Job Analysis and Job Design

Scheme
Meaning and Definition Job analysis and competitive advantage Process of job analysis Methods of collecting job data Potential problems with job analysis Job design Factors affecting job design Job design approaches Contemporary issues in job design

Job Analysis
Process of collecting, analyzing and setting out information about the content of jobs in order to provide the basis for a job description and data for recruitment, training, job evaluation and performance management or It is the process which provides information used for writing job description ( a list of the job entails) and job specification (what kind of people to hire for the job)

the nature and scope of the job in terms of the tasks and operations Key result area Performance criteria Responsibilities Organizational factors. unsocial hours. what purposethe job holder is expected to contribute ContentContent.promotion.reporting relationships etc factorsMotivating factors Development factors.working condition. factorsmental and emotional demands . and career perspectives factorsEnvironmental factors.Types of information provided by Job Analysis Overall purpose. in essence.why the job exist and.

supervisory)  required level of education (indirectly related to salary level) .PURPOSE Conducting a job analysis can help identify: Selection Procedures: Procedures:  job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions  minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants  interview questions Compensation: Compensation:  skill levels  responsibilities (e.. fiscal.g.

video.g. classroom) Performance Review: Review:  goals and objectives  performance standards  evaluation criteria .. small group. computercomputer-based.Training/ Needs Assessment:  training content  equipment to be used in delivering the training  methods of training (e.

Process of Job Analysis .

Process of Job Analysis Strategic choices     employee involvement levels of details timing and frequency of analysis sources of data Information gathering Information processing Job description Resulting in various outcomes .

Methods of Collecting Job Data .

Interview Job analysis interviews should be conducted as follows: Work to a logical sequence of questions that help interviewees to order their thoughts about the job. asking leading questions that make the expected answer obvious  Allow the job holder ample opportunity to talk by creating an atmosphere of trust . Probe as necessary to establish what people dodo-answers to questions are often vague and information may be given by means of untypical instances.

Pros and cons  Basic method of analysis and. is the one most commonly used. Obtain clear statements from job holders about their authority to make decision  Requires skills on the part of the analyst and is time consuming. as such.  Effectiveness can be increased by the use of a checklist .

Questionnaires They are helpful when a large number of jobs are to be covered. Can save interviewing time by recording purely factual information and by enabling the analyst to structure questions in advance to cover areas that need to be explored in greater depth should only be carried out on the basis of some preliminary field work The accuracy of results also depends upon the willingness and ability of job holders to complete questionnaires .

if they are over generalized it will be too easy for job holders to provide vague or incoherent answers .Pros and cons  Can save interviewing time but may fail to reveal full flavor of the job.

It is advisable to run special training sessions in which they practice analyzing their own and other people s jobs . perhaps because what they do is so much part of themselves that they find it difficult to be detached and dissect the information into various elements.Self description Job holders can be asked to analyze their own jobs and prepare job descriptions but people do not find it easy.

and how much time it takes. It is appropriate for situations where a relatively small number of key jobs need to be analyzed in depth.Observation Observation means studying job holders at work. how they do it. noting what they do. . but it is time consuming and difficult to apply in jobs that involve a high proportion of unobservable mental activities. or in highly skilled manual jobs Pros and cons  Most accurate but so time consuming that it is seldom used except when preparing training specifications for manual or clerical jobs.

Diaries and Logs Job holders requires to analyze their own jobs by keeping diaries or logs of their activities. Pros and cons  Make great demand on job holders and can be difficult to analyze . as well as the ability to express. These can be used by the job analyst as the basic material for a job description Best used for managerial jobs which are fairly complex and where the job holders have the analytical skills required.

Job Description and Job Specification in Job Analysis .

Job Description Derived from the job analysis they provide basic information about the job under the heading of the job title. reporting relationships. overall purpose and principle accountabilities or main tasks or duties. .

It is therefore necessary to build flexibility into the job description.Content and format Content  Flexibility: operational flexibility and multi skilling are becoming increasingly significant. This is achieved by concentrating on results rather than spelling out what has to be done  Team work: flatter organizations rely more on good team work and this requirement needs to be stressed .

Format Job identification Job summary Responsibilities and duties Authority of incumbent Standards of performance Working conditions Job specifications .

the requisite education. that is. .Job Specification A list of a job s human requirement . and so on another product of a job analysis. personality. skills.

Job design Job design has been defined by Davis (1966) as: the specification of the content. methods and relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder .

It involves  identification of individual tasks  specification of methods of performing the tasks  combination of tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals . duties and responsibilities into one unit of work.Job design is the conscious efforts to organize tasks.

Job Design Factors .

Approaches to job design Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment SelfSelf-managing teams HighHigh.performance work design .

decisiondecisionmaking responsibility and control as possible in carrying out the work  It provide the direct feedback through the work itself on how well the employee is doing his work .Job enrichment Aims to maximize the interests and challenges of work by providing the employee with a job that has these characteristics  Complete piece of work in the sense that the worker can identify a series of tasks or activities that end in a recognizable and definable product  It affords the employee as much variety.

but they do not result in positive increase in motivation .Job enrichment as proposed by Herzberg(1986) is not just increasing the number nor variety of tasks. It is claimed by supporters of job enrichment that these approaches may relieve boredom.

Job rotation Means systematically moving workers from one job to another A closer look at some Indian companies shows that job rotation is becoming an increasingly accepted practice. "It is a win-win winsituation -. Western India . McDonald's. joint venture Jatia. At McDonald's. partner and managing director." says Amit Jatia. the team and the employee.win for the organization. globally and in India. cross-functional job rotations are crossencouraged.

It is different than job enrichment Thus the worker who previously only bolted the seat to legs might attach the back as well . It is done to keep workers from getting bored. It involves the addition of tasks at the same level of skill and responsibility.Job Enlargement Job Enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job.

. so they try to motivate employees through job enlargement.Examples: Small companies may not have as many opportunities for promotions.

Comparison of Five Job Design Approaches .

Contemporary Issues Telecommuting Alternative work patterns Techno stress Task revision Skill Development .

provide opportunities for people to do several tasks and combine tasks To influence task identity and form natural work units To influence task significance To influence autonomy. establish good relationships and open feedback channels . give people responsibility for determining their own working system To influence feed back.Principles of Job Design To influence skill variety.

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