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Growing Number of Americans Say Obama is a Muslim

Growing Number of Americans Say Obama is a Muslim

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FOR RELEASE: THURSDAY, AUGUST 19, 2010, 12:01AM

Religion, Politics and the President

Growing Number of Americans Say Obama is a Muslim
Results from the 2010 Annual Religion and Public Life Survey

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press
Andrew Kohut, Director Scott Keeter, Director of Survey Research Carroll Doherty, Associate Director, Editorial Michael Dimock, Associate Director, Research Tel (202) 419-4350 www.peoplepress.org

Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
Luis Lugo, Director Alan Cooperman, Associate Director Greg Smith, Senior Researcher Tel (202) 419-4550 www.pewforum.org

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Religion, Politics and the President

Growing Number of Americans Say Obama is a Muslim
A substantial and growing number of Americans say that Barack Obama is a Muslim, while the proportion saying he is a Christian has declined. More than a year and a half into his presidency, a plurality of the public says they do not know what religion Obama follows. A new national survey by the Pew Research Center finds that nearly one-in-five Americans (18%) now say Obama is a Muslim, up from 11% in March 2009. Only about one-third of adults (34%) say Obama is a Christian, down sharply from 48% in 2009. Fully 43% say they do not know what Obama’s religion is. The survey was completed in early August, before Obama’s recent comments about the proposed construction of a mosque near the site of the former World Trade Center. Sharp Decline in Percentage Saying Obama is a Christian
Mar Oct Mar Aug 09-10 What is Obama’s 2008 2008 2009 2010 Change religion? % % % % Christian 47 51 48 34 -14 Muslim Other Don’t know Refused 12 2 36 3 100 12 2 32 3 100 11 1 34 6 100 18 2 43 2 100 +7 +1 +9

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Figures may not add to 100% because of rounding. “Do you happen to know what Barack Obama’s religion is? Is he Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, atheist, agnostic or something else?”

The view that Obama is a Muslim is more widespread among his political opponents than among his backers. Roughly a third of conservative Republicans (34%) say Obama is a Muslim, as do 30% of those who disapprove of Obama’s job performance. But even among many of his supporters and allies, less than half now say Obama is a Christian. Among Democrats, for instance, 46% say Obama is a Christian, down from 55% in March 2009. The belief that Obama is a Muslim has increased most sharply among Republicans (up 14 points since 2009), especially conservative Republicans (up 16 points). But the number of independents who say Obama is a Muslim has also increased significantly (up eight points). There has been little change in the number of Democrats who say Obama is a Muslim, but fewer Democrats today say he is a Christian (down nine points since 2009).

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When asked how they learned about Obama’s religion in an open-ended question, 60% of those who say Obama is a Muslim cite the media. Among specific media sources, television (at 16%) is mentioned most Perceptions of Obama’s Religion frequently. About one-in-ten (11%) of those Linked to Job Approval who say Obama is a Muslim say they learned of Say Obama’s religion is… this through Obama’s own words and behavior. Don’t Beliefs about Obama’s religion are closely linked to political judgments about him. Those who say he is a Muslim overwhelmingly disapprove of his job performance, while a majority of those who think he is a Christian approve of the job Obama is doing. Those who are unsure about Obama’s religion are about evenly divided in their views of his performance. The new poll by the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press and the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life – conducted July 21Aug. 5 among 3,003 respondents reached on landlines and cell phones, and interviewed in both English and Spanish –finds that despite increasing uncertainty about Obama’s religion, the public generally says he handles his religious beliefs appropriately. The public sees Obama as less influenced by religion compared with George W. Bush when he was president. Yet relatively small percentages say Obama mentions his faith too infrequently or that he relies too little on his religious beliefs when making policy decisions. Currently, 41% say Obama relies on his religious beliefs “a great deal” (14%) or a “fair amount” (27%) when making policy decisions; in August 2004, 64% said Bush relied on his
Obama job performance Approve Disapprove Don’t know Total % 47 41 12 100 N 3003

Christian Muslim know % % % 62 26 44 29 9 100 1121 67 7 100 558 40 17 100 1213

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q1 & Q58. Figures may not add to 100% because of rounding.

Presidents and Religion: Comparing Obama and Bush
Relies on his religious beliefs when making policy decisions… A great deal A fair amount Not very much Don’t know Relies on his religious beliefs when making policy decisions… Too much Too little Right amount Don’t know Bush 2004 % 26 38 28 8 100 Bush 2004 15 21 53 11 100 Mentions his religious faith and prayer… Too much Too little Right amount Don’t know Bush 2006 24 14 52 10 100 Obama 2010 % 14 27 43 16 100 Obama 2010 11 21 48 20 100 Obama 2010 10 19 53 17 100 Diff -14 +5 +1 +7 Diff -12 -11 +15 +8

Diff -4 0 -5 +9

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q23-25. Figures may not add to 100% because of rounding.

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religious beliefs either a great deal (26%) or a fair amount (38%). Nonetheless, as was the case with Bush, the public generally says that Obama relies on his religious beliefs the right amount when making policy decisions. Roughly half of Americans (48%) think that Obama relies on his beliefs the right amount when making policy, while 21% say he relies too little on his beliefs and 11% too much; in 2004, slightly more (53%) said Bush relied on his beliefs the right amount when making policy. In addition, about as many say Obama (53%) mentions his religious faith and prayer the right amount as said that about Bush (52%) in 2006, though far fewer say Obama mentions his faith too much (10% vs. 24% for Bush). The survey also finds about half of the public (52%) says that churches should keep out of politics, while 43% say churches and other houses of worship should express their views on social and political questions. That is largely unchanged from 2008, but over the previous decade (from 1996 to 2006), narrow majorities had expressed support for churches’ involvement in political matters. More Say Churches Should Keep Out of Politics
80 % 70 60 50 40 30 43 43 44 46 45 43 54 Churches should... Keep out of political matters 51 51 51 52 52

The decline since 2006 in the number saying 20 that churches should speak out on social and 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 political issues has been broad-based, PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q20. including Democrats and Republicans and people from a variety of religious backgrounds. The percentage of black Protestants who say churches should speak out on political matters has dropped sharply, going from 69% in 2006 to 53% today. Despite the growing opposition to political involvement on the part of churches, most people continue to say they want political leaders who are religious. About six-in-ten (61%) agree that it is important that members of Congress have strong religious beliefs. And as in previous surveys, a slight plurality (37%) says that in general there has been too little expression of religious faith and prayer by political leaders.

Express views on social and political questions

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The survey also finds:  The Republican Party continues to be more widely viewed as friendly toward religion than the Democratic Party. However, both parties are facing declines in the percentages saying they are friendly to religion. The religious landscape is far more favorable to Republicans than was the case as recently as 2008. Half of white non-Hispanic Catholics (50%) currently identify with or lean toward the Republican Party, up nine points since 2008. Among religiously unaffiliated voters, who have been stalwart supporters of Democrats in recent elections, 29% currently identify with or lean toward the Republican Party, up from 25% in 2008 (the proportion identifying as Democrats has fallen seven points since then). And 33% of Jewish voters identify with or lean toward the Republican Party, up from 20% in 2008.

Roughly six-in-ten people (58%) have heard of the “religious right,” while 41% are familiar with the “religious left.” Among those who have heard of the religious right and the religious left, sizable numbers express no opinion as to whether or not they generally agree or disagree with them.

NOTE: This report includes comparisons of opinions among different religious groups, which are based on a combination of religious tradition and race/ethnicity. The categories White evangelical Protestants, White mainline Protestants and White Catholics do not include Hispanics. Similarly, Black Protestants do not include Hispanics. Hispanic respondents can be of any race. The survey was conducted in English and Spanish.

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SECTION 1: OBAMA AND RELIGION
Obama’s Religious Beliefs The share of Americans who believe Barack Obama is a Muslim – which held steady at between 11% and 12% from early 2008 through early 2009 – has jumped to 18%. There also has been a steep decline in the number of people who identify Obama as a Christian – 34% today, down from 48% in March 2009 and 51% in October 2008. A plurality (43%) now say they do not know what Obama’s religion is, up from 34% in 2009. Increasing Number Uncertain about Obama’s Religion
Obama is a Christian Mar Aug 2009 2010 Change % % 48 34 -14 50 56 47 44 53 55 51 67 45 47 39 51 51 61 47 35 43 27 28 26 46 39 59 34 33 27 36 32 35 38 -15 -13 -20 -16 -27 -9 -12 -8 -11 -14 -12 -15 -19 -26 -9 Obama is a Muslim Mar Aug 2009 2010 Change % % 11 18 +7 11 6 17 18 14 7 9 5 10 13 20 10 10 9 6 21 7 31 34 24 10 12 6 18 21 29 22 18 22 13 +10 +1 +14 +16 +10 +3 +3 +1 +8 +8 +9 +12 +8 +13 +7 Don’t know his religion Mar Aug 2009 2010 Change % % 34 43 +9 32 36 28 29 25 32 35 23 38 33 33 32 36 26 37 40 46 39 34 44 41 45 31 44 43 42 40 46 40 44 +8 +10 +11 +5 +19 +9 +10 +8 +6 +10 +9 +8 +10 +14 +7

Total White Black Republican Conservative Rep Mod/Lib Rep Democrat Cons/Mod Dem Liberal Dem Independent Protestant White evangelical White mainline Catholic White Catholic Unaffiliated

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q58.

The view that Obama is a Muslim is highest among his political opponents (31% of Republicans and 30% of those who disapprove of his job performance express this view). It is lower among his supporters (10% among both Democrats and those who approve of his job performance). The share of Republicans who say Obama is a Muslim has nearly doubled over the past year and a half – from 17% to 31%.

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Currently, about as many Republicans believe Obama is a Muslim (31%) as believe he is a Christian (27%); a plurality of Republicans (39%) say they do not know Obama’s religion. In March 2009, far more Republicans said Obama was a Christian (47%) than a Muslim (17%). The impression that Obama is a Muslim is also more widespread today among independents – 18% say this today, up from 10% in 2009. There has been virtually no change in the share of Democrats who say Obama is a Muslim (10% today, 7% in 2009). But even among Democrats, fewer than half (46%) now identify his religion as Christian, down from 55% last year. There is also a wide racial divide in the perception that Obama is a Muslim. The number of whites who believe this rose from 11% to 21% since March 2009, while there has been virtually no change in blacks’ views on this question (7% say Obama is Muslim today, compared with 6% in 2009). But both blacks and whites are less likely today to say Obama is a Christian. Among religious groups, a higher proportion of white evangelical Protestants say Obama is a Muslim than any other religious group surveyed; 29% hold this view today, up from 20% in 2009. But the share of people saying Obama is a Muslim has increased across all religious groups. Indeed, both white mainline Protestants and white Catholics are roughly twice as likely today as in 2009 to say the president is a Muslim. And significantly fewer people in nearly all religious groups say Obama is a Christian than did so in 2009.

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

Obama, Bush and Religion Obama is perceived as being much less reliant on his faith than was George W. Bush; a plurality (43%) says Obama is not very reliant on his religious beliefs in making policy decisions, compared with just 28% who said that about Bush in 2004. While Obama is seen as less reliant on his religious beliefs than Bush, the public expresses roughly similar levels of satisfaction with Obama’s approach to religion as compared with his predecessor. Nearly half (48%) say Obama relies on his religious beliefs about the right amount when making policy decisions, and 53% say that Obama mentions his faith and prayer about the right amount. Roughly similar numbers said the same thing when asked in 2006 about Bush’s mentions of faith and prayer and in 2004 when asked about Bush’s reliance on religion in making policy decisions. Views of Obama’s Approach to Religion
Mentions his Relies on religious religious faith and beliefs to make prayer… policy decisions… Too Too About Too Too About much little right much little right % % % % % % 10 19 53 11 21 48 12 2 9 16 6 11 9 10 12 19 14 26 30 13 19 26 38 15 50 69 51 34 69 55 49 34 56 12 3 10 14 6 12 11 14 13 23 13 18 40 10 18 29 44 17 45 67 55 26 67 51 42 27 48 64 57 55 55

Total White Black Hispanic Republican Democrat Independent Protestant Wh evang Wh mainl

Substantial majorities of Democrats say Black Prot. 2 14 71 4 16 Obama mentions his faith about the right Catholic 9 16 60 12 16 Wh Catholic 10 14 59 12 19 amount (69%) and that he relies on it the right Unaffiliated 14 9 61 9 9 amount when making policy decisions (67%). PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. This compares with just 34% of Republicans Q23F2 & Q24F1. who say he mentions his faith the right amount and 26% who say he relies on his religious beliefs the right amount when making policy decisions. And higher proportions of white evangelical Protestants than other religious groups say Obama mentions his faith and prayer too little and relies on his beliefs too little when making policy.

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER

In addition, views of Obama’s approach to religion are linked with perceptions of his own religious beliefs. Only about three-in-ten of those who think Obama is a Muslim say he mentions his faith the right amount (30%) and relies on his beliefs the right amount when making policy decisions (31%). By comparison, large majorities of those who say he is a Christian say he mentions his faith the right amount and relies on his beliefs when making policy decisions the right amount (68%, 66% respectively). The survey also finds some discomfort with the idea that Obama relies a great deal on his faith when making policy decisions, especially compared with Bush in 2004. Among those who say that Obama relies on his religion a great deal when making policy decisions, 50% say he relies on his beliefs the right amount while 39% say that Obama relies on his faith too much. In 2004, by contrast, the balance of opinion was much more positive for Bush; 63% of those who said he relied on his beliefs when making policy said this was appropriate while 27% said he relied on his beliefs too much.

Those Who See Obama as Muslim Are More Critical of His Approach to Religion
Among those who say Obama’s religion is… Don’t Christian Muslim know % % % 6 24 9 12 68 14 100 Relies on religious beliefs to make policy decisions… Too much Too little Right amount Don’t know 31 30 14 100 20 51 21 100

Mentions his religious faith and prayer… Too much Too little Right amount Don’t know

3 18 66 13 100

29 25 31 14 100 282 276

9 21 43 27 100 599 614

N top N bottom

572 543

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q23F2, Q24F1 & Q58.

Obama’s Reliance on Faith Viewed Less Positively than Bush’s
Among those saying president relies on beliefs a great deal… Bush Obama 2004 2010 27 39 7 63 4 100 N 200 4 50 7 100 196

% saying this is… Too much Too little Right amount Don’t know

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q24F1 & Q25F1.

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SECTION 2: RELIGION AND POLITICS
Religion’s Influence on Society and Government Two-thirds of Americans (67%) currently say that religion is losing its influence on American life, compared with 59% who said this in July 2006. More people now say religion’s influence is on the decline than at any time since 1994, when 69% of respondents in a Gallup poll said religion’s influence on American life was waning. More people also say religion’s influence on government leaders, such as the president and members of Congress, is declining. Currently, 62% say that religion is losing its influence on government leaders, compared with 45% who said this in 2006. The number saying that religion is losing influence on American life has increased most among Republicans, with 82% expressing this view, up 21 points since 2006. Similarly, 72% of Republicans now say that religion’s influence on government leaders is declining, up 20 points since 2006.

Religion Seen as Losing Influence
% who say religion is losing influence on… American Government life… leaders… Jul Aug Jul Aug 2006 2010 Diff 2006 2010 Diff % % % % 59 67 +8 45 62 +17 61 60 56 61 59 61 n/a 61 61 82 58 65 70 79 67 55 71 74 +21 -2 +9 +9 +20 +6 n/a +10 +13 52 43 42 53 58 47 n/a 40 43 72 52 67 67 78 61 56 62 61 +20 +9 +25 +14 +20 +14 n/a +22 +18 +20

Total Republican Democrat Independent Protestant White evang White mainline Black Prot. Catholic White Catholic

Unaffiliated n/a 62 n/a 34 54 More independents also say that religion is PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. losing its influence on American life (up nine Q26 & Q27. points) and on government leaders (up 25 points). Among Democrats, the number saying that religion is losing influence on government leaders (52%) has increased nine points since 2006, but there has been no significant change in the number of Democrats saying religion’s influence on American society is declining (58% today vs. 60% in 2006).

Among religious groups, nearly eight-in-ten white evangelical Protestants see religion’s influence decreasing on both American society (79%, up 20 points since 2006) and on government leaders (78%, up 20 points since 2006). Fewer white mainline Protestants and black Protestants say that religion’s influence is declining. Nearly three-quarters of white Catholics (74%) say that religion has a declining influence on American society, up

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13 points since 2006, and 61% say that religion is losing its influence on government leaders, up 18 points since 2006. As in the past, most of those who say that religion has less influence on American life see this as a bad thing; 53% of the total public says this is a bad thing while just 10% see it as a good thing. Similarly, 42% of the public says religion’s declining influence on government leaders is a bad thing while just 15% say it is a positive development.

Views of Churches’ Involvement in Politics A narrow majority of Americans (52%) now say churches and other houses of worship should keep out of political matters while 43% say that houses of worship should express their views on day-to-day social and political questions. These opinions are little changed since 2008, but in 2006 – and over the preceding decade – narrow majorities had expressed support for churches speaking out on social and political issues. Today’s attitudes are on par with results from 1968, when 53% said churches should keep out of politics and 40% said they should express their views.

More Say Churches Should Keep Out of Politics
80 % 70 60 50 40 30 20 43 43 44 46 45 43 54 Churches should... Keep out of political matters 51 51 51 52 52

Express views on social and political questions

1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q20.

The decline in support for churches and other houses of worship speaking out on social and political issues has been broad-based. Democrats and Republicans, liberals and conservatives, Catholics and white mainline Protestants are all less supportive of churches and other houses of worship speaking out on political issues. The most dramatic changes in views on this question are seen among black Protestants (53% now say churches should speak out on political matters, compared with 69% in 2006) and people with less than a high school education (39% now say churches should speak out, down from 58% in 2006).

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While most religious groups are less supportive of churches expressing their views on issues, there continue to be substantial differences on this measure. Majorities of white evangelical Protestants (56%) and black Protestants (53%) say churches should speak out on issues; far fewer white non-Hispanic Catholics (37%) or white mainline Protestants (35%) agree. Republicans continue to be more supportive of churches and other houses of worship expressing their views compared with independents and Democrats. About half of Republicans (51%) favor churches speaking out, compared with 41% of independents and 39% of Democrats. The survey also finds that Americans continue to overwhelmingly oppose churches and houses of worship endorsing specific candidates for public office. Fully 70% say churches should not come out in favor of candidates during political elections while just a quarter (24%) supports such endorsements. These opinions have changed little in recent years. More than half of every major religious group opposes such endorsements.

Fewer Favor Churches Expressing Views on Political, Social Issues
Churches should express views… Total College grad+ Some college HS grad Less than HS Republican Democrat Independent Conservative Moderate Liberal Protestant White evangelical White mainline Black Protestant Catholic White Catholic Unaffiliated Religious attendance Weekly or more Monthly/Yearly Seldom/Never July 2006 % 51 49 50 51 58 59 47 49 63 49 40 58 62 42 69 45 45 36 61 50 39 Aug 2010 % 43 45 46 40 39 51 39 41 51 42 32 50 56 35 53 37 38 32 54 39 31 06-10 Change -8 -4 -4 -11 -19 -8 -8 -8 -12 -7 -8 -8 -6 -7 -16 -8 -7 -4 -7 -11 -8

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q20.

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Most Say Lawmakers Should Be Religious Though the public expresses reservations about churches’ involvement in politics, there is widespread agreement that politicians should be religious. Fully 61% say that is important that members of Congress have Important for Members strong religious beliefs; just 34% disagree. of Congress to Have Strong Religious Beliefs… Majorities across all major religious groups – Agree Disagree DK % % % with the exception of the religiously Total 61 34 5=100 unaffiliated – agree it is important for Republican 77 20 4=100 members of Congress to have strong religious Democrat 55 40 5=100 beliefs. More than eight-in-ten white Independent 58 38 4=100 evangelical Protestants (83%) express this Conservative 76 20 4=100 view, as do roughly two-thirds of white nonModerate 59 37 4=100 Hispanic Catholics (66%) and white mainline Liberal 42 53 5=100 Protestants (64%). And about seven-in-ten Protestant 74 21 5=100 black Protestants (71%) say it is important that White evangelical 83 13 4=100 lawmakers have strong religious beliefs. White mainline 64 31 5=100
Black Protestant 71 64 66 61 30 15 36 79 58 41 23 32 29 35 66 85 59 16 38 54 6=100 4=100 4=100 4=100 4=100 0=100 5=100 5=100 4=100 6=100

In contrast, by more than two-to-one (66% to 30%), the religiously unaffiliated disagree that it is important for members of Congress to have strong religious beliefs. Among atheists and agnostics, fully 85% say it is not important for congressional representatives to have strong religious beliefs.

Catholic White Catholic Hispanic Catholic Unaffiliated Atheist/Agnostic Nothing in particular Religious attendance Weekly or more Monthly/Yearly Seldom/Never

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q29. Figures may not add to 100% because of rounding.

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The public continues to be divided about the level of religious expression among political leaders. Nearly four-in-ten (37%) say there has been too little expression of faith by political leaders; 29% say there has been too much, while 24% say political leaders speak on faith and prayer the right amount. These opinions have changed little in recent years. Majorities of white evangelical Protestants (56%) and black Protestants (51%) say there has been too little expression of faith by political leaders. Only about three-in-ten white mainline Protestants (31%) and white Catholics (30%) agree. The religiously unaffiliated continue to say there has been too much – rather than too little – expression of religious faith by political leaders. Fully 53% of the religiously unaffiliated say that politicians speak too much about faith and prayer. Across all religious groups, roughly half (52%) of those who say they attend worship services weekly or more think politicians talk too little about their faith, compared with about onethird (32%) of those who attend services monthly or yearly and just 21% of those who seldom or never attend services. Expressions of Faith by Political Leaders…
Too Too Right Much Little Amount DK % % % % 29 37 24 10=100 18 32 36 17 33 49 20 14 31 21 29 29 53 17 33 44 48 34 31 54 28 24 47 56 31 51 35 30 18 52 32 21 25 24 25 22 31 18 24 22 28 23 28 35 20 22 28 24 8=100 10=100 9=100 7=100 9=100 9=100 9=100 8=100 10=100 5=100 8=100 5=100 9=100 9=100 8=100 12=100

Total Republican Democrat Independent Conservative Moderate Liberal Protestant White evangelical White mainline Black Protestant Catholic White Catholic Unaffiliated Religious attendance Weekly or more Monthly/Yearly Seldom/Never

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q22. Figures may not add to 100% because of rounding.

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Fewer See Parties as Friendly Toward Religion A plurality of the public (43%) sees the Republican Party as generally friendly toward religion, while 28% say it is neutral and 14% say it is unfriendly. By comparison, just 26% say the Democratic Party is friendly toward religion; 41% say it is neutral and 19% say it is unfriendly. The percentages saying each party is friendly to religion have declined over the past two years. In 2008, a narrow majority of the public (52%) said the Republican Party was friendly to religion; that percentage slipped to 48% last year and 43% in the current survey. There has been a comparable decline in the percentage saying the Democratic Party is friendly to religion – from 38% in 2008, to 29% in 2009 and 26% currently.

Declining Percentages Say Each Party Is Friendly to Religion
60 % 52 52 55 47 42 40 29 30 26 40 50 Republican Party 48 43 38 Democratic Party 29 26

52

20

0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q30a,b.

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There is no political or religious group in which a majority views the Democratic Party as friendly to religion; even among Democrats themselves, just 42% say the party is friendly to religion, down slightly from last year (47%). Most Republicans (57%) see the GOP as friendly to religion, which is little changed from last year (59%). However, the proportion of white evangelicals saying the Republican Party is friendly to religion has slipped, from 53% last year to 46% today.

Fewer than Half of White Evangelicals See GOP as Friendly to Religion
% saying each party is friendly toward religion Total White Black Hispanic Republican Democrat Independent Conservative Moderate Liberal Protestant White evangelical White mainline Black Protestant Catholic White Catholic Unaffiliated Religious attendance Weekly or more Monthly/Yearly Seldom/Never Democratic Party 2009 % 29 25 47 29 12 47 26 16 34 46 27 19 26 45 24 24 36 25 29 35 2010 Change % 26 -3 23 40 29 15 42 20 20 27 38 25 18 23 45 28 25 26 23 28 29 -2 -7 0 +3 -5 -6 +4 -7 -8 -2 -1 -3 0 +4 +1 -10 -2 -1 -6 Republican Party 2009 % 48 51 33 39 59 44 47 48 48 54 46 53 49 26 47 49 52 47 45 54 2010 Change % 43 -5 49 24 28 57 36 42 45 43 46 42 46 49 23 41 47 46 41 43 46 -2 -9 -11 -2 -8 -5 -3 -5 -8 -4 -7 0 -3 -6 -2 -6 -6 -2 -8

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q30a, b.

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The Religious Right and Left A majority of Americans (58%) have heard a lot (25%) or a little (33%) about the “religious right,” or the Christian conservative movement. Fewer are familiar with the liberal or progressive religious movement sometimes known as the “religious left,” with 41% saying they have heard either a lot (10%) or a little (30%) about it. About two-thirds of white evangelical Protestants (66%) say they have heard at least a little about the religious right. That compares with 59% of white mainline Protestants, 55% of Catholics and the religiously unaffiliated, and 47% of black Protestants. Among political groups, large majorities of both conservative Republicans (71%) and liberal Democrats (68%) say they have heard at least a little about the religious right, while fewer moderate and liberal Republicans (54%) and conservative and moderate Democrats (50%) have heard something about the movement.

More Aware of the “Religious Right” than “Religious Left”
Percent who have heard a lot/little about… Religious Right % 58 65 71 54 59 56 50 68 60 66 59 47 55 Religious Left % 41 46 52 34 41 38 36 43 45 50 39 40 38

Total Republican Conservative Rep Mod/Lib Rep Independent Democrat Cons/Mod Dem Liberal Dem Protestant White evangelical White mainline Black Protestant Catholic

Half of white evangelical Protestants (50%) say White Catholic 58 37 they have heard at least a little about the Hispanic Catholic 47 35 Unaffiliated 55 34 religious left. Among other religious groups, significantly smaller proportions (ranging from PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q41a,b. 34% to 40%) say they know about the movement. Conservative Republicans are the only political group where as many as half (52%) say they are familiar with the religious left. Just 43% of liberal Democrats say they have heard a lot or a little about the movement.

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Support for the conservative Christian movement is highest among conservative Republicans and white evangelical Protestants. More than four-in-ten conservative Republicans (41%) and 29% of white evangelicals say they agree with the conservative Christian movement. Just 4% and 6%, respectively, say they disagree with the movement. By contrast, 45% of liberal Democrats disagree with the conservative Christian movement while just 2% agree. The religiously unaffiliated disagree with the Christian conservative movement by 30% to 3%. Yet across all religious and political groups – regardless of their view of the movement – large percentages either have not heard of the conservative Christian movement or express no opinion of it. Majorities of conservative Republicans (55%) and white evangelicals (64%) have no opinion of the movement or have not heard of it; this also is the case among liberal Democrats (54%) and the religiously unaffiliated (66%). Even fewer people have formed an opinion of the liberal or progressive religious movement; just 4% agree with this movement while 11% disagree. A quarter of the public (25%) expresses no opinion, while 59% have not heard about the progressive religious movement. Of those who have an opinion on the movement, conservative Republicans (28% disagree) and white evangelicals (20%) express

Opinion of the Conservative Christian Movement
DisNo Haven’t Agree agree opinion heard of % % % % 14 17 27 42=100 41 9 11 8 2 20 29 12 10 10 10 10 3 4 11 19 12 45 11 6 21 6 13 16 7 30 26 34 28 30 22 29 30 26 31 31 32 30 21 29=100 46=100 41=100 50=100 32=100 40=100 34=100 41=100 53=100 45=100 42=100 53=100 45=100

Total Conservative Rep Mod/Lib Rep Independent Cons/Mod Dem Liberal Dem Protestant White evang White mainline Black Protestant Catholic White Catholic Hispanic Catholic Unaffiliated

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010. Q41a, Q42a. Figures may not add to 100% because of rounding.

Opinion of the Progressive Religious Movement
DisNo Haven’t Agree agree opinion heard of % % % % 4 11 25 59=100 2 2 3 5 14 4 2 5 6 4 3 5 2 28 7 11 5 3 13 20 10 3 9 11 3 9 22 26 27 27 25 27 28 24 31 24 23 26 23 48=100 66=100 59=100 64=100 57=100 55=100 50=100 61=100 60=100 62=100 63=100 65=100 66=100

Total Conservative Rep Mod/Lib Rep Independent Cons/Mod Dem Liberal Dem Protestant White evang White mainline Black Protestant Catholic White Catholic Hispanic Catholic Unaffiliated

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010 Q41b, Q42b. Figures may not add to 100% because of rounding.

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the highest rate of disagreement with the religious left. Liberal Democrats express the highest levels of support for the religious left, with 14% saying they agree with the movement.

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SECTION 3: RELIGION AND THE 2010 ELECTIONS
Voting Intentions Divided Voter preferences for the upcoming congressional elections remain closely divided, with 45% currently expressing support for the Democratic candidate in their district and 44% saying they back the Republican candidate. Opinions about the midterm have changed Religious Groups and the 2010 Congressional Elections little since the start of the year; in four previous surveys this year, voters also were evenly divided.
All registered voters Vote Rep % 44 49 67 50 7 41 48 36 27 39 51 43 34 Vote Dem % 45 42 23 41 86 49 43 49 64 42 39 47 53 DK % 11 9 10 9 7 10 9 16 9 19 10 10 14 N 2431 1352 566 460 227 528 420 320 96 224 1049 776 575

Among religious groups, white evangelical Protestants overwhelmingly favor the Republican candidate in their district (by 67% to 23%). That is little changed from this point in the previous midterm campaign in 2006. (For a detailed comparison between current voting preferences and the 2006 midterm, see “Republicans Faring Better with Men, Whites, Independents and Seniors,” Aug. 10, 2010 http://people-press.org/report/643/ ). Opinions are more evenly divided among white non-Hispanic Catholics and white mainline Protestants, but the GOP is running better among both groups than it did four years ago.

Protestant White evangelical White mainline Black Protestants Catholic White Catholic Unaffiliated Atheist/Agnostic Nothing in particular Religious attendance Weekly or more Monthly/Yearly Seldom/Never

PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010 Q2, Q2a. Based on registered voters, includes those who lean to candidates of each party. Figures read across

Religiously unaffiliated voters currently favor the Democrats over the Republicans by a 49%-36% margin. Among this group, those who describe themselves as atheists and agnostics are largely loyal to the Democratic Party (64% favor Democrats, 27% favor Republicans). However, those who say their religion is “nothing in particular” are more evenly divided; 39% favor Republicans and 42% favor Democrats, with a large percentage (19%) saying they do not know how they will vote.

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Black Protestants favor the Democrats by a wide margin. Fully 86% of black Protestants say they will vote Democratic, while just 7% say they will support the Republican candidate, which is little changed from this point in the 2006 campaign. Registered voters who say they attend worship services weekly or more favor Republicans by a 12-point margin (51% vs. 39%), while those who say they attend services monthly or yearly are more evenly divided (43% favor Republicans, 47% favor Democrats). Voters who say they attend services seldom or never are 19 points more supportive of Democrats (53%) than Republicans (34%). As the Pew Research Center noted in its Aug. 10 report, the Republican Party continues to hold an engagement advantage over the Democratic Party. More than half of Republicans (55%) say they have given a lot of thought to the election, compared with 37% of Democrats. Among religious groups, about half of white evangelical Protestants (51%) have given a lot of thought to the election, as have 48% of white mainline Protestants and 45% of white Catholics. By contrast, just 36% of the religiously unaffiliated and 29% of black Protestants say they have given a lot of thought to the November election.

Interest in Midterms and Likelihood of Voting
Given a lot of thought to election % 44 45 51 48 29 46 45 36 37 36 Absolutely certain to vote % 70 70 74 71 64 72 76 67 67 67

All registered voters Protestant White evangelical White mainline Black Protestants Catholic White Catholic Unaffiliated Atheist/Agnostic Nothing in Particular Religious attendance Weekly or more Monthly/Yearly Seldom/Never

48 43 39

75 68 66

Despite these differences in how much voters PEW RESEARCH CENTER July 21-August 5, 2010 Questions have thought about the election, there is less THOUGHT, PLANTO1/PLANTO2. Based on registered voters. variation in the proportions who say they are “absolutely certain” to vote in November. Overall, 70% of registered voters say they are absolutely certain to vote in the fall. Among religious groups, 76% of white non-Hispanic Catholics and 74% of white evangelical Protestants say they are certain to vote as do 67% of the religiously unaffiliated and 64% of black Protestants. Three-quarters (75%) of those who say they attend worship services weekly or more say they are certain to vote, compared with two-thirds of those who say they attend monthly or yearly (68%) or attend seldom or never (66%).

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Trends in Party Identification Analysis of aggregated Pew Research Center surveys from 2006, 2008 and 2010 reveals that Republicans have made gains in the proportion who identify with the GOP or lean to the Republican Party. Overall, 47% of registered voters in 2010 Pew Research Center surveys identify with the Democratic Party or say they lean Democratic, while 43% are Republican or lean Republican. In 2008, 51% identified as Democrats and 39% as Republicans.

GOP Gains in Party Identification
Political Party Identification Democrat/ Republican/ lean Democrat 08-10 lean Republican 08-10 2006 2008 2010 diff 2006 2008 2010 diff % % % % % % All registered voters 49 51 47 -4 41 39 43 +4 Protestant White evangelical White mainline Black Protestants Catholic White Catholic Hispanic Catholic* Jewish Mormon Unaffiliated** Religious attendance Weekly or more Monthly/Yearly Seldom/Never 45 29 45 82 52 49 63 68 21 62 42 53 58 46 28 45 89 53 49 66 72 19 64 43 55 60 43 24 41 88 48 41 71 60 21 57 40 49 55 -3 -4 -4 -1 -5 -8 +5 -12 +2 -7 -3 -6 -5 46 63 45 10 39 43 30 26 72 25 49 39 31 45 65 45 5 37 41 25 20 68 25 48 36 29 49 69 49 7 43 50 22 33 73 29 53 42 32 +4 +4 +4 +2 +6 +9 -3 +13 +5 +4 +5 +6 +3

Half of white Catholics (50%) now identify themselves as Republican or lean toward the GOP, up nine points since 2008. Republicans also have made gains among Jewish voters; 33% now identify or lean Republican, up from 20% in 2008.

PEW RESEARCH CENTER Based on aggregated surveys from 2006, 2008 and 2010.Based on registered voters. Statistically significant changes are indicated in boldface type. * Most surveys in this analysis did not include Spanish language interviews. ** In 2006 includes those who volunteered their religion as “No religion, not a believer, atheist, or agnostic.”

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Party Affiliation by Religion – Long Term Trend
Party identification, including independents who lean toward a party, among registered voters

All Registered Voters
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% 80%

White Evangelical Protestants

Democrat/lean Dem 51% 47% 43% 39% Republican/ lean Rep

65% 60% 40% 20% 0%

69%

28% 24%

White Mainline Protestants
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Black Protestants
89% 88%

45% 49% 45% 41%

5%

7%

PEW RESEARCH CENTER Based on aggregated surveys from 2006, 2008 and 2010. Based on registered voters.

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Party Affiliation by Religion – Long Term Trend
Party identification, including independents who lean toward a party, among registered voters

White non-Hispanic Catholics
100% 80% Democrat/lean Dem 60% 40% 20% 0% 49% 50% 41% 41% Republican/ lean Rep 60% 40% 100% 80%

Hispanic Catholics

66%

71%

25% 20% 0%

22%

Jewish
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 20% 0% 0% 72% 60% 33% 40% 20% 100% 80% 60%

Unaffiliated

64%

57% 29%

25%

PEW RESEARCH CENTER Based on aggregated surveys from 2006, 2008 and 2010. Based on registered voters.

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About the Survey Results for this survey are based on telephone interviews conducted under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates International among a national sample of 3,003 adults living in the continental United States, 18 years of age or older, from July 21August 5, 2010 (2,002 respondents were interviewed on a landline telephone, and 1,001 were interviewed on a cell phone, including 431 who had no landline telephone). Both the landline and cell phone samples were provided by Survey Sampling International. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish. For detailed information about our survey methodology, see http://people-press.org/methodology/. The combined landline and cell phone sample are weighted using an iterative technique that matches gender, age, education, race/ethnicity, region, and population density to parameters from the March 2009 Census Bureau's Current Population Survey. The sample is also weighted to match current patterns of telephone status and relative usage of landline and cell phones (for those with both), based on extrapolations from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey. The weighting procedure also accounts for the fact that respondents with both landline and cell phones have a greater probability of being included in the combined sample and adjusts for household size within the landline sample. Sampling errors and statistical tests of significance take into account the effect of weighting. The following table shows the error attributable to sampling that would be expected at the 95% level of confidence for different groups in the survey:
Group Total sample Registered voters Republican Democratic Independent Sample Size 3,003 2,431 842 992 977 Plus or minus … 2.5 percentage points 2.5 percentage points 4.5 percentage points 4.0 percentage points 4.0 percentage points

In addition to sampling error, one should bear in mind that question wording and practical difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of opinion polls.

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About the Projects The survey is a joint effort of the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press and the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Both organizations are sponsored by the Pew Charitable Trusts and are projects of the Pew Research Center, a nonpartisan "fact tank" that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world.
The Pew Research Center for the People & the Press is an independent opinion

research group that studies attitudes toward the press, politics and public policy issues. The Center’s purpose is to serve as a forum for ideas on the media and public policy through public opinion research. In this role it serves as an important information resource for political leaders, journalists, scholars, and public interest organizations. All of the Center’s current survey results are made available free of charge.
The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life seeks to promote a deeper understanding of

issues at the intersection of religion and public affairs. It studies public opinion, demographics and other important aspects of religion and public life in the U.S. and around the world. It also provides a neutral venue for discussions of timely issues through roundtables and briefings.
This report is a collaborative product based on the input and analysis of the following individuals: Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
Luis Lugo, Director Alan Cooperman, Associate Director Sandra Stencel, Associate Director Greg Smith, Senior Researcher John C. Green, Senior Research Advisor Neha Sahgal and Christine Bhutta, Research Associates Scott Clement, Research Analyst Tracy Miller and Hilary Ramp, Editors Diana Yoo, Graphic Designer

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press
Andrew Kohut, Director Scott Keeter, Director of Survey Research Carroll Doherty, Associate Director, Editorial Michael Dimock, Associate Director, Research Michael Remez, Senior Writer Leah Christian and Jocelyn Kiley, Senior Researchers Robert Suls, Shawn Neidorf and Alec Tyson, Research Associates Jacob Poushter, Research Analyst Mattie Ressler, Research Assistant

© Pew Research Center, 2010

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PEW RESEARCH CENTER FOR THE PEOPLE & THE PRESS AND PEW FORUM ON RELIGION & PUBLIC LIFE 2010 RELIGION & PUBLIC LIFE SURVEY FINAL TOPLINE July 21-August 5, 2010 N=3,003 ASK ALL: Q.1 Do you approve or disapprove of the way Barack Obama is handling his job as President? [IF DK ENTER AS DK. IF DEPENDS PROBE ONCE WITH: Overall do you approve or disapprove of the way Barack Obama is handling his job as President? IF STILL DEPENDS ENTER AS DK] Approve 47 48 47 47 48 46 49 49 49 51 52 55 52 51 54 61 63 61 59 64 Disapprove 41 43 42 42 43 43 39 42 40 36 36 33 37 37 34 30 26 26 26 17 (VOL.) DK/Ref 12 9 11 11 9 12 12 10 11 13 12 13 12 11 12 9 11 13 15 19

Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 Jun 16-20, 2010 May 6-9, 2010 Apr 21-26, 2010 Apr 8-11, 2010 Mar 10-14, 2010 Feb 3-9, 2010 Jan 6-10, 2010 Dec 9-13, 2009 Oct 28-Nov 8, 2009 Sep 30-Oct 4, 2009 Sep 10-15, 2009 Aug 20-27, 2009 Aug 11-17, 2009 Jul 22-26, 2009 Jun 10-14, 2009 Apr 14-21, 2009 Mar 31-Apr 6, 2009 Mar 9-12, 2009 Feb 4-8, 2009

ASK ALL: The congressional elections will be coming up later this year … THOUGHT How much thought have you given to the coming November election… Quite a lot or only a little? BASED ON REGISTERED VOTERS [N=2431]: Quite A lot 44 61 54 51 45 52 45 36 49 42 56 45 44 43 29 (VOL.) Some 5 5 6 4 4 6 6 5 11 8 7 7 2 7 22 Only a (VOL.) Little None/DK/Ref 44 7 28 6 35 5 40 5 48 3 35 7 45 4 54 5 35 5 43 7 32 5 45 3 50 4 46 4 37 12

2010 2006

2002 1998 1994 1990

Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 November, 2006 Late October, 2006 Early October, 2006 September, 2006 Early November, 2002 Early October, 2002 Early September, 2002 Late October, 1998 Early October, 1998 November, 1994 Late October, 1994 Early October, 1994 Gallup: October, 19901 Gallup: October, 1982

1

Gallup trends based on general public.

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THOUGHT CONTINUED… 1978

Quite A lot Gallup: October, 1978 23 Gallup: September, 1978 21

(VOL.) Some 22 18

Only a Little 39 44

(VOL.) DK/Ref 17 18

ASK ALL: Q.2 If the elections for U.S. Congress were being held TODAY, would you vote for [RANDOMIZE: “the Republican Party’s candidate‖ OR ―the Democratic Party’s candidate‖] for Congress in your district? ASK IF ANSWERED OTHER OR DON’T KNOW (Q.2=3,9): Q.2a As of TODAY, do you LEAN more to the [READ IN SAME ORDER AS Q.2; IF NECESSARY: “for U.S. Congress in your district‖]? BASED ON REGISTERED VOTERS [N=2431]: (VOL.) Rep/ Dem/ Other/ Lean Rep Lean Dem Undecided 44 45 11 45 45 10 44 44 12 42 45 13 44 46 10 42 47 11 44 45 10 37 40 38 38 39 41 39 41 41 40 41 42 44 44 44 46 44 42 43 43 44 43 40 40 43 45 44 42 44 40 52 48 49 51 50 50 51 51 50 52 48 46 46 46 46 45 44 48 47 47 47 49 50 47 44 46 45 49 46 52 11 12 13 11 11 9 10 8 9 8 11 12 10 10 10 9 12 10 10 10 9 8 10 13 13 9 11 9 10 8

Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 Jun 16-20, 2010 Mar 11-21, 2010 Feb 3-9, 2010 Jan 6-10, 2010 Oct 28-Nov 8, 2009 Aug 20-27, 2009 2008 Election June, 2008 2006 Election November, 2006 Late October, 2006 Early October, 2006 September, 2006 August, 2006 June, 2006 April, 2006 February, 2006 Mid-September, 2005 2004 Election June, 2004 2002 Election Early November, 2002 Early October, 2002 Early September, 2002 June, 2002 February, 2002 Early November, 2001 2000 Election Early November, 2000 Early October, 2000 July, 2000 February, 2000 October, 1999 June, 1999 1998 Election Late October, 1998 Early October, 1998 Early September, 1998 Late August, 1998 Early August, 1998 June, 1998 March, 1998

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February, 1998 Q.2/Q.2a CONTINUED…

41

50

9

January, 1998 August, 1997 1996 Election November, 19962 October, 1996 Late September, 1996 Early September, 1996 July, 1996 June, 1996 March, 1996 January, 1996 October, 1995 August, 1995 1994 Election November, 1994 Late October, 1994 Early October, 1994 September, 1994 July, 1994 ASK ALL: PLANTO1

(VOL.) Rep/ Dem/ Other/ Lean Rep Lean Dem Undecided 41 51 8 45 48 7 44 42 43 43 46 44 44 46 48 50 45 47 52 48 45 48 49 49 51 47 50 49 47 48 43 43 44 40 46 47 8 9 8 6 7 6 7 7 4 7 12 9 8 6 8

Thinking ahead to November, do you yourself plan to vote in the Congressional election this November, or not?3 ASK IF YES (PLANTO1=1): PLANTO2 How certain are you that you will vote? Are you absolutely certain, fairly certain, or not certain? BASED ON REGISTERED VOTERS [N=2431]: Yes, plan Absolutely Fairly to vote certain certain 91 70 17 90 69 19 91 69 20 97 97 97 97 97 97 95 90 94 93 92 92 92 91 90 --85 --75 -5 4 6 6 --8 --17 -Not No, don’t certain plan to 3 7 2 8 2 6 * 1 * 1 --2 --1 -2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 3 4 5 (VOL.) DK/Ref 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 3 3 3

Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 Jun 16-20, 2010 Mar 11-21, 2010 2008 Election Mid-October, 20084 Early October, 2008 Late September, 2008 Mid-September, 2008 August, 2008 July, 2008 June, 2008 2006 Election November, 2006 Late October, 2006 Early October, 2006 Early September, 2006

2 3 4

November 1996 trends based on likely voters. Question began with ―Thinking ahead to November,‖ on June 16-20, 2010 and March 11-21, 2010 surveys. Surveys prior to March, 2010 did not ask specifically about voting in the ―Congressional election.‖ In Mid-October 2008 and from Mid-October 2004 to November 2006 and in Early November 2002, the ―Yes, Plan to vote‖ category also includes people who volunteered that they already voted. In November 2006, Early November 2002, Early November, 2000, Late October 1998, November 1996 and November 1994 the question was worded: ―Do you yourself plan to vote in the election this Tuesday, or not?‖

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PLANTO1/PLANTO2 CONTINUED. . . Yes, plan Absolutely Fairly to vote certain certain 97 98 98 98 98 96 90 95 96 97 96 97 95 95 91 92 95 93 95 96 98 98 96 95 96 93 95 98 98 97 97 97 98 --91 91 89 85 -----87 84 84 ---75 74 -87 89 83 82 84 --91 85 89 88 87 ---6 6 8 10 -----9 10 10 ---17 19 -10 8 11 12 11 --6 11 8 8 9 -Not No, don’t certain plan to --1 1 1 1 -----1 1 1 ---1 2 -1 1 2 1 1 --1 2 * 1 1 -2 1 1 1 2 2 8 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 6 4 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 5 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 (VOL.) DK/Ref 1 1 1 1 * 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 4 3 4 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1

2004 Election November, 2004 Mid-October, 2004 Early October, 2004 September, 2004 August, 2004 June, 2004 2002 Election Early November, 2002 Early October, 2002 2000 Election Early November, 2000 Late October, 2000 Mid-October, 2000 Early October, 2000 September, 2000 June, 2000 1998 Election Late October, 1998 Early October, 1998 Early September, 1998 Late August, 1998 June, 1998 1996 Election November, 1996 October, 1996 Late September, 1996 Early September, 1996 July, 1996 June, 1996 1994 Election November, 1994 October, 1994 1992 Election October, 1992 September, 1992 August, 1992 June, 1992 1988 Election Gallup: November, 1988 October, 1988 NO QUESTIONS 3-6

QUESTIONS 7-10 PREVIOUSLY RELEASED QUESTIONS 11-15 HELD FOR FUTURE RELEASE NO QUESTIONS 16-19

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ASK ALL: Q.20 In your opinion, should churches and other houses of worship [RANDOMIZE: keep out of political matters; express their views on day-to-day social and political questions] – or should they [INSERT OTHER OPTION]? Jul 21Aug 5 2010 52 43 5 Aug 2008 52 45 3 Jul 2006 46 51 3 Jul 2005 44 51 5 Aug 2004 44 51 5 Mid-Jul 2003 44 52 4 Mar 2001 43 51 6 Sep 20005 45 51 4 Jun 1996 43 54 3 — Gallup — Feb-68 Mar-57 53 44 40 7 48 8

Should keep out Should express views DK/Ref (VOL.)

ASK ALL: Q.21 During political elections, should churches and other houses of worship come out in favor of one candidate over another, or shouldn't they do this? Jul 21Aug 5 2010 24 70 6 Aug 2008 29 66 5 Aug 2007 28 63 9 Aug 2004 25 65 10 Mar 2002 22 70 8

Should come out in favor of candidates Should not come out in favor of candidates Don’t know/refused (VOL.)

ASK FORM 1 ONLY [N=1491]: Q.22F1 Do you think there has been too much, too little or the right amount of expressions of religious faith and prayer by political leaders? Jul 21Aug 5 2010 29 37 24 10 Aug 2008 29 36 28 7 Aug 2007 27 38 26 9 Jul 2005 26 39 27 8 Aug 2004 27 31 32 10 Mid-Jul 2003 21 41 29 9 Mar 20026 16 24 53 7 Early Oct 20017 12 22 60 6

Too much Too little Right amount Don’t Know/Refused (VOL.)

ASK FORM 2 ONLY [N=1512]: Q.23F2 Do you think Barack Obama mentions his religious faith and prayer too much, too little, or about the right amount? Jul 21Aug 5 2010 10 19 53 17 ---------George W. Bush---------MidJuly Jul Aug Jul 20068 2005 2004 2003 24 28 24 14 14 10 11 11 52 52 53 62 10 10 12 13

Too much Too little Right amount Don’t Know/Refused (VOL.)

5

6 7

8

September 2000 results are based on registered voters. In 2000 and earlier, the question did not include ―and other houses of worship.‖ In March 2002 the question was worded, ―Since September 11 th, has there been too much, too little or the right amount of expressions of religious faith and prayer by political leaders?‖ In Early October 2001 the question was part of a series and began, ―As I read from a list, tell me if you think there has been too much, too little or the right amount of what I mention.‖ In July 2006 and before the question asked about George W. Bush.

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ASK FORM 1 ONLY [N=1491]: Q.24F1 How much do you think Barack Obama relies on his own religious beliefs in making policy decisions – a great deal, a fair amount, or not very much? Jul 21Aug 5 2010 14 27 43 16 George W. Bush Aug 20049 26 38 28 8 Mid-Jul 2003 20 40 31 9

A great deal A fair amount Not very much Don’t Know/Refused (VOL.)

ASK FORM 1 ONLY [N=1491]: Q.25F1 Do you think he relies on his religious beliefs too MUCH, too LITTLE or about the right amount when making policy decisions? George W. Bush Jul 21Aug 5 Aug Mid-Jul 2010 200410 2003 11 Too much 15 10 21 Too little 21 21 48 Right amount 53 58 20 Don’t Know/Refused (VOL.) 11 11 ASK FORM 1 ONLY [N=1491]: Q.26F1 At the present time, do you think religion as a whole is increasing its influence on American life or losing its influence? Increasing Influence 23 34 30 37 71 78 37 37 37 27 36 42 37 31 19 33 45 69 Losing Influence 67 59 56 52 24 12 55 58 56 69 49 39 48 56 67 45 32 14 Same (VOL.) 3 2 5 3 2 3 4 0 4 2 6 14 10 8 8 13 17 10 No Opinion 7 5 9 8 3 7 4 5 3 2 9 6 5 5 7 8 7 6

Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 July, 2006 Mid-July, 2003 March, 2002 December, 2001 (Gallup) Mid-November, 2001 March, 2001 March, 2000 (Gallup) June, 1998 (Gallup) March, 1994 (Gallup) March, 1988 (Gallup) June, 1984 (Gallup) December, 1978 (Gallup) December, 1974 (Gallup) April, 1968 (Gallup) February, 1965 (Gallup) February, 1962 (Gallup) March, 1957 (Gallup)

9 10

In August 2004 and before the question asked about George W. Bush. In August 2004 and before the question asked about George W. Bush. In July 2003 the question read: ―In making policy decisions, do you think he relies on his religious beliefs too much, too little or about the right amount?‖

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IF GAVE RESPONSE IN Q.26F1 (Q.26F1=1,2,3), ASK: Q.28F1 All in all, do you think this is a good thing or a bad thing? BASED ON TOTAL FORM 1 [N=1491]: Jul 21-Aug 5 Jul 2010 2006 23 Increasing influence 34 13 Good thing 21 7 Bad thing 11 2 Both/Neither/Depends (VOL.) 1 1 Don’t know/Refused 1 67 Losing influence 59 10 Good thing 6 53 Bad thing 50 2 Both/Neither/Depends (VOL.) 2 2 Don’t know/Refused 1 3 Same (VOL.) 2 7 No opinion 5 Mar 2002 37 3 4 1 1 52 5 44 2 1 3 8

ASK FORM 2 ONLY [N=1512]: Q.27F2 At the present time, do you think religion as a whole is increasing its influence on government leaders and institutions such as the President, Congress, and the Supreme Court, or losing its influence? Increasing Influence 23 42 Losing Influence 62 45 Same (VOL.) 4 6 No Opinion 10 7

Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 Jul 6-19, 2006

IF GAVE RESPONSE IN Q.27F2 (Q.27F2=1,2,3), ASK: Q.28F2 All in all, do you think this is a good thing or a bad thing? BASED ON TOTAL FORM 2 [N=1512]: Jul 21-Aug 5 Jul 2010 2006 23 Increasing influence 42 9 Good thing 15 13 Bad thing 24 2 Both/Neither/Depends (VOL.) 2 1 Don’t know/Refused 1 62 Losing influence 45 15 Good thing 8 42 Bad thing 36 4 Both/Neither/Depends (VOL.) * 2 Don’t know/Refused 1 4 Same (VOL.) 6 10 No opinion 7

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ASK ALL: Q.29 How do you feel about this statement: It’s important to me that members of Congress have strong religious beliefs. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly DISagree, or completely DISagree with it? Jul 21Aug 5 2010 21 40 21 13 5

Completely Agree Mostly Agree Mostly Disagree Completely Disagree Don’t know/refused (VOL.)

TREND FOR COMPARISON: How do you feel about this statement: It’s important to me that a president have strong religious beliefs. Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly DISagree, or completely DISagree with it? Aug 2008 32 40 14 11 3 August 2007 30 39 16 11 4 August 2004 29 41 15 11 4 Sept 2000 (RVs) 35 35 17 10 3

Completely Agree Mostly Agree Mostly Disagree Completely Disagree Don’t know/refused (VOL.)

ASK ALL: Q.30 Do you feel that [INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE] is generally friendly toward religion, neutral toward religion, or unfriendly toward religion? Friendly a. The Democratic Party Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 August 20-27, 2009 August, 2008 August, 2007 July, 2006 July, 2005 August, 2004 Mid-July, 2003 26 29 38 30 26 29 40 42 Friendly 43 48 52 50 47 55 52 52 Neutral 41 39 37 37 42 38 34 36 Neutral 28 29 29 23 28 23 24 27 Unfriendly 19 22 15 15 20 20 13 12 Unfriendly 14 12 9 9 13 9 10 10 (VOL.) DK/Ref 14 11 10 18 12 13 13 10 (VOL.) DK/Ref 15 12 10 18 12 13 14 11

b.

The Republican Party Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 August 20-27, 2009 August, 2008 August, 2007 July, 2006 July, 2005 August, 2004 Mid-July, 2003

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ASK ALL: RELIG What is your present religion, if any? Are you Protestant, Roman Catholic, Mormon, Orthodox such as Greek or Russian Orthodox, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, atheist, agnostic, something else, or nothing in particular? [INTERVIEWER: IF R VOLUNTEERS “nothing in particular, none, no religion, etc.” BEFORE REACHING END OF LIST, PROMPT WITH: And would you say that’s atheist, agnostic, or just nothing in particular?] ASK IF SOMETHING ELSE, NOTHING IN PARTICULAR OR DK/REF (RELIG=11, 12, 99): CHR Do you think of yourself as a Christian or not? IF R NAMED A NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGION IN PREVIOUS QUESTION (e.g. Native American, Wiccan, Pagan, etc.), DO NOT READ (ENTER "NO" CODE 2) 42 23 2 1 2 1 1 * 2 3 1 12 9 * 2 Protestant (Baptist, Methodist, Non-denominational, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Pentecostal, Episcopalian, Reformed, Church of Christ, Jehovah’s Witness, etc.) Roman Catholic (Catholic) Mormon (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints/LDS) Orthodox (Greek, Russian, or some other orthodox church) Jewish (Judaism) Muslim (Islam) Buddhist Hindu Atheist (do not believe in God) Agnostic (not sure if there is a God) Something else (SPECIFY) Nothing in particular Christian (VOL.) Unitarian (Universalist) (VOL.) Don't Know/Refused (VOL.)

ASK IF CHRISTIAN (RELIG=1-4, 13 OR ((RELIG=11 OR RELIG=99) AND CHR=1)): BORN Would you describe yourself as a "born again" or evangelical Christian, or not? BASED ON TOTAL 35 Yes, would 39 No, would not 4 Don't know/Refused (VOL.) * Undesignated 78% Christian ASK ALL: ATTEND Aside from weddings and funerals, how often do you attend religious services... more than once a week, once a week, once or twice a month, a few times a year, seldom, or never? Once a week 25 23 26 26 25 27 25 27 24 25 26 26 28 26 25 Once or twice a month 14 16 16 16 15 14 15 15 15 17 14 17 16 17 17 A few times a year Seldom 20 15 18 16 19 15 18 16 18 14 19 14 20 15 18 14 21 15 18 15 17 16 17 15 17 13 20 15 21 13 Never 11 11 10 9 12 11 11 10 9 9 10 7 8 10 9 (VOL.) DK/Ref 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 * 1 1 1 1 1 * 1

More than once a week Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 14 August, 2009 14 August, 2008 13 Aug, 2007 14 July, 2006 15 July, 2005 14 Aug, 2004 13 July, 2003 16 March, 2003 15 March, 2002 15 Mid-Nov, 2001 16 March, 2001 17 Sept, 2000 (RVs) 17 June, 1997 12 June, 1996 14

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NO QUESTIONS 31-39 QUESTION 40 HELD FOR FUTURE RELEASE ASK ALL: Q.41 How much, if anything, have you heard about [INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE]? Have you heard [READ]? a. The conservative Christian movement sometimes known as the religious right Jul 21-Aug 5 2010 25 33 41 1 b.

A lot A little [OR] Nothing at all Don’t know/Refused [VOL. DO NOT READ]

The liberal or progressive religious movement sometimes known as the religious left Jul 21-Aug 5 2010 10 30 59 1

A lot A little [OR] Nothing at all Don’t know/Refused [VOL. DO NOT READ]

ASK IF Q.41a<3 OR Q41.b<3 Q.42 In general, do you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with [INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE IN SAME ORDER AS Q.41] or don’t you have an opinion either way? ASK IF Q.41a<3: a. The conservative Christian movement BASED ON TOTAL: 4 Strongly agree 9 Agree 9 Disagree 7 Strongly disagree 27 No opinion either way 1 DK/Refused (VOL.) 42 Not heard of conservative Christian movement/DK

ASK IF Q.41b<3: b. The liberal or progressive religious movement BASED ON TOTAL: 1 Strongly agree 4 Agree 6 Disagree 5 Strongly disagree 25 No opinion either way 1 Refused (VOL.) 59 Not heard of liberal or progressive religious movement/DK

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QUESTION 43-47 HELD FOR FUTURE RELEASE NO QUESTIONS 48-57 ASK ALL: Q.58 Now, thinking about Barack Obama’s religious beliefs… Do you happen to know what Barack Obama’s religion is? Is he Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu, atheist, agnostic, or something else? [INTERVIEWERS: IF R SAYS “MULTIPLE FAITHS/ALL OF THE ABOVE,” RECORD AS “8-SOMETHING ELSE” AND RECORD VERBATIM RESPONSE] Jul 21-Aug 5 2010 34 * 18 1 * * * 2 43 2 (RVs) March Mid-Oct Mid-Sept June 200911 2008 2008 2008 48 0 11 * * * * * 34 6 51 * 12 * 0 * * 1 32 3 48 1 12 * * * * 4 33 2 57 1 12 * * * * 2 25 3 March 2008 47 * 12 * * * * 1 36 3

Christian (include volunteers of: Protestant, Church of Christ, Trinity Church, Baptist, Methodists, etc.) Jewish Muslim (include Islam/Islamic) Buddhist Hindu Atheist Agnostic Something else Don’t know Refused (VOL.)

ASK IF SAYS OBAMA IS MUSLIM (Q.58=3) [N=558]: Q.58a And how did you learn about Barack Obama’s religion? [OPEN END; CODE UP TO THREE RESPONSES] Jul 21-Aug 5 2010 60 36 16 6 3 1 1 1 11 7 7 6 4 4 1 1 7 2

Media (NET) Media or news (non-specific) Television Newspapers Magazines Radio Book (non-specific) Obama’s book(s) Obama’s behaviors or his own words Things heard or read (non-specific) Internet Things heard or read during presidential campaign Views of family or friends Obama’s ancestry – family background, name, appearance My own opinion Obama’s policies towards Muslim countries or religion in the U.S. Other Don’t know/Refused/Undesignated

11

In August 2009 and before, respondents who answered Don’t Know were asked: ―Is this because you’ve heard different things about his religion, or because you just don’t know enough about him?‖

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ASK ALL: PARTY In politics TODAY, do you consider yourself a Republican, Democrat, or Independent? ASK IF ANSWERED 3, 4, 5 OR 9 IN PARTY: PARTYLN As of today do you lean more to the Republican Party or more to the Democratic Party? (VOL.) (VOL.) No Other (VOL.) Democrat Independent preference party DK/Ref 33 34 4 * 3 34 34 3 1 2 33 36 3 1 3 32 38 5 * 2 29 40 3 1 3 30 40 2 1 3 34 32 3 * 3 33 37 6 * 3 31 37 3 * 3 33 42 2 1 2 32 38 2 * 2 35 32 3 * 2 34 37 3 1 3 34 34 4 * 5 32 36 3 * 3 33 38 3 * 3 34 37 5 * 2 34 34 3 * 3 34.4 35.8 32.9 32.8 32.8 33.4 31.4 31.2 33.6 31.8 34.6 32.5 33.5 33.2 33.3 32.7 29.7 31.8 33.8 32.7 31.4 33.1 33 35 35.1 31.7 33.7 30.3 30.3 29.8 31.2 30.1 28.9 27.9 29.5 29.5 33.7 31.9 31.9 33.0 33.4 33.8 34.0 35.7 33.2 29.1 34 39 3.4 3.8 4.6 5.0 4.5 3.9 4.7 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.0 5.9 3.9 4.6 4.0 5.2 5.4 4.6 4.8 3.9 4.5 6.8 --.4 .3 .4 .4 .3 .4 .5 .7 .5 .6 .5 .5 .5 .4 .4 ---------2.8 3.1 3.1 3.9 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.7 3.6 2.1 4.0 1.9 2.4 2.3 ---------Lean Rep 14 15 16 17 17 17 13 14 14 17 14 13 16 13 14 16 15 11 13.1 10.5 10.7 10.2 10.2 11.7 12.1 12.6 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.6 13.0 11.8 12.3 12.7 14.4 14.3 11.8 13.8 14.6 12.4 --Lean Dem 14 15 13 13 15 13 12 13 17 16 15 13 14 17 16 15 14 16 15.7 15.4 16.7 14.5 14.9 13.4 13.0 11.6 11.4 9.4 12.5 11.6 14.5 13.5 13.8 15.6 12.9 12.6 14.7 15.8 10.8 11.3 ---

Republican Jul 21-Aug 5, 2010 26 Jun 16-20, 2010 27 Apr 21-26, 2010 26 Apr 8-11, 2010 23 Apr 1-5, 2010 24 Mar 18-21, 2010 24 Mar 11-21, 2010 28 Mar 10-14, 2010 22 Feb 3-9, 2010 26 Jan 6-10, 2010 22 Dec 9-13, 2009 25 Oct 28-Nov 8, 2009 27 Sep 30-Oct 4, 2009 23 Sep 10-15, 2009 23 Aug 20-27, 2009 26 Aug 11-17, 2009 23 Jul 22-26, 2009 22 Jun 10-14, 2009 25 Yearly Totals 2009 23.9 2008 25.3 2007 25.4 2006 27.6 2005 29.2 2004 29.7 2003 29.8 2002 30.3 2001 29.2 2001 Post-Sept 11 30.9 2001 Pre-Sept 11 28.2 2000 27.5 1999 26.6 1998 27.5 1997 28.2 1996 29.2 1995 31.4 1994 29.8 1993 27.4 1992 27.7 1991 30.9 1990 31.0 1989 33 1987 26

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