Set time on your calendar to spend with the new employee on the first day – show them around the facility. o Prepare the performance plan and provide it along with a copy of the position description on the first day of work. etc. of the position. 200 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY o Have the employee’s workspace cleaned up and the desk stocked with essential supplies. o Make sure the employee is set up with an e-mail address and computer access. o Identify a mentor and develop an Individual Development Plan (IDP) to address with the employee. discuss the job and work they will be doing. o Inform the employee of the probationary period requirements as well as the promotion potential. ELEMENTARY.PRESCHOOL. if any. KINDERGARTEN.

KINDERGARTEN. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY ASSESSING YOUR RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PRACTICES Policies and Procedures Your organization’s policies and procedures should thoroughly document the recruitment.PRESCHOOL. • Are recruitment.) • How widely communicated are the organization’s written recruitment.TEACHERS . Ask yourself these questions to help assess whether or not your organization’s policies and procedures are current and include new requirements. assessment and selection policies to 201 . ELEMENTARY. assessment and selection processes. accurate and complete? (Ideally within 2 years. The policies and procedures should be accessible and understood by not only HR professionals but Managers and others involved in the hiring process. assessment and selection processes supported by written policies and procedures that are up-todate.

MIDDLE AND SECONDARY those who are involved in the process? (Ideally to all staff. KINDERGARTEN. assessment and selection processes? • Does the organization have a written policy describing procedures for the review of competencies and/or qualifications? • Does the organization follow a formal recruitment. and personnel involved in the hiring process should receive comprehensive training in the organization’s full recruitment process and thoroughly understand proper interview and selection techniques.PRESCHOOL. 202 . ELEMENTARY. supervisors. assessment and selection plan at the start of each recruitment? (Link to sample recruitment plan) • Training Managers.TEACHERS .) • Does the organization utilize these policies and procedures for the recruitment.

TEACHERS . how long does it take to fill a position within the organization from the start of recruitment until an offer is extended? (Ideally 2 months or less. and evaluating candidates)? 203 .g.. conducting interviews.) • Does the organization provide training and/or written guidelines about recruitment.PRESCHOOL. reviewing applications. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Who performs recruitment activities for the organization? (Ideally HR with unit management participation.) • On average. assessment and selection policies and procedures to managers and supervisors prior to them seeking to fill a position (e.

PRESCHOOL. KINDERGARTEN.TEACHERS . ELEMENTARY. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY Recruitment Strategies The organization should tailor their recruitment strategy to meet the need for the specific position and the organization’s goals. as well as attract a diverse pool of applicants. qualified candidates? • What recruitment strategies are utilized to attract hard-to-find qualified 204 . • Does the organization develop a specific recruiting and marketing plan to identify how and who they need to contact to help achieve finding the best candidates? • Does the organization have a plan to recruit qualified applicants who represent the diversity of the State or local service area? • Does the organization compare its workforce demographics to the State. county or local labor force demographics? • Does the organization utilize specialized recruitment strategies to attract hard-tofind.

professional organizations. ELEMENTARY. laws. Employment Security Department. internet job sites. • Is a job analysis conducted to identify the key responsibilities of a position prior to announcement? 205 . local and regional newspapers.) • Does the organization track the effectiveness of different recruiting methods? • Are recruitment sources periodically evaluated to assure they meet the needs of the organization and return on investment calculated? • • Recruitment Process and Hiring Recruitment procedures should be developed and administered in compliance with all applicable organization policies. job fairs. civic organizations. KINDERGARTEN. regulations. etc. bargaining agreements. and professional standards.TEACHERS .PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY candidates? (Ideally executive search firms. networking.

relevant interview questions? • • Selection Process Selection procedures should be developed and administered in 206 .PRESCHOOL. MIDDLE AND SECONDARY • Are required qualifications reviewed prior to position announcements to assure they are job related? • Are preferred qualifications reviewed prior to position announcements to assure they are job related? • Does the organization’s HR staff assure all applicants selected for employment meet the posted qualifications for the position? • What percentage of job announcements identify the competencies needed to perform the job? • • Are essential functions of the position discussed with the candidate? Does the organization utilize a behavioral interviewing tool to develop standardized. KINDERGARTEN. ELEMENTARY.TEACHERS .

• What methods are used for the selection process? (Ideally selection matrix. KINDERGARTEN. regulations. ELEMENTARY.) • • How long is the selection documentation retained? Does the organization evaluate and assess how well the selection procedures worked? • • How frequently does the organization assess its selection procedures? Does the organization maintain documentation of the assessment process? 207 . MIDDLE AND SECONDARY compliance with all applicable laws.) • What percentage of the final selection decisions is documented? (This includes reasons for hire versus non-hire.PRESCHOOL. interview notes. reference checks. resume ranking. skills testing.TEACHERS . background checks. etc. and professional standards.

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