A Handbook for the Mechanical Designer

Second Edition
Copyright 1999

This handy engineering information guide is a token of Loren Cook Company’s appreciation to the many fine mechanical designers in our industry.

Springfield, MO

Table of Contents
Fan Basics Fan Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Fan Selection Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Fan Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Fan Performance Tables and Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Fan Testing - Laboratory, Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature . . . . . . . . . 3 Use of Air Density Factors - An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Classifications for Spark Resistant Construction . . . . . . . .4-5 Impeller Designs - Centrifugal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6 Impeller Designs - Axial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components. . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-10 Rotation & Discharge Designations for Centrifugal Fans 11-12 Motor Positions for Belt or Chain Drive Centrifugal Fans . . 13 Fan Installation Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Fan Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Motor and Drive Basics Definitions and Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Types of Alternating Current Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-18 Motor Insulation Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Motor Service Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Locked Rotor KVA/HP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Motor Efficiency and EPAct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Full Load Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-22 General Effect of Voltage and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Allowable Ampacities of Not More Than Three Insulated Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-25 Belt Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Estimated Belt Drive Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Bearing Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 System Design Guidelines General Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Process Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Kitchen Ventilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Rules of Thumb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31-32 Noise Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Table of Contents
System Design Guidelines (cont.) Sound Power and Sound Power Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Level . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Room Sones —dBA Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Noise Criteria Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Design Criteria for Room Loudness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-36 Vibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Vibration Severity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-39 General Ventilation Design Air Quality Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Air Change Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Suggested Air Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality . . . . . . . 42 Heat Gain From Occupants of Conditioned Spaces . . . . . . 43 Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Rate of Heat Gain Commercial Cooking Appliances in Air-Conditioned Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Rate of Heat Gain From Miscellaneous Appliances . . . . . . 46 Filter Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Relative Size Chart of Common Air Contaminants . . . . . . . 47 Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Health . . . . . . . . . . 48 Duct Design Backdraft or Relief Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Screen Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Duct Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components. . . . . . . . . 53 Velocity and Velocity Pressure Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . 54 U.S. Sheet Metal Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Recommended Metal Gauges for Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Wind Driven Rain Louvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Heating & Refrigeration Moisture and Air Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Properties of Saturated Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Cooling Load Check Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59-60 Heat Loss Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-62 Fuel Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Fuel Gas Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Refrigerant Line Capacities for 134a . 75 Fouling Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Copper Tube Dimensions . . . . . . 87-88 Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84-87 Circle Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-103 . . . . . . 80 Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63-64 Pump Construction Types . . . . 65 Affinity Laws for Pumps . . . . . . . 64 Pump Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Typical Heat Transfer Coefficients . . . . . . 63 Annual Fuel Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-717 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Pumping System Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerant Temperature at 100°F Condensing . . . . . . 69 Common Pump Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) Estimated Seasonal Efficiencies of Heating Systems . . . . 77 Evaporate Condenser Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Cooling Tower Ratings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Standard Pipe Dimensions . 78 Compressor Capacity vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Index . . . . . . 79 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Common Fractions of an Inch . 71-72 Equivalent Length of Pipe for Valves and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . 64 Pump Impeller Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-68 Pump Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents Heating & Refrigeration (cont. . . . . . . 65 Pump Mounting Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-94 Psychometric Chart. . . . . . 79 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-502 . . . . . . . . . . 70 Water Flow and Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81-84 Area and Circumference of Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-71 Friction Loss for Water Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

low pressure. Fan Selection Criteria Before selecting a fan.CFM • System resistance . Centrifugal Fan Types Backward Inclined. axial fans are preferred for high volume. • Air volume required . As a general rule. As a general rule. centrifugal fans are preferred for higher pressure ducted systems.SP • Air density (Altitude and Temperature) • Type of service • Environment type • Materials/vapors to be exhausted • Operation temperature • Space limitations • Fan type • Drive type (Direct or Belt) • Noise criteria • Number of fans • Discharge • Rotation • Motor position • Expected fan life in years 1 .An axial fan discharges air parallel to the axis of the impeller rotation. the following information is needed.Centrifugal fans discharge air perpendicular to the axis of the impeller rotation. Tube Axial and Vane Axial. Airfoil. Centrifugal Fan . and non-ducted systems. and Radial Tip. Forward Curved.Fan Basics Fan Types Axial Fan . Axial Fan Types Propeller.

When fan performance is measured in field conditions. Field Fans are tested and performance certified under ideal laboratory conditions. If possible. page 14. Consideration must also be given to fan inlet and discharge connections as they will dramatically affect fan performance in the field.Laboratory. • CFM varies directly with RPM CFM1/CFM2 = RPM1/RPM2 • SP varies with the square of the RPM SP1/SP2 = (RPM1/RPM2)2 • HP varies with the cube of the RPM HP1/HP2 = (RPM1/RPM2)3 Fan Performance Tables and Curves Performance tables provide a simple method of fan selection. For further information refer to Fan Installation Guidelines. readings must be taken in straight runs of ductwork in order to ensure validity. 2 . However. For further information refer to Use of Air Density Factors An Example. it is critical to evaluate fan performance curves in the fan selection process as the margin for error is very slim when selecting a fan near the limits of tabular data. Fan performance tables and curves are based on standard air density of 0.Fan Basics Fan Laws The simplified form of the most commonly used fan laws include. If this cannot be accomplished. motor amperage and fan RPM should be used along with performance curves to estimate fan performance. page 3. the difference between the ideal laboratory condition and the actual field installation must be considered. The performance curve also is a valuable tool when evaluating fan performance in the field.075 lb/ft3. Fan Testing . When altitude and temperature differ significantly from standard conditions (sea level and 70° F) performance modification factors must be taken into account to ensure proper performance.

425 .380 .624 .896 .758 .774 .340 .27 BHP.27 BHP The final operating conditions are determined to be 7500 CFM.552 .747 .394 .283 500 .552 .532 .573 .580 .643 = 2.) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 15000 20000 70 1.668 .258 .480 . 3. Divide the design SP by the air density correction factor.697 .964 .326 .651 .643 .410 .448 .458 . the air density correction factor is determined to be .498 .772 .672 .453 .518 .930 . Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature.596 .5” SP/. 976 RPM.426 .803 .552 .000 .460 100 .352 .347 .465 .393 .380 .432 .564 .457 .315 .321 .648 .787 .344 .282 .946 .372 .482 .694 .369 Temperature 300 400 .616 .254 600 .493 .594 .An Example A fan is selected to deliver 7500 CFM at 1-1/2 inch SP at an altitude of 6000 feet above sea level and an operating temperature of 200° F. This is corrected to conditions at altitude by multiplying the BHP by the air density correction factor. and 2.513 .573 . 1-1/2” SP.53.743 .534 .459 .210 Use of Air Density Factors .864 .848 .801 .880 .643 = 2.620 .53 BHP x .395 . From the table above.353 .33” SP Referring to the fan’s performance rating table.714 .604 .676 .532 .230 700 .818 .366 .440 .442 .386 .513 .441 .730 .416 . it is determined that the fan must operate at 976 RPM to develop the desired 7500 CFM at 6000 foot above sea level and at an operating temperature of 200° F.643 by using the fan’s operating altitude and temperature.495 . 1. 3 .435 200 .688 . The BHP (Brake Horsepower) is determined from the fan’s performance table to be 3.720 .912 .424 .703 .410 .476 .500 .477 .832 .538 .Fan Basics Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature Altitude (ft.311 .558 .400 .

however. fumes or vapors. bearings. 2. The exact method of construction and choice of alloys is the responsibility of the manufacturer. drive components or electrical devices shall be placed in the air or gas stream unless they are constructed or enclosed in such a manner that failure of that component cannot ignite the surrounding gas stream. The fan shall have a nonferrous impeller and nonferrous ring about the opening through which the shaft passes. All parts of the fan in contact with the air or gas being handled shall be made of nonferrous material. Such applications require careful consideration of all system components to insure the safe handling of such gas streams. and hardware are allowed provided construction is such that a shift of impeller or shaft will not permit two ferrous parts of the fan to rub or strike. Steps must also be taken to assure the impeller. Steps must also be taken to assure that the impeller. shafts. the customer must accept both the type and design with full recognition of the potential hazard and the degree of protection required. The Standard contains guidelines which are to be used by both the manufacturer and user as a means of establishing general methods of construction. B. This AMCA Standard deals only with the fan unit installed in that system. The fan shall be so constructed that a shift of the impeller or shaft will not permit two ferrous parts of the fan to rub or strike. The user shall electrically ground all fan parts. Construction Type A. For this Standard. Notes 1. and shaft are adequately attached and/or restrained to prevent a lateral or axial shift in these components. Ferrous hubs. 3. bearings. †Adapted from AMCA Standard 99-401-86 4 . No bearings. C. and shaft are adequately attached and/or restrained to prevent a lateral or axial shift in these components.Fan Basics Classifications for Spark Resistant Construction† Fan applications may involve the handling of potentially explosive or flammable particles. nonferrous material shall be a material with less than 5% iron or any other material with demonstrated ability to be spark resistant.

5 . Research by the U. or any other plastic compound were not addressed.Centrifugal Airfoil . Air leaves the impeller at a velocity less than its tip speed.S. For the given duty. Applications .” Standard Applications • Centrifugal Fans • Axial and Propeller Fans • Power Roof Ventilators This standard applies to ferrous and nonferrous metals.Primary applications include general heating systems. Impeller Designs .Fan Basics Classifications for Spark Resistant Construction (cont. “Spark resistant construction also does not protect against ignition of explosive gases caused by catastrophic failure or from any airstream material that may be present in a system. and ventilating and air conditioning systems.Has the highest efficiency of all of the centrifugal impeller designs with 9 to 16 blades of airfoil contour curved away from the direction of rotation. The use of the above Standard in no way implies a guarantee of safety for any level of spark resistance. PVC. The potential questions which may be associated with fans constructed of FRP. Bureau of Mines and others has shown that aluminum impellers rubbing on rusty steel may cause high intensity sparking. the airfoil impeller design will provide for the highest speed of the centrifugal fan designs. The use of aluminum or aluminum alloys in the presence of steel which has been allowed to rust requires special consideration.) 4. Used in larger sizes for clean air industrial applications providing significant power savings. Relatively deep blades provide for efficient expansion with the blade passages.

Used primarily for material handling applications in industrial plants. Backward inclined or backward curved blades are single thickness with 9 to 16 blades curved or inclined away from the direction of rotation.Simplest of all centrifugal impellers and least efficient.Primary applications include general heating systems. Has 24 to 64 shallow blades with both the heel and tip curved forward. and ventilating and air conditioning systems.Primary applications include low pressure heating. Classification includes radial blades and modified radial blades). This design also is used for high pressure industrial requirements and is not commonly found in HVAC applications. Forward Curved . and air conditioning applications such as domestic furnaces. Radial .Efficiency is less than airfoil and backward curved bladed impellers. usually with 6 to 10 blades. and packaged air conditioning equipment from room type to roof top units. Usually fabricated at low cost and of lightweight construction. Impeller can be of rugged construction and is simple to repair in the field.Centrifugal (cont. ventilating. Applications . Tip speed and primary energy transferred to the air is the result of high impeller velocities. Backward Curved .Fan Basics Impeller Designs . Also used in some industrial applications where the airfoil blade is not acceptable because of a corrosive and/or erosive environment. For a given point of rating. 6 .) Backward Inclined. central station units. Air leaves the impeller at a velocity less than its tip speed. Applications . this impeller requires medium speed. the wheel is the smallest of all of the centrifugal types and operates most efficiently at lowest speed. Has high mechanical strength and the impeller is easily repaired. Impeller is sometimes coated with special material. Applications .Efficiency is slightly less than that of the airfoil design. For the given duty. Relatively deep blades provide efficient expansion with the blade passages. Air leaves the impeller at velocities greater than the impeller tip speed.

Axial Propeller . Blades can be of airfoil or single thickness cross section. the number of blades range from 4 to 8 with the hub normally less than 50 percent of fan tip diameter. Applications .Primary applications include low pressure.Slightly more efficient than propeller impeller design and is capable of developing a more useful static pressure range. and fume exhaust systems. ventilating. Applications .Primary applications include general heating. 7 . Generally. General construction features include two or more blades of single thickness attached to a relatively small hub. Impeller construction costs are also usually low. The most efficient fans of this type have airfoil blades. Relatively more compact than comparable centrifugal type fans for the same duty. and air conditioning systems in low. ventilating.Primary applications include low and medium pressure ducted heating.Fan Basics Impeller Designs . Also used in some industrial applications such as drying ovens. and high pressure applications. Tube Axial . Used for replacement air applications. paint spray booths. and fume exhaust systems. medium. Air distribution on downstream side is good. Advantage where straight through flow and compact installation are required. Vane Axial . Also used in some industrial applications such as drying ovens. paint spray booths.Efficiency is low and usually limited to low pressure applications. Blades are fixed or adjustable pitch types and the hub is usually greater than 50 percent of the fan tip diameter. and air conditioning applications where air distribution on the downstream side is not critical.Solid design of the blades permits medium to high pressure capability at good efficiencies. Energy transfer is primarily in form of velocity pressure. Applications . high volume air moving applications such as air circulation within a space or ventilation through a wall without attached duct work.

Fan Basics Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components Housing Shaft Cutoff Impeller Side Panel Blast Area Discharge Back Plate Outlet Area Blade Inlet Cutoff Scroll Shroud Bearing Support Inlet Collar Impeller Frame 8 .

†Adapted from AMCA Standard 99-2404-78 9 .Double Inlet Arr. Two bearings on base. 1 SWSI .For belt drive or direct drive connection. Arr.Double Width.Fan Basics Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans† SW . 3 DWDI . Arr. DI . Impeller over-hung. One bearing on each side and supported by fan housing. 3 SWSI .For belt drive or direct connection. One bearing on each side supported by fan housing. SI . Bearings in bracket supported by fan housing.Single Inlet DW .Single Width. Impeller over-hung. 2 SWSI .For belt drive or direct drive connection. Arr.For belt drive or direct drive connection.

For belt drive or direct connection.Single Width. 10 SWSI .Single Inlet DW . .Double Width. Arr. two bearings.For belt drive. DI . Impeller over-hung on prime mover shaft.For belt drive. No bearings on fan. Arrangement 3 plus base for prime mover.For belt drive or direct connection. 9 SWSI .Fan Basics Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans (cont. 7 SWSI . Arr. 7 DWDI . Prime mover base mounted or integrally directly connected.) SW . Impeller overhung.Double Inlet Arr. 8 SWSI . with prime mover inside base. two bearings.For belt drive or direct connection. Arrangement 1 plus extended base for prime mover. 4 SWSI . SI .For direct drive. Arrangement 3 plus base for prime mover. Arr. 10 Arr. with prime mover outside base. Arr. Impeller overhung.

Counterclockwise 11 .Fan Basics Rotation & Discharge Designations for Centrifugal Fans* Top Horizontal Clockwise Top Angular Down Counterclockwise Clockwise Top Angular Up Counterclockwise Clockwise Down Blast Counterclockwise Clockwise * Rotation is always as viewed from drive side.

Counterclockwise 12 .Fan Basics Rotation & Discharge Designations for Centrifugal Fans* (cont.) Up Blast Clockwise Bottom Horizontal Counterclockwise Clockwise Bottom Angular Down Counterclockwise Clockwise Bottom Angular Up Counterclockwise Clockwise * Rotation is always as viewed from drive side.

†Adapted from AMCA Standard 99-2404-78 13 . face the drive side of the fan and pick the proper motor position designated by the letters W. Y or Z as shown in the drawing below. X.Fan Basics Motor Positions for Belt Drive Centrifugal Fans† To determine the location of the motor.

Fan Basics Fan Installation Guidelines Centrifugal Fan Conditions Typical Inlet Conditions Limit slope to 15° converging Correct Installations Limit slope to 7° diverging Cross-sectional area not greater than 112-1/2% of inlet area x Cross-sectional area not greater than 92-1/2% of inlet area Minimum of 2-1/2 inlet diameters (3 recommended) Incorrect Installations Turbulence Turbulence Typical Outlet Conditions Limit slope to 7° diverging Correct Installations Limit slope to 15° converging x Cross-sectional area not greater than 105% of outlet area Cross-sectional area not greater than 95% of outlet area Minimum of 2-1/2 outlet diameters (3 recommended) Incorrect Installations Turbulence Turbulence 14 .

• Incorrect direction of rotation.Fan Basics Fan Troubleshooting Guide Low Capacity or Pressure • Incorrect direction of rotation – Make sure the fan rotates in same direction as the arrows on the motor or belt drive assembly. • Poor fan inlet conditions –There should be a straight. • Speed too high. • Belts too loose. • Incorrect fan RPM. • Incorrect voltage. Excessive Vibration and Noise • Damaged or unbalanced wheel. clear duct at the inlet. Make sure the fan rotates in same direction as the arrows on the motor or belt drive assembly. • Cooling air diverted or blocked. Make sure the fan rotates in same direction as the arrows on the motor or belt drive assembly. • Excessive belt tension. Overheated Bearings • Improper bearing lubrication. Overheated Motor • Motor improperly wired. • Fan surge. • Bearings need lubrication or replacement. • Improper wheel alignment. • Improper inlet clearance. 15 . • Incorrect direction of rotation. worn or oily belts.

and 50 Hz in Canada and other nations. Torque = (HP x 5252 lb-ft. Slip: the difference between synchronous speed and actual motor speed. Rated Load Torque: the torque necessary to produce rated horsepower at rated-load speed.) / RPM % slip = 16 . (synchronous speed . Single Phase AC: typical household type electric power consisting of a single alternating current at 110-115 volts. Synchronous Speed = (60 x 2f) / p Where: f = frequency of the power supply p = number of poles in the motor Three Phase AC: typical industrial electric power consisting of 3 alternating currents of equal frequency differing in phase of 120 degrees from each other.S. typically 60 cycles per second (Hertz) in the U. HP = (RPM x torque) / 5252 lb-ft. % efficiency = (power out / power in) x 100 Horsepower: a rate of doing work expressed in foot-pounds per minute. Usually expressed in percent slip. Breakdown Torque: the maximum torque a motor will develop with rated voltage and frequency applied without an abrupt drop in speed. Torque: a measure of rotational force defined in foot-pounds or Newton-meters. Efficiency: a rating of how much input power an electric motor converts to actual work at the rotating shaft expressed in percent.actual speed) X 100 synchronous speed Synchronous speed: the speed of the rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. Available in voltages ranging from 200 to 575 volts for typical industrial applications. Locked Rotor Torque: the minimum torque that a motor will develop at rest for all angular positions of the rotor with rated voltage and frequency applied.Motor and Drive Basics Definitions and Formulas Alternating Current: electric current that alternates or reverses at a defined frequency.

The squirrel-cage motor is a constant speed motor of simple construction that produces relatively high starting torque. The attraction and repulsion of these two magnetic fields causes the rotor to turn. Single Phase AC Motors (60hz) Motor Type Shaded Pole Perm-split Cap.Motor and Drive Basics Types of Alternating Current Motors Single Phase AC Motors This type of motor is used in fan applications requiring less than one horsepower. All are single speed motors that can be made to operate at two or more speeds with internal or external modifications. The operation of a three-phase motor is simple: the three phase current produces a rotating magnetic field in the stator. HP Efficiency Range 1/6 to 1/4 hp Up to 1/3 hp Up to 1/2 hp low (30%) Slip high (14%) Poles/ RPM Use small direct drive 4/1550 fans (low start 6/1050 torque) small direct drive medium medium 4/1625 fans (low start (50%) (10%) 6/1075 torque) 2/3450 small belt drive mediumlow 4/1725 fans (good start high (65%) (4%) 6/1140 torque) 8/850 2/3450 small belt drive mediumlow 4/1725 fans (good start high (65%) (4%) 6/1140 torque) 8/850 Split-phase Capacitorstart 1/2 to 34 hp Three-phase AC Motors The most common motor for fan applications is the threephase squirrel cage induction motor. This rotating magnetic field causes a magnetic field to be set up in the rotor. Squirrel cage induction motors are wound for the following speeds: Number of Poles 2 4 6 8 60 Hz Synchronous Speed 3600 1800 1200 900 50 Hz Synchronous Speed 3000 1500 1000 750 17 . There are four types of motors suitable for driving fans as shown in the chart below.

NEMA Design B C D NEMA Design Starting Current Medium Medium Medium Locked Breakdown Rotor Torque Medium High Torque High Medium Torque Extra-High Low Torque Applications % Slip Max. Cranes. conveyors. NEMA has established several different torque designs to cover various three-phase motor applications as shown in the chart. High inertia starts . Loaded starts such as piston pumps. and crusher drums. and conveyers. Very high inertia and loaded starts. B. A motor with a slip of 5% or less is called a “normal slip” motor. elevators. Punch presses. and H. In specifying the speed of the motor on the nameplate most motor manufacturers will use the actual speed of the motor which will be less than the synchronous speed due to slip. 18 . Also considerable variation in load speed. fly wheels. Constant load speed. hoists. rotary pumps. compressors. Motor Insulation Classes Electric motor insulation classes are rated by their resistance to thermal degradation. Constant load speed. F. B to F. The insulation class in any motor must be able to withstand at least the maximum ambient temperature plus the temperature rise that occurs as a result of continuous full load operation. Class A has a temperature rating of 105°C (221°F) and each step from A to B. The four basic insulation systems normally encountered are Class A. and oil well pumping jacks.Motor and Drive Basics Types of Alternating Current Motors Actual motor speed is somewhat less than synchronous speed due to slip. machine tools.large centrifugal blowers. 5% Max. A normal slip motor may be referred to as a constant speed motor because the speed changes very little with load variations. 5% 5% or more B C D Normal starting torque for fans. blowers. compressors. and F to H involves a 25° C (77° F) jump. shears and forming machine tools.

15 L 9.0 R 14.Motor and Drive Basics Motor Service Factors Some motors can be specified with service factors other than 1.6.73 x Volts) 19 .4.3 .6 . service factor should not be used for basic load calculations.0 .4. This means the motor can handle loads above the rated horsepower.0 . Starting current can be calculated using the following formula: Starting current = (1000 x hp x kva/hp) / (1. so a 10 horsepower motor can handle 11.0 .16.3.12.0 .0 E 4.1 U 20.5. Locked Rotor KVA/HP Locked rotor kva per horsepower is a rating commonly specified on motor nameplates.55 .10.1 . In general for good motor reliability.3 T 18.22.20.5 .5 HP of load.15 service factor can handle a 15% overload. A code letter at the beginning of the alphabet indicates a low starting current and a letter at the end of the alphabet indicates a high starting current.0 G 5.7.0 .9.11.3. A motor with a 1.0 .8.5 P 12. By not loading the motor into the service factor under normal use the motor can better withstand adverse conditions that may occur such as higher than normal ambient temperatures or voltage fluctuations as well as the occasional overload.18.5 . Code Letter kva/hp Code Letter kva/hp A 0 .2 C 3.5.5 D 4.4 J 7.0 .0 .14.15 .2 .0 F 5.0 B 3.0 The nameplate code rating is a good indication of the starting current the motor will draw.0 N 11.0.55 M 10.0 H 6.4 and up K 8.0 . The rating is shown as a code letter on the nameplate which represents various kva/hp ratings.6 S 16.0 V 22.

5 94.0 92.0 82.5 93.5 84.0 93.0 94. 1992.5 87.6 94.5 90.4 91.5 84.S.7 92.0 94.0 82.0 95.1 94.0 91.5 94.0 82. Congress signed into law the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) that established mandated efficiency standards for general purpose.0 84.1 93.5 85.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 .0 90.6 94.5 84.7 93.5 89.0 84.0 95.5 84.0 86.0 93.2 91.0 91. It is estimated that over 60% of the electric power generated in the United States is used to power electric motors.2 91.7 93.0 84.0 82.6 93.5 87.6 94.0 94.5 95.5 87.6 95. motor efficiency is a measure of how much input power a motor converts to torque and horsepower at the shaft.5 85.0 93.0 93.1 93.0 95.5 94.0 91.1 94.6 93.0 90.0 91.0 89.2 91.0 91.0 93.6 93.5 75.0 90. the U.5 87.7 91.2 90.4 91.5 87.5 87.0 20 Motor HP 1 1. Department of Energy General Purpose Motors Required Full-Load Nominal Efficiency Under EPACT-92 Nominal Full-Load Efficiency Open Motors Enclosed Motors 6 Pole 4 Pole 2 Pole 6 Pole 4 Pole 2 Pole 80.0 86.0 92.0 92.5 86.5 87.5 95.5 93.5 85.5 84.5 89.5 88.2 91.5 89.0 93. On October 24.6 93. EPAct became effective on October 24.5 90.7 91.5 88.0 93.2 89.1 94.5 95.5 89.5 89.0 93.5 2 3 5 7.0 87.0 94.5 88.5 80.1 94.1 93. three-phase AC industrial motors from 1 to 200 horsepower.4 92.Motor and Drive Basics Motor Efficiency and EPAct As previously defined. 1997.5 90.5 88.2 91.4 91.6 94.4 93.0 93.4 93. Efficiency is important to the operating cost of a motor and to overall energy use in our economy.5 85.7 92.

6 4.2 4.9 3/4 13.6 17 5 56 32.6 1/2 9.9 1 16 9.8 7.8 12 3 34 19.5 2.8 5.3 2.9 1/3 7.5 10 2 24 13.Motor and Drive Basics Full Load Current† Single Phase Motors HP 115V 200V 230V 1/6 4.5 50 † Based on Table 430-148 of the National Electric Code®.1 3.2 8 1-1/2 20 11.2 1/4 5.9 6. For motors running at usual speeds and motors with normal torque characteristics.8 3. 1993.4 2.2 28 7-1/2 80 46 40 10 100 57. 21 .

8 31.15 6 7.24 8.1 9 11 17 22 27 32 41 52 62 77 99 125 144 192 0.6 11 14 21 27 34 40 52 65 77 96 124 156 180 240 1.1 1.2 1-1/2 10.9 6.5 25 32 48 62 78 92 120 150 177 221 285 358 415 550 2.1 2.2 4.8 2.2 575V 0. * For conductor sizing only 22 .6 15.3 18 20.96 2300V 4000V 15.4 19.4 1.8 11 17.75 230V 2 2. Based on Table 430-150 of the National Electrical Code®.6 1 7.6 3 5 7-1/2 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 Over 200 hp Approx.8 1.6 .8 9.8 3.2 22 28 42 54 68 80 104 130 154 192 248 312 360 480 2.4 2 13.3 3.6 5. Amps/hp 200V 2. 1993.8 7.Motor and Drive Basics Full Load Current† Three Phase Motors A-C Induction Type-Squirrel Cage and Wound Rotor Motors* HP 115V 1/2 4 3/4 5.4 2.4 460V 1 1.4 4.7 3.8 11 14.7 27.2 24.14 † Branch-circuit conductors supplying a single motor shall have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the motor full-load current rating. For motors running at speeds usual for belted motors and with normal torque characteristics.2 36 48 .2 6.6 3.

Full Load 3/4 Load 1/2 Load Power Factor .Down Slightly Down 0-5% Down 5-15% Down 5-15% Down 10-20% Down Slightly to Up 5% Up 10% Up 10% Up 21% Up Slightly 90% Down 19% Down 19% Up 20-30% Down 0-2% Little Change Up 0-1% Up 1-7% Up 2-7% Up 3-10% Up 5-10% Down 10% Down 10-15% Down 19% Down Slightly Frequency 105% 95% Down 10% Up 11% Down 10% Up 11% Up 10-15% Down 5-10% Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down 5% Up 5% Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly 23 .Full Load 3/4 Load 1/2 Load Power Factor .Full Load 3/4 Load 1/2 Load Full Load Current Starting Current Full Load .Motor and Drive Basics General Effect of Voltage and Frequency Variations on Induction Motor Characteristics Characteristic Starting Torque Maximum Torque Percent Slip Efficiency .Temperature Rise Maximum Overload Capacity Magnetic Noise Voltage 110% Up 21% Up 21% Down 15-20% Down 0-3% 0 .Full Load 3/4 Load 1/2 Load Full Load Current Starting Current Full Load .Temperature Rise Maximum Overload Capacity Magnetic Noise Characteristic Starting Torque Maximum Torque Percent Slip Efficiency .

XHHW†. TA. in Raceway or Cable or Earth (directly buried). 60° to 90°C (140° to 194°F).TBS. RHH†. Temperature Rating of Copper Conductor 60°C (140°F) Types TW†. MI. ZW† THHW†. THHW†. ZW-2 — — 20† 25† 30 40 55 70 85 95 110 125 145 165 195 215 240 260 280 320 355 385 400 410 435 455 495 520 545 560 — — 20† 25† 35† 50 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 255 285 310 335 380 420 460 475 490 520 545 590 625 650 665 14 18 25† 30† 40† 55 75 95 110 130 150 170 195 225 260 290 320 350 380 430 475 520 535 555 585 615 665 705 735 750 24 . THW†. THHN†. FEP†. SA. SIS. XHHW-2. XHHW†. XHH. FEPB†. Based on ambient air temperature of 30°C (86°F). USE-2. RH†.Motor and Drive Basics Allowable Ampacities of Not More Than Three Insulated Conductors Rated 0-2000 Volts. USE†. UF† 75°C (167°F) 90°C (194°F) AWG kcmil 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Types Types FEPW†. THWN†. RHW-2. THW-2. RHW†.

RHW-S. THW†. THHW†. 25 . RHH†. THWN†. XHH. 10 copper. SIS. 20 amperes for No. Copyright 1992. XHHW. USE-2. RH†. SA.Motor and Drive Basics Allowable Ampacities of Not More Than Three Insulated Conductors Temperature Rating of Aluminum or Copper-Clad Conductor 60°C (140°F) AWG kcmil 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Types TW†. National Electrical Code®. or 15 amperes for No. 14. UF† Types Types TA. THHW†. ZW-2 75°C (167°F) 90°C (194°F) 20† 25 30 40 55 65 75 85 100 115 130 150 170 190 210 225 260 285 310 320 330 355 375 405 435 455 470 20† 30† 40 50 65 75 90 100 120 135 155 180 205 230 250 270 310 340 375 385 395 425 445 485 520 545 560 25† 35† 45 60 75 85 100 115 135 150 175 205 230 255 280 305 350 385 420 435 450 480 500 545 585 615 630 †Unless otherwise specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code. the overcurrent protection for conductor types marked with an obelisk (†) shall not exceed 15 amperes for No. THHN†. 10 aluminum and copper-clad aluminum after any correction factors for ambient temperature and number of conductors have been applied. 12 and 25 amperes for No. THWN-2. XHHW†. RHW†. Adapted from NFPA 70-1993. and 30 amperes for No.TBS. USE† XHHW-2. 12.THW-2.

Be sure that shafts are parallel and sheaves are in proper alignment. The use of a belt drive allows fan RPM to be easily selected through a combination of AC motor RPM and drive pulley ratios. 6. 2. In general select a sheave combination that will result in the correct drive ratio with the smallest sheave pitch diameters. ideal belt tension is the lowest tension at which the belt will not slip under peak load conditions. If possible the arc of contact of the belt on the smaller sheave should not be less than 120°. 5. Belts should never be forced or rolled over sheaves. If possible centers should not exceed 3 times the sum of the sheave diameters nor be less than the diameter of the large sheave. More belts are broken from this cause than from actual failure in service. Calculate the approximate V-belt length using the following formula: L = Pitch Length of Belt 2 L = 2C+1. Multiple belts and sheave grooves may be required to meet horsepower requirements. Depending upon belt cross section. 7. Check after first eight hours of operation. 4. Be sure shaft and keyway are smooth and that bore and key are of correct size. In general. Do not drive sheaves on or off shafts. Motor RPM Drive Ratio = desired fan RPM V-belt Length Formula Once a sheave combination is selected we can calculate approximate belt length. Drives should always be installed with provision for center distance adjustment. Check belt tension frequently during the first 24-48 hours of operation. there may be some minimum pitch diameter considerations.Motor and Drive Basics Belt Drives Most fan drive systems are based on the standard "V" drive belt which is relatively efficient and readily available.57 (D+d)+ (D-d) C = Center Distance of Sheaves D = Pitch Diameter of Large Sheave 4C d = Pitch Diameter of Small Sheave Belt Drive Guidelines 1. 3. 26 .

7 hp • Fan power input = 13.051 x 13.6 0. the drive loss = 5.Motor and Drive Basics Estimated Belt Drive Loss† Drive Loss. • From the chart above.8 1 0.6 hp † Adapted from AMCA Publication 203-90.7 hp = 12. • The belts are the standard type and just warm to the touch immediately after shutdown.3 0. % Motor Power Output 100 80 60 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 3 2 1.3 hp. Example: • Motor power output is determined to be 13.4 6 8 10 30 40 2 3 4 .3 . hp Higher belt speeds tend to have higher losses than lower belt speeds at the same horsepower.5 1 Range of drive losses for standard belts Range of drive losses for standard belts 60 80 100 200 300 400 20 Motor Power Output.3 = 0. 27 600 0.1% • Drive loss = 0.0. Drive losses are based on the conventional V-belt which has been the “work horse” of the drive industry for several decades.

Example: A manufacturer specifies that the bearings supplied in a particular fan have a minimum life of L-10 in excess of 40. The life of a rolling element bearing is defined as the number of operating hours at a given load and speed the bearing is capable of enduring before the first signs of failure start to occur. We can interpret this specification to mean that a minimum of 90% of the bearings in this application can be expected to have a life of at least 40.000 hours or longer. For example. To say it another way. At least 50% of the bearings in this application would be expected to have a life of 200.000 hours or longer.000 hours at maximum cataloged operating speed. modified to follow the ISO standard. Since seemingly identical bearings under identical operating conditions will fail at different times.000 hours. the bearing specified above has a life of L-50 in excess of 200. we should expect less than 10% of the bearings in this application to fail within 40.000 hours. life is specified in both hours and the statistical probability that a certain percentage of bearings can be expected to fail within that time period. 28 .Motor and Drive Basics Bearing Life Bearing life is determined in accordance with methods prescribed in ISO 281/1-1989 or the Anti Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association (AFBMA) Standards 9 and 11. L-50 is the term given to Average Life and is simply equal to 5 times the Minimum Life.

29 . • Make all runs of ducts as short and direct as possible. • Locate fans and intake ventilators for maximum sweeping effect over the working area. • Install the exhaust fan at a location to eliminate any recirculation into other parts of the plant. • When hoods are used. depending on job requirements. • When turns are required in the duct system use long radius elbows to keep the resistance to a minimum (preferably 2 duct diameters).System Design Guidelines General Ventilation • Locate intake and exhaust fans to make use of prevailing winds. • Use Class B insulated motors where ambient temperatures are expected to be high for air-over motor conditions. • If air moving over motors contains hazardous chemicals or particles. use explosion-proof motors mounted in or out of the airstream. • Keep duct velocity as low as practical considering capture for fumes or particles being collected. • If filters are used on gravity intake. • Use same rationale regarding intake ventilators and motors as in General Ventilation guidelines above. size intake ventilator to keep intake losses below 1/8” SP. *Refer to AMCA Standard 99. they should be sufficient to collect all contaminating fumes or particles created by the process.* Process Ventilation • Collect fumes and heat as near the source of generation as possible. select the fan having reserve capacity beyond the static pressure determined. When necessary. See page 4. • For hazardous atmosphere applications use fans of nonsparking construction. separate by at least 6 fan diameters. • Avoid fans blowing opposite each other. • After calculating duct resistance.

80 CFM/ft2 • Island Type .4 x distance between hood and cooking surface Filters • Select filter velocity between 100 .125 CFM/ft2 • Extend hood beyond cook surface 0.System Design Guidelines Kitchen Ventilation Hoods and Ducts • Duct velocity should be between 1500 and 4000 fpm • Hood velocities (not less than 50 fpm over face area between hood and cooking surface) • Wall Type . of filter area maximum) • Install at 45 . in.60° to horizontal. never horizontal • Shield filters from direct radiant heat • Filter mounting height: • No exposed cooking flame—1-1/2’ minimum to filter • Charcoal and similar fires—4’ minimum to filter • Provide removable grease drip pan • Establish a schedule for cleaning drip pan and filters and follow it diligently Fans • Use upblast discharge fan • Select design CFM based on hood design and duct velocity • Select SP based on design CFM and resistance of filters and duct system • Adjust fan specification for expected exhaust air temperature 30 .400 fpm • Determine number of filters required from a manufacturer’s data (usually 2 cfm exhaust for each sq.

remember the lowest and highest octave bands are only accurate to about +/-4 dB. W0 (10-12 watt). refer to sound power level. Sound Power Level (LW) .a logarithmic comparison of sound power output by a source to a reference sound source. Lower frequencies are the most difficult to attenuate. 31 .pressure associated with sound output from a source.System Design Guidelines Sound Sound Power (W) . P0 (2 x 10-5 Pa).the amount of power a source converts to sound in watts. LW = 10 log10 (W/W0) dB Sound Pressure (P) .a logarithmic comparison of sound pressure output by a source to a reference sound source. When comparing sound power levels. Sound Pressure Level (Lp) . 2 x sound pressure (single source) = +3 dB(sound pressure level) 2 x distance from sound source = -6dB (sound pressure level) +10 dB(sound pressure level)= 2 x original loudness perception When trying to calculate the additive effect of two sound sources. Rules of Thumb When specifying sound criteria for HVAC equipment. THERE IS NO OUTRIGHT CONVERSION BETWEEN SOUND POWER LEVEL AND SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL. use the approximation (logarithms cannot be added directly) on the next page. A constant sound power output will result in significantly different sound pressures and sound pressure levels when the source is placed in different environments. not sound pressure level. Lp = 20 log10 (P/P0) dB Even though sound power level and sound pressure level are both expressed in dB. Sound pressure is what the human ear reacts to.

000001 0.8 1.6 0.00000001 0. page 34.000 10.000 100.very soft whisper 32 .000 1.00001 0.1 0.8 0.5 0 Graph sound pressure level for each octave band on NC curve. Highest curve intercepted is NC level of sound source.0 0.5 1. See Noise Criteria Curves.1 1.000000001 Sound Power Level dB 195 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 Source Shuttle Booster rocket Jet engine with afterburner Jet aircraft at takeoff Turboprop at takeoff Prop aircraft at takeoff Loud rock band Small aircraft engine Blaring radio Car at highway speed Axial ventilating fan (2500 m3h) Voice shouting Garbage disposal unit Voice—conversational level Electronic equipment cooling fan Office air diffuser Small electric clock Voice .001 0..) Difference between sound pressure levels 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ dB to add to highest sound pressure level 3.0 2.000 100 10 1 0.2 1.000. Noise Criteria Sound Power and Sound Power Level Sound Power (Watts) 25 to 40.0000001 0.01 0.5 2.0001 0.System Design Guidelines Rules of Thumb (cont.

02 0.0063 0.System Design Guidelines Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Level Sound Pressure (Pascals) 200.0 63.63 0. Accuracy ± 2dBA 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Loudness.2 Log10 (sones) + 28.0 6. Automatic punch press (operator’s position) Automatic lathe shop Construction site—pneumatic drilling Computer printout room Loud radio (in average domestic room) Restaurant Conversational speech at 1m Whispered conversation at 2m Background in TV recording studios Normal threshold of hearing Room Sones —dBA Correlation† 150 dBA = 33. Sones 10 9 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sound Level dBA † From ASHRAE 1972 Handbook of Fundamentals 33 .0 0.063 0.3 2.0002 0.00063 0.2 0.002 0.00002 Sound Pressure Level dB 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 Typical Environment 30m from military aircraft at take-off Pneumatic chipping and riveting (operator’s position) Passenger Jet takeoff at 100 ft.0 20.

Hz 34 Noise Criteria .System Design Guidelines Noise Criteria Curves 90 Noise Criteria NC Curves 80 Octave Band Sound Pressure Level dB 70 70 60 65 60 50 55 50 40 45 40 30 35 30 Approximate 20 threshold of hearing for continuous noise 10 250 63 125 25 20 15 8000 500 1000 2000 4000 Octave Band Mid-Frequency .

0 to 6 2.0 to 12 Tabulation/computation Operating rooms 4 to 12 2.0 to 15 Offices Executive 2 to 6 Hospitals and clinics Private rooms 3 to 9 1.0 to 12 5. For additional detail see AMCA publication 302 .7 to 5 4.5 to 8 Drafting Lobbies & waiting rooms 4.7 to 5 Supervisor Wards 4 to 12 2.5 to 5 2.0 to 12 Conference rooms Board of Directors 1 to 3 Halls and corridors 5 to 15 Note: Values showns above are room loudness in sones and are not fan sone ratings.5 to 5 3.0 to 6 Churches and schools Sanctuaries Schools & classrooms Recreation halls Kitchens Libraries Laboratories Corridors and halls Manufacturing areas Heavy machinery Foundries Light machinery Assembly lines Machine shops Plating shops Punch press shops Tool maintenance Foreman’s office General storage 1.0 to 12 Professional offices 3 to 9 Halls and corridors 1.7 to 5 2.Application of Sone Rating.0 to 3 1.5 to 8 4.System Design Guidelines Design Criteria for Room Loudness Room Type Sones 1.0 to 12 2.0 to 9 4. 35 .0 to 6 2.5 to 8 General open offices Laboratories 6 to 18 4.0 to 6 Auditoriums Concert and opera halls Stage theaters Movie theaters Semi-outdoor amphitheaters Lecture halls Multi-purpose Courtrooms Auditorium lobbies TV audience studios Sones Indoor sports activities Gymnasiums Coliseums Swimming pools Bowling alleys Gambling casinos 4 to 12 3 to 9 7 to 21 4 to 12 4 to 12 25 to 60 20 to 60 12 to 36 12 to 36 15 to 50 20 to 50 50 to 60 7 to 21 5 to 15 10 to 30 Room Type 1.0 to 6 4.0 to 12 6.0 to 18 2.

36 . bus.Application of Sone Rating.0 to 12 8. For additional detail see AMCA publication 302 .0 to 6 7.0 to 24 3.0 to 18 3 to 9 3 to 9 3 to 9 1.) Room Type Sones 4. plane) Waiting rooms 5 to 15 Ticket sales office 4 to 12 Control rooms & towers 6 to 12 Lounges 5 to 15 Retail shops 6 to 18 Miscellaneous Reception rooms Washrooms and toilets Studios for sound reproduction Other studios Note: Values showns above are room loudness in sones and are not fan sone ratings.0 to 9 2.0 to 12 4.0 to 12 6.3 to 4 4 to 12 6 to 8 5 to 15 3 to 9 4 to 12 8 to 24 3 to 9 5 to 15 1 to 3 4 to 12 Room Type Sones 3 to 9 2 to 6 4 to 12 4 to 12 2 to 6 4 to 12 4 to 12 7 to 21 6 to 18 4 to 12 6 to 18 Hotels Lobbies Banquet rooms Ball rooms Individual rooms/suites Kitchens and laundries Halls and corridors Garages Public buildings Museums Planetariums Post offices Courthouses Public libraries Banks Lobbies and corridors Residences Two & three family units Apartment houses Private homes (urban) Private homes (rural & suburban) Retail stores Supermarkets Department stores (main floor) Department stores (upper floor) Small retail stores Clothing stores Restaurants Restaurants Cafeterias Cocktail lounges Social clubs Night clubs Banquet room 4 to 12 Transportation (rail.System Design Guidelines Design Criteria for Room Loudness (cont.

Equipment RPM 37 . Non-critical installations are grade level or basement floor.0 in 1.System Design Guidelines Vibration System Natural Frequency The natural frequency of a system is the frequency at which the system prefers to vibrate. It can be calculated by the following equation: fn = 188 (1/d)1/2 (cycles per minute) The static deflection corresponding to this natural frequency can be calculated by the following equation: d = (188/fn)2 (inches) By adding vibration isolation.0 in 2.0 in 1.5 in 600+ 1. the transmission of vibration can be minimized. A common rule of thumb for selection of vibration isolation is as follows: Static Deflection of Isolation Critical Non-critical Installation Installation 1200+ 1.0 in Critical installations are upper floor or roof mounted equipment.0 in 400+ 2. Always consider weight distribution of equipment in selection.0 in 0.0 in 300+ 3. Always use total weight of equipment when selecting isolation.

00 8.00 3.CPM 1200 38 3600 0.40 0.System Design Guidelines Vibration Severity Use the Vibration Severity Chart to determine acceptability of vibration levels measured.008 0.0 .20 0.3 .60 0.00 2.003 0.In/sec.006 0.0 /S 09 EC EC 8 IN /S .0 IN 19 /S 6 EC IN .CPM 3000 3600 4000 5000 200 300 400 500 IN VE RY O O TH /S .06 0.01 0.1 14 EC G O O TR IN IN EM /S D EL Y O SM O TH 57 EC /S O O TH EC 39 2 .0 04 9 IN /S EC Vibration Frequency .00 100 1800 2000 VE Vibration Displacement-Mils-Peak-to-Peak 1.03 0.002 1800 SL RY 10000 Values shown are for filtered readings taken on the machine structure or bearing cap IG H RO TL Y RO UG U U H H G H .0 78 5 IN /S EC .001 Vibration Velocity .6 28 FA G O IR RO G EX VE SM RY SM O D 30000 40000 50000 Vibration Frequency .02 0.00 6.10 0.00 4.00 0.-Peak .08 0.004 0.30 0. 100000 20000 1000 1200 10.04 0.80 0.

Unfiltered or overall velocity readings can be applied since the lines which divide the severity regions are. this rule should not be applied to high frequencies of vibration such as those characteristic of gears and defective rolling-element bearings. However.) When using the Machinery Vibration Severity Chart. 39 . The chart applies only to measurements taken on the bearings or structure of the machine. Machines mounted on resilient vibration isolators such as coil springs or rubber pads will generally have higher amplitudes of vibration than those rigidly mounted. as the amplitudes measured at these frequencies are less dependent on the method of machine mounting. in fact. 2.System Design Guidelines Vibration Severity (cont. When using displacement measurements only filtered displacement readings (for a specific frequency) should be applied to the chart. constant velocity lines. The chart applies primarily to machines which are rigidly mounted or bolted to a fairly rigid foundation. the following factors must be taken into consideration: 1. A general rule is to allow twice as much vibration for a machine mounted on isolators. 3. The chart does not apply to measurements of shaft vibration.

CFM = Bldg. refer to “Suggested Air Changes”. page 41. general ventilation may be utilized to provide “free cooling”. Air Change Method Find total volume of space to be ventilated. Determine the required number of air changes per hour. Volume (ft3) / Air Change Frequency Consult local codes for air change requirements or. in absence of code. Calculate the required outdoor air volume as follows: People = Occupancy/1000 x Floor Area (ft2) CFM = People x Outdoor Air Requirement (CFM/person) Outdoor air quantities can be reduced to lower levels if proper particulate and gaseous air filtration equipment is utilized. Heat Removal Method When the temperature of a space is higher than the ambient outdoor temperature.10 x Temp diff) 40 . Find the CFM/person requirements in Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.General Ventilation Design Air Quality Method Designing for acceptable indoor air quality requires that we address: • Outdoor air quality • Design of the ventilation systems • Sources of contaminants • Proper air filtration • System operation and maintenance Determine the number of people occupying the respective building spaces. and the amount of heat removal required (BTU/Hr): CFM = Heat Removal (BTU/Hr) / (1. page 42. Knowing the desired indoor and the design outdoor dry bulb temperatures.

General Ventilation Design Suggested Air Changes Type of Space Assembly Halls Auditoriums Bakeries Boiler Rooms Bowling Alleys Dry Cleaners Engine Rooms Factories (General) Forges Foundries Garages Generating Rooms Glass Plants Gymnasiums Heat Treat Rooms Kitchens Laundries Locker Rooms Machine Shops Mills (Paper) Mills (Textile) Packing Houses Recreation Rooms Residences Restaurants Retail Stores Shops (General) Theaters Toilets Transformer Rooms Turbine Rooms Warehouses 41 Air Change Frequency (minutes) 3-10 4-15 1-3 2-4 2-8 1-5 1-1.5 1-5 1-2 1-4 2-10 2-5 1-2 2-10 0.5-1 1-3 2-5 2-5 3-5 2-3 5-15 2-15 2-8 2-5 5-10 3-10 3-10 3-8 2-5 1-5 2-6 2-10 .

42 .General Ventilation Design Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality† Space Auditoriums Ballrooms/Discos Bars Beauty Shops Classrooms Conference Rooms Correctional Facility Cells Dormitory Sleeping Rooms Dry Cleaners Gambling Casinos Game Rooms Hardware Stores Hospital Operating Rooms Hospital Patient Rooms Laboratories Libraries Medical Procedure Rooms Office Spaces Pharmacies Photo Studios Physical Therapy Restaurant Dining Areas Retail Facilities Smoking Lounges Sporting Spectator Areas Supermarkets Theaters Outdoor Air Occupancy Required (People/1000 ft2) (CFM/person) 15 150 25 100 30 100 25 25 15 50 20 50 20 20 15 20 30 30 30 120 25 70 15 8 30 20 25 10 20 30 15 20 15 20 20 7 15 20 15 10 15 20 20 70 15 20 60 70 15 150 15 8 15 150 †Adapted from ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality”.

and all others as sitting (400 Btuh) or standing (55 Btuh).General Ventilation Design Heat Gain From Occupants of Conditioned Spaces1 Typical Application Theater-Matinee Theater-Evening Offices. 1989. Apartments Retail and Department Stores Drug Store Bank Restaurant2 Factory Dance Hall Factory Sensible Heat Latent Heat (BTU/HR)* (BTU/HR) 200 130 215 135 215 185 220 230 220 280 220 280 240 310 240 510 270 580 330 670 510 940 510 940 Bowling Alley3 Factory Notes: 1 Tabulated values are based on 78°F for dry-bulb temperature. 2 Adjusted total heat value for sedentary work. 43 . restaurant. Adapted from Chapter 26 ASHRAE “Fundamentals” Handbook. 3 For bowling figure one person per alley actually bowling. includes 60 Btuh for food per individual (30 Btu sensible and 30 Btu latent). * Use sensible values only when calculating ventilation to remove heat. Hotels.

490 3-Ph.440 5. 1750 87 58.700 3-Ph.100 3.900 3-Ph.000 18. 1750 85 29.640 3-Ph.500 840 660 Split Ph. 1750 75 3.000 509.790 3-Ph.000 12.400 38.000 127. 1750 60 2. 1750 79 6.000 636. 1750 90 212. 1750 86 44.000 318.820 1. 1750 89 85.430 7.50 0.000 62.900 7.300 3-Ph. 1989.000 15.300 3-Ph.300 63.300 3-Ph.000 382.000 153.140 3-Ph. 1750 89 172.000 255. 1750 84 22.600 8.090 1.000 191. 1750 82 15.000 37. 1750 77 4.120 1.900 † Adapted from Chapter 26 ASHRAE “Fundamentals” Handbook. 1750 88 72.200 3-Ph.700 2.210 3-Ph. 2nd Driven Motor Driven Driven Motor Nominal EquipEffiEquipEquipType rpm ment in ciency in ment in ment Out Space Percent Space of Space Btuh Btuh Btuh Split Ph. 1750 54 1.650 1.700 76. 1750 81 9.000 102. 1750 90 353.600 3-Ph.000 21.900 24.350 3-Ph.25 0.000 28. 44 .500 12.800 3-Ph. 1750 89 143.000 50. 1750 56 1.33 0.General Ventilation Design Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors† Motor Nameplate or Rated Horsepower 0.790 3-Ph. 1750 91 420.900 740 3-Ph.500 4.270 850 3-Ph.640 1.200 6.75 1 1 2 3 5 7.390 2.550 850 3-Ph. 1750 91 569. 1750 89 114.000 35.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Motor Motor Motor In.680 3-Ph.700 19.610 3-Ph.180 640 540 Split Ph.960 3. 1750 91 699. Full Load Out.500 50.440 3-Ph.300 9. 1750 72 2. 1750 90 283.

Oven Range.000 40. no oven with oven Broiler.200 Heat gain With Hood 7. ft of hearth Range.500 10.300 40.000 500 900 15. heavy duty .000 3. Floor Mounted Type Broiler.000 57. roasting. medium duty Top section Range.700 3.. jr.300 12. baking.060 6.100 1. light duty .600 3.000 64.300 1. per sq.600 Electric. Floor Mounted Type Griddle Broiler.500 3.000 16. per sq.900 27. ft of hearth Oven.600 6.900 3.500 9.Oven † Adapted from Chapter 26 ASHRAE “Fundamentals” Handbook.000 35.000 30. heavy duty Top section Range.000 4.400 3.500 2.300 22.500 400 8.800 12.Oven Range.800 730 270 490 19.700 8. ft of hearth area Oven.200 22. single deck Fryer Oven. roasting Range. 1989 45 .000 22. restuarant type per 2-burner section per oven per broiler-griddle Manufacturer’s Input Rating Watts Btuh 70.000 4.000 6.000 16.800 10.700 4.400 54.000 24.600 1.000 3.000 100. heavy duty Top section Range. jr.000 45. heavy duty .400 4. heavy duty Top section Range.Oven Range.500 2. deck.000 1..Oven Range. light duty .000 80.000 6. heavy duty .General Ventilation Design Rate of Heat Gain From Commercial Cooking Appliances in Air-Conditioned Area† Appliance Gas-Burning.000 6.900 61.070 51. unit Deep fat fryer Oven.600 75. medium duty .Top section Range.000 18. per sq.000 35.

000 1.5 2” Pleated Media 88-92% 25-30% 0.4 1.07 .800 3.General Ventilation Design Rate of Heat Gain From Miscellaneous Appliances Electrical Appliances Hair dryer Hair dryer Neon sign.17 .WG) Efficiency Permanent 60-80% 8-12% 0.000 2.870 330 2.5 2” Throw Away 70-85% 15-20% 0.680 2.97% 1.360 1. per linear ft of tube Sterilizer.400 705 2.3 1.0 80% Cartridge 98% 80-85% 0.850 1. Filter Comparison ASHRAE Initial Final ASHRAE AtmoPressure Pressure Filter Type Arrestance spheric Drop Drop Efficiency Dust Spot (IN.000 2. instrument Lab burners Bunsen Fishtail Meeker Gas Light.100 3.5 Polyester Pad 82-90% 15-20% 0.200 2.8 60% Cartridge 97% 60-65% 0.000 6.0 HEPA 100% 99.0 46 .750 3.20 .100 3.5 Fiberglass Pad 70-85% 15-20% 0. *Use sensible heat gain for ventilation calculation.500 4.800 900 420 700 840 200 100 2. per burner Cigar lighter Manufacturer’s Rating Watts Btuh 1.200 1.25 .5-.0 90% Cartridge 99% 90-95% 0. 1989.700 1.17 .0 2.500 Gas-Burning Appliances Adapted from Chapter 26 ASHRAE “Fundamentals” Handbook. Btuh *Sensible Latent Total 2.580 5.WG) (IN.000 5.5 1.000 1.300 400 2.200 30 30 60 60 650 1.400 Recommended Rate of Heat Gain.

Dust Lung-Damaging-Particles Plant Spores Unsettling-Atmospheric-Impurities Fumes Visible By Human Eye Electronic-Microscope Infra-Red 10 100 1000 Settling-Atmos.3 micron diameter particle. This Dimension Represents the Diameter of a Human Hair.0001 0.Relative Size Chart of Common Air Contaminants 10 10000 Fog Yeast-Cells Molds Bacteria Pollen Diameter of Human Hair Mists Rain 100 1000 0.-Impur.1 1 Tobacco Smoke Oil Smoke Gas Molecules Virus Heavy Indust.01 0. .01 0. particle.001 0.3 Micron 0.0001 0. Dusts Fly-Ash Microscope General Ventilation Design Relative Size Chart of Common Air Contaminants 47 X-rays Ultra-Violet Visible This represents a 10 micron diam.1 1 10000 This represents a 0.001 0. 100 Microns 1 Micron = 1 micrometer = 1 millionth of a meter 0. the smallest size visible with the human eye. This is the most respirable. lung damaging particle size.

Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Health
Optimal Zone

Decrease in Bar Width

Indicates Decrease in Effect

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi

Mites

Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Health

General Ventilation Design

48
20 30 40 50 60
Per Cent Relative Humidity

Respiratory Infections1

Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

Chemical Interactions

Ozone Production 70 80 90

1 INSUFFICIENT DATA

ABOVE 50% R.H.

10

Optimum relative humidity ranges for health as found by E.M. Sterling in "Criteria for Human Exposure to Humidity in Occupied Buildings." ASHRAE Winter Meeting, 1985.

Duct Design
Damper Pressure Drop
1.5

1.0

PRESSURE LOSS - Inches w.g.

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

0.1

0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02

0.01
0
00 400 0 500 0

0

40 0 50 0

0

20 0

10

30

10 0

00 20

DAMPER FACE VELOCITY -fpm
V (Velocity) = CFM Sq. Ft. Damper Area

Adapted from HVAC Systems Duct Design, Third Edition, 1990, Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractor’s National Association

30

.

49

Duct Design
Screen Pressure Drop
0.6 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2

PRESSURE LOSS—inches w.g.

0.1 Insect Screen 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 1/2 in. Mesh Bird Screen

0.01

0.005 0.004 0.003 0.002

0.001
10 20 00 30 00 40 0 50 0 00 30 0 40 0 50 0 0 10 0 20 00

FACE AREA VELOCITY—fpm
Adapted from HVAC Systems Duct Design, Third Edition, 1990, Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractor’s National Association

.

50

000 5 4 6.D ct m Dia ete r 1-1 /2 00 18 00 16 00 14 00 12 00 10 0 90 0 80 0 70 10 4 .02 .000 40 4.1 .000 .000 80.6 . uct m Dia ete r 14 12 10 9 CFM 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 m Fp lo Ve y cit In 50 0 60 20 5 20 0 u .000 50 8.Duct Design Duct Resistance .000 60.2 0 0 .02 .2 .4 .000 30 28 26 24 1.8 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 51 .01 100.000 800 22 0 600 2 18 400 4 300 1 200 12 10 100 9 80 8 60 7 40 6 30 0 00 ity 12 loc 0 Ve 00 m 10 0 Fp 0 9000 80 0 0 75 00 7000 65 00 60 0 0 55 00 50 0 0 45 00 40 00 36 0 0 32 00 30 00 2800 26 00 24 0 0 22 00 20 0 0 18 0 0 16 00 14 00 12 D In.3 .06 .03 .08 1 Friction in Inches of Water per 100 Feet Friction of Air in Straight Duct 30 0 40 .06 .000 7 60 55 10.3 .04 .01 .03 .000 8 0 20.000 3 32 2.8 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 40.000 6 3.6 .08.04 .4 .000 0 30.

265 (ab)3 (a + b) 200 0 10 100 90 80 70 60 50 45 50 90 7 6 0 60 5 80 5 7 55 40 Side of Duct (a) 4 3 0 3 8 34 6 32 30 8 2 6 2 30 Di am 20 20 18 2 22 4 et er (d ) 14 16 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 4 3 5 10 9 8 7 6 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 50 60 80100 Side of Duct (b) 52 .Duct Design Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts 500 400 300 5 d=1.

Duct Design Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components* Intake Louvers Velocity (FPM) • 7000 cfm and greater 400 Exhaust Louvers • 5000 cfm and greater 500 Panel Filters • Viscous Impingement 200 to 800 • Dry-Type. 1500 max Electric Coils • Open Wire Refer to Mfg. Data Dehumidifying Coils 500 to 600 Spray-Type Air Washers 300 to 600 Cell-Type Air Washers Refer to Mfg. 1993 53 . Data High-Velocity. Pleated Media: • Low Efficiency 350 • Medium Efficiency 500 • High Efficiency 500 • HEPA 250 Renewable Media Filters • Moving-Curtain Viscous Impingement 500 • Moving-Curtain Dry-Media 200 Electronic Air Cleaners • Ionizing-Plate-Type 300 to 500 • Charged-Media Non-ionizing 250 • Charged-Media Ionizing 150 to 350 500 to 600 Steam and Hot Water Coils 200 min. Spray-Type Air Washers 1200 to 1800 *Adapted from ASHRAE “Pocket Guide”. Data • Finned Tubular Refer to Mfg.

7157 For calculation of velocity pressures at velocities other than those listed above: Pv = (V/4005)2 For calculation of velocities when velocity pressures are known: V=4005 (Vp) 54 .2493 0.4968 1.0504 0.1053 0.7512 1.8179 1.0155 0.0972 2.0997 1.5610 0.5243 0.0224 0.7206 Velocity (fpm) 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 Velocity Pressure (in wg) 0.1527 1.3017 0.2749 0.2069 1.4744 2.6384 0.2443 2.6857 1.2250 0.0305 0.7637 0.3965 2.6789 0.4364 1.1701 2.0056 0.Duct Design Velocity and Velocity Pressure Relationships Velocity (fpm) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 Velocity Pressure (in wg) 0.9002 0.8534 0.6340 2.2019 0.4544 0.0399 0.1801 0.0897 0.4887 0.8079 0.3198 2.5991 0.5586 1.0480 1.9551 2.8859 1.3591 0.9482 0.6215 1.3771 1.0256 2.0623 0.5536 2.9975 1.3191 1.2624 1.1221 0.3896 0.1402 0.0097 0.0754 0.4214 0.3297 0.1596 0.

313 1.0478 2.078 .452 .1084 4.1793 7.062 .025 .353 . Ga.564 .0312 .100 1.172 .100 2.906 7.594 5.156 .141 .040 ./ft.) Thick.26 . Sheet Metal Gauges Gauge No.050 ./ft. 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 7 Thick.0375 .0217 .750 .2 .0635 2.752 *Aluminum is specified and purchased by material thickness rather than gauge.13 . Lb.781 .1046 4. Lb.) Thick.109 .050 .906 .41 .125 1.020 .125 .375 . Std.0239 1.50 Mill Std.S.656 .0516 2.080 1.7875 1.0785 3. Ga. Std.2 .76 . .575 2.Duct Design U.S./ft.in.2 .531 .281 .875 .031 — — Stainless Steel (U.190 2. Lb.160 2.00 . 55 .406 .1644 6.1681 7.0747 3.282 .0336 1.889 .0598 2. 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 7 Steel (Manuf.1345 5.0299 1.0188 .050 1.656 .0179 . in.218 7.0276 1.0396 1.706 .281 4.25 .68 Galvanized (Manuf. in.50 .in.064 .2 .0359 1.032 .0250 .156 . Standard Gauge) Gauge No./ft.1382 5.00 . Thick Aluminum* Thick.50 .625 .188 Lb.625 3.

110) 220 (8. September 1998. and rainfall intensity and is developing a Certified Ratings Program for this product category. ga. 22 20 18 16 Wind Driven Rain Louvers† A new category of product has emerged recently called a wind-driven rain louver.250) 3.Duct Design Recommended Metal Gauges for Duct Rectangular Duct Greatest U. 24 22 20 18 Aluminum B&S ga. *AMCA Louver Engineering Committee at this writing is currently updating AMCA 500-L to allow testing of varying sizes. 56 .35 (1. Since these are relatively new products. Test 16-50 (35 . Steel U. wind speed.S.8) 0 Power Plant AMCA 500 Test Test* 22 0 (50) 38-280 100 (1. 9-24 25-48 49-72 Round Duct Galv. to 30 in.08 (1.5 (30) 75 (3) 0 Wind Velocity m/s (mph) Rain Fall Rate mm/h (in.6 (700) Free Area Free Area Free Core Velocity Velocity Area Velocity †Table from AMCA Supplement to ASHRAE Journal. several different test standards have emerged to evaluate the performance of these products under severe wind and rain weather conditions. In addition./h) Wet Wall Water Flow Rate L/s (gpm) Airflow Through Louver m/s (fpm) 0 6. ga.25) HEVAC Test 13. manufacturers have developed their own standards to help evaluate the rain resistance of their products.35 (1.9) (4) 0 0.5 to 10.S. Specifying engineers should become familiar with the differences in various rain and pressure drop test standards to correctly evaluate each manufacturer’s claims. Four test standards are detailed below: Dade Co. B&S Dimension ga. These are architectural louvers designed to reject moisture that are tested and evaluated under simulated wind driven rain conditions.250) 6. 24 22 31-60 22 20 61-90 20 18 91-up 18 16 Diameter to 8 in.

00008 0.3 Percent Moisture %b — — — 0.0016 0.02 1.0432 Parts per million 1 2 5 10 21 42 79 146 263 461 787 1.0 — — — grains = 1 lb to 70°F saturated Normally the sensible heat factor determines the cfm required to accept a load.6 110.6 77.000002 0.51 9.180 43.8 33.152 3.0 48. In some industrial applications the latent heat factor may control the air circulation rate.3 302.073 0.0007 0.213 7.22 5.4 70.0312 0.9 5.0008 0.9 1. °F -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 a7000 bCompared Lb H20/lb dry air 0.06 0. 57 .315 2.5 0.0077 0.0022 0.1 24.000001 0.2 36.0052 0.00015 0. Equiv..820 22.W2) x 4840 Adapted from “Numbers.00046 0.0013 0.3 218.154 5.5 53.26 0.00001 0.330 31.0032 0.0223 0.658 11.0 8.13 0. Relations of other units are expressed below at various dewpoint temperatures.080 15.00002 0.84 3.20 15.00026 0.190 Grains/lb dry aira 0.3 13.7 156.555 1. Dew Pt.6 21.148 0. Thus cfm = Latent heat1 Btu/h (W1 .” by Bill Hollady & Cy Otterholm 1985.Heating & Refrigeration Moisture and Air Relationships ASHRAE has adopted pounds of moisture per pound of dry air as standard nomenclature.0035 0.00004 0.291 0.000005 0.2 100.0111 0.0158 0.7 2.

05078 -0.29 50.010 195.4 203.4 1173.1 714.4 1160.639 26.427 49.7414 7. Vapor Ft3/lbm Specific Enthalpy Sat.027 28.9138 3.50683 0.6 375.9 419.1 1202.6 1167.5 1079.25611 0.696 17.799 23.55957 0.3 3208.38 1326.8892 4.2 1199.99424 0.17 269.4 1198.09 180.3353 1.7 2445.17 188.Heating & Refrigeration Properties of Saturated Steam† Temperature °F Pressure PSIA Specific Volume Sat.14431 0.67492 0.9 679.9 2059.4 589.1 617.32216 0.200 67.79 1133.7 1107. Vapor Btu/lbm Btu/lbm 32 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 212 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 705.0 1075.762 8.47 0.9573 2.0 1150.15 680.2 1190.7 1185.8 1179.22 33.321 11.5 487.4 1204.4 906.94924 1.1 1113.0 1068.7 1179.0 1130.95 127.00 77.23 208.97 107.968 35.0 441.5 464.2 1146.26 123.7878 2.6 3094.729 247.07519 0.8 1204.8 1207.87 566.7 1153.644 6.4 1105.6927 2.0 1201.11117 0.643 117.037 67.08859 0.3 332.38714 0.81717 0.148 16.780 381.526 14.26747 0.86 812. Liquid Sat.1 646.3 1187.186 24.6 1122.999 87.9 758.12163 0.4997 1.45 228.5 995.992 153.46513 0.5 1153.18021 0.0 1087.2 1138.2 1133.0 1167.7 290.9 512.259 308.76 249.21687 0.4 311.53 962.54 466.060 48.17 1543.1 396.1 1204.005 89.4658 4.8630 1.00 168.7 2708.8 562.0 1203.6 633.7 1096.5110 11.0 †Based on “1967 ASME Steam Tables” 58 .1 1194.22081 0.3 350.2 906.3 353.2 3304.5 822.9 2365.0179 8.2 1786.96 148.0 1194.0 536.

0 5.8 1.2 0.0 3.0 2.0 Educational Facilities 30 20 2.0 340 200 1.9 1.67 — — Public Areas 100 50 1.0† 200 100 — — — — 1.4 0.0 4.9 1.2 2.0 4.1 0.Heating & Refrigeration Cooling Load Check Figures Classification 59 Air Quantities CFM/Sq.0 1.2 — — Restaurants .0 1.8 1.9 2.0 3.3 0.0 135 80 1.8 — — — — 0.4 — — Libraries and Museums 80 40 1.5 Hospitals-Patient Rooms* 75 25 1.0 350 220 1.0 2.33 0. Motels.2 0.5 1.4 Medium 150 100 1.3 — — Auditoriums.3 — — Medium 600 200 0.9 1.0 240 150 1.0 700 400 0.7 3.5 0.0 2.8 1.0 275 165 0.0 2.Ft.0 450 350 0.8 1.0* — — — — Residential -Large 600 200 1.25 0.0 175 110 1.0 Cubicle Area 100 70 5.6 0.0 3.3 .9 Schools.5 1.1 1.0 1.0 3.0 9. Churches.9 2.67 0.33 0.7 1.0† 60.1 0.25 0.Ft.5 1. Ft/Person Watts/Sq.1 Office Buildings* 130 80 4.0† 6.8 0.9 0.25 0.0† 100 60 — — — — 2.0 600 380 0.0† 360 190 0.7 1. Theaters 15 6 1.0 8.0 6.8 3.8 Private Offices* 150 100 2.0† 12.8 1.8 Heavy Manufacturingo 300 200 15.Ft/Ton‡ East-South-West North Internal Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Apartment.6 3.95 1. Colleges.9 1.0 0.5 Light Manufacturing 200 100 9.5 6.0 400 90 — — — — 1. Dormitories 200 100 1. High Rise 325 100 1. Universities Factories-Assembly Areas 50 25 3.0 1.0 — — 0.9 0. Sq. Occupancy Lights Refrigeration Sq.Large 17 13 15 2.45 1.7 0.0† 240 90 — — — — 2.25 0.1 Hotels.0* 10.5 3.8 0.

6 0.0 365 160 — — — — 1.0 0.0 4.5 1.0* 240 105 1.0 Upper Floors 75 40 2.8 1.0 2.0 Dept.0 300 150 1. Ft/Person Watts/Sq.3 Discount Stores 35 15 1.8 3.2 Clothing Stores 50 30 1.6 0.0 3.7 1.Ft.Ft/Ton‡ East-South-West North Internal Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Beauty & Barber Shops 45 25 3.8 0.) Heating & Refrigeration 60 Air Quantities CFM/Sq.0† 350 150 — — — — 0.0 3.0 1. *Air quantities for hospital patient rooms and office buildings (except internal areas) are based on induction (air-water) system.7 1.1 Drug Stores 35 17 1.8 1.5 4. †Includes other loads expressed in Watts sq. Sq.2 2.0 345 120 0. . Notes: ‡Refrigeration loads are for entire application.5 9. Occupancy Lights Refrigeration Sq.ft.6 1.5 Refrigeration for Central Heating and Cooling Plant Urban Districts 285 College Campuses 240 Commercial Centers 200 Residential Centers 375 Refrigeration and air quantities for applications listed in this table of cooling load check figures are based on all-air system and normal outdoor air quantities for ventilation except as noted.0 340 225 — — — — 0.9 1.0 3.0 1.1 2.0 1.1 Shoe Stores 50 20 1.5† 400 280 — — — — 0.5 5.9 2.0 180 110 1.2 1.7 2.6 1.0 345 185 0.1 1.0 4.9 2.6 0.Ft.2 Main Floor 45 16 3.8 0.7 1.4 0. Stores-Basement 30 20 2.Classification Cooling Load Check Figures (cont.1 2.2 Malls 100 50 1.0* 9. oAir quantities for heavy manufacturing areas are based on supplementary means to remove excessive heat.

92 19 .0 0.46 Corrections for “R” Factor (Steel Wall) “R” Factor Multiplier 8 1.9 1.0 1.5 2.8 — — 1.1 2.6 3.15 -20 1.4 2.8 2.5 1.2 1.0 3.0 2.8 3.2 -30 1.53 +20 .Heating & Refrigeration Heat Loss Estimates The following will give quick estimates of heat requirements in a building knowing the cu.93 16 .0 -10 1.84 + 0 1.9 1.0 4.4 2.0 10 .ft.4 2.2 2.6 1.2 1.1 2.0 1.8 1.97 12 95 14 .6 2.9 2.1 3.9 3.2 3.8 2.9 2.91 61 .1 — — The following correction factors must be used and multiplied by the answer obtained above.4 3.9 1. Corrections for Outdoor Design Temperature Multiplier +50 .1 1.7 2. Type of Structure Single Story 4 Walls Exposed Single Story One Heated Wall Single Floor One Heated Wall Heated Space Above Single Floor Two Heated Walls Heated Space Above Single Floor Two Heated Walls 2 Story 3 Story Multi-Story 4 Story 5 Story Masonry Wall Insulated Steel Wall Indoor Temp (F) 60° 65° 70° 60° 65° 70° BTU/Cubic Foot BTU/Cubic Foot 3.7 3.9 1.4 2.4 2.36 +30 .4 2.6 1.1 3.6 2.7 2.3 2. volume of the building and design conditions.2 2.69 +10 .23 +40 .0 — — 1.

Heating & Refrigeration
Heat Loss Estimates (cont.)
Considerations Used for Corrected Values 1—0°F Outdoor Design (See Corrections) 2—Slab Construction—If Basement is involved multiply final BTUH by 1.7. 3—Flat Roof 4—Window Area is 5% of Wall Area 5—Air Change is .5 Per Hour.

Fuel Comparisons**
This provides equivalent BTU Data for Various Fuels.
Natural Gas Propane Gas No. 2 Fuel Oil Electrical Resistance Municipal Steam Sewage Gas LP/Air Gas 1,000,000 BTU = 10 Therms or 1,000,000 BTU = (1000 Cu. Ft.) 1,000,000 BTU = 46 Lb. or 1,000,000 BTU = 10.88 Gallon 1,000,000 BTU = 7.14 Gallon 1,000,000 BTU = 293 KW (Kilowatts) 1,000,000 BTU = 1000 Lbs. Condensate 1,000,000 BTU = 1538 Cu.Ft. to 2380 Cu.Ft. 1,000,000 BTU = 46 Lb. Propane or 1,000,000 BTU = 10.88 Gallon Propane or 1,000,000 BTU = 690 Cu.Ft. Gas/Air Mix .6 to .66 Specific Gravity 1.52 Specific Gravity .55 to .85 Specific Gravity .5 to .6 Specific Gravity 1.29 Specific Gravity

Fuel Gas Characteristics
Natural Gas Propane Gas *Sewage Gas *Coal Gas *LP/Air Mix 925 to 1125 BTU/Cu.Ft. 2550 BTU/Cu.Ft. 420 to 650 BTU/Cu.Ft. 400 to 500 BTU/Cu.Ft. 1425 BTU/Cu.Ft.

* Before attempting to operate units on these fuels, contact manufacturer. ** Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.

62

Heating & Refrigeration
Estimated Seasonal Efficiencies of Heating Systems
Systems Gas Fired Gravity Vent Unit Heater Energy Efficient Unit Heater Electric Resistance Heating Steam Boiler with Steam Unit Heaters Hot Water Boiler with HYD Unit Heaters Oil Fired Unit Heaters Municipal Steam System INFRA Red (High Intensity) INFRA Red (Low Intensity) Direct Fired Gas Make Up Air Improvement with Power Ventilator Added to Gas Fired Gravity Vent Unit Heater Improvement with Spark Pilot Added to Gas Fired Gravity Vent Unit Heater Improvement with Automatic Flue Damper and Spark Pilot Added to Gravity Vent Unit Heater Seasonal Efficiency 62% 80% 100% 65%-80% 65%-80% 78% 66% 85% 87% 94% 4% 1/2%-3% 8%

Annual Fuel Use
Annual fuel use may be determined for a building by using one of the following formulas: Electric Resistance Heating H/(∆T x 3413 x E) xDx24x CD = KWH/YEAR Natural Gas Heating H/(∆T x 100,000 x E) x D x 24 x CD= THERMS/YEAR Propane Gas Heating H/(∆T x 21739 x E) x D x 24 x CD= POUNDS/YEAR H/(∆T x 91911 x E) x D x 24 x CD= GALLONS/YEAR Oil Heating H/(∆T x 140,000 x E) x D x 24 x CD = GALLONS/YEAR Where: ∆T = Indoor Design Minus Outdoor Design Temp. H = Building Heat Loss D = Annual Degree Days E = Seasonal Efficiency (See Above) CD = Correlation Factor CD vs. Degree-Days 63

Heating & Refrigeration
Annual Fuel Use (cont.)

1.2 1.0 Factor CD
+o

0.8 0.6 0.4
20 00 40 00

CD
-o

Degree Days
Pump Construction Types
The two general pump construction types are: Bronze-fitted Pumps • cast iron body • brass impeller • brass metal seal assembly components Uses: Closed heating/chilled water systems, low-temp fresh water. All-Bronze Pumps • all wetted parts are bronze Uses: Higher temp fresh water, domestic hot water, hot process water.

Pump Impeller Types
Single Suction - fluid enters impeller on one side only. Double Suction - fluid enters both sides of impeller. Closed Impeller - has a shroud which encloses the pump vanes, increasing efficiency. Used for fluid systems free of large particles which could clog impeller. Semi-Open Impeller - has no inlet shroud. Used for systems where moderate sized particles are suspended in pumped fluid. Open Impeller - has no shroud. Used for systems which have large particles suspended in pumped fluid, such as sewage or sludge systems. 64

60 00

80 00

0.2
0

Motor can be removed without removing the pump from piping system. Line Mount .pump is coupled to base-mount motor. Disassembled by removing top half of pump body.pump impeller is mounted on base mount motor shaft.Heating & Refrigeration Pump Bodies Two basic types of pump bodies are: Horizontal Split Case . Usually resilient mount motor. Vertical Split Case . Typically standard motors are used. No separate mounting is necessary for pump. Requires two seals. Usually for low flow requirements. 65 . Usually special motor necessary for replacement.single-piece body casting attached to cover plate at the back of pump by capscrews. Base Mount-Close Coupled . Usually double suction pump. Pump shaft passes through seal and bearing in coverplate. Impeller is mounted on end of shaft. Pump impeller mounted between bearings at center of shaft.split down centerline of pump horizontal axis. Very compact. Pump Mounting Methods The three basic types of pump mounting arrangements are: Base Mount-Long Coupled .mounted to and supported by system piping. Suction is at right angle to discharge. More compact than long-coupled pump. Suction and discharge are in straight-line configuration.

1987. 66 .Heating & Refrigeration Affinity Laws for Pumps Impeller Diameter Speed Specific To Gravity Correct (SG) for Flow Constant Variable Constant Head BHP (or kW) Flow Variable Constant Head BHP (or kW) Constant Variable BHP (or kW) Multiply by New Speed Old Speed New Speed Old Speed New Speed Old Speed 2 3 New Diameter Old Diameter New Diameter Old Diameter New Diameter Old Diameter New SG Old SG 2 3 Adapted from ASHRAE “Pocket Handbook”.

check line Entrained air or low suction size pressure • Check actual ability of pump against installation requirements • Check for vortex entraining air into suction line 67 .Heating & Refrigeration Pumping System Troubleshooting Guide Complaint: Pump or System Noise Possible Cause Recommended Action Shaft misalignment • Check and realign Worn coupling • Replace and realign • Replace. check manufacturer’s Worn pump/motor bearings lubrication recommendations • Check and realign shafts • Check foundation bolting or proper grouting Improper foundation • Check possible shifting because of piping expansion/ or installation contraction • Realign shafts Pipe vibration and/or strain • Inspect. alter or add hangers caused by pipe expansion/ and expansion provision to eliminate strain on pump(s) contraction • Check actual pump performance against specified and reduce impeller diameter as Water velocity required • Check for excessive throttling by balance valves or control valves. • Check actual pump perforPump operating close to or mance against specified and beyond end point of perforreduce impeller diameter as mance curve required • Check expansion tank connection to system relative to pump suction • If pumping from cooling tower sump or reservoir.

1987. 68 .) Complaint: Inadequate or No Circulation Possible Cause Recommended Action Pump running backward • Reverse any two-motor leads (3 phase) Broken pump coupling • Replace and realign • Check motor nameplate wiring Improper motor speed and voltage • Check pump selection (impeller Pump (or impeller diameter) diameter) against specified systoo small tem requirements Clogged strainer(s) • Inspect and clean screen • Check setting of PRV fill valve System not completely filled • Vent terminal units and piping high points Balance valves or isolating • Check settings and adjust as valves improperly set required • Vent piping and terminal units • Check location of expansion tank connection line relative to Air-bound system pump suction • Review provision for air elimination • Check pump suction inlet conditions to determine if air is Air entrainment being entrained from suction tanks or sumps • Check NPSH required by pump • Inspect strainers and check Low available NPSH pipe sizing and water temperature Adapted from ASHRAE “Pocket Handbook”.Heating & Refrigeration Pumping System Troubleshooting Guide (cont.

To Obtain m m2 m/s m3 m3/h L/s Pa kPa bar m m kW kW kW — — — — — — rad/s rps kg/m3 °C 69 .5 Head (total) H ft 0.0 Density ρ lb/ft3 Temperature ° °F-32 5/9 Term Adapted from ASHRAE “Pocket Handbook”.7457 (WHP) (pump) Ps Shaft power BHP 0.0283 Volume V ft3 gpm 0.0631 psi 6890 Pressure P psi 6.89 psi 14.3048 Area A 0.0 Input power (driver) Efficiency.1047 Speed n rpm 0. Abbreviations and Conversion Factors AbbreviaMultiply By tion Length l ft 0. % Ep Pump — — Ee Equipment — — Em — — Electric motor Eu — Utilization — Variable speed Fv — — drive System Efficiency SEI — — Index (decimal) rpm 0.Heating & Refrigeration Pump Terms.0929 ft2 Velocity v ft/s 0.7457 Pi kW 1. 1987.2272 0v Flow rate gpm 0.3048 NPSH H ft 0.0167 16.3048 0.3048 water hp Output power Po 0.

21 d2 Quiet Water Flows Nom size Gpm 1/2 1. 1-1/4 1-1/2 14 22 2 44 2-1/2 75 3 120 4 240 Six fps is a reasonable upper limit for water velocity in pipes.41 v= d2 Where V is in ft/sec and d is inside diameter.Heating & Refrigeration Common Pump Formulas Formula for Head Output power Shaft power Input power Utilization QD= design flow QA= actual flow HD= design head HA= actual head *SG = specific gravity I-P Units H=psi x 2.27 6.469 3. in.824 1. The relationship between pressure drop and flow rate can also be expressed: h2 = h1 x Q2 2 or Q2 = Q1 x Q1 h2 h1 70 .31/SG* (ft) Po = Qv x H x SG*/3960 (hp) Ps = Qv x H x SG* (hp) 39.622 0.387 0.6/Em (kw) ηµ = 100 Q Q D A HD HA Water Flow and Piping Pressure drop in piping varies approx as the square of the flow: h2 Q2 2 = h1 Q1 The velocity of water flowing in a pipe is gpm x 0.5 3/4 4. 1 8.10 9.610 2.904 2.679 1. 0.41 16.049 1.067 2.380 1.100 1.068 4.6 x Ep Pi = Ps x 74.02 0. Nom 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 size ID in.59 4.

5 2.81 17.1 8 4. hF v Fps FtHd 2.8 5 5.00 3.3 4 4. %: 1/12 to 1/2 hp 3/4 to 2 3 to 10 double suction pumps: 20 to 50 40 to 55 45 to 60 50 to 65 60 to 80 Friction Loss for Water Flow Average value—new pipe.0 2.0 16 5.97 5.61 10.94 19.2 3.43 2.20 14.2 2.2 3.7 2.3 6 3.Heating & Refrigeration Water Flow and Piping (cont.45 11.5 2.17 11.41 4. 3/4 in.5 3.2 10 6.23 3.8 4. Used pipe add 50% Feet loss / 100 ft—schedule 40 pipe 1/2 in.7 3.3 2.71 7.) Example: If design values were 200 gpm and 40 ft head and actual flow were changed to 100 gpm.01 7.02 26.11 5. the new head would be: 100 2 h2 = 40 = 10 ft 200 Pump hp = gpm x ft head x sp gr 3960 x % efficiency Typical single suction pump efficiencies.9 12 4.0 1-1/4 in.64 8.28 29.4 3.1 14 5. 1 in.0 3.22 19.9 3.70 15. US hF hF hF v v v Gpm Fps FtHd Fps FtHd Fps FtHd 2.8 71 .57 3.

04 15.21 3.2 6.51 9.) US Gpm 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1-1/2 in.15 3.4 8.65 13.69 10.Heating & Refrigeration Friction Loss for Water Flow (cont.9 3 in.4 4.4 6.2 Adapted from “Numbers”.01 13. 1985 72 .30 12.74 7.5 1-1/4 in.6 7.68 10.6 4.2 8.2 4.3 4.4 5.73 7.7 5.1 6.4 3. 2-1/2 in.9 6. 2 in.78 5.7 6. hF v Fps FtHd 5. hF v Fps FtHd 3.1 5. Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm.58 11.70 8.81 8.78 4.6 6.8 4.5 4.41 6.7 7.02 3.29 7.36 5.6 7.4 3.86 6.5 4.44 15.8 3.0 4.84 2.08 5.1 3.9 6.2 5. hF hF hF v v v Fps FtHd Fps FtHd Fps FtHd 2.04 11.10 5.47 4.3 5.82 3.51 20.69 4.72 8.30 4.94 6.3 4.15 10.2 7.5 9.38 15.

3 3.2 2.71 1.7 13 Feet of liquid loss = (V1 .96 1.2 9.4 24 .Heating & Refrigeration Equivalent Length of Pipe for Valves and Fittings Screwed fittings.17 ft/sec2 Adapted from “Numbers”.6 5.7 12 8.6 22 .2 3.3 8.6 8.56 15 8.0 3.7 18 22 .52 5.92 2.9 7.5 3.67 6.4 42 1.3 3.43 4.9 3/4 4.6 5. 1985 73 .4 3.53 .2 2 8.3 . equipment length in feet.67 15 8.2 .1 6.7 4.9 12 17 11 79 1.2 6.47 .6 2.10 .5 18 19 .7 4.6 Pipe Size 1-1/4 1-1/2 6.6 1 5.18 1.8 .2 18 15 .39 .2 29 .7 1.3 2.3 4.1 5.29 . 90° Ell Standard 45° Ell Tee Line flow Tee Br flow 180° Ret bend Globe Valve Gate Valve Angle Valve Swing Check Union or Coupling Bellmouth inlet Sq mouth inlet Reentrant pipe Sudden enlargement 1/2 3.4 2.7 7.6 3. Fittings Standard 90° Ell Long rad.4 2. turbulent flow only.2 1.3 13 9.1 7.6 2.9 18 27 .6 37 1.1 18 13 .7 6.13 1.26 2.5 2-1/2 9.3 62 1.84 17 11 .6 9.36 .0 .21 .2 10 2 3 11 4.4 5. Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm.V2) 2g where V1 & V2 = entering and leaving velocities and g = 32.8 3.5 54 1.45 .6 3.24 .31 3.

0.750 0.62 18.375 1.660 1.1058 0.623 Weight lb/lin ft 0.540 0.13 1.6613 1.0777 0.025 0.77 0.126 0.0 0.163 0.0099 0.79 7. 0.0030 0.0655 1-1/2 1.484 0.244 0.825 0.125 2.610 2.070 0.945 6.00753 1/2 0.646 0.00 Copper Tube Dimensions (Type L) Diameter Cross-sect Volume Nominal Area sq.0054 0.675 0.10 0.375 2.500 4.38 74 .78 0.14 1. Inside 0.0442 1-1/4 1.900 1.364 0.285 0.125 1.0121 5/8 0.430 0.054 1.875 0.625 1.48 3.125 3.026 5.315 1.361 0. in.068 4.803 1.824 1.567 0.0158 0.0449 0. gal/lin ft.422 0.622 1.455 0.348 0.26 0.850 1.625 6.354 4 4.3840 0.129 0.79 14.625 0. Inside in.905 12.27 2.275 0.493 0.0925 2 2.065 Area ft2/ lin ft.33 5.424 0.145 0. Inside 1/4 0.362 0.00404 3/8 0.840 0.095 0.655 0.0181 3/4 0.985 3.541 0.500 0. size Outside in.161 2-1/2 2.125 1.875 2.625 2.047 6.68 2.216 0.469 3.666 0.380 1.039 1.81 0.0250 1 1.65 5.405 0.067 2.785 0.Heating & Refrigeration Standard Pipe Dimensions Schedule 40 (Steel) Nominal Size 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 5 6 Diameter Outside Inside in.501 Weight lb/lin ft 0.321 1.0277 0.315 0.269 0.375 0.563 5.050 0.049 1.in.233 0.078 0.545 0.1743 0.265 1.465 4.884 1.505 1.500 3.75 2.57 10.587 Volume gal/lin ft.72 3.2487 0.247 3 3.198 0.

R22 Water to R12.aftercooler Oil .DX chiller Water . R22.shell & int finned tube Water .flooded chiller Brine . R22 Water to water Condensing vapor to water U free U forced convection convection 0. NH3 E glycol to R12.HW radiator Oil .preheater Air .ft2 •°F Liquid velocities 3 ft/sec or higher a At atmospheric pressure b At 100 psig Values shown are for commercially clean equipment.preheater Brine .double pipe Water . R22.bare pipes Steam to aira Air .Baudelot cooler Brine . R22 Brine to NH3 Brine to NH3 Water to NH3 Water to R12.double pipe Water . R22 Brine to R12.DX Shell & tube Water .shell & tube Air to watera Water to aira Liquid to liquid Comp air to waterb Steam to liquid Brine to R12.R502 Water to R12.6 -2 2-6 1-2 1-3 1-3 5-10 5-10 10-30 2-10 2-10 2-10 20-50 20-50 25-60 30-90 45-100 50-125 50-150 60-150 60-140 100-170 100-200 130-190 160-250 150-300 150-800 Notes: U factor = Btu/h . 1985.flat plates Gas to gasa Air .DX Baudelot Water .Heating & Refrigeration Typical Heat Transfer Coefficients Controlling fluid and Type of Exchanger apparatus Air . NH3 Water to R12. 75 . Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm. Adapted from “Numbers”.shell & tube Water . R22.flooded chiller Brine .DX chiller Brine .fin coil Air .

0005 aInsert factor in: where f1 and f2 are the 1 1 + f1 + f2 + 1 surface fouling factors. open system 0.0005 Exhaust from turbine 0.0020 Vapors and gases: Refrigerant vapors none Solvent vapors 0.0003 Wet.0060 Sea water 0. 76 . reciprocating compressor 0. h1 h2 U= bLower velocities require higher f values.0005 Water.Heating & Refrigeration Fouling Factors Recommended minimum fouling allowances (f)a for water flowing at 3 ft/secb or higher: Distilled water 0.0033 Steam: Dry.0030 Other Liquids: Organic solvents (clean) 0.0015 Air. clean and oil free 0.0040 Quenching oils (filtered) 0. clean and oil free 0.0015 Engine jacket 0.0015 Hard well water 0.0010 Non-inhibited salts 0.0010 0.0020 Inhibited glycols 0.0030 Untreated cooling tower 0.0001 Vegetable oils 0.0015 Treated boiler feed (212°F) 0.0010 Inhibited cooling tower 0. (clean) centrifugal compressor 0.0008 Air.0050 Fuel oils 0.0005 Water.0005 0.0010 Non-ferrous Ferrous Brines: tubes tubes Methylene chloride none none Inhibited salts 0. closed system 0.0010 0.

88 95 85 78 0. Temp.Heating & Refrigeration Cooling Tower Ratings† Temperatures °F Hot Water Cold Water Wet Bulb Capacity Factor 90 80 70 0. 1985 77 .87 1.85 or 0.85 92 82 70 1. If the refrigerant temperature is below 40°F. 0. and 0.73 that of the rating at 90-80-70.62/0. Evaporation will cause increasing deposit of solids and fouling of condenser tube unless water is bled off. A bleed of 1% of the circulation rate will result in a concentration of twice the original solids (two concentrations). F 40 20 Practical Avg.25 (15.74 92 82 72 0. Capacity is reduced as the flow rate per ton is increased.75 95 85 80 0.12 95 85 74 1.20 0 1..88 95 85 72 1.000 Btu/ hr • ton) and gpm/ton flow rate. Horsepower per Ton† at 100°F Condensing Temperature Vapor enters Compressor at 65°F Refrig. Factors are based on a Heat Rejection Ratio of 1.000 btu/hr • ton. the capacity is 0.70 -20 2.24 90 80 72 0.00 95 85 76 0.Cold water = Range Cold water .Wet bulb = Approach The Capacity Factor is a multiplier by which the capacity at any common assumed condition may be found if the rating at some other point is known.20 †Adapted from “Numbers”. Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm. Example: at 95-85-80.00 95 85 70 1. the heat rejection will be greater than 15.62 Hot water .5% bleed will result in three concentrations.40 -40 3.

65 1.96 0.59 100 1.91 0.45 36 43 64 100 -10 1. Refrigerant Temperature at 100°F Condensing† Heat Refrig.41 1. The capacity of a typical compressor is reduced as the evaporating temperature is reduced because of increased specific volume (cu ft/lb) of the refrigerant and lower compressor volumetric efficiency.28 83 100 30 1.79 105 1.20 2.29 1.54 1.02 1.41 95 1.31 1.11 2.13 1.31 69 83 20 1.35 56 67 100 10 1. °F 50°F 40°F 20°F 0°F Ratioa 50 1. †Adapted from “Numbers”.41 1.26 100 40 1. % Based on Temp.92 10 12 18 28 aFor sealed compressors.. °F Temp.62 1.64 22 26 39 61 -30 1.75 Compressor Capacity Vs.85 1.20 1.63 0.47 120 2. Entering Air Wet Bulb Temp. at 40°F refrigerant temperature.39 45 54 80 0 1.80 0.00 0.03 0. Rejection Capacity.71 1.08 1.81 1.52 1. 55° 60° 65° 70° 75° 78° °F 90 0. 1 ton. as follows: Cond.87 0. 100°F condensing temperature.000 btu/h. The average 1 hp compressor will have a capacity of nearly 12.51 1..67 0.93 1.75 1.00 110 1.53 28 34 50 78 -20 1.32 1. 1985 78 .22 115 1.75 0.93 1.Heating & Refrigeration Evaporate Condenser Ratings† An Evaporative Condenser rated at a condensing temperature of 100°F and a wet bulb temperature of 70°F will have rating factors under other conditions.11 1.50 0.86 0.22 1.77 15 18 27 42 -40 1. A 10° rise/fall in condensing temperature will reduce/increase capacity about 6%. Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm.

20 30.40 2.79 1.00 28.Type L.8 8.27 14.27 0.4 377 17. Suction Lines.9 3.00 342. ∆t = 2°F Saturated Suction Temp.5 40.3 80.42 4.2 136 194 268 1263 60.0 15.7 0.50 29.1 45.9 0.75 2.84 2.D.5 28.94 9.35 0.00 181.0 37.79 5.32 2.8 59.50 20.00 688.9 128 602 26. copper 1/8” larger.10 35.Heating & Refrigeration Refrigerant Line Capacities for 134a† Tons for 100 ft. Copper.0 22.1 16.76 1.18 0.6 213 10. 1/2 5/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 2-5/8 3-1/8 3-5/8 4-1/8 5-1/8 *Tables are based on 105°F condensing temperature.5 11. .1 4.66 1.1 33.40 57. 1/2 5/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 2-5/8 3-1/8 3-5/8 4-1/8 5-1/8 6-1/8 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-22† Tons for 100 ft.22 4.32 0.66 1.0 5.10 44.00 37.6 2.7 7.42 1. °F/ Discharge ∆p Lines∆t 1°F 0 10 20 30 40 0 1.9 4.8 58.0 4.41 1.52 0.71 0.15 1.0 1. ∆t = 2°F Saturated Suction Temp.10 86.9 17.6 138 190 896 36.39 7.86 1.8 3.17 9.88 3.1 14.54 0.34 0.0 42.00 Liquid Lines ∆t 1°F 2.80 18.2 2.D.01 0.23 0.40 50.90 78.5 6.80 14.00 49.3 65.1 1.14 0.6 0.3 2.60 55.93 0.04 5.34 10.00 Size O.7 2.60 62.0 10.53 3.00 1.7 3.00 78.8 27.00 226.02 5.43 181.80 69.7 4. . 79 .40 119. †Adapted from ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook 1998.80 23. Copper.0 102 6.10 6.02 6.00 462.50 46.00 141.90 113. Suction Lines.54 5.40 23.77 14.91 1. Refrigerant temperature has little effect on discharge line size.80 54.29 0.70 97.0 64.0 18.14 1.4 96.00 290.10 84.70 35.67 1.40 0.45 1.1 1.0 2.0 92.60 163.6 23.00 143. °F/ Discharge Liquid ∆p Lines∆t 1°F Lines -40 -20 0 20 40 ∆t 1°F 0 0.0 65.00 174. Steel pipe has about the same capacity as Type L.30 16.2 10.19 1.90 8.00 971.51 0.6 0.0 107 164 244 347 478 Size O.8 7.54 0.43 0.Type L.70 30.00 280.00 88.60 13.4 44.2 1.00 213.6 92.80 129.

7 140 0 1.49 0. Copper R-717 (Ammonia) Tons for 100 Ft.9 57.3 27.7 3.5 4.9 29.9 46.6 19.8 22.4 48.4 5.1 6. .1 2. IPS 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 5 6 aSchedule ∆p ∆p Sch 80 40 -40 0.5 23.27 0.33 0.0 8.9 6.31 -20 0.6 8.3 27. Suction Lines.2 14.2 19.4 26.5 150 271 439 20 1.6 63.4 135 216 20 2.4 8.46 3.06 2.8 92.8 99.91 2.5 73.1 5.73 3.18 0.6 20.7 101 164 80 †Adapted from ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook 1998.0 29.49 2.2 170 276 0 0.5 2.70 1.2 4.2 12.6 36.45 0.4 16.16 0.4 4.4 5.0 41.8 14.2 34.1 55.2 25.84 0.7 53.92 0.Type L.8 148 208 371 596 ∆t 1°F 2.8 106 168 298 600 1095 1771 2 106 229a 349a 811 1293 2288 4662 3.42 1.7 53. . ∆t = 2°F Saturated Suction Temp.5 39.2 35.1 21. 80 . °F/ ∆p Size ∆p 1/2 5/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 2-5/8 3-1/8 3-5/8 4-1/8 5-1/8 6-1/8 -40 0.5 11.9 17.Heating & Refrigeration Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-502† Tons for 100 ft.33 0.8 8.3 10.6 5.6 -20 1.0 66.1 42.4 77.43 0.2 112 229 412 668 40 1.5 75.5 86.4 2.0 8.5 54.8 7.4 4.2 3. Copper.0 53.63 1.5 48.Type L.4 138 244 389 579 817 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-717† Tons for 100 ft.7 79.5 15.2 13.9 9.0 114 161 287 461 Discharge Liquid Lines ∆t Lines 1°F 0 0.8 9.7 112 200 321 40 3.1 163 333 601 972 3 13.6 62.63 1.2 85.9 36.1 94.22 0.8 24.87 1.08 0.9 13.4 13.1 33.14 0.2 3.

732 x Efficiency x Power Factor 746 Volts x Amperes x Efficiency x Power Factor Horsepower (1 Ph) = 746 Three-Phase Power Factor = Amperes = Watts (I = W/E) Volts Horsepower = Volts x Amperes x Efficiency 746 81 .732 x Volts x Efficiency x Power Factor 746 x Horsepower Volts x Amperes x Power Factor x 1.732 Power —D-C Circuits Watts = Volts x Amperes ( W = EI) Input Watts Volts x Amperes x 1.732 1000 Three-Phase Volt-Amperes = Volts x Amperes x 1.Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas OHMS Law Ohms = Volts/Amperes (R = E/I) Amperes = Volts/Ohms (I = E/R) Volts = Amperes x Ohms (E = IR) Power—A-C Circuits Efficiency = 746 x Output Horsepower Input Watts Three-Phase Kilowatts = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor x 1.732 Single-Phase Kilowatts = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor 1000 746 x Horsepower Single-Phase Amperes = Volts x Efficiency x Power Factor 746 x Horsepower Single-Phase Efficiency = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor Input Watts Single-Phase Power Factor = Volts x Amperes Horsepower (3 Ph) = Volts x Amperes x 1.732 Three-Phase Amperes = Three-Phase Efficiency = 746 x Horsepower 1.

) = WK2 (Load) x Load RPM2 Motor RPM2 HP x 321.3 Change in Resistance Due to Change in Temperature RC = RH x RH = R C x K (K + TC) (K + TH) (K + TH) (K + TC) RC RH TC TH = 234. Accelerating Torque Average Accelerating Torque = [(FLT + BDT)/2] + BDT + LR1 3 WK2 = Inertia of Rotor + Inertia of Load (lb.-ft.Aluminum = 180 .2) FLT = Full-Load Torque BDT = Breakdown Torque LRT = Locked Rotor Torque Load WK2 (at motor shaft) = Shaft Stress (P.S.) = Horsepower x 5250 RPM Horsepower = Torque (lb.Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas (cont.000 RPM x Shaft Dia.) x RPM 5250 Time for Motor to Reach Operating Speed (seconds) Seconds = WK2 x Speed Change 308 x Avg.Iron = 218 .) Speed—A-C Machinery Synchronous RPM = Hertz x 120 Poles Synchronous RPM .Steel = Cold Resistance (OHMS) = Hot Resistance (OHMS) = Cold Temperature (°C) = Hot Temperature (°C) 82 .-ft.5 .Copper = 236 .-ft.I.Full-Load RPM x 100 Percent Slip = Synchronous RPM Motor Application Torque (lb.

318 (V/f) V = π(f) (D) D = Displacement (Inches Peak-Peak) V = Velocity (Inches per Second Peak) A = .32) 5 9 For Fans and Blowers 1 ft.) H = Height of Liquid (ft.051 (f)2 (D) A = Acceleration (g’s Peak) A = .309 Ft. of water Specify Gravity of Water = 1. of water = 0.875 x D2 x H D = Tank Diameter (ft.Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas (cont.) Centrifugal Applications Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Applications: Flow1 RPM1 = Flow2 RPM2 Pres1 (RPM1)2 = Pres2 (RPM2)2 BHP1 (RPM1)3 = BHP2 (RPM2)3 For Pumps BHP = GPM x PSI x Specific Gravity 1713 x Efficiency of Pump BHP = GPM x FT x Specific Gravity 3960 x Efficiency of Pump Tip Speed (FPS) = D(in) x RPM x π 720 Temperature: °F = °C 9 + 32 5 BHP = BHP = BHP = CFM x PSF 33000 x Efficiency of Fan CFM x PIW 6344 x Efficiency of Fan CFM x PSI 229 x Efficiency of Fan °C = (°F .0 83 .433 PSI 1 PSI = 2.) Vibration D = .016 (f) (V) f = Frequency (Cycles per Second) Volume of Liquid in a Tank Gallons = 5.

5236 0.309 1.7854 1.047 1.283 Area and Circumference of Circles Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 .03 113.0054 0.760 6.142 7.6600 0.7854 0.9218 1.396 1.665 3.712 4.2673 0.27 63.4 84 Area (sq.57 19.7854 3.7 283.54 95.0 254.576 1.927 4.182 2.2618 0.142 3.069 1.) 0.3 380.63 28.189 4.5 452.498 5.403 3.) Where: BHP GPM FT PSI PSIG PSF PIW = Brake Horsepower = Gallons per Minute = Feet = Pounds per Square Inch = Pounds per Square Inch Gauge = Pounds per Square Foot = Inches of Water Gauge Area (sq.405 2.571 1.880 3.in.27 38.885 3.9 176.236 5.969 2.094 2.7 153.974 5.0 227.7 201.618 2.021 6.5 314.1 132.1 415.833 2. ft.356 2.) 0.1364 0.3491 0.227 1.640 2.451 4.0491 0.Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas (cont.4418 0.62 78.069 12.48 50.0873 0.0218 0.1964 0.2 346.142 Circumference (feet) 0.767 1.5454 0.

14 14.876 8.163 9.78 12.592 7.9 1809.168 9.75 15.909 5.467 7.727 9.64 14.807 7.10 17.9 962.52 11. ft.305 6.Formulas & Conversion Factors Area and Circumference of Circles (cont.83 13.116 8.686 9.4 1452.35 13.330 7.26 11.57 12.09 13.545 6.7 804.99 11.72 Circumference (feet) 6.7 660.948 10.in.425 9.08 10.90 16.687 3.50 17.5 2043 2124 2206 2290 2376 2463 2552 85 Area (sq.5 706.09 13.5 1885.57 13.585 5.6 1320.639 8.54 12.587 4.7 1963.241 5.) 3.2 1520.5 1590.276 4.04 12.5 1256.621 10.5 615.) 490.88 14.976 4.854 8.56 11.378 8.069 7.901 9.1 1194.9 572.8 754.1 1017.681 7.04 11.2 855.069 7.61 13.92 .66 14.296 8.2 1385.73 10.3 907.21 10.32 15.47 10.8 1075.19 14.2 1134.) Diameter (inches) 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Area (sq.409 3.05 12.40 14.4 1661.9 1734.940 6.9 530.30 12.

99 22.28 17.18 15.16 20.28 42.11 19.71 15.Formulas & Conversion Factors Area and Circumference of Circles (cont.34 41.91 35.29 20.68 31.76 17.07 29.18 34.94 21.20 44.97 16.68 20.) Diameter (inches) 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 Area (sq.35 18.67 37.51 22.) 2642 2734 2827 2922 3019 3117 3217 3318 3421 3526 3632 3739 3848 3959 4072 4185 4301 4418 4536 4657 4778 4902 5027 5153 5281 5411 5542 5675 5809 5945 6082 6221 6362 6504 86 Area (sq.41 40.85 19.82 .97 26.34 33.18 45.59 18.25 22.21 21. ft.49 28.45 15.30 23.in.90 20.04 23.63 19.65 22.47 21.99 19.78 23.48 39.49 16.56 23.42 20.57 38.23 16.02 17.04 23.) 18.06 18.73 21.76 24.73 27.34 23.22 25.63 20.04 34.80 18.27 29.48 25.54 17.78 36.37 19.24 43.50 32.97 21.17 Circumference (feet) 15.33 18.87 30.

366 4.17188 0.Formulas & Conversion Factors Area and Circumference of Circles (cont.334 8.09 24.144 7.731 9.319 10.42188 0.48438 0.13 25.50000 mm 6.09375 0.28125 0.175 3.541 7.) Diameter (inches) 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Circle Formula A(in2) = π r (in)2 = Area (sq.92 26.66 25.716 11.04688 0.556 5.191 1.12500 0.40625 0.16 47.303 12.25000 mm 0.46 54.763 5.03125 0.) 46.06250 0.19 49.07812 0.953 6.26562 0.39062 0.509 11.397 0.922 10.35938 0.113 11.) 6648 6793 6940 7088 7238 7390 7543 7698 7855 π d(in)2 4 Area (sq.350 Fraction 17/64 9/32 19/64 5/16 21/64 11/32 23/64 3/8 25/64 13/32 27/64 7/16 29/64 15/32 31/64 1/2 Decimal 0.17 48.32 52.15625 0.32812 0.39 25.128 9.794 1.18750 0.572 3.984 2.22 50.01562 0.10938 0.906 12.46875 0.38 53.381 2.31250 0.969 4.21875 0.588 1.14062 0.29688 0.700 87 .778 3.159 5.43750 0.20312 0.54 Circumference (feet) 24.34375 0.27 51.525 9.61 24.23438 0.747 7.37500 0.in.938 8. ft.18 2 2 A(ft2) = π r (in) = π d(in) 144 576 C(ft) = π d (in) 12 Where: A = Area C = Circumference r = Radius d = Diameter Common Fractions of an Inch Decimal and Metric Equivalents Fraction 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 5/64 3/32 7/64 1/8 9/64 5/32 11/64 3/16 13/64 7/32 15/64 1/4 Decimal 0.87 25.35 24.45312 0.

56250 0.90625 0.288 14.98438 1.447 19.097 13.92188 0.478 15.96875 0.84375 0.494 13.82812 0.75000 mm 13.53125 0.76562 0.65625 0.209 24.034 21.019 23.6214 3.85938 0.0 .3937 6.95312 0.416 23.87500 0.050 Fraction 49/64 25/32 51/64 13/16 53/64 27.081 15.00000 mm 19.828 22.68750 0.400 Conversion Factors Multiply Length centimeters fathoms feet feet inches kilometers meters meters meters miles miles rods yards x x x x x x x x x x x x x By .89062 0.431 21.684 15.79688 0.256 18.638 21.859 18.54688 0.9144 = = = = = = = = = = = = = To Obtain Inches Feet Inches Meters Centimeters Miles Feet Inches Yards Feet Kilometers Yards Meters 88 .32 55/64 7/8 57/64 29/32 59/64 15/16 61/64 31/32 63/64 1/1 Decimal 0.37 1.) Decimal and Metric Equilavents Fraction 33/64 17/32 35/64 9/16 37/64 19/32 39.70312 0.875 16.60938 0.59375 0.094 5280.606 25.813 24.281 39.3048 2.64 5/8 41/64 21/32 43/64 11/16 45/64 23/32 47/64 3/4 Decimal 0.57812 0.463 17.669 17.93750 0.81250 0.67188 0.5 .609 5.066 17.622 23.0 12.62500 0.225 22.272 16.241 20.51562 0.Formulas & Conversion Factors Common Fractions of an Inch (cont.71875 0.844 20.004 25.73438 0.0 1.54 .78125 0.653 19.64062 0.891 14.

785 .273 .196 2.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.7854 2.5541 35.4047 43560.471 1.0 .452 1.471 x 10-4 640.1337 3.805 .7646 .0283 7.0 1.481 .9463 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = To Obtain Square meters Hectares Square feet Square yards Square inches Square mils Acres Square feet Square inches Square inches Square meters Square cm.) Multiply Area acres acres acres acres circular mils circular mils hectares hectares square centimeters square feet square feet square inches square meters square meters square miles square mils square yards Multiply Volume cubic feet cubic feet cubic inches cubic meters cubic meters cubic yards gallons gallons liters liters ounces (fluid) quarts (fluid) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x By 4047.0 . Square yards Acres Acres Circular mils Square meters To Obtain Cubic meters Gallons Ounces (fluid) Cubic feet Cubic yards Cubic meters Cubic feet Liters Gallons Quarts (liquid) Cubic inches Liters 89 .31 1.0929 6.2642 1.8361 By .308 .076 x 105 .854x10-7 .0 7.057 1.0 4840.155 144.

95 1. 90 .S.6 4.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.341 Multiply Plane Angle By degrees x .9x10-4 quadrants x 90.0139 .0 kilowatts x 1.0 By .0 By .448 907.2 2000.0353 2.0 550.35 453.851 71.3 Pounds are U.0 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = To Obtain Ounces Pounds Pounds (force) Grams Grams Newton Kilograms Pounds To Obtain Ounce-inches Pound-feet Pound-inches Gram-centimeters Newton-meters Newton-meters To Obtain Foot-pounds Gram-calories To Obtain Watts Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Watts Horsepower To Obtain Radians Degrees Radians Degrees Radians Degrees horsepower x 746.3558 . Gallons and quarts are U.113 By 778.293 33000.) Multiply Force & Weight grams x kilograms x newtons x ounces x pounds x pounds (force) x tons (short) x tons (short) x Multiply Torque gram-centimeters x newton-meters x newton-meters x ounce-inches x pound-feet x pound-inches x Multiply Energy or Work Btu x Btu x Multiply Power Btu per hour x horsepower horsepower x x By .7376 8.205 .0 quadrants x 1.2248 28. avoirdupois.2 252.5708 radians x 57.0175 minutes x .S.01667 minutes x 2.

petroleum) Btu (International Table) Btu/ft2 Btu⋅ft/h⋅ft2⋅°F Btu⋅in/h⋅ft2⋅°F (thermal conductivity.0677 cents per gallon (no. dynamic viscosity. cents per gallon (no.0632 cents per gallon (propane) x 0.0 =W x 70. kilogram (kilocalorie) centipoise.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.0948 ft/min. 6 fuel oil) x 0.35 = kPa x *100 = kPa x 159 =L x 1.00508 * Conversion factor is exact.1442 = W/(m⋅K) 0.00 = mm2/s x *0.326 = kJ/kg x 4. gram calorie.731 = W/(m⋅K) x x x x 0.100 = Pa x 44.055 = kJ x 11.) Multiply acres atmosphere.µ centistokes.187 = J x 4. x *2.113 cents per kWh x 2.4047 = ha x *101. k) Btu/h Btu/h⋅ft2 Btu/h⋅ft2⋅°F (heat transfer coefficient. U) Btu/lb Btu/lb⋅°F (specific heat.155 = W/m2 5.78 cents per therm x 0. standard bar barrel (42 US gal. fpm x *0.3 =W = $/GJ = $/GJ = $/GJ = $/GJ = $/GJ = m/s 91 .00 = mPa⋅s x *1.36 = kJ/m2 x 1.184 = kJ/(kg⋅K) x 0. kinematic viscosity.03524 = m3 x 4.2931 = W 3.187 = kJ x *1. v By To obtain x 0. cp) bushel calorie.678 = W/(m2⋅K) dyne/cm2 EDR hot water (150 Btu/h) EDR steam (240 Btu/h) fuel cost comparison at 100% eff. 2 fuel oil) x 0.

4 3.0648 17.) Multiply ft/s.1 9. v ft3 ft3 ft3/h. cfs footcandle ft⋅lbf (torque or moment) ft⋅lbf (work) ft⋅lbf / lb (specific energy) ft⋅lbf / min (power) gallon.36 2.3048 = m/s 2.02832 = m3 x 7.09290 = m2 0.81 0.0179 0.833 113 645 = L/s = lx = N⋅m =J = J/kg =W =L = mL/s = L/s = L/(s⋅m2) = mL/J =g = g/m3 = kW = kW = mm = kPa = Pa = mm/m = mN⋅m = mm2 . cfm ft3/s.76 1.05 0.0631 0. x x 0. cfh ft3/min.0226 3.8 0.99 = kPa 0.377 248.4719 = L/s 28.866 = mL/s x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 92 0.6791 0.32 10. US (*231 in3) gph gpm gpm/ft2 gpm/ton refrigeration grain (1/7000 lb) gr/gal horsepower (boiler) horsepower (550 ft⋅lbf/s) inch in of mercury (60°F) in of water (60°F) in/100 ft (thermal expansion) in⋅lbf (torque or moment) in2 *Conversion factor is exact.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont. kinematic viscosity. fps ft of water ft of water per 100 ft of pipe ft2 x x x By To obtain 0.36 1.0981 = kPa/m x 0. R) x x ft2/s.32 = L ft2⋅h⋅°F/Btu (thermal resistance.746 *25.99 0.7854 1.176 = m2⋅K/W 92 900 = mm2/s 28.

278 = m/s *3.35 = g 0.4 0.45 =N . avoirdupois) ounce (force of thrust) ounce (liquid.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.45 1.8684 = knots *0.133 = kPa 9.6 = g 4.895 = MPa 1. US) pound lb (mass) lb (mass) lbƒ(force or thrust) *Conversion factor is exact.4536 = kg 453.45 = kN 6.273 To obtain = mL = mL/s 16 400 = mm3 416 200 = mm4 0.61 = km/h 0.278 = N 29.46 473 = ng/(s⋅m2⋅Pa) = ng/(s⋅m⋅Pa) = mL 0.151 = mph *0.) Multiply in3 (volume) in3/min (SCIM) in3 (section modulus) in4 (section moment) km/h kWh kW/1000 cfm kilopond (kg force) kip (1000 lbf) kip/in2 (ksi) knots litre micron (µm) of mercury (60°F) mile mile.447 = m/s 0.80 = Pa 28. 93 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x By 16.001 = m3 133 = mPa 1.60 = MJ 2.85 = km 1.6 = mL 7. nautical mph mph mph millibar mm of mercury (60°F) mm of water (60°F) ounce (mass.100 = kPa 0.12 = kJ/m3 9.49 = kg/m3 57.81 =N 4.61 = km 1. US) ounce (avoirdupois) per gallon perm (permeance) perm inch (permeability) pint (liquid.

7646 = m3 * Conversion factor is exact. µ) lbm/(ft⋅s) (dynamic viscosity.284 = kW x 47.) Multiply lb/ft (uniform load) lbm/(ft⋅h) (dynamic viscosity.907 3.126 = g/s x 0.9 = Pa x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 4. µ) lb/min lb/h lb/h (steam at 212°F) lbƒ/ft2 lb/ft2 (density.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.0 120 *1.) therm (100.00 6.88 16.000 Btu) ton. Note: In this list the kelvin (K) expresses temperature intervals. p) lb/gallon ppm (by mass) psi quart (liquid.9144 0. t (tonne) = kW = Pa = W/m2 =m = m2 x 0. µ) lbƒs/ft2 (dynamic viscosity. short (2000 lb) ton.000 Btu/h) torr (1 mm Hg at 0°C) watt per square foot yd yd2 yd3 lb/ft3 x x x By 1. refrigeration (12.8 0.00756 = kg/s x 0. US) square (100 ft2) tablespoon (approx.413 1490 To obtain = kg/m = mPa⋅s = mPa⋅s x 47 880 = mPa⋅s x 0.29 15 5 105. The degree Celsius symbol (°C) is often used for this purpose as well.895 0.) teaspoon (approx.836 = kg/m2 = kg/m3 = kg/m3 = mg/kg = kPa =L = m2 = mL = mL = MJ = mg.5 0.517 133 10.946 9. 94 .49 0.

Formulas & Conversion Factors Humidity Ratio (W) . Refrigeration N 40 -° U E and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 5 15 0 40° Rela 10% tive H ity umid .018 . 12.012 .020 . PO R R U PE 35 AT R U T E B M 70° ) .1 C IR 50 . Inc. 0 20 30% T SA 50° 13. Vol .028 60 .016 .022 .026 .Pounds moisture per pound dry air 95 % 50 A Normal Temperature RY 45 Barometric Pressure: 29. 1 .008 T UF 80° per 80° 55 LB % Pyschometric Chart FW et B ulb dr y 90 Tem p air 50 70 % 5 14.010 . ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 5 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Dry Bulb Temp F° 30 Reduced from ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No.002 35 13.024 .30 TE (h N Y IO LP A 25 AT TH R 60° U EN 45 40 14.921 Inches of Summary D F Copyright 1992 O F D American Society of Heating.004 .006 .0 15.014 .

Floor Mounted Type 45 Area and Circumference of Circles 84–87 Axial Fan Types 1 B Backdraft or Relief Dampers 49 Backward Inclined.INDEX A Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Applications 83 For Fans and Blowers 83 For Pumps 83 Affinity Laws for Pumps 66 Air Change Method 40 Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature 3 Air Quality Method 40 Airfoil Applications 5 Allowable Ampaciites of Not More Than Three Insultated Conductors 24–25 Alternating Current 16 Annual Fuel Use 63–64 Appliance Gas-Burning. Backward Curved Applications 6 Bearing Life 28 Belt Drive Guidelines 26 Belt Drives 26 Breakdown Torque 16 C Cell-Type Air Washers 53 Centrifugal Fan Types 1 Centrifugal Fan Conditions Typical Inlet Conditions 14 Typical Outlet Conditions 14 Change in Resistance Due to Change in Temperature 82 Circle Formula 87 Classifications for Spark Resistant Construction 4–5 Construction Type 4 Notes 4–5 Standard Applications 5 Closed Impeller 64 96 .

INDEX Common Fractions of an Inch 87 Compressor Capacity Vs. 1 SWSI 9 Arr. 9 SWSI 10 Duct Resistance 51 E Efficiency 16 Electric Coils 53 Electric. 4 SWSI 9 Arr. Floor Mounted Type 45 Electrical Appliances 46 Electronic Air Cleaners 53 Equivalent Length of Pipe for Valves and Fittings 73 Estimated Belt Drive Loss 27 Estimated Seasonal Efficiencies of Heating Systems 63 Evaporate Condenser Ratings 78 Exhaust Louvers 53 97 . 3 SWSI 9 Arr. 10 SWSI 10 Arr. 7 DWDI 10 Arr. 7 SWSI 9 Arr. 2 SWSI 9 Arr. Refrigerant Temperature at 100°F Condensing 78 Conversion Factors 88–94 Cooling Load Check Figures 59–60 Cooling Tower Ratings 77 Copper Tube Dimensions (Type L) 74 D Damper Pressure Drop 49 Decimal and Metric Equivalents 87–88 Dehumidifying Coils 53 Design Criteria for Room Loudness 35–36 Double Suction 64 Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans 9–10 Arr. 8 SWSI 10 Arr. 3 DWDI 9 Arr.

INDEX F Fan Basics Fan Selection Criteria 1 Fan Types 1 Impeller Designs .Laboratory.Axial 7 Fan Installation Guidelines 14 Centrifugal Fan Conditions 14 Fan Laws 2 Fan Performance Tables and Curves 2 Fan Selection Criteria 1 Fan Testing . Field 2 Fan Troubleshooting Guide 15 Excessive Vibration and Noise 15 Low Capacity or Pressure 15 Overheated Bearings 15 Overheated Motor 15 Fan Types 1 Axial Fan 1 Centrifugal Fan 1 Filter Comparison 46 Filter Type 46 For Pumps 83 Forward Curved Applications 6 Fouling Factors 76 Frequency Variations 23 Friction Loss for Water Flow 71–72 Fuel Comparisons 62 Fuel Gas Characteristics 62 Full Load Current 21–22 Single Phase Motors 21 Three Phase Motors 22 G Gas-Burning Appliances 46 General Ventilation 29 98 .

INDEX H Heat Gain From Occupants of Conditioned Spaces 43 Typical Application 43 Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors 44 Heat Loss Estimates 61–62 Considerations Used for Corrected Values 62 Heat Removal Method 40 High-Velocity.Axial Propeller 7 Tube Axial 7 Vane Axial 7 Impeller Designs . Spray-Type Air Washers 53 Horizontal Split Case 65 Horsepower 16 Horsepower per Ton 77 I Impeller Designs . Backward Curved 6 Forward Curved 6 Radial 6 Inadequate or No Circulation 68 Induction Motor Characteristics 23 Intake Louvers 53 K Kitchen Ventilation 30 Fans 30 Filters 30 Hoods and Ducts 30 L Locked Rotor KVA/HP 19 Locked Rotor Torque 16 99 .Centrifugal 5–6 Airfoil 5 Backward Inclined.

INDEX M Miscellaneous Formulas 81–84 Moisture and Air Relationships 57 Motor and Drive Basics Definitions and Formulas 16 Motor Application 82 Motor Efficiency and EPAct 20 Motor Insulation Classes 18 Motor Positions for Belt or Chain Drive 13 Motor Service Factors 19 N Noise Criteria 32 Noise Criteria Curves 34 O OHMS Law 81 Open Impeller 64 Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Healt 48 P Panel Filters 53 Power —D-C Circuits 81 Power —A-C Circuits 81 Process Ventilation 29 Propeller Applications 7 Properties of Saturated Steam 58 Pump Bodies 65 Pump Construction Types All-Bronze Pumps 64 Bronze-fitted Pumps 64 Pump Impeller Types 64 Pump Mounting Methods 65 Base Mount-Close Coupled 65 Base Mount-Long Coupled 65 Line Mount 65 Pump or System Noise 67 Pump Terms. Abbreviations. and Conversion Factors 69 Pumping System Troubleshooting Guide 67–68 Pyschometric Chart 95 100 .

lounges 36 Retail stores 36 Transportation 36 Rotation & Discharge Designations 11–12 Rules of Thumb 31–32 101 .INDEX Q Quiet Water Flows 70 R RadialApplications 6 Rate of Heat Gain Commercial Cooking Appliances in Air-Conditioned Area 45 Rate of Heat Gain From Miscellaneous Appliances 46 Rated Load Torque 16 Recommended Metal Gauges for Ducts 56 Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts 52 Refrigerant Line Capacities for 134a 79 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-22 79 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-502 80 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-717 80 Relief or Backdraft Dampers 49 Renewable Media Filters 53 Room Sones —dBA Correlation 33 Room Type 35–36 Auditoriums 35 Churches and schools 35 Hospitals and clinics 35 Hotels 36 Indoor sports activities 35 Manufacturing areas 35 Miscellaneous 36 Offices 35 Public buildings 36 Residences 36 Restaurants. cafeterias.

S.An Example 3 102 . Sheet Metal Gauges 55 Use of Air Density Factors .INDEX S Screen Pressure Drop 50 Single Phase AC 16 Single Phase AC Motors 17 Single Suction 64 Sound 31 Sound Power 31 Sound Power Level 31 Sound Power and Sound Power Leve 32 Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Leve 33 Speed—A-C Machinery 82 Spray-Type Air Washers 53 Standard Pipe Dimenions Schedule 40 (Steel) 74 Standard Pipe Dimensions 74 Steam and Hot Water Coils 53 Suggested Air Changes 41 Synchronous speed 16 System Design Guidelines T Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components 8 Three Phase AC 16 Three-phase AC Motors 17 Time for Motor to Reach Operating Speed (seconds) 82 Torque 16 Tube Axial Applications 7 Types of Alternating Current Motors 17–18 Three-phase AC Motors 17 Types of Current Motors ??–18 Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components 53 Typical Heat Transfer Coefficients 75 U U.

83 System Natural Frequency 37 Vibration Severity 38–39 Vibration Severity Chart 38 Voltage 23 Volume of Liquid in a Tank 83 W Water Flow and Piping 70–71 Wind Driven Rain Louvers 56 103 .INDEX V Vane Axial Applications 7 V-belt Length Formula 26 Velocity and Velocity Pressure Relationships 54 Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality 42 Vertical Split Case 65 Vibration 37.

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