RAJAH BENDAHARA KALANTIAW as early as 1433 on the Island of Panay Prior to the arrival of Spanish conquerors in 1521

An organized society based on the rule of law in the Island of Panay

Punishments under the Code of Kalantiaw death by being drowned in the river or in boiling water put to death by being stoned & crushed swimming for 3 hours for failure to take care of his wife 1 hour of lashing .

JULY 1913 ³Civilización Prehispana´ by Jose Marco published in ³Renacimiento Filipino´ mentions the Code of Kalantiaw .

1914 Jose Marco donated 5 Pavon manuscripts (which included the Code) to the Philippine Library & Museum 1917 Josue Soncuya wrote about the Code of Kalantiaw in his book ³Historia Prehispana de Filipinas´ .

20th Century Other prominent historian/authors wrote about the Code .


examined the preHispanic history of the Philippines Scott raised issues on the existence of the Code of Kalantiaw.1965 William Henry Scott. specifically on: LACK OF HISTORICAL EVIDENCE LACK OF EVIDENCE FOR A KALANTIAW LEGEND DOUBTFUL PAVON MANUSCRIPTS .

No written/ pictorial documents from that time in Philippine history No documents from other countries that mentions Kalantiaw No recorded Filipino legend about Kalantiyaw other than the doubtful Pavon manuscripts before the 20th century Historian Diego Alba looked for Kalantiyaw in local folklore but found none .

Two inconsistent versions on how Jose Marco obtained the manuscripts ( looters and cook stories) Mistakes in the Pavon manuscripts .

Looters Story Henry Otley Beyer Mauro Garcia (1950) Pavón was the priest in the town of Himamaylan. which were apparently the Pavón manuscripts  However if this story was true. Negros in the 1840s Marco's father was among some looters who had stolen what they thought was a chest of coins or jewelry but when it was accidentally dropped in the river it became so heavy that they realized that it was full of papers. . José Marco would have had to explain why he didn't use this wealth of information or even mention these documents when he wrote his Reseña Historica in 1912.

evidently. who had stolen the manuscripts during the looting and then. It was this old cook.Cook Story Philippine Studies Program University of Chicago 1954 he said that he had got them from an old cook who once worked at the convent in Himamaylan where Pavón had lived. he said. sold them to Marco in 1913. .

Existence of the coins of King Charles V of Spain as early as 1433 Mentions a pre-Hispanic Visayan alphabet recorded by Fr. There was no Negros Occidental during Pavon¶s time . Francisco Deza was born only in 1620 The Island of Negros was divided only on 1890. Francisco Deza in 1543 Manuscripts were stamped with ³Parish of Ilog Occidental Negros´ King Charles V was born only in 1500 Fr.

Manuscript was dedicated At that time. it was Queen Isabella II who ruled Use of exact time element Filipinos had no clocks on the punishments or measures of time imposed equal to exact hours at that time Description that in 1838-39 The term MICROBES was coined only in 1878 & Louie there was ³putrefied Pasteur theorized MICROBES of evil fever´ infectitious germs in the 1850¶s only . Spain had to the King of Spain no king.


enraged some Aklanons´ . which. the NHI.The National Historical Institute (NHI) honoured Kalantiaw in 1989 by including him in Filipinos in History Old school textbooks still includes the Code of Kalantiaw The NHI finally admitted that the CODE OF KALANTIYAW WAS A HOAX in 1998 In 2005. of course. submitted a resolution to President Arroyo to revoke the national shrine status of the Kalantiaw Shrine in Aklan.

. 1978 a 30-centavo postage stamp was released in honor of "Rajah Kalantiaw".On June 19.

Kalantiaw was honoured by the Philippine Navy in December 1967when it acquired the World War II destroyer escort USS Booth from the United States and recommissioned it the RPS Datu Kalantiaw. 1981. . It was lost during typhoon Clara on September 20.


If you break this law you may "incur the danger of death" before you are actually killed.Article I You shall not kill. he shall be beaten to death. If the debt is large. Article II You shall obey. he shall be condemned to thrust his hand in boiling water thrice. Beware. stealing & elder abuse. Let all your debts with the headman be met punctually. Note: Actually 3 laws . Note: If you're not convicted of defaulting on a debt you get a lashing or a scalding. All those who infringe this order shall be condemned to death by being drowned in the river. For the second time. He who does not obey shall receive for the first time one hundred lashes. .for killing. "On conviction" you die. neither shall you do harm to the aged. lest you incur the danger of death. neither shall you steal. or in boiling water.

He who does not comply with. if you break this law you die but if you break similar laws. When passing by the caves and trees where they are. and observe this order shall be condemned to swim for three hours for the first time and for the second time. give respect to them. or beaten to death with thorns. let no one disturb the quiet of the graves. "Swim for 3 hours".for statutory rape.for disturbing graves & disrespecting graves. Note: Actually 2 laws . nor be given to excessive lust. Note: Actually 3 laws . depending on the translation). to be beaten to death with sharp thorns. He who does not observe this shall be killed by ants. .what's the difference? Also. obey. "Observe and obey" . Article IV Observe and obey. extreme polygamy & extravagance (or possibly lust. you pay a fine or become a slave.Article III Obey you: let no one have women that are very young nor more than he can support. #6 & #9. Ancient Filipinos did not divide the day into 24 "hours" and they had no clocks.

He who fails to comply shall pay with one month's work in gold or in honey. such as those of trees of recognized worth and other sights. he who enters the houses of the headmen without permission. he who repeats the offense shall be exposed for one day among ants. he who exchanges for food. he who kills trees of venerable appearance. he who kills a shark or a streaked cayman. Article VII These shall be put to death. Article VI You shall be obliged to revere sights that are held in respect. shall be beaten for one hour. . let it be always done in accordance with his word. He who does not comply. who shoot arrows at night at old men and women.Article V You shall obey.

Article VIII Slavery for a doam (a certain period of time) shall be suffered by those who steal away the women of the headmen. . are malicious liars. Article X It is decreed an obligation. or who mock the dead. Whoever shall disobey shall be killed by being cut to pieces and thrown to the caymans. by him who burns the fields of another. Article IX All these shall be beaten for two days: who sing while travelling by night. let not men be cruel nor punish their women when they catch them in the act of adultery. by him who keep ill-tempered dogs that bite the headmen. that every mother teach secretly to her daughters matters pertaining to lust and prepare them for womanhood. kill the Manaul. tear the documents belonging to the headmen.

or steal anything from the chiefs or agorangs.Article XI These shall be burned: who by their strength or cunning have mocked at and escaped punishment or who have killed young boys. all those who abuse themselves through their lust. or try to steal away the women of the elders. Article XII These shall be drowned: all who interfere with their superiors. those who destroy their anitos (religious icons) by breaking them or throwing them down. Article XIII All these shall be exposed to ants for half a day: who kill black cats during a new moon. however small the object may be. or their owners or masters. .

Article XV Concerning beliefs and traditions. or the herb which they consider good. or break the drinking jars of the latter. and with bad faith hide them away. these shall be beaten: who eat the diseased flesh of beasts which they hold in respect. . ArticleXVI The fingers shall be cut-off: of all those who break anitos of wood and clay in their alangans and temples.Article XIV These shall be made slave for life: who have beautiful daughters and deny them to the sons of chiefs. of those who destroy the daggers of the catalonans(priest/priestess). or the white monkey. who wound or kill the young of the Manaul.

Article XVIII Those who do not cause these rules to be obeyed: if they are headmen. they shall be put to death by being stoned and crushed. . and if they are agorangs they shall be placed in rivers to be eaten by sharks and caymans.Article XVII These shall be killed: who profane sites where anitos are kept. He who performs his necessities in those places shall be burned. and sites where are buried the sacred things of their diwatas and headmen.

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