GENERAL PRINCIPLES Constitution Fundamental organic law of a state which contains the principles on which government is founded and

regulates the division and exercise of sovereign power Conferment of the powers and limitation of the same. Social contract between the state and it·s people ( sovereignty resides in the people and all govt authority emanates from them)

Fundamental law of the state

Confers to the constitution

Kinds of constitution Cumulative or evolved and Conventional or enacted Written and unwritten Rigid and flexible


Cumulative or evolved Originates in customs, common law principles decisions of courts. Historical evolution and growth

Constitution vs. statute Constitution Legislation direct from the people General principles Not merely intended to meet existing conditions Statute Legislation from the people·s representative Provides the details of the subject of which it treats Intended to meet existing conditions only

Conventional or enacted Enacted by a constituent assembly or promulgated by the king


Capable of being twisted to meet great emergencies Rigid constitution which can not be amended by ordinary law making process. and prevent the introduction of the needed changes to it and thereby retard growth and progress of the state Advantage of an unwritten constitution Elastic and flexible. need two-third majority for amended Constitution - Advantages of written Constitution Definite and clear Prepared with great care and deliberation Disadvantage of unwritten constitution Can easily be altered to meet the temporary fancies of the moment .- not embodied in a single document but based chiefly on custom and precedent as expressed in statutes and judicial decisions. - Cannot be easily bent and twisted by the legislature or by the courts Stable and free from dangers of temporary popular passions Written Where the provisions are embodied in a single written instrument or instruments Disadvantage of written Constitution Flexible can be amended byordinary law making procedure Difficult to amend. can easily be modified to meet new and changing conditions.

permanent - Ordinance Merely temporary law Objective is to carry out the formation of the constitution and the fundamental law of the land ´sovereignty resides in the people and all govt authority emanates from them ´ All acts of the govt officials must be in conformity with the constitution.Constitution Stable . People . All acts must be for the welfare of the people because the state is the protector of the people. independent of external control and possessing a govt to which a great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience. THE STATE Political Law Branch of public law w/c deals with the organization and operations of the governmental organs of the state and defines the relationship of the state with its inhabitants Constitutional law Study of the maintenance of the proper balance between authority as represented by the three inherent powers of the state and liberty as guaranteed by the bill of rights State Is a community of persons. permanently occupying a definite portion of territory. more or less numerous. Elements of state: 1.

or by civilian authority supported more or less directly by military force. Domain of states : terrestrial. . It is necessarily obeyed on civil matters by private citizens who. fopr those acts. It is usually administered directly by the military authority. carried out and expressed Dejure: government of right. aerial Agency through which the will of the state is formulated. do not become responsible as wrongdoer. 3. by acts of obedience rendered in submission to such force. the power to make laws and enforce Government . De facto: one that existence of which is maintained by force within the territories and against the rightful authority of an estaablished and lawful government. true and lawful govt. enough to be wellgoverned and large enough to be self-sufficing - Territory land over w/c the jurisdiction of the state extends. Territory Government Sovereignty - People Mass of population living w/in the state w/o people there can be no functionaries to govern and no subjecst to be governed no requirement as to number of people not too small or too large. established accdng to the constitution of the state. 4.2. maritime. supreme will of the state . fluvial. are not warranted by the laws of the rightful Sovereignty Supreme uncontrollable power The absolute right to govern.

- - Archipelago doctrine an archipelago shall be regarded as a single unit. irrespective of their breadth and dimensions. language. and connecting the islands of the archipelago. between.- - them by all means of coercion it cares to employ. customs and - May consist of one or more nations - - - traditions. May or may not be independent of external control May be made up of several states Doctrine of parens patriae this doctrine has been defined as the inherent power and authority of the state to provide protection to the persons and property of the persons non-sui juris. Non-sui juris persons are those who lack the legal capacity to act on his own behalf like the child or the insane persons. What may be suspended is the exercise of the rights of sovereignty when the control and govt of the territory by the enemy passes temporarily to the occupant. . Internal : supremacy over the individuals within the area of its jurisdiction (IMPERIUM) External : absolute independence of one state as a whole with reference to other states (DOMINIUM) Cannot be suspened w/o putting it out of existence. STATE Political concept Not subject to external controll NATION Ethnic concept Group of people bound together by certain characteristics such as common special origin. so that the waters around.

subject to its exclusive sovereignty. court decisions (precedence). or legislation. All waters w·in the baselines are considered internal waters of the archipelago state.- form part of the internal waters of the state. in general. - Legal principle that. Doctrine of Transformation Legal principle that the provisions of international law are enforceable in a jurisdictions if they are adopted through customary use. IMMUNITY OF THE STATE FROM SUIT Sec 3 Art 16 1987 constitution The state may not be sued without its consent ( PIL) There can be no legal right as against the authority which makes the law on which the right depends . Appropriate points are set along the coast of the archipelago including the outmost islands and the nconnect those points with straight baselines. Immunity applies to public officers Applicable to complaints filed against officials of the state for act allegedly performed by them in th discharge of their duties Doctrine of Incorporaton . the provisions of international law are enforceable in a jurisdiction so far as they are consistent with the provisions of its domestic law.

- Judgments against such officials will require the state itself to perform an affirmative act to satisfy the same. it is giving the plaintiff the chance to prove that the state is liable. Restrictive theory of state immunity foreign states were immune from jurisdiction relating to their ´public actsµ (acta jure imperii) but were not immune from jurisdiction for their ´private actsµ (acta jure gestionis) including commercial activities. ( statute) *executive department determines whether a foreign state is entitled to immunity from suit .by way of general law Implied A. when the state commences litigation. it does not necessarily concede it is liable. Given by the congress. general or special law. - Suability vs liability When the state consents to be as not to embarrass the executive arm of the govt in conducting the country·s foreign relations. Doctrine of Royal Prerogative of Dishonesty . When the sate enters into contract provided that it is proprietary in nature. thus opening itself to a counterclaim B. Consent Given Express.

Does not renounce defensive war. People do not govern themselves directly but through representatives Founded upon popular suffrage Government of laws and not of men Section 2 of Art II The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy. signatory to the kellog brian pact. because it is duty bound to defend its citizens. justice. adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace. The prime duty of the govt is to protect and serve the people.- Immunity grants the state to defeat any legitimate claim against it by simply invoking its non-suability - DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES and STATE POLICIES Representative govt where in the powers and duties of govt are exercised and discharged for the common good and welfare. freedom. equality. Section 1 of art II The Philippines is a democratic and republican state. Sovereignty resides and all govt authority emanates from them. Republican Government of the people for the people by the people. Renounces aggressive war. Doctrine of Incorporaton . cooperation and amity with all nation.

the provisions of international law are enforceable in a jurisdiction so far as they are consistent with the provisions of its domestic law. art II The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. or legislation. by virtue of the incorporation clause of the constitution. Doctrine of auto-limitations The Philippines adheres to the principles of international law as a limitation to the exercise of its sovereignty. in general.the generally accepted principles of international alw . Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the state and the integrity of the national territory. Doctrine of Transformation Legal principle that the provisions of international law are enforceable in a jurisdictions if they are adopted through customary use. Section 3 art II Civilian authority is at all times. Protocol de cloture An instrument which records the winding up of the proceedings of a diplomatic conference and usually includes a reproduction of the text of treaties. form part of the laws of the land. .- - Legal principle that. The Government may . Section 4. The armed forces of the Philippines are the protector of the people and the state. supreme over the military. signed by the plenipotentiaries attending the conference. court decisions (precedence).

would bar the military plea of deni . Rationale: In conformity wit hthe preamble as it is the aspiration of the people to have a peaceful and orderly society. Symbiotic relations between the church and upon the people to defend the State and. Section 6 art II The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. writ of amparo. military or civil service. all citizens may be required. Habeas Data is ³[we command] you have the data´. under conditions provided by law. the protection of life. in the fulfillment thereof. Posse comitatus Power of the state to require all able bodied citizens to perform civic duty to maintain peace and order. liberty. to render personal. the church is likewise prohibited from meddling in purely secular affairs. State is prohibited from interfering with the ecclesiastical affairs of the church. and promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy. and property. - Section 5 art II The maintenance of peace and order.

or by majority vote of all its members. submit to the electorate the question of calling such a convention) .may be amended not oftener than every 5 years Con-con (2) A constitutional convention( 2/3 vote to call for a con-con. this Constitution may be proposed by: (1) The Congress.AMENDMENTS Section 1. . or (2) A constitutional convention Power of the people to propose amendments to the constitution or to propose and enact legislation through an election called for the purpose . held not earlier than 60 days nor later than 90 days after the approval of such amendment or revision. of which every legislative district must be represented by 3% of the registered voters a plebiscite ( majority vote. or (3) a direct proposal by the people through initiative upon a petition of at least 12% of the total number of registered voters.Any amendment to. . or revision of. People·s initiative Amend or revised: (1) The Congress. Held not earlier than 60 days and not later than 90 days after the certification by the . upon a vote of three-fourths of all its Members. upon a vote of three-fourths of all its Members.

the people must be informed of the issues and they must be given sufficient time to discuss the merits and demerits of the proposed amendments. - .commission on election of the sufficiency of the petition. not piece-meal. Doctrine of fair and proper submission The constitution must be submitted to the people as a whole.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times