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Kedar Karki Introduction: The major Gases having Green house effect in the atmosphere due to agricultural and industrial activities of the people in clued carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide and chlorofluro carbons. In the total global methane efflux the livestock contributes about 20% is estimated. All the ecosystems of earth to gather from the bios here which in the portion of the earth within which life exists. If include all oceans, fresh water, Lower layers of the atmosphere, the rook, mountain, snow peak, vegetation and soil of earth surface the atmosphere serves as a vital protective blanket which is able to nature life in earth and protect it from hostile environment in outer space by absorbing most of by absorbing the cosmic rays from outer space. If also absorbs most of the electromagnetic radiations from sun and play a major role in maintaining the heat balance of the earth. The solar radiations progressing toward earth's surface are partially absorbed by ozone layer, especially the redaction in the ultraviolet region. which is beneficial for the living organisms on the earth, as or radiation have carcinogenic effect and influence the genetic material of living creatures of earth adversely the warming of the earth's surface takes place by absorption of the solar radiations in the visible region by the water vapor surrounding Its surface, about 30% if radiations reaching the surface are absorbed and rest of 70% are reflected back by the earth's surface into outer space. The phenomena of Green house effect The gases containing carbon absorb radiant energy of long wave length and maintain the temperature of the atmosphere this effect is being termed as greenhouse effect. Of these gases which is similar to effect of glass houses where glass remain radiations of long wavelength which help to maintain a temperature suitable for plant growth. This natural greenhouse effect males the existence of life on earth possible but the increasing concentration of these gases in the atmosphere beyond a certain limit results in an increase in earth's temperature, melting of ice o the mountains, artic and Antarctic areas, due to melting of ice and expansion of water there is a rise in global sea level . Changes in ecosystem due to changes in temperature and availability in particular area, change in poncho genesis of plants animals and human being and alteration in living style of people due to above changes. Major gases Responsible for the green house effects. Carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide which is considered responsible for more than half of the human contribution to the greenhouse effect and concentrations have in creased steadily from around 280 parts per million at she beginning of the industrial revolution to around 350 ppm today. About half of the carbon dioxide released by oceans and fast growing plants. If is estimated that the 11 billion tons of carbon dioxide we add each year which produces a continuous growth in the gaseous atmospheric concentration of about 0.5% annually. Methane Methane which is a colorless odorless gas that is being found in many places in the environment. If is the main component of natural gas, a mixture containing about 75% as well as 15% of ethane 5% other hydrocarbons. Methane generated in rumen may
vary in concentration from 5-70% in rumen a gaseous environment depending on the type of animal and feed given to it Methane is considered highly combustible of 12% Mixture in air. In the total methane efflux the livestock contributes 20% Among the ruminants, cattle and Buffalo produces 200-250 liters of methane pre day. Those animals are in productive stage produces more methane than the non productive animals. Nitrous oxide : The global warming potential of nitrous oxide is considered to be between 170 to 190 times than carbon dioxide if is a stable compound that dose not decay readily in the atmosphere with a long atmospheric life time of over 121 years the primary source of it from agriculture are mineral fertilizers, legume crops and animal waste. the Kyoto protocol is considered a co-ordinated international effort to reduce these global green house gas emission. The many developed country have ratified the original protocol and had agreed to legal binding on green house gas emission. They have committed to 1990 level in next 5- 8 years. which is considered as a challenging target. Process of production of Methane: The methane producing bacteria, a special classified as arch ae bacteria which are responsible for regulation the over all fermentation process in rumen. They remove hydrogen gas by reducing carbon dioxide to form methane. The production of methane keeps hydrogen concentration in rumen low which helps methanogenic bacteria to promote the growth of other bacterial which promote the growth of other bacterial species which enhances the efficient fermentation. The effective removal of hydrogen by these methanogenic species encourages hydrogen production and thus alter their metabolism towards higher yielding path ways which results in the synthesis in the synthesis of more microbial cells which in turn increases available protien to animals. Seven different species, representing five genera of methanogenous have been reported from the rumen of different t ruminant animals are Methano bacterium formicicum, M.bryanti M. ruminantium, M.smithi, M.mobile, Methanosarccina barkeri and Methano celleus. Methanogenes are present in the rumen in large numbers Varying from 107 to109 cells/ml of rumen hi quid which depend upon type of diet fed to animals especially fiber content in the ration. They play a vital role in the rumen of scavenging molecular hydrogen generated during rumen fermentation which makes rumen fermentation a continues process but this lead to a significant loss of gross energy consumed by the animals. There is a close association between entodiniorphid protozoa and some of the bacteria which attach to the pellicle of protozoa. Till date 11 species of entodiniomorphid protozoa have been found to have adhered methanogens like entodinium longinuleatum, eudiplodinium maggii, Entodinium bursa, Eremoplastron bovis. The methanogenes attach themselves with the ciliate protozoa to get a constant supply of hydrogens. On pumping hydrogen in the rumen the methanogns get detached from the protozoa. Factory which affects the production of Methane. Methane production in rumen depends upon various feed factors like the level of feed in take, digestibility of feed consumed and total easily degradable carbohydrate in ration. In addition to this the ratio of cell wall components and easily fermentable
carbohydrates is equally importance for the extant of methanogenesis in the rumen. Methane produced in higher Quantity on diet rich in soluble sugars, as compare to diet containing high proportion of degradable fiber component. Ruminant grazing on poor pasture produces more methane per unit of feed consumed compared with high Quality feed. But this is to some extent balanced by greater size, and higher productizes of improved breeds. It is also considered that live stock in developing countries produces less methane because if lower feed intakes despite poor feed Quality. Cattle and sheep produces 55 and 8kg methane in developing countries whereas only 35 and 5kg in developing countries. It is considered to be due to lower production potential of livestock in developing countries. How to prevent the Methane production Feeding of animal with high concentration diet and various methane inhibitors like halogenated methane analogue like 2-bromoethanesuphoric Acid, amichloral, fatty acids, probiotics ionophroes, sulphate, defunation of animals have indicated varying degree of success. In rumen fermentation three important hydrogen utilizing microbes, sulphate reducing bacteria, methanogens and carbon dioxide reducing acetogens have a thresh hold value of hydrogen (mmole/liter) as 0.0013, 0.067 and 1.26, at which these bacteria act as the dominant electron acceptors of appears that sulphate reducing bacteria have the highest affinity to utilize hydrogen in rumen even better than methanogens but availability of sulphate in rumen appears to be limitation. Sulphate supplementation helps increasing the production of fiber degrading enzymes and fiber degradation in the rumen. As sulphate also have high affinity for utilization of hydrogen for its reduction to sulphide. Therefore at high fiber diet as prevalent in our livestock, sulphate supplementation can be a good mean of rumen manipulation for improving fiber degradability and preventing process of methane production. But stile a proper does have to be optimized keeping in view of toxic levels of sulphide gene rated on sulphate reduction while in defaunated animals there seems to be a significant decrease in methane and metabolic heat production when protozoa are selectively eliminated from ruminal microbial ecosystem. The improvement of breed of animals. Better nutritional management seems to reduce the methane production and its emission in Environment can ultimately will help to reduce the, Greenhouse effect on our Envinnment. There seen to be a strategic research is needed in our country's context as it posses the different agri-ecozone and different animal husbandry pattern. dr_kedarkarki@ yahoo.com.
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