A dictionary of the Hurrian language with comparative and etymological indications

Arnaud FOURNET

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language

Updated version (as of August 2010)

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language INTRODUCTION

The lexical items listed in this Hurrian vocabulary are taken for the most part from Laroche (1980), Glossaire de la langue hourrite. The Glossaire also contains words of Semitic or Sumerian origin. Words with unknown meaning are not listed. Additional items from Diakonov (1971) are signaled with DI. Words from the Hittite-Hurrian bilingual studied in Catsanicos (1996) are signaled with CA. In some cases, meanings are not those of Catsanicos but taken from Neu (1988). Additional items are taken from André-SalvaniSalvini SA. Each entry contains the following information when possible : a phonetic reconstruction *[ ]; undetermined velar fricatives are noted [H], lw if loanword, cg if inherited cognate, wd if wanderwort, Laroche’s own transcriptions [EL], the alphabetic transcription in Ugaritic alphabet [UG], the meaning translated from French or German, sometimes uncertain (?). the Urartian cognate [UR] or the Subarean cognate, Hurro-Urartian borrowings in Armenian, the PIE cognate, or the origin of loanwords.

The prosodic classes are indicated when known: [P -3] antepenultimate mobile accent, [P x-] fixed on initial, [P -x] fixed on last, [P >] mobile in oblique cases, [P -2] penultimate accent.

The words are listed according to the following order of phonemes/graphemes: */(ˀ)a/ */b/ */ts/ */d/ */e/ */g/ */γ/ */x/ */(ˀ)i/ */k/ */l/ */m/ */n/ */p/ */r/ */š, ś/ */t/ */(ˀ)u/ */w/ */ž, ź/ */dz/ The glottal stop is not taken into account. Words with possible lateral fricatives are not separated from simple fricatives. Words are listed according to the probable pronunciation of Hurrian: for example */γa-/ is listed under letter */x/ not */γ/. On the whole, most Hurrian words can be related to a “root” with a #(C)vC- shape. It can be noted that most #(C)vC- combinations permitted by the phonological system of Hurrian are attested. The phonological yield of the system is therefore very high. NB: This dictionary is based on Fournet-Bomhard (2010:79-146) The Indo-European Elements in Hurrian but it includes a substantial body of new data and it sometimes differs from this source as regards etymological analyses. This version only represents my own point of view. IE data relative to unemended proposals are not repeated here.

Updated version (as of August 2010)

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language ALPHABETIC GLOSSARY

Letter/Phoneme *a It is not possible to make any distinction between words where initial glottal stop may have existed and words which may have started with a vowel. None of the graphic systems in which Hurrian is attested could indicate such a difference. [ä] stands for vowels which are written with cuneiform <e, i> but are traceable to original /a/. Hurrian <a> normally reflects the apophonic vowel *e/o, unless influenced by a neighboring r, l, n, i or y. *[a-] cg ‘derivative formant’ a-da(ˀ)-li ‘strong, powerful’ ~ ta-n- ‘to do’ < *dheh1e-br-i ‘master’ < *a-bhros ~ buru ‘strong’ < *bher-ğha-ga-bi ‘on this side’ < *a-ghe-bhi a-ku ‘other’ < *a-ko *[abadí] [P -x] lw ‘name of the goddess Lelluri of Manuziya (Kizzuwatna)’ EL Abate <a-ba-te> to be read *[abade/i] according to Laroche (1981:33). *[abandalli] [P -3] cg ‘anterior’ EL awantalli. A derivative of abi/awi. < *H1.1obh- ‘front, fore’ (IEW:787) *[abari] [P -3] lw ‘field, steppe’ EL awari <a-wa-ri> UG [9 w r]. Cf. abundi. < Akkadian aburru ‘pasture, meadow’ *[ábi] [P >] cg ‘the front part’ EL abi (Var. awi) <a-(a)-bi>. See also ayi with assimilation. < *H1.1obh- ‘front, fore’ (IEW:787) *[ábi] [P x-] lw ‘hole in the ground leading to the netherworlds’ EL abi <a-(a-)bi> UG [9 b]. Sumero-Akkadian loanword. Translates Hittite hatteššar. *[abi] cg ‘who ?’ CA <a-bé-e, a-wi> Derivative: *[awinni] ‘whichever’, UR <ainni>. < *H2.1ew- ‘that, other’ (IEW:73-75). Cf. Gothic -u ‘Fragepartikel’. *[abiγarri] lw ‘abiharri, a mesure of surface: ca. 1800 m2’ CA <a-bi-har-ri>. < Akkadian awiḫaru ‘plow’. *[ábri] cg ‘stock of wood-logs’ CA <a-ab-ri>. < *bher- ‘board, bar’ (IEW:103, 138, 173-4). Cf. Akkadian abru ‘brush pile’ (?). *[ábuluski] lw? ‘doorman (?)’ EL <a-bu-lu-uš-ki> ‘without meaning’. Cf. Akkadian abūlu ‘door’. *[abúndi] cg? ‘plowed field’ CA <a-bu-un-ti> Cf. Germanic *audaz ‘property’. Updated version (as of August 2010) 4

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[atsiri] lw ‘prisoner of war’ CA <a-(as)-tśi-i-ri>. < Akkadian asīru ‘prisoner of war’. *[adá(ˀ)li] [P -2] cg ‘strong’ EL adali. Translates Akk. gašru ‘strong, powerful’. < *dheH1- ‘to do’. <a-da-a-al-, a-da-al-li-> proves a laryngeal. *[adasi] ‘lower city walls’ CA <a-ta-aš-ši>. Cf. kirhe. *[adí] [P -x] cg ‘thus’ EL adi <a-ti> < *H1.1odh- ‘then’ *[adirγa] cg (Essive) ‘(being) in conflict’ CA <a-ti-ir-ha> < *H3ed- ‘to hate’ (IEW:773) *[admi] ‘stool’ CA <ad-mi>. Possibly related to adani (a piece of furniture ?) of unclear meaning. Unclear relationship with *sed- ‘to sit’ (s-mobile?). *[agabi] cg ‘on this side’ CA <a-ga-bé-e, a-ga-a-we>. Possibly related to ak(k)-: *H2.1e-gho-bhi ? < *ghe- ‘deictic particle’ (IEW:417) *[ag-] [P-x] cg ‘to bring, to lead’ EL ag- <a-ku-u>. Translates Hitt. šarā da-. UR <ag/j(u)> < *H2.1eg- ‘to lead’ (IEW:4-6) *[agul-] cg ‘to carve’ CA <a-ku-l>. Translates Hitt. gul(aš)š-. <*H2.1egw- ‘to hew, cut’ (IEW:9) *[aguˀúrni] cg ‘carving’ Ca <a-ku-ú-úr-ni> <*H2.1egw- ‘to hew, cut’ (IEW:9) *[aγ(a)ri] [P -3] cg ‘incense’ EL ah(a)ri <ahari> UG [9 ġ r l] < *H2.1eH-i-(dh)- ‘to burn’ (IEW:11). Cf. Greek ἰαίνω ‘to warms up’. *[aγrusxi] cg ‘incense-burner’ EL ahrušhi UG [9 ġ r ṯ h]. Instrumental derivative -šhi- of ahari. *[ái] cg ‘if, if only’ [followed by a syntagm] EL ai <a-a-i> < *H2.1e- ‘but, and’ *[aja] lw ‘wife of Šimegi’ EL Aya < Akkadian Aya. *[ajaki] lw ‘refers to sanctuaries of goddesses’ EL ayakki < Akkadian ayakku. The Sumerian ideograms É.AN.NA must be misread as ayakku cannot derive from that form. *[aji] [P >] cg ‘face’ EL aye. Cf. abi. Aye is a variant form of abi. *[ak-í/ú] [P-x] cg ‘other ; the other of two’ EL a(k)ku <ag-gu-uš> CA <a-ak-ki> Erg. *akuš ; Gen. *aku-we <a-gu-ú-e> ; Dat. *aku-wa ; Abl. *aku-dan Updated version (as of August 2010) 5

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language The word displays an alternation -k/g- ~ -kk-. < *a-ko ‘deictic, this’ (IEW:609). *[akaduγi] lw ‘Akkadian’ EL <ag-ga-tu-hé-> or <ag-ga-da-a-hi> Ethnic adjective based on Ak(k)ade ‘Akkad’. *[al-] cg ‘to bring near to’ [Neu (1988)] (CA ‘to come near to’) CA <a-le-, a-li-> < *H2.1el- ‘to wander, move about’ *[al-] cg ‘to speak’ Cf. alilan-, älmi. < *H2.1el- ‘to shout, cry’ (IEW:29) *[aláli] cg? ‘a kind of clothes’ CA <a-la-a-li> < *H2.1el- ‘overcoat’. Cf. Greek (Thessalian) ἄλλιξ ‘overcoat’, Latin alicula. *[alalu] ‘the God Alalu, older than Kumarbi in the Theogony’ EL Alalu <A-la-lu-> Unclear relationship with Akkadian ilu ‘god’. *[alázi] cg? ‘if, whether’ EL alaše <a-la-a-ši> < *H1.1ol-e-s- ‘deictic particle + Locative’(IEW:24-26). *[alaźijaγi] lw ‘Cypriot’ EL Alašiyahi UG [9 l š j ġ] Ethnic adjective based on Alašiya ‘Cyprus’ (< *nās- ‘island’ (?). Cf. Greek νήσος) *[äl(a)mi] [P x-] cg ‘oath’ (< *H2.1el-) EL el(a)mi <e-la-mi>. Not attested with <#i->. Translates Akk. māmītu. Cf. al- < *H2.1el- ‘to shout, cry’ (IEW:29). *[älardi] cg ‘sisterhood’ EL elardi *[äli] [P x-] cg ‘sister’ EL eli <e-e-li->. Not attested with <#i->. < *H2.1el- ‘to nourish’. Cf. šeni ‘brother’ < *dhiH1- ‘to breast-feed’. *[äli] lw ‘feast, holy day (?)’ EL eli. Derivative eli-burni. Not attested with <#i->. < Akkadian elēlu ‘to be pure’, ellu ‘pure, holy’ < *ḥ_l. *[alilan-] cg ‘to shout, cry, lament’ CA <a-li-la-n->. Cf. al- < *H2.1el- ‘to shout, cry’ (IEW:29). *[alibzi] lw ‘brick’ CA <a-li-ip-ši>. The initial #a- is prothetic. < Akkadian libittu ‘mudbrick’ < labānu ‘to mould bricks’ *[alla-i] [P >] cg ‘lady, queen’ EL Allai <a-al-la-i> UG [9 l]. With elidable -i. UR <alae> Derivative: allašši *[allasi] ‘status of being queen’ < *H2.1en(n)os ‘old woman’ (IEW:36) *[allani] cg EL Allani ‘Sun-goddess of the Earth’ Translated in Hittite as taknaš d UTU-uš < allai. Updated version (as of August 2010) 6

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[allanúxi] [P -2] cg ‘of the queen, reginal’ EL allanuhhi <al-la-an-nu-uh-hi> < allai. *[alúm(m)i] [P -2] cg ‘last’ EL alu(m)mi <a-lu-u-um-me> Instr. alumai ‘coming last, last’. Cf. <a-la-mu-> = Akkadian duriš ‘for ever’. < *H1.1ol- ‘deictic particle’(IEW:24-26). Cf. Germanic *all-. *[am-] cg? (1) ‘to burn down, to be gutted by fire’ Cf. Tokharian A omäl, В emalle ‘hot’ < *āmel- (IEW:35); *smel- ‘to burn for a long time’ (IEW:969). *[am-] lw? (2) ‘to see’, attested in the compound CA <a-mu-(u)l-> Cf. West Semitic ḫamaˀu ‘to see’. *[am-] cg? (3) ‘to harm’ CA <a-ma-r-> ‘to harm repeatedly’ CA <a-ma-ri-il-l-> ‘to begin to harm repeatedly’ Unclear relationship with *mer- ‘to harm, to die’ (IEW:735). *[amánu(ˀ)] [P -2] lw ‘the god Amon’ EL Aman <A-ma-a-nu-ú-ush> < Egyptian. *[ám(m)adi] [P x-] cg ‘grand-father’ EL ammati <am-ma-ti> <a-ma-at-te-na e-en-na> ‘the ancient gods’ < *H2.1em(m)- [babytalk word] ‘mother, grand-mother’ (IEW:36) *[am(m)itsadu] [P x-] ‘an ancient god mentioned with Alalu’ EL Amizzadu <A-(am)-mi-iz-za> Possibly a formation: A(m)mi (verb) + Zadu (noun). *[amm-] [P x-] ‘to arrive at, to reach’ EL amm-, CA <a-am-m-> *[amumi] ‘message’ CA <a-mu-(u)-mi> *[amu(ˀu)mi] lw? ‘administrator’ CA <a-mu-ú-mi>, EL <a-mu-um-me-ku-un-ni>, SA <a-mu-mi-ia-aš-še> ‘élevé, de premier rang’. Translates Akkadian ṣeru. < Hittite maniyahh- ‘direction, administration’ (?) *[an-] ‘to rejoice’ Attested in the derivative CA <a-na-aš-t-> *[anaγi] lw ‘piece, morsel’ < Luwian anaḫi(t). *[anami] cg ‘thus’ EL anam(mi). Used in correlation with inu(me). Cf. anni, andi. < *H1.1on- ‘deictic’ (IEW:319-321) *[Øänarγa] lw (Essive) ‘looking or acting like a god’ CA <e-na-ar-ḫa>. < Sumero-Akkadian *an- ‘sky, god’. *[anat] lw ‘the Cananaan goddess Anat’ EL Anat <a-na-t> UG [ˁ n t]. < West Semitic. Updated version (as of August 2010) 7

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[andzannuγ-] lw? ‘to ask (?)’ EL anzannuh. Non native outlook. Cf. Akkadian anzanīnu ‘matchmaker’. *[andí] [P -x or >] cg ‘that’ EL andi <an-ti>. *[andú-] in oblique cases. < *H1.1on- ‘deictic’ (IEW:319-321) *[anni] [P >] cg ‘this’ EL anni <an-ni> UG [9 n]. *[annú-] in oblique cases. < *H1.1on- ‘deictic’ (IEW:319-321) *[aphi] cg? ‘vermin, small animal’ SA aphé ‘vermine, pou’. Translates Akkadian kál-ma-tu ‘small animals, vermin’. NB: ‘louse’ is Akkadian uplu. < possibly *H2.1ep- (IEW:1108): Germanic *ub-il- ‘evil’. *[apši] cg ‘snake’ SA <ap-še> ‘serpent’. < *H2.1esp- ‘aspic’: Greek ασπίς with metathesis in Hurrian. *[ar-] cg (1) ‘to give’ EL ar- <a-ri->, UR <aru> < *H2.1er- ‘to distribute, allot’ (IEW:61). *[ar-] lw? (2) ‘to grow, increase’ CA < e-r>. Derivatives: <e-ra-a-n> (Causative), <e-ru-u-l-> (Medio-passive). < Akkadian rabû ‘to grow, increase’, although -b- seems to be missing in Hurrian. *[arandzaH] ‘the Tigris River’ EL Aranzah <a-ra-an-za-ah>. Non native outlook. < Kassite because of final -dzah? *[arari] lw ‘cursed’ < Akkadian arāru ‘to curse’. *[ärbi] lw ‘dog’ CA < e-er-bi>. < Indo-Iranian: Skt. lopāśa ‘fox, jackal’; Av. urupi ‘a kind of dog’, etc. < PIE *wCp. *[arbu] cg? ‘(suffix) year old’ < unclear relationship with *yēro ‘year’ (IEW:293). *[ardi] [P > (?)] cg ‘town’ EL arde <ar-di-na> UG [9 r d]. UR <ardi>. < *H1.1erdh- ‘to inhabit’. *[arni] [P x-] lw ‘sin, blame’ EL arni. Translates Hitt. wastul ‘injury, sin’. < Akkadian arnu ‘guilt, wrongdoing’. *[arni] cg ‘extremity, end, top’ CA <a-ar-ni> < *H2.1er- ‘point, tip’ (IEW:63) *[arul-] cg ‘to lead, drive’ CA <a-ru-(u)-l-> < *H1.1er- ‘to move quickly’ (IEW:336-337) *[aruzula] cg ‘to hurry’ EL arušul- <a-ru-uš-šu-la> UG [9 r ḏ]. Translates Akk. ḫamāsu ‘to hasten, to be quick’. < *H1.1er- ‘to move quickly’ (IEW:336-337) Updated version (as of August 2010) 8

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[ás-] [P x-] cg ‘to be seated’ EL ašš <a-aš-še-š> UG [9 ṯ]. UR <aš> < *H1.1es- ‘to sit’ (IEW:342-343). Apparently the root must be reduplicated as the consonant is not voiced. *[asxi] [P x-] lw? ‘skin’ EL ašhe <a-aš-hi-> [CA ‘skin of an animal’]. Cf. Akkadian šišītu ‘skin’ (?) *[asxijasi] lw ‘sacrificator’ EL ašhiyašši. UR <ašh> *[asxuzikunni] lw ‘offerer’ EL ašhušikkunni (DI ašhožikkone). Derivative -kunni as in ammumi-kunni ‘servant, door-keeper (?)’ *[asxu] [P x-] lw ‘high’ EL ašhu UG [9 ṯ h]. CA <a-aš-hu-ú-i> ‘upward, high’. < Akkadian šēḫu ‘high’ < Proto-Semitic √s_ˀ_ḫ. *[asi] lw? ‘grease, fat’ CA <a-aš-še> < Sumerian EŠ ‘to anoint, smear’ ? *[astábi] lw ‘a god of war like Ninurta’ EL Aštabi <Aš-ta-a-bi> UG [9 ṯ t b]. < Akkadian Aštūbinu *[astasxi] cg? ‘womanhood’ EL aštašhi UG [9 ṯ t ṯ h] *[ásti] [P x-] cg? ‘woman’ EL ašte <a-aš-ti> UG [9 ṯ t]. Subarean aštu ‘woman’. Diminutive aštága. < *H2.1est- ‘woman’. Cf. Indo-Iranian *strī ‘woman’ or Akkadian aššutu ‘wife’. *[astúxi] cg? ‘female, feminine’ EL aštuhhi. As opposed to turuhhi ‘male, masculine’ *[astutsi] cg? ‘feminine, womanly’ DI aštuzzi. *[átaˀ-i] [P >] cg ‘father’ EL attai <at-ta-i> UG [9 t]. With elidable -i. UR <ate> Derivatives: attárdi ‘fatherhood’ ; attašši ‘patrimony’ < *H2.1et(t)eH2.1- ‘father’ (IEW:71) *[awalli] lw? ‘measure of surface: ca. 3600 m2 = one IKU’ CA <a-wa-al-li>. Probably a loanword. Cf. abari ‘field, steppe’. *[azdiwelti] cg? ‘transverse line (perpendicular to the perku) ; beam , crossbar’ SA <aš?-di?-we?-el-te> (insecure reading). Translates Akkadian tallu. < *ozd- ‘branch’ (IEW:785-786) *[azúγi] [P -2] cg ‘pine-tree’ EL ašuhi <a-šu-u-hi>. Used for making smoke. < *H1.1os-p- ‘kind of tree’ (IEW:55) *[azuγi] cg? ‘meal, eating-time’ CA <a-šu-(u)-hi>. Translates Hitt. adannaš meḫur. < *H1ed- ‘to eat’ (IEW:287) (?) with unclear change *d > -z-. *[adzam(m)i] lw? ‘figurine’ EL azammi <a-za-am-mi-na>. Translates Hittite šenas. < Akkadian summu ‘gold figurine of a dove’ (< ‘dove’). Cf. zinzabu. Updated version (as of August 2010) 9

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language

Letter/Phoneme *b The phoneme */b/ is elusive word-initially. The alternations in Hurrian between <b>, <w> and <p> make it possible to reconstruct *b (probably at the Proto-Hurrian stage). #b- seems to have fused with either *w or *p, in coherence with the rarity of voiced initials in Hurrianic. Some words where cuneiform <p> or <w> do not alternate nevertheless seem to originate in *b. [b] indicates spirantization. *[b] cg ‘not’ Hurrian -w- / -bur- and -ukk- (with additional particle), ubadi (for adjectives). < *bhe(H) ‘without’ (IEW:112-113) *[ba-] cg ‘to build’ CA <pa-(a)->, DI <ba->. < *bh(u)H- ‘to build, house’ (IEW:IEW:146-150). *[baban] cg ‘mountain’ EL pabani <pa-ab-ni, wa-wa-n> UG [p b n]. UR <baba> < *bhen- ‘moutain’. Cf. Celtic *benn-, Greek (Cyrenean) βουνός. *[babanγi] cg ‘mountainous’ EL pabanhi <pa-ba-an-hi> UG [p b n x]. *[baγ-] cg ‘to destroy’ CA <pa/wa-ah->. < *bheH2.2- ‘to strike, beat’ (IEW:111-112) *[baγri] cg ‘good, beautiful’ EL wahri <wa/pa-ah-ri>, CA <wa-ah-ru-ši> ‘excellent’. < *bheH2.2- ‘to shine’ (IEW:104-5) *[bandarini] cg ‘cook’ CA <pa/wa-an-ta-ri-ni> < *bheH1-(g)- ‘to warm, bake, fry’ (IEW:113) *[bandi] ‘right (side)’ EL wandi <wa/pa-andi>. <wa-an-ti-in> ‘to the right side of’ *[bar-] cg ‘to be offended, angry’ CA <pa-a-r->. < unsuffixed root of *bhergw- ‘angry’ (IEW:163). Cf. Armenian bark ‘violent, angry, irate; herb, bitter, sharp from taste’ (*bhrgʷos); O.Ir. borb, borp ‘crazy’. ̥ *[baz-] ‘(intr.) to enter ; (tr.) to bring (in)’ EL waš- <wa/pa-ši-> *[bazi] cg ‘mouth’ < *bheH2.1- ‘to speak’ (IEW:105). *[bi] cg ‘P2 Sg., thou’ EL we <ú-e, we-, -be->. < *t-ū ‘P2Sg’: (gen.) *tewe, (dat.) *toi, *tebhi, (acc.) *te. *[-bi] cg attested in agabi ‘on this side’, *[ezabi] ‘on the other side’ < *bhi ‘in, close to’ (IEW:34) *[billi] cg ‘canal’ CA <pi-il-la>; NEU <bé-il-li, bi-i-el-le>. Translates Hitt. amiyara-, PA5. Cf. pala ‘canal’ from a different root. < *bhedh- ‘to dig’ (IEW:113-4). Cf. Gaulish bedo- ‘canal, ditch, channel’. Updated version (as of August 2010) 10

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[bud-] ‘to announce’ EL pud-. Unclear suffix in CA <pu-ú-ta-an-k-> ‘to announce, to denounce’. < *bheudh- ‘to make aware of’ (IEW:150-152). *[buxi] ‘nose’ SA <wu-uh-hi> ‘nez’. Also <punhi>. *[bur-] cg ‘to see’ EL wur- <wu/bu-u-r-> < *bher-(gh) ‘to look at, after’ (IEW:145). Cf. Alb. bariu ‘shepherd, herdsman’; O.H.G. bor(a)gēn ‘to spare, look after, entrust, borrow’, O.E. borgian ‘to look after, watch over’. *[burami] cg ‘servant, slave’ EL purame ; CA <pu-ra-am-mi>; NEU <bu-ra-am-mi>. Possible derivative purapši ‘priest’. UR <LÚpura>; <puraa> < *bher- ‘to bear, to carry’ (IEW:128-132): Sanskrit bh0tya- ‘a servant, a dependent’. *[buri] cg ‘eye’ SA <wu-ri>. *[burni] cg ‘house, temple’ EL pur(u)li, purni <pu-ur-ni, wu-ur-ni>. UR <purule> < *bhuH- ‘to inhabit, house’ (IEW:146-150). Cf. O.E. būr m. ‘cottage, room’, O.H.G. būr m. ‘house, cage’, *[buru] cg ‘strong’ CA <pu/wu-ú-ru> < *bher-gh- ‘high, strong’(IEW:140-1). Cf. ebri < *H2.2ebros. *[buruγli-] cg ‘east (or less probably south)’ EL wuruhli <wu/bu-ru-uh-li> < *bhreH1-ğ- ‘to be bright’ (IEW:139-40, 41-42). Cf. Bal.-Slav. *brēsk- from bhrēg-skin Lith. brékšta, bréško, brékšti ‘to break, (dawn), (as of the day)’, apūbrėškis ‘time around daybreak’; Slov. bresk, Cz. břesk, Pol. brzask ‘daybreak, dawn’, Pol. obrzasknąć ̨̂ ‘to become bright’, brzeszczy się ‘it dawns, the day breaks’, O.C.S. pobrězgъ ‘dawn, twilight, daybreak’, Russ. brezg, Pol. brzazg id. *[burullini] cg ‘seer, soothsayer’ SA <wu-ru-ul-li-ni> ‘devin, voyant’. *[butki] cg? ‘son’ EL putki <pu-ut-ki, wu-ú-ut-ki>. Subarean <pi-it-qu> *[pitku ?] < *bhu- [babytalk] ‘baby, child’ (IEW:91-92; 128-132). Cf. Oscan futír ‘daughter’ Letter/Phoneme */ts/ This phoneme is usually written #z-, -zz-, -ś- or -s-, which stand for affricates. Affricates seem to be very rare word-internally in the native Hurrian vocabulary. Note the following examples, possibly caused by a suffix -s-: *[itsuri] ‘runner’ [Cf. idd- ‘to go’] EL izuri <i-zu-u-ur>. Translates Akk. lāsimu ‘express messenger, scout’. In other examples the conditioning factor is a preceding -n- or -l-: *[arandzaH] ‘the Tigris River’ EL Aranzah <a-ra-an-za-ah>. Non native outlook.

Updated version (as of August 2010)

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[γindz-] cg ‘(intr.) to be constrained, to lack money; (tr.) to oppress, to constrain’ CA <hé-en-z/s-> . Derivative <hé-en-za/sà-a-d->. < *H2.2en- ‘without; away from, apart from’ (IEW:318) *[itkaldzi] cg ‘to sanctify, purify’ EL itkalzi <it-kal-zi>. Translates Hitt. suppi(y)ahh ‘to make holy, to sanctify’. < *yag-t- ‘holy, sacred’ (IEW:501). In some cases the affricate may originate in a sequence *-Hs-: *[xidzúγ] cg? ‘to anger, to vex’ EL hisuh <hi-su-(ú)-hu>. Translates Akkadian marāṣu. Non native phonetic outlook. < *H1eis- ‘anger’ (IEW:299): reduplication *H1iH1s- > *hidz- (?). *[pudziγ-] cg? ‘(tr.) to dip, soak into’ CA <pu-ú-sí-h->. Non native outlook. < *peH3- ‘to drink’ (IEW:839): *peH3-s- > *pudz- (?). Note the following items, possibly from the same non native source: *[andzannuγ-] lw? ‘to ask (?)’ EL anzannuh. Non native outlook. Cf. Akkadian anzanīnu ‘matchmaker’. *[tsudzuγi] lw? ‘pitcher’ EL zuzuhe <zu-zu-hé>. Var. zizzuḫi. Non native outlook. *[idzudzi] lw ‘spelt’ CA <i-zu-u-zi>. Non native outlook. Cf. Georgian zibziba ‘wheat’ and Sumerian ZIZ ‘emmer wheat’. Most affricates can be traced to Akkadian loanwords. Some apparently native cases originate in *s-t- > ts-, *H1s- > ts- or *bhs- > *ts-. *[tsabalgi] lw? ‘fault, blame’ EL zabalgi <za-bal-gi> < Akkadian zabiltu ‘betrayal’ (?) with native suffix -gi. *[tsalmi] lw ‘statue’ EL zalmi. < Akkadian ṣalmu ‘statue, image’. *[tsambaγunni] lw ‘butcher’ SA <za-am-ba-ḫu-un-ni> ‘boucher’. < Akkadian ṭabbiḫu. Note that the geminate becomes -mb-. *[tsamm-] cg? ‘to rip, tear apart’ CA <sà-am-m->. Intensive <sà-am-ma-la-aš-d->. < *s-tem- ‘to cut, chop’ (IEW:1062-3) with metathesis (?). *[tsammaru] lw ‘song’ EL zammaru <za-am-ma-rù>. < Akkadian zamāru ‘song, poem’. *[tsazul-] cg ‘to provide with food’ CA <sà-a-sú-(u)-l->. Intensive <sà-a-sú-(u)-lu-(u)-uš-t->. < *H1es- ‘harvest time’ (IEW:343). Cf. Germanic *azn- ‘to harvest, reap, earn’.

Updated version (as of August 2010)

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[tsärri] wd ‘donkey’ CA <se20-e-er-re-e>. Not attested with -i-. < wanderwort: Semitic *ˀatān, Latin asīnus. Hurrian may represent *Hs-än-(a)ri. *[tsijanni] ‘thigh’ SA <zi-ia-an-ni> ‘cuisse’. *[tsik-] cg? ‘to break’ CA <sí-ik-k->. Passive <sí-ik-ku-(ú)-l->. < *sek- (IEW:895) (?) or *skei- ‘to cut’ (IEW:919) with an irregular initial. Cf. tsilman-: another possibility is *bhes- ‘to rub, pulverize; sand’ (IEW:170), hence *bhs-ik- > tsik-. Cf. Greek ψώχω ‘to grind, pulverize’. *[tsillikuγli] cg? ‘witness’ EL zillikuhli. Translates Akkadian šību ‘witness, elder’. Words suffixed with -uhli usually are Akkadian loanwords. < *stel- ‘to stand’ (IEW:1019), hence ‘witness’ < ‘in charge of standing by sby’ (?) *[tsilman-] cg? ‘to break, destroy’ CA <sí-il5-ma-n->. < *bhes- ‘to rub, pulverize; sand’ (IEW:170). Cf. Greek ψώχω ‘to grind, pulverize’. *[tsindzabu] lw? ‘dove (?)’ [a bird dedicated to Ištar] EL zinzabu <zi-in-za-a-bu> (also zanzabu) < Akkadian summu ‘male dove’. The second part -zabu is obscure: from a reduplication *dzam-dzam or *dzim-dzam > zanzabu, zinzabu? *[tsijari] lw? ‘flank, side’ EL ziyari <zi-ya-ri> < Akkadian ṣēlu ‘side, rib, flank’ with some deformation of the original word. *[tsilumba] wd ‘date (fruit)’ EL <zi-lu-um-pa>. Cf. Sumerian ZULUM, Akkadian saluppu. Note that the geminate becomes -mb-. *[tsítsi] [P x-] cg? ‘breast, nipples’ EL zizzi <zi-iz-zi> <ze-(e)-zi> < *dheH1- ‘to breast-feed’ with a babytalk deformation. *[tsubalgi] lw? ‘loss, debit’ EL zubalgi <zu-bal-gi>. Translates Akkadian ṣītu = Sumerian ZI.GA. < Akkadian ezēbu ‘to leave, let go’ (?) with native suffixes -al-gi. *[tsugi] lw ‘small’ EL zugi <zu-gi>. Subarean hapax: EL hayani ‘small’. Non native outlook. < Akkadian ṣuḫīru ‘young’. *[tsugmust-] ‘to penetrate into’ CA <sú-uk-mu-uš-t>. Non native outlook. *[tsugulluγli] lw? ‘herd-keeper (?)’ EL zugulluhli. Words suffixed with -uhli usually are Akkadian loanwords. < Akkadian sagullu ‘herd’, rāˀi sagulli ‘a herder / herdsman’. *[tsú(b)lu-] lw? ‘to untie, let go’ EL zulud <zu-ú-lu->. Non native outlook. < Akkadian ezēbu ‘to leave, let go’ (?) with strong spirantization of -b-. *[tsuludu-mmi] ‘to unleash’ SA <zu-lu-du-um-mi> ‘délier’. Translates Akkadian paṭaru. Updated version (as of August 2010) 13

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[tsurgi] cg ‘blood’ EL zurgi <zu-úr-ki->. Cf. uzi <u-zi> ‘flesh’. < *H1es- ‘blood’ (IEW:343). Cf. Old Ind. ásṛk with the same kind of suffixation. *[tsuwadati] lw ‘a quarter of a kor’ CA <sú-wa-ta-at-te>. < Akkadian (Sg.) sūtu (Pl.) sūtāte ‘capacity of 10 qū (8 or 9 l)’. *[tsudzuγi] lw? ‘pitcher’ EL zuzuhe <zu-zu-hé>. Var. zizzuḫi. Non native outlook. Letter/Phoneme *d The phoneme */d/ is rare word-initially. The only words attested are loanwords and this suggests that Proto-Hurrian had lost any voiced initial #*d- > *t. *[dadmiz] lw ‘a Syrian god’ EL Dadmiš <Ta-ad-mi-iš> UG [d d m ḏ]. *[damgina] lw ‘spouse of Ea (of Sumerian origin)’ EL Damkina <dam-ki-na-aš> *[dumudzi] lw ‘the god Tammuz (of Sumerian origin)’ EL Dumuzi <(D)u-mu-z-> *[dakiti] lw ‘the goddess Daqiti’ EL Daru Dakitu. From the Semitic word dqt ‘small’. About the only word in Ugaritic script written with an emphatic letter [q]. Normally Hurrian -d- reflects *dh or *d, but note: *[azuγi] cg? ‘meal, eating-time’ CA <a-šu-(u)-hi>. Translates Hitt. adannaš meḫur. < *H1ed- ‘to eat’ (IEW:287) (?) with unclear change *d > -z-. Letter/Phoneme *e This “phoneme” /e/ is nearly impossible to establish with certainty. Most graphic cases seem to be either allophones of /a/ or possibly accented allophones of /i/. A few cases tend to show that /e/ was nevertheless a separate phoneme resulting from either *ay or *ya: *[eγew-s-] cg ‘to contract (a muscle)’ CA <e-hé-eb-š->. Passive <e-hé-ep-šu-ul->. Not attested with <#i->. < *yeH1gw- ‘(muscular) force, energy’ (IEW:503) with -h- apparently from -H1g-. *[Øeźi] [P x-] cg? ‘earth, ground’ EL eše <e-še> UG [Õ š]. UR <eši>. < *yes- ‘earth, ground’(?). Cf. Latin insula ‘island’ and Kassite yaš ‘land, ground’. *[Øeman] lw? ‘ten’ EL eman <e-ma-ni>. Derivatives: eman-am- ‘to multiply tenfold’ ; emanamha ‘tenfold’ ; emandi ‘decuria’ ; emanduhlu ‘decurion’ ; CA <e-em-ma-an-zé/se20-> ‘tenth’. < Semitic *yaman ‘right hand’ with a particular semantic shift. Cf. Akkadian manū ‘to count’. Or a deep cognate? *[tesub] cg ‘Teššub’ EL Teššub <Te-eš-šu-ub> UG (Nom) [t ṯ b] UG (Gen) Teššub-bi [t ṯ p]. Updated version (as of August 2010) 14

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language UR <teeišebaa> Assyrian <te-és-su-ub> < *dey(w)-sewbh ‘sky-storm’ (IEW:183-187 & 914-5). Potential examples of graphic <e> standing for /e/ are: *[ˀeb(i)ri] [P -3] cg? ‘lord, king’ EL ewri <e-wi-ri> UG [Õ w r]. Translates Ug. malku, bâluma and Akkadian malku ‘king’, bēlu ‘master, ruler’. The synonym šarri is an Akkadian loanword and ewri possibly is an Akkadian loanword as well: abāru ‘strong, solid’. Borrowed in Georgian as [ivri] and (less probably) in Armenian as [awrear]. The Armenian word can also be explained as Indo-European according to Diakonov (1971). Derivatives ewrardi ‘seigneurie’ ; ewriššihi ‘royal’. UR <euri, erele> < *a-bur-i ‘strong’. Cf. Hurrian buru. *[éγ(i)li] [P -3] cg ‘safe ; to save (sby's life)’ EL eh(e)li. Translates Akk. šuzubu/eṭeru ‘to save a person’. UR <ulh> (?) < *yeH2.2-k- ‘to heal’ (IEW:503). The laryngeal cannot be H1. Cf. Greek ἄκος n. ‘cure’, ἀκέοµαι ‘to cure’. *[Øeja] lw ‘the god Ea’ EL Eya <e(y)-a> UG [Õ j]. From Sumerian. Frequent qualificatives: ḫazzizi ‘intelligent’, madi ‘wise’, šarri ‘lord’. *[elami] lw ‘Elam’ EL Elami <e-la-mi-ne>. Not attested with <#i->. *[elgi] ‘beautiful decorations’ CA <e-el-ki> NEU <e-il-ki/ga->. *[ellil] lw ‘the god En-lil = Kumarbi’ EL Ellil UG [Õ l l]. From Sumerian. *[eman] ‘ten’ EL <e-ma-ni>. Unclear genetic relationship with Semitic *yaman ‘right hand’. Cf. nariya. *[epxi] cg ‘oven’ CA <e-ep-hé-e>. Not attested with <#i->. < *H1ep- ‘to cook’ (IEW:325). *[endan] (partial) lw ‘(high) priest’ EL endanni. The connection with ēnitu ‘(fem.) priest’ of Sumerian origin is unclear. < äni- ‘god’ + tan- ‘to do’. *[éni] [P x-] lw ‘god, deity’ EL eni <e-ni-> UG [Õ n]. UR <in> Subarean e-ne ‘god’. Derivative: en-umašši ‘lord of strength’ [also written with initial ú- (!)]. < Akkadian äni- ‘god’ + Hurrian tan- ‘to do’. From Sumerian AN ‘sky’. *[eradi] cg ‘bird’ SA <i-ra-te>. Translates Akkadian iṣ-ṣū-ru. < *H1er- ‘(large) bird’ (IEW:325). *[eribuski] cg ‘the name of the Golden Eagle of Teššub’ EL eribuški. Not attested with <#i->. < *H1er- ‘(large) bird’ (IEW:325). *[esi] lw ‘horse (?)’ EL ešši. Cf. aššuššanni ‘horse-trainer’. < Possibly from Indo-Iranian. Cf. Hebrew sus <*tsuts (?) Updated version (as of August 2010) 15

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[ewuru] lw ‘heir’ EL ewuru. Cf. Hittite iwaru- ‘gift, inheritance, dowry’. *[ezabi] cg ‘on the other side’ CA <i-ša-a-we; e-ša-a-bé-e>. < *H2.1e-so-bhi (IEW:978). *gho was a near deictic and *so a distant deictic. Letters/Phonemes *g and *γ These phonemes are not attested word-initially in coherence with the absence of voiced initials in historically attested Hurrian. *[gisxi] lw ‘throne’ This loanword of Sumerian origin is hurrianized with -hi: gu.za-hi > *gisxi. This word seems to be adapted in Hurrian under several forms: *[kisxi], *[gisxi] and *[xisxi]. Ugaritic may attest both [k h h] and [g h h] while KUB XV 34 IV 52 is <hi-iš-hi-ya>. Note the sound law *H1g > -h-: *[buruγli-] cg ‘east (or less probably south)’ EL wuruhli <wu/bu-ru-uh-li> < *bhreH1ğ- ‘to be bright’ (IEW:139-40, 41-42). Cf. Bal.-Slav. *brēsk- from bhrēg-sk- in Lith. brékšta, bréško, brékšti ‘to break, (dawn), (as of the day)’, apūbrėškis ‘time around daybreak’; Slov. bresk, Cz. břesk, Pol. brzask ‘daybreak, dawn’, Pol. obrzasknąć ‘to ̨̂ become bright’, brzeszczy się ‘it dawns, the day breaks’, O.C.S. pobrězgъ ‘dawn, twilight, daybreak’, Russ. brezg, Pol. brzazg id., *[eγew-s-] cg ‘to contract (a muscle)’ CA <e-hé-eb-š->. Passive <e-hé-ep-šu-ul->. Not attested with <#i->. < *yeH1gw- ‘(muscular) force, energy’ (IEW:503) with -h- apparently from -H1g-. Irregular spirantization in the following words: *[nax-] cg? ‘to sit, to lie’ CA <na-ah-h->. < possibly *legh- ‘to lie, lay’ (IEW:658) with irregular phonetic development. *[suγni] [P -3] cg ‘wall’ CA <šu-uh-ni>. < *dheigh- ‘to knead or paste clay’ (IEW:244): *dhoigh- > *dūg- > duγ- with unexpected spirantization. Letter/Phoneme *x <h> (and *γ) Normally, this phoneme reflects *H2.2 (i.e *H4). There are two instances of initial loss of *H3. *[malazi] cg? ‘bitter(ness)’ SA <ma-la-še> ‘amer’. Translates Akkadian marāru. < PIE *H3em- ‘bitter’ (IEW:777-8). Attested with -lo- or -ro- suffixes. *[nigali] cg ‘thin’ SA <ni-ga-le> ‘maigre’. < *legwh- ‘light, having little weight’ (IEW:660). [-w- can be a suffix] or maybe better *(H3)leig- ‘poor, few’ (IEW:667) . Updated version (as of August 2010) 16

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language

*[γá-] [P x-] cg? ‘to take ; to capture (animal)’ EL hai- <ha-a-i>. UR <ha(i)-> < *H2.2ey- ‘to give, take’ (IEW:10-11). Cf. Greek Gr. αἴνυµαι ‘to take’. *[Habalgi] wd? ‘iron’ EL habalgi <ha-bal-gi>. Cf. Hattic habalgi and Hurrian hiyari, hapte and hubrušhi. < *H2.2ew-s- ‘gold’ in Latin aurum. Possibly all wanderworts. *[γaban-] cg? ‘to set moving’ CA <ha-pa-a-n->. Cf. hawšar-. < *H2.2ew- ‘away, off’ (IEW:72-73). *[xatsitsi] or [xa(d)zi(d)zi] lw ‘intelligence, wit’ EL hazzizzi/hasisi. UG [ḫ z z y]. CA <ha-(as)-sí-(is)-sí>. < Akkadian ḫasīsu ‘ear, intelligence, wit’. Typical non native affricate. *[Had-] cg? ‘to kill’ EL had- <ha-ad-> < H2.2ed- ‘to cut, kill’ (?). Cf. Armenian hatanem ‘to cut’, hat ‘piece, cut, slice’. *[Haγli] lw? ‘cheek ?’ EL hahli. < Semitic *liḥay ‘cheek’ > Akkadian lētu. Hurrian looks like an archaic variant form. *[Haigalli] lw ‘palace’ CA <ha-(a)-i-kal-li>. Neu (1988) posits *ḫikali. < Sumero-Akkadian e-gal(lu) ‘palace = big house’. Hurrian is phonetically conservative. *[xalba] lw? ‘the town Alep’ EL halba <hal-pa> UG [x l b]. Derivative: halbahi. *[xaldzi] lw ‘district’ EL halzi <hal-zi> CA <hal-zé-e>. Derivative: CA <hal-zu-u-uh-li> ‘district governor’. < Akkadian ḫalṣu ‘fortress, district’. Typical non native affricate. *[Halli] ‘sweet (like honey) (?)’ SA <ha-al-li>. Insecure translation of Akkadian dašpu <ta-aš-pu>. *[Halmi] cg? ‘song’ EL halmi. Translates Akkadian zamāru ‘song’. < *(H)leH- ‘to sing, praise’ (IEW:683). Initial laryngeal not attested in Latin laudāre ‘to praise’ and OHG liud ‘song’ but note Gaulish alauda ‘lark’ (< singing bird?). *[Halwu] cg? ‘fence made with stones’ EL halwu. < *leH1u ‘stone’ (IEW:683) with metathesis (?). *[Hamadz-] lw ‘to oppress; to load somebody excessively’ CA <ha-ma-dz/s-> < Akkadian ḫamāṣu ‘to (op)press’. Typical non native affricate. *[γan-] cg? ‘to bear (a child), to beget’ EL han <ha-na->. Derivative: hanuma/i- ‘fertile (?)’; hani ‘child’. < *H2.2en- in Hittite ¯a-aš-ša-aš ‘progeny, issue, offspring, descendant’ < *Høons-o-s (cf. Melchert 1994:163). *[xanixi] lw ‘Hanean’ EL haniahhe <ha-ni-a->. Cf. Akkadian ḫanū. Ethnic adjective. *[xapti / xabdi] wd? ‘bracelet, bangle’ SA <ha-ap-te> ‘bracelet’. Translates Akkadian šemuru. Updated version (as of August 2010) 17

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language < from the same origin as habalgi and hubrušhi (?). Non native outlook: the suffixes -ti or -di are normally preceded by a vowel. *[Hári] [P x-] lw ‘road’ EL hari <ha-a-ri>. UR <hare> < Akkadian ḫarrānu ‘road; journey, caravan’. The last syllable probably was mistaken by Hurrian speakers to be the Hurrian Definite article -ni, -nna and removed. *[xati] lw ‘Hatti’ EL hatti <Ha-at-ti>. *[xatúγi] [P -2] lw ‘Hittite’ EL hattuhi < Hatti. Ethnic adjective. *[γawirni] cg ‘lamb’ CA <ha-wi-ir-ni> = SI.LA4. < *H2.2ew- ‘sheep’ (IEW:784). *[γawsar-] cg ‘to be constantly walking’ CA <ha-ab-ša-a-r->. Cf. haban-. < *H2.2ew- ‘away, off’ (IEW:72-73). *[γawurni] [P -3] cg? ‘sky’ [as opposed to eše ‘earth’] EL hawurni <ha-bur-n> UG [x w r n] The word UR <qiuraanee> is probably unrelated. < *H2.2ew-g/s- ‘to shine, to be bright’ (IEW:86-87). *[Haz-] [P x-] cg? ‘(1) to hear’ EL haš- UR <hašu> UG [x d]. UR <haž> Derivatives: hašaš- [P -x] ‘intensive (?)’ ; hašul- [P x-] ‘Passive’. < *Hes- ‘to perceive’. Latin Hs-ent-io ‘to feel’. *[xaź-] [P x-] lw ‘(2) to oil’ CA <ha-(a)-š->. < Akkadian ḫašāšu ‘to apply (oil, salve, etc.), to plaster (wall) with clay’ *[Háźari] [P x-]1 ‘(1) (fine) oil ; (2) excrement’ CA <ha-(a)-ša-ri-> UG [x ś r]. < at least one of the meaning is borrowed. *[xadzijani] lw ‘town mayor’ CA <ha-zi-ya-ni>. < Akkadian ḫazannu ‘chief magistrate of a town, mayor’. Typical non native affricate. *[xebat] [P x-] lw ‘the goddess Hebat’ EL hebat <he-bat> UG [x b t] Carian <x b d> (?). Not attested with <i>. UR <hubaa>. < Semitic hawwat ‘Eve’. Hurrian is attested with or without final -t. Normally native words cannot end with a stop. *[γejari] [P x-] cg? ‘all’ EL heyari <he-e-ya-ar-> . Plural heyarunna = Hitt. ḫumant- ‘whole, all, every’. < *H2.2ey- ‘one’ (IEW:286) with a particular semantic shift. *[Hijari] cg ‘gold’ EL hiyari <hi-ya-ar-ri> UG [h j r (h)]. Derivative: CA <hé-ya-ru-uh-hi> ‘made with gold’. Subarean aarahi ‘gold‘ ; hiaru, hiarohhe ‘golden’ < *H2.2ey-os ‘copper’ (IEW:15). Cf. Akkadian ḫurāḫu and Sanskrit híraṇya-m ‘gold’.
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There is an instance of Erg. <ha-ša-a-re-eš> but all other instances have plene writing on the first syllable. The two meanings may have a different accent pattern.

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[Hil-] cg? ‘to speak’ EL hil <hi-il-li>. Translates Akkadian qabū ‘to say, to speak, to tell’. CA <ḫé-la-a> (Essive) ‘gloriously’; CA <he-e-lu-u-wa> (Dat. Sg.) ‘for glory’. < *H(3)eH- ‘to speak’ (IEW:781). Cf. Latin ōmen with the unsuffixed root. *[γild-] cg ‘high’ EL heldi <hi-il-da-e> UG [x l d]. Translates Akkadian šatqū ‘raised, elevated’. < *H2.2el-t- ‘to grow’ (IEW:26-27). Latin altus ‘high’. *[Himdz-atxuzi] lw? ‘(extensively) girded’ CA <hi-im-za/sà-at-hu-u-ši>. The unattested stem would be himz- ‘belt’. Non native phonetic outlook. < Akkadian ‘girded five times’ (?) *[xínni] cg ‘now’ EL henni <hé-en-ni>. UR <hene> < *H1.2en-nu ‘now’ (IEW:770) *[γindz-] cg ‘(intr.) to be constrained, to lack money; (tr.) to oppress, to constrain’ CA <hé-en-z/s-> . Derivative <hé-en-za/sà-a-d->. < *H2.2en- ‘without; away from, apart from’ (IEW:318) *[γindzá] cg ‘lacking money’ CA <hé-en-za/sà-a>. Also <hé-en-za/sà-du> ‘oppressed, uncomfortable’. *[γindzidi] cg ‘want, need’ CA <hi-in-zi/sí-ti> *[Hindzuri] wd ‘apple’ EL hinzuri <hi-in-zu-ru>. Cf. Armenian xnjor. Obscurely related to Sumero-Akkadian ḫašḫūru, šaḫšūru ‘apple’. *[Herári] ‘sinew, nerve (or upper-arm (?)’ CA <hé-(e)-ra-a-ri>. Not attested with <-i->. *[Híri] cg? ‘hour, time, moment’ CA <hi-i-ri> < *H2.2ey-w- ‘age, lifetime; for ever’ (IEW:17). Cf. hišna-. *[Hiríti] lw ‘trench’ CA <hí-ri-i-ti> < Akkadian ḫarū ‘to dig’ *[Hiuri] cg?? ‘smoke’ SA <hi-ú-ri>. < very tentatively *H1eu-s- ‘to burn’ (IEW:347) (?). Cf. hummi. *[Hizali] ‘naked’ CA <hé-ša-a-li>. Not attested with <-i->. A connection with *bhes- ‘naked’ would require a misreading of cuneiform. *[Hizi] ‘millstone’ SA <hi-še>. Translates Akkadian arū. *[Hizli] ‘wound up, coiled’ EL hešli <hé-iš-la-e>. Translates Akkadian qannunu ‘curled, coiled, convoluted’. *[Hezmí] [P -x (?)] cg? ‘clear, bright’ EL hešmi <hi-iš-mi> UG [x ḏ m]. Translates Akkadian napāḫu ‘to be bright’. < *H2.2es- ‘to burn, glow’ (IEW:68) (?). Cf. M.Irish ān ‘ablaze, bright’ < *ās-no-. *[hizna] cg ‘permanent, true’ SA <hi-iš-na-> ‘durable, vrai’. Translates Akkadian kīnu ‘permanent’, kēnu ‘true’. < *H2.2ey-w- ‘age, lifetime; for ever’ (IEW:17). Cf. hiri. Updated version (as of August 2010) 19

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[xidzúγ] cg? ‘to anger, to vex’ EL hisuh <hi-su-(ú)-hu>. Translates Akkadian marāṣu. Non native phonetic outlook. < *H1eis- ‘anger’ (IEW:299): reduplication *H1iH1s- > *hidz- (?). *[Hub-] cg? ‘to break’ EL hub <hu-u-bu->. CA <hu-bu/wu-uš-t-> ‘to smash, destroy’ < *weH2- ‘to wound, damage’ (IEW:1108). Cf. Greek Gr. ἀάω, οὐτάω ‘to wound’. Akkadian ḫabāšu ‘to break, to chop; to be shattered’ cannot explain unsuffixed hub-. *[Hubidi] [P x- ?] cg? ‘calf’ EL hubidi <hu-(u)-bi-ti>. Translates AMAR-ti. Cf. Albanian vitsh, Latin vitulus ‘calf’ usually considered < *wet- ‘year’ (IEW:1175). *[xubrusxi] [P x-] wd? ‘melting pot’ EL hubrušhi <hu-ub-ru-uš-hi>. A derivative of hub(u)ri [P -3] ‘a kind of material’. Cf. Hittite DUGhubuwai and Greek –βρυζα ‘assaying of gold’. Cf. hapte and habalgi. *[xud-] cg ‘to praise, to magnify’ EL hud <hu-u-tu-> UG [x d š]. Used in theophoric names: Huti-b-Teššub, Hut-Teššub. The goddesses Hudena and Hudellurra (< Hude-lluri-na), in charge of birth and fate, may be derivatives of that root. Laroche suggests to interpret -lluri- as -liluri- (a wife of Teššub in the Kizzuwatna) but this word is written <hu-ti-il-lu-hu-ur-ra>. < *H2.2ew-g- ‘to increase’ (IEW:84) (?). *[xummi] cg?? ‘hearth, altar’ CA <hu-u-um-mi>. < very tentatively *H1eu-s- ‘to burn’ (IEW:347) (?). Cf. hiuri. *[xuradi] lw ‘soldier’ EL huradi <hu-ra-ti>. Attested in Hurrian with two prosodic patterns: that of Akkadian *[xurádi] [P -2] and the native [xúradi] [P x-]. UR <huradie> < Akkadian ḫurādu ‘soldier’. *[huri] ‘lap, loin’ SA <hu-ri> ‘giron, sein’. Translates Akkadian sūnu ‘lap, loin’. *[xurri] cg ‘night, morning’ DI hurri. < *H2.2ew- ‘to spend the night, sleep’ (IEW:72). Cf. Greek ἰαύω ‘to sleep’, ἄωρος (Sappho), ὦρος (Kallimachos) = ὕπνος ‘sleep’; Armenian aganim ‘to spend the night’, aut ‘overnight rest, stop’. *[xurrúγi]/*[xuruwúγi] [P -2] ‘Hurrian’ EL hurruhe <hur-ru-u-he> UG [x r ġ]. *[xúruwwi] ‘rhyton’ EL <hu-(u)-ru-up-pí>, CA <hu-ú-ru-ub-we>. Non native phonetic outlook. *[xu(w)z-] cg ‘to bind, attach’ CA <hu-(ú)-š->. Cf. the series of synonyms *wedh ‘to bind, attach’ (IEW:1116-1117), *weg ‘to weave, bind’ (IEW:1117) and *wer ‘to bind, attach’ (IEW:1150-1151): Greek ἀείρω ‘to bind, join’, συνήορος (Hom.), συνᾱορος (Pind.). < *H2.2ew- ‘to weave’ (IEW:75-76) < original meaning ‘to bind, attach’ (?) *[xuzaurudi] lw? ‘jail’ EL hušauruti <hu-ša-ú-ru-ti>. < Maybe a compound including Semitic √ḫ_b_š ‘jail’(?). Updated version (as of August 2010) 20

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language Letter/Phoneme *i (and *e) It is possible that the graphemes <i> and <e> stand for [ˀi] and [i] in initial position. A tentative distinction is therefore possible. Some words are only attested with <e> and may have /ä/ or /e/ as initial. *[ija]/[iji] cg ‘which’ EL ya/ye <i-ya->. Often used with andi. Derivative: yame-, yeme- ‘anyone’. Translates Hittite Kuitkuit, Akk. minummē ‘whatever, everything, all’. < *yo- ‘pronoun’ (IEW:281). *[itsuri] cg ‘runner’ [Cf. idd- ‘to go’] EL izuri <i-zu-u-ur>. Translates Akk. lāsimu ‘express messenger, scout’. With a strange development -t- > -ts- (suffix -s-?). *[íd] cg ‘toward’ EL ed UG [Õ d] < *H1idh-i ‘yonder’(IEW:281). Possibly a local case of *H1i-. *[id-] ‘to break’ CA <i-t-> *[Øídi] [P >] lw? ‘body, person’ EL edi <i-ti> UG [Õ d]. Translates Akk. pagru ‘body’. UR <edi> < Akkadian idu ‘side’ (?). *[ígi] cg? ‘inside, in’ EL egi <e-gi / i-ki> UG [Õ g] < H1i-gh-i ‘therein’ (?). Possibly a local case of *H1i-. *[iγibini] lw ‘the town Heliopolis Ywnw’ EL Ihibeni. This word should have some relationship with the Egyptian name Ywnw but the phonetics does not match. < Egyptian. *[indara] lw ‘the god Indra’ EL <in-da-ra, in-tar>. From Indo-Iranian. < Mitanni Aryan *indar. *[inna] cg ‘at some time ; when’ EL inna- CA <i-in-na>. < *H1i-nna (IEW:281). Possibly a local case of *H1i-. *[inni] cg ‘strength, energy, lifeblood’ SA <in-ni> ‘sexe, force vitale, énergie’. Translates Akkadian baštu. < *yew-n- ‘young’ (IEW:510). *[inu] cg ‘as’ EL inu(me). < *H1i-n- (IEW:281). Possibly a local case of *H1i-. *[irdi] lw ‘chest’ EL <ir-ti>. < Akkadian irtu ‘chest’. *[irsapa] lw ‘the Cananean god Rešef (= Nergal)’ EL <dIr-ša-ap-pa>, UG [i r t p] with prothetic #i-. *[irwisu] lw? ‘tax’ EL irwiššu. Translates Akkadian ilqu. < Akkadian erbe ‘four’ (?), hence Hurrian irwiššu ‘one fourth’. Updated version (as of August 2010) 21

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[isxarini] ‘cook’ EL išharini. Translates Akkadian nuḫatimu. *[ispa(n)ti] lw ‘quiver’ EL išpa(n)ti. < Akkadian išpatu ‘quiver, bow case’. *[istáni] cg ‘among, between’ EL ištani. < *H1i-s-to-ni (IEW:281). Possibly a local case of *H1i-. *[isti(:)] cg ‘P1 Sg., me’ [in Absolutive case] EL ište <iš-te> < *H1e-g(h)- (IEW:291) *[it-] cg (1) ‘to go’ [as opposed to un- ‘to come’] (< *H÷ey-) EL idd- <id-du> *[it-] (2) ‘to get dressed’ CA <it-t-> *[itkaldzi] cg ‘to sanctify, purify’ EL itkalzi <it-kal-zi>. Translates Hitt. suppi(y)ahh ‘to make holy, to sanctify’. < *yag- ‘holy, sacred’ (IEW:501). *[itku] cg ‘sacred’ EL itki <it-ga/gu> < *yag- ‘holy, sacred’ (IEW:501) with metathesis (-gt- > tk). *[itkul] cg ‘to purify oneself’ EL itkul- <it-ku-ul-> *[ˀizas] cg ‘P1Sg, me’ [in Ergative case] EL išaš <i-ša-aš->. UR <ieše> < *H1e- (IEW:291) with *s- instead of *g(h)-. *[izena] lw ‘rain’ SA <i-še-na> ‘pluie(s), ruissellements, écoulements’ < Akkadian zunnu ‘rain’ and zanānu ‘to rain, fall as dew’. Hurrian seems to reflect a feminine word in -at(u). *[izikun] cg ‘to wail, cry out’ CA <i-ši-ik-ku-un-n-> < *sekw ‘to say’ (IEW:897) with a strange initial #i-. *[(i)zuγni] wd? ‘silver’ [NEU 1988]. Cf. ušhuni. Cf. Akkadian zūzu ‘gold’, Hebrew zahab. *[idzudzi] lw ‘spelt’ CA <i-zu-u-zi>. Non native outlook. Cf. Georgian zibziba ‘wheat’ and Sumerian ZIZ ‘emmer wheat’. Cf. SA <ut-te> ‘épeautre’. *[izaduγli] lw ‘harvester’ < Akkadian e[ēdu ‘harvesting, harvest’. Without affricate in Hurrian. Letter/Phoneme *k *[kab(a)li] wd? ‘copper’ CA <ka-(a)-bal-li>. Cf. Greek Κύπρος ‘Cyprus’ > cuprum ‘copper’. Updated version (as of August 2010) 22

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[katsi] lw ‘mug, cup’ CA <ka-a-(as)-sí>. Non native phonetic outlook. < Akkadian kāsu ‘cup, bowl’. *[kad-] cg? ‘to say’ EL kad- <ka-(a)-ti->. Derivatives: CA <ka-ti-il->, <ka4-du-ul->, <ka4-tul->. < unclear relationship with *gwet- ‘to speak’ (IEW:480-481). *[kadí] [P -x] cg? ‘grain, cereal’ EL kade <ka-te>. < unclear relationship with *gherzda ‘barley’ (IEW:446). *[kadiγ] cg ‘to fall (?)’ EL kadih <ka-ti-hi>. < *kad- ‘to fall’ (IEW:516) *[kakari] [P x-] cg? ‘sort of ritual bread’ EL kakkari. CA <ka4-ak-ka4-ri>. < *pekw-, *kekw- ‘to cook’ (IEW:798). *[kalgamizu] lw ‘Gilgamesh’ EL Galgamiš <gal-ga-mi-šu>. *[kalgi] cg ‘weak’ EL kalgi <ga-al-gi>. Translates Ug. dallu. < possibly *kel- ‘to strike, to wound, to injure’ (IEW:545-6): Gothic halts ‘lame’; Old English healt ‘lame, limping’, Old High German halz ‘lame’. *[kammi] lw? ‘a kind of bird’ CA <ka-(a)-(am)-mé-(e)>. < Sumerian gamgam ‘an (unidentified) bird’ *[kap-] ‘to fill up (with a liquid)’ CA <ga/ka-ap-p->. *[karí] [P -x] ‘bird-catcher’ CA <ga/ka-re-e>. *[karkarni] cg? ‘a sort of weapon’ UR <qarqarani> ‘armour’. < *s-ker- (IEW:938-947): Greek κώρυκος ‘leather-bag’, Latin corium ‘leather’, OE skrūd n. = aisl. skrūð n. ‘piece of clothes’ *[karubi] cg ‘cellar, granary’ EL karubi <ka-ru-bi>. Translates Akkadian išpikū ‘storage bin or jar’. < *gṛH-(no)- ‘grain’ (IEW:391). *[kazáli] [P -2]2 ‘sens inconnu’. Often used with šehali ‘pure’. EL kaš(a)li <ga-(a)-ša-a-li>. *[kazijari] ‘high mountains of the Mesopotamia valley’ EL Gašiyari. This word may be the basis for Kassite, Kaška, etc. ethnonyms. *[kib-] cg? ‘to put, set’ EL ki(b)- <ki-bu-, ki-um-> , EL <ki-e-en> ‘deposit’ (=Akk. šuknu) <ki-ba-šu> ‘he put’ ; <ki-ba-ša-la> ‘they put’ < unclear relationship with *ghebh- ‘to give, receive’ (IEW:407). *[kiban-] cg? ‘to bring’ EL giban <gi-pa-a-nu> [factitive of *ki(b)-].

2

<ga-a-aš-la> should be another word.

Updated version (as of August 2010)

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[kebli] cg ‘hunter’ CA <ke-(e)-eb-li>. Not attested with <-i->. < *kap- ‘to seize, capture’ (IEW:527) *[kitsuwadnaγi] lw ‘Kizzuwatnian’ EL Kizzuwatnahi. Ethnic adjective. *[kig-] ‘three’ EL kig-. CA <ki-i-ki-e> ‘the three’; CA <ki-i-gi nu-bi> ‘30 000’; <ki-qa-ta-e> ‘in groups of three’; <ki-ki-nu-še> ‘a third’ (< litt. ‘which is caused to be three’); <ki-ka-e> ‘three times’. Cf. Etruscan ki ‘three’. *[käl-] cg? ‘to be fit, in good shape; to be satisfied’ CA <ke/ge-(e)-l->. < possibly *gal- ‘to be able’ (IEW:351); and *geH2-u- ‘to rejoice’ (IEW:353). *[kil-] cg ‘(intr.) to rise, go up; (tr.) to raise, to hoist’ CA <ki/gi-l->. Derivatives: CA <ki-la-a-n-> (caus.) ‘to cause to rise’; CA <ge-le-ge-l-(eeš-t-> (rare redupl.) ‘to raise, hoist’. < *kel- ‘(vb.) to lift, to raise, to elevate; (n.) hill’ (IEW:544). *[käldi] cg? ‘health’ EL keldi <ge-el-te> UG [k l d]. *[kinaxi] lw? ‘purple ; red’ EL kinahhi <ki-na-ah-he->. Possibly an ethnic adjective. *[kir-] ‘to make free, emancipate’ CA <ki-(i)-r->. *[kir-] cg ‘eight’ < *ghes-or- ‘hand’ (IEW:447). *[kirindzi] ‘emancipation’ NEU <ki-re-en-zi>. Translates Akkadian andurāru ‘emancipation (of private slaves)’ and Hittite parā tarna- ‘to let loose, to let out’. *[kirarni] lw? ‘base, foundation’ CA <ki-ra-ar-ni>. Cf. Akkadian qaqqaru ‘ground , earth’, karāru ‘to lay (foundations)’. *[kirγi] cg ‘upper city walls’ CA <ki-ir-hé>. Cf. Hurrian adašši. < *kerH2.2- ‘uppermost part (of anything): horn, head, skull, crown of head; tip, top, summit, peak; horned animal’ (IEW:574-577) or *gher- ‘to enclose (garden, town)’ (IEW:442). *[kir-] cg ‘long’ EL keri <ke-e-ri>. Derivatives: EL kirul- *[kirul-] ‘to become long’; EL kirašul*[kirazul-] ‘to become long’. Cf. Latin grand, *ghreH1- ‘to grow’ (IEW:454). *[kir] cg ‘eight’ < *ghesor- ‘hand’ (IEW:447). *[kireti] cg ‘finger’ < *ghesor- ‘hand’ (IEW:447). *[kirzi] cg ‘long, lengthened’ EL kirši. Cf. Latin grand, *ghreH1- ‘to grow’ (IEW:454). Updated version (as of August 2010) 24

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[kewira-nna] (pl.) ‘the senate, the Old Men’ EL/CA <LÚmeš ke-e-wi-ir-ra-na>. Not attested with <-i->. This word is reminiscent of Quirinus < *co-wirinos. *[kidza(ki)] lw ‘forecourt’ SA <ki-sa-[xx]> ‘cour’. Translates Akkadian kisallu. *[kubaγi] [P x-] wd? ‘kind of hood, belonging to Teššub’ EL kuwahi <ku-(ú)-wa/pa-hi>. Cf. Hebrew kôβaˁ ‘helmet’, Greek κύµβαχος ‘helmet’, and Hittite kupaḫi- ‘headgear, headcloth’. *[kud-] cg? ‘(intr.) to fall; (tr.) to kill, to make fall’ CA <ku-(ú)-t/d->. Cf. kadih- ‘to fall’. *[kuduni] ‘neck’ *[kul-] cg ‘to say’ EL gul- <gu-li->. (Iterative) CA <ku-lu-u/ú-ri>. < *g¦el- ‘to call out, to cry out’. Cf. Greek âëç÷Þ (Doric âëá÷#) (< *g¦l-ā- < *g¦l-eHø-) ‘a bleating, the wailing of children’; Old High German klaga ‘cries of pain; complaint, lament, lamentation, grievance’. *[kul-] cg? ‘to leave aside, to stop sth’ CA <ku-u-l->. < Possibly *kwel- ‘to bring to an end’ (IEW:640). *[kumarbi] ‘the God Kumarbi’ EL <ku(m)-mar-bi>, UG [k m r b/w]. Possibly a native compound *Kum-wi-erbi ‘Lord of Kummi’. *[kumdi] ‘tower’ Ca <kum-ti>. Non native phonetic outlook. < unclear relationship with Akkadian gigūnu ‘temple tower’ < Sumerian. *[kumi(H)ni] ‘other name of Teššub’ EL kummeni <ku-um-me-e-ne>. *[kundari] cg? ‘place where Gods live’ EL kundari <ku-un-ta-ri> < *kwen- ‘holy’ (IEW:630). *[kundz-] cg ‘to kneel, to bow down’ CA <ku-un-z/s-> Carian <q n dz>. < *genu- ‘knee’ (IEW:380) *[kuraxi] ‘dapifer, sby who serves food’ CA <ku-ra-ah-hi>. *[kuru] cg ‘anew, once again’ EL guru <gu-ru>. Adverbial form with ending -u#. < *k¦er- (IEW:641-642). Cf. Welsh pryd (< *k¦3tu-) ‘time’; Oscan -pert in petiro-pert ‘four times’; Sanskrit -k0t ‘…time(s)’ in sa-k1t ‘once’. *[gurumadi] cg ‘ration of food’ SA <ku-ru-ma-ti>. < *gwer- ‘to swallow’ (IEW:474). *[ku(d)z(u)γ] cg? ‘Moon-god’ EL kušuh <ku-zu-h, ku-šu-h> UG [k ḏ/z ġ]. The writing of Kušuh in Ugaritic is unstable, [kdġ] and [kzġ], which can be interpreted as a sign that this name may be a loanword; cf. the multiple writings of kešhi ‘throne’ (< Sumerian) in Ugaritic: initial [k-], [g-], [ġ-]. A Updated version (as of August 2010) 25

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language possibility exists with PIE *kwen- ‘holy’: *kw‚-sH- > Kuš(u)h- ‘the one who makes holy (?)’. Cf. Gmc. *hunslam > Eng. housel. *[kudzuz] cg? ‘to keep, retain’ EL kuz- <ku-dzu-u-šu>. Cf. Latin custos, odis ‘guard’ < *kust- (?) < *keu- ‘to hide, cover’ (IEW:952). Letter/Phoneme *l The native vocabulary of Hurrian does not display initial #l-. Loanwords normally receive a prothetic vowel. *[alibzi] lw ‘brick’ CA <a-li-ip-ši>. The initial #a- is prothetic. < Akkadian libittu ‘mudbrick’ < labānu ‘to mould bricks’ Letter/Phoneme *m *[-ma(n)] cg (enclitic) ‘and’ EL ma UG [m] < *-me: Hittite (enclitic) -ma ‘however, but, and’; Greek (Thessalian) µά = δέ ‘but’ *[-mma] cg (enclitic) ‘P2 Sg., you’ Reinforced form of bi ‘P2 Sg., thou’ < *me/o ‘deictic’: Welsh ýma ‘here’; Breton ma, man ‘here’; Cornish ma ‘here’ ˉ *[mad-] cg ‘to show wisdom, to be wise’ CA <ma-a-t-> Carian <m d>. Intensive CA <ma-a-ta-aš-t->. < *med- ‘to measure; to estimate, to reckon’ (IEW:705-706). *[madi] cg ‘wisdom, intelligence’ (< *mod-) EL madi <ma-a-ti>. Translates Hitt. ḫattatar. Also used as a verb mad- . *[maganni] lw ‘gift, present’ EL maganni <ma-ka-an-ni> UG [m g n] Carian <m g nn>. Doubtfully a Semitic loanword and most probably Indo-Iranian: Cf. Skrt maghá. *[magunni] cg ‘desire, need’ EL magunni <ma-gu-un>. Cf. mugni. < *magh- ‘to be able’ (IEW:695): Cf. German mögen for similar semantic shift. *[maxiri] lw ‘market’ EL mahiri <ma-ah-he-er->. < Akkadian mahīru ‘market place’. *[malazi] cg? ‘bitter(ness)’ SA <ma-la-še> ‘amer’. Translates Akkadian marāru. < PIE *H3em- ‘bitter’ (IEW:777-8). Attested with -lo- or -ro- suffixes. *[malladi] cg ‘chopping board’ CA <ma-al-la-ti>. < *mol- ‘to rub, to crush, to grind’ (IEW:716-19) *[man] cg ‘to be, to exist ; P3 Sg. he/she/it’ EL man <ma-a-na>. UR <man>. < *mon, *mo

Updated version (as of August 2010)

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[mandzaduγli] lw ‘police-man’ EL manzaduhli. < Akkadian maṣṣāru ‘protection’. With replacement of geminate by prenasalized. *[marjanni] lw ‘chariot fighter’ EL maryanni <mar-ya-an-ni>. < Indo-Aryan marya with a Hurrian suffix -nni. *[mázri(ˀ)ani] lw ‘Egyptian pharaoh’ EL mašrianni <KUR ma-a-áš-ri-a-an-ni>. *[madziri] cg? ‘help’ EL mazeri <ma-zi-ri>. Non native affricate. Cf. Germanic *mat- ‘to nourish’ (?). *[midra] or [mitra] lw ‘Mitra’ EL Mitra <Mi-it-ra-a->. *[meγ-] lw? ‘to be standing (in front of a god or lord)’ CA <me/mé-e-h->. Not attested with -i-. < Sumerian ME ‘Being, divine properties enabling cosmic activity; office; (cultic) ordinance’ (?). Most words in relationship with religion are Sumerian loanwords. *[melax-] ‘to repel, to chase’ CA <me-la-ah-h->. Not attested with -i-. *[mitanni] lw ‘Mitanni’ EL Mittanni <Mi-i-it-ta-a-an-ni> also <Ma-i-te-ni>. < possibly from Indo-Iranian: Cf. Skrt mith ‘to join, unite, meet’. *[midziriˀiwi] lw ‘of Egypt, Egyptian’ EL Mizri <KUR mi-zi-ir-ri-e-we>. *[mugni] cg ‘desire’ SA <mu-uk-ni> ‘désir’. Cf. maganni. < *magh- ‘to be able’ (IEW:695): Cf. German mögen for similar semantic shift. *[muli] lw? ‘river’ DI Muli. UR <Munaa> < Akkadian mū ‘water’. *[muz-] ‘to place, tidy up, arrange’ CA <mu-(ú)-š->. CA <mu-šu-u-l-> ‘to work, transform (a material)’ *[muzuni] [P -3] ‘woodstock piler’ CA <mu-(ú)-šu-(ú)-ni>. *[muz-] lw ‘just’ 3 [used for deities, roads and rivers] EL muš(u) <mu-(ú)-šu-ni> UR <muṣ-> < Sumerian MU ‘good, beautiful’. Letter/Phoneme *n Proto-Hurrian fused *l and *n into *n, so that *l became impossible word-initially. *[nabarbi] [P -3 ?] ‘Pareder of Ninurta/Suwaliyat’ EL Nabarbi <na-(a)-bar-bi>. *[nagiri] lw ‘heraut’ < Akkadian nāgiru ‘heraut’.
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Diakonoff (1971) translates ‘Erhabene’ = ‘sublime’.

Updated version (as of August 2010)

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[nax-] ‘to sit, to lie’ CA <na-ah-h->. < possibly *legh- ‘to lie, lay’ (IEW:658) with irregular phonetic development. *[naiγi] cg? ‘meadow, pasture’ CA < na-i-hé-e>. < *now- ‘new; virgin, fallow land’ (IEW:769). *[nak-] cg ‘(1) to free, emancipate, release’ CA <na-ak-k->. < *leH1- ‘to let go’ (IEW:666). Cf. Germanic *lēthigaz ‘freed (man)’. *[nak-] ‘(2) to melt (a metal)’ CA <na-ak-k->. *[nali] ‘deer’ CA <na-a-li>. *[nan-] cg? ‘to beat, to win’ CA <na-a-n->. < possibly *nant- ‘to dare’ (IEW:755). Cf. O.Ir. néit m. ‘fight, struggle’ (*nanti-). *[nära] cg? ‘mother’ CA <ne-e-ra>. Not attested with -i-. < *nana [babytalk word] ‘mother, aunt’ (IEW:754). Cf. O.Ind. nárī, Av. nāirī ‘wife, woman’. *[narija] cg ‘five’ CA <na-(a)-ri-ya>. < *leH2-iwo ‘left (side)’ (IEW:652). Cf. eman ‘ten’ < *yaman ‘right hand’ *[natxi] lw? ‘bed [especially the bed of Hebat, Išhara and Shaushka] EL nathi <na-a-at-hi> < This word may be a loanword of Sumerian nád ‘bed’. *[naw-] cg? ‘to graze’ CA <na-a-w->. < *now- ‘new; virgin, fallow land’ (IEW:769). *[nawni] cg? ‘pasture’ CA <na-(a)-ú-ni>. < *now- ‘new; virgin, fallow land’ (IEW:769). *[nibazúri] cg ‘liver’ EL nibašuri <ni-pa-šu-u-ri>. < *leibh- ‘liver’ (IEW:670): Germanic *librō. *[nigali] cg ‘thin’ SA <ni-ga-le> ‘maigre’. < *legwh- ‘light, having little weight’ (IEW:660). [-w- can be a suffix] or maybe better *(H3)leig- ‘poor, few’ (IEW:667) . *[niγári] cg? ‘dowry’ EL nihari <ni-ha-a-ri> UG [n ġ r]. < Possibly *leH2.2- ‘gain, reward’ (IEW:655). *[niγri] [P -3] ‘chest’ EL nihri. CA <ni-hi-ir-ni>. *[nikal] lw ‘Sumerian lunar goddess’ EL Nikkal <ni-ik-kal, ni-ig-gal> UG [n k l]. *[nekri] or [negri] cg ‘lock, bolt’ CA <ne/né-ek-ri>. Not attested with -i-. Updated version (as of August 2010) 28

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language < *neǩ- (IEW:833) or *neğh- ‘to bind’ (IEW:831). Cf. Sanscrit náhasara- ‘bolt, nail, crotchet’. *[níri] cg? ‘good’ EL niri <ni-i-ri> UG [n r]. UR <nir(i)b> < *neH2- ‘to be useful, help’ (IEW:754). *[nirubádi] cg? ‘goodness’ EL nirubadi <ni-ru-pa-a-ti> Instr. <ni-i-ru-pa-a-ta-e> ‘kindly’ *[niruzai] cg ‘rapidly, promptly’ EL nirušae. Translates Akkadian hamuṭṭa. Mit. IV 38 <ni-i-ru-ša-e ti-iš-ša-an pa-aš-šu-ša-u> ‘I promptly sent’ Mit. I 58, 70, 82 <ni-ru-ša-e ta-nu-ša-u> ‘I promptly did’ < *ner- ‘to move quickly or rapidly’. Cf. Lituanian nìrti ‘to scud, to rush’. *[nisi] cg ‘gain, avantage; tax’ EL nešše <ne/ni-(e)-eš-še>. < *nes- ‘to go after, to seek’ (IEW:766-767). Cf. Tocharian B ñasso ‘share, portion, inheritance’, neske- ‘tribute’. NB: unvoiced medial š. Cf. *leH2.2- ‘gain, reward’ (IEW:655). *[niz] cg ‘nine, 9 (?)’ EL niš <ni-šu->. < *neuṃ ‘nine, 9 (?)’ (IEW318). Hurrian seems to reflect a contraction of *newi > ni-. *[nubi] ‘number 10 000’ < ‘a lot of’ EL nube <(i)-n(a)u-be> UR <itabe> *[nui] cg ‘ear’ CA <nu-(ú/u)-i>. < *new- attested as *neus- and *neuks- ‘to perceive, to get to know’ (IEW:768-769). *[nulmi] cg ‘housemaid, female slave’ CA <nu-ul-mi>. < *neu-d- ‘to make use of’(IEW768). Cf. Germanic *ga-nauta ‘companion’. Letter/Phoneme *p It can be noted that initial #p- is rather rare and #pu- is attested in only one word, which Neu (1988) writes with a #b-. *[paγi] cg? ‘head’ EL pahi <pa-(a)-hi> UG [p ġ]. < possibly from *per-, *preH2- ‘front, first’ (IEW:810) with a simplification of the initial cluster *prah- > pah-. Cf. Latin primus, prae, etc. *[pa(ˀ)ini] cg? ‘tamaris’ EL paini <pa-a-e-ni>. Used for incense, along with cedar. < Cf. *bheH2-g- ‘tree name: beech, oak’ (IEW107). *[pal-] ‘to know’ EL pal- <pa-li->. *[pala] cg ‘canal’ EL pala <pa-la>. Cf. billi. UR <pili> < *pel- ‘to flow’ (IEW:798-801). Updated version (as of August 2010) 29

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[paritsadi] [P -3 ?] ‘a half-kor’ CA <pa-ri-is-sà-te>. Non native phonetic outlook. *[párili] cg ‘crime’ EL par(i)ili <pa-a-ri-li>. < *por- ‘to harm, to endanger’. *[pas-] cg? ‘to send (sby)’ EL pašš- <pa-aš-ši-> Cf. Latin petō ‘to make for, to go to and *pot-i ‘towards, against, back’ (IEW:842) with a suffix -s-. *[pasiγi] cg? ‘message’ EL paššihi <pa-aš-ši-hi>. *[pasítxi] cg? ‘messenger’ EL paššithi <pa-aš-ši-i-it-hi->. *[pits-] ‘to rejoice’ EL pis- <pi-su-> UR <piṣ>. Non native phonetic outlook. *[pidári] ‘bull’ EL pedari <pe-da-a-ri>. *[pilakuγ(u)li] lw ‘spinner’ EL <pi-la-ku-hu-li>. < Akkadian pilakku, pilaqqu ‘spindle’. *[pind-] cg ‘to let in, to let come back’ CA <pé-en-d, pí-in-d>. < *pent- ‘to tread go’ (IEW:808) with regular voicing of -nt-. *[pit-] cg? ‘to go back’ DI pitt-. UR <bid> < Cf. Latin petō ‘to make for, to go to and *pot-i ‘towards, against, back’ (IEW:842). *[pezesx-] ‘to spill slowly’ CA <pé-še-eš-h->. Not attested with -i-. Cannot be the same root as pusih. *[pu(n)xi] cg ‘nose’ SA <wu-uh-hi> < *pneu- ‘to breathe’ (IEW:838). *[pudziγ-] cg? ‘(tr.) to dip, soak into’ CA <pu-ú-sí-h->. Non native phonetic outlook. Cf. *p_H3- ‘to drink’ (IEW:839) with -s- < *-Hs- (?). Letter/Phoneme *r This phoneme is not attested as initial of native Hurrian words. Loanwords normally receive a prothetic vowel. *[arandzaH] ‘the Tigris River’ EL Aranzah <a-ra-an-za-ah>. The phonetics does not look native. < Kassite ? *[ärbi] lw ‘dog’ CA < e-er-bi>. < Indo-Iranian: Skt. lopāśa ‘fox, jackal’; Av. urupi ‘a kind of dog’, etc. < PIE *wCp.

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[ar-] lw? (2) ‘to grow, increase’ CA < e-r>. Derivatives: <e-ra-a-n> (Causative), <e-ru-u-l-> (Medio-passive). < Akkadian rabû ‘to grow, increase’, although -b- seems to be missing in Hurrian. *[irsapa] lw ‘the Cananean god Rešef (= Nergal)’ EL <dIr-ša-ap-pa>, UG [i r t p] with prothetic #i-. *[irwisu] lw? ‘tax’ EL irwiššu. Translates Akkadian ilqu. < Akkadian erbe ‘four’ (?), hence Hurrian irwiššu ‘one fourth’. Letter/Phoneme *š [s] and *ś [ɬ] Intervocalically, /s/ is normally always voiced. A number of initial š originate in dentals followed by *y/i or *w/u. *[sagari] cg? ‘sprout, bud’ CA <ša-ka-re-e> Cf. Germanic *twig(g)a ‘branch, fork’ < *dwegh*[saγadnadi] ‘a half-sikel’ CA <ša-ha-at-na-ti>. Non native phonetic outlook. *[sáγari] ‘ram’ CA <ša-a-ha-ri>. Translates MÁŠ-GAL. Unclear relationship with Akkadian šaḫū ‘pig’. *[saγri] lw? ‘garden, orchard’ EL šahri <ša-ah-ri>. Subarean <sarme> ‘forest’ ; Urartian <ṣare> ‘orchard’ ; Armenian car ‘tree’ < Hurrian may represent the archaic form of Sumerian SAR ‘garden’. *[salγ-] cg ‘to listen, understand’ CA <šal-h->; <ša-h-u-l->. < *selH2.2- ‘to listen’ attested in Celtic. *[sali] or *[ɬa(:)li] ‘daughter’ EL šali <ša-a-li>. UR <selaa> The relationship with *dhug-H2ter is phonetically difficult. Cf. *dheH1-, *dhiH1-. This word may represent *dhuH1-ali (?) > *š(w)ali. *[sali] or *[säli] cg ‘house’ SA <še-li, ša-li> ‘maison’. Translation Akkadian bitu. < *sel- ‘human settlement’ (IEW:898): Germanic *saliz ‘room’. *[salli] cg ‘rampage’ CA <šal-li, ša-a-al-li>. Cf. Latin (arch.) duellum ‘war’. *[salmi] cg ‘ash’ SA <ša-al-mi> ‘cendre’. Cf. Hurrian šal-mulušt- ‘to burn’ and šulli. < *sal- ‘gray’ (IEW:879). The original may be a verb *sel- ‘to burn’. *[sänardi] cg ‘brotherhood’ EL šenardi <še-na-ar-di>. *[seni] [P x-] cg ‘brother’ EL šeni <še-(e)-ni>. < *dhiH1- ‘to breast-feed’ (IEW:241). Cf. Latin fīlius, fīlia and Hurrian sali, šiduri. Updated version (as of August 2010) 31

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[sapxali] cg? ‘left-side’ [as opposed to wandani ‘right-side’] EL šaphali <ša-ap-ha-li>. Cf. Greek επ ασπιδα ‘on the left side, on the side of the shield’ (?) *[sar-] ‘to ask, desire’ EL šar- <ša-a-ru->. *[sarijanni] wd ‘body armour’ EL šariyanni <ša-ri-ya-an-ni>. With the typical suffix -nni of borrowings. Cf. Ugaritic šryn and Hebrew siryôn ‘body armor, breast armor’. *[sarri] lw ‘king’ EL šarri, šerri. Another synonymous word is ibri. < Akkadian šarru. *[sawri] cg ‘weapon’ EL šauri <ša-ú-ri>. UR <šuri> ; Armenian sor ‘sword’ < *swer- ‘to cut, pierce’ (IEW:1050). Cf. Germanic *swerdam. *[sawa(ˀa)la] cg? ‘year’ EL šawala <ša-(a)-wa-a-al-la>. UR <ša(:)li> < Possibly *seH1- ‘long (period of time)’ (IEW891) *[saw-] cg? ‘great’ CA <ša-wu-u-ši> ‘great, august’. < *sew- ‘to swell, to expand’ and *sw-el- ‘to swell, to expand’. *[sazari] [P -3] cg? ‘saw’ CA <ša-šar-(ri)>. Cf. *ser-(p)- ‘sickle, to cut off’ (IEW:911). *[si] cg ‘eye, look’ CA <ši-i>. < *dheiH- ‘to see’ (IEW:243). *[sib-] cg ‘to dry up’ CA <ši-p->. < *sei-b- ‘to flow, to drip’, a suffixal variant of *seikw- (IEW:893). *[sid-] ‘to curse’ EL šed- <še-ta-> Unclear relationship with *dheH1- ‘to say’. *[sed-] ‘to fatten’ CA <še-e-d->. *[sidarni] ‘curse, malediction’ EL šidarni <ši-da-ar-ni>. *[siduri] cg ‘young woman’ [as opposed to hubidi ‘young man’] EL šiduri <ši-du-ri>. < *dhiH1- ‘to breast-feed’ (IEW:241). Cf. Latin fīlius, fīlia and Hurrian sali, šena. It is unclear if -dur- may represent -H2ter-. *[sigladi] lw ‘sicle’ CA <ši-ik-la-te>. From Akkadian. *[siγali] [P -3] ‘pure’ EL šehali <še-e-ha-li, še-ha-a-la-, še-ha-la-a-> UR <šeh> *[siγi] ‘door (?)’ EL sehi. CA <še-e-ha-an> ‘through the door’. Updated version (as of August 2010) 32

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[seγl-] ‘to enter, come in’ CA <še-eh-l->. Not attested with -i-. *[seγurni] cg? ‘life’ SA <še-hu-ur-ni> ‘vie’. UR šehiri ‘vivant’. Cf. šuhurni. Cf. Latin sānus ‘in good health’. *[sijal-] ‘to place, install, put’ CA <ši-ya-li->. *[sildanur-] ‘to pierce, wedge in, penetrate’ CA <ši-il-ta-nu-r->. *[simegi] cg ‘Sun-god’ El <dŠi-me-gi. >. < *dyew-magh-i > *Ši-migi ‘Master of daylight’, a variant of *dyew-pH2ter. *[sinaγila] cg ‘second’ EL šinahila <ši-na-hi-la>. *[sinam-] cg ‘to double’ EL šinam-. *[sinapsi] ‘temple, cultual building’ EL šinapši <ši-na-ap-ši->. *[sinarbu] cg ‘two years old’ EL šinarbu. *[sindi] cg? ‘seven’ EL šinti <ši-in-ta>. < *septṃ (IEW:909) with eliminated cluster -pt- > -nd-? *[sini] cg ‘two’ EL šini <ši-in->. CA <ši-i-in-zi/sí> ‘second’. UR <šiše> < *dwi-ni ‘two’ (IEW:228). *[sini] cg ‘P2 Sg. (?)’ EL šini <ši-ni->. < *t-u- (IEW:1097) *[sinni] lw ‘tooth’ SA <ši-ni/ir?-ni> ‘dent’. < Akkadian šinnu. Cannot be from *H1dent-. *[sinurγi] cg ‘twin’ EL šinurhi. *[siˀirni] ‘splendor; jewel’ CA <ši-i-ir-ni>. *[sir-] cg? ‘to be equal; to make equal; to count’ CA <ši-(i)-ir->. < *ser- ‘to arrange in order’ (IEW:911). *[sirat-] cg ‘to tell, to narrate’ CA <ši-ra-t->. Cf. Latin sermō ‘talk, discourse, conversation’. *[siri] cg? ‘number’ CA <ši-i-ri>. < *ser- ‘to arrange in order’ (IEW:911) or maybe *deH2-i- ‘to divide’ (IEW:175). *[siri] cg ‘day’ DI šeri. < *diH- (IEW:175). Cf. Eng. time, tide. Updated version (as of August 2010) 33

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[seswi] cg ‘kid’ CA <še-eš-we>. Translates MÁŠ.TUR. < *dhwes- ‘(domesticated) animal’: Albanian dash ‘ram, lamb’; Gmc. *tius ‘beast’ and, possibly, Lat. bēstia. *[siwi]4 cg ‘water, river’ EL šiye <ši-i-e> UG [ṯ j] , [Mari] šiwe, [Kizzuwatna] šiu. < *sew- ‘to flow’ (IEW:912-913). *[sizi] cg ‘six’ CA <še-e-ši-e>. < *s(w)eks ‘six’ (IEW1044) with cluster simplication. *[siziγi] cg ‘spade’ SA <ši-ši-hé> ‘pelle, bêche’. Translates Akkadian marru. < *seH1- ‘to sow’ (IEW:891). NB: final -hi is a suffix not a reflex of *H1. *[su]5 cg ‘oblique base of išaš ‘P1’ EL šu <šu-u->. < *H1-so*[suˀi] cg ‘all’ EL šui <šu-e, šu-u-i>. < *teu-(H)- ‘totality’ (IEW:1080): *teutā ‘tribe’. *[subi] cg ‘bad, angry’ SA <šu-be> ‘méchant, mauvais’. < *du-s ‘bad’ (IEW:227) *[suga] ‘together with’ DI šuga. Cf. šui ‘all’. *[suγi] lw? ‘new’ SA <šu-hi> ‘neuf’. UR šuhi. The word looks like a loanword of Akkadian eššu plus a Hurrian suffix. *[suγni] [P -3] cg ‘wall’ CA <šu-uh-ni>. < *dheigh- ‘to knead or paste clay’ (IEW:244): *dhoigh- > *dūg- > duγ- with unexpected spirantization of medial -g-. *[suγuri] cg? ‘life’ EL šuhuri <šu-hu-ri>. Cf. šehurni. Cf. Latin sānus ‘in good health’. *[suki] cg ‘once’ CA <šu-uk-ki>. < *deik- ‘finger, to show’ (IEW:188). *doik- > *dūk > šuk*[suku] ‘away’ EL, DI šukku. *[sull-] cg ‘to bind’ DI sull-. < *syuH- ‘to sew’ (IEW:915).

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Diakonov (1971:62) has šeja- ‘Wasser, Fluβ’ with -a- (??). Diakonoff (1971) has a voiced initial <ž> but there is no support for a voiced reconstruction.

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[sulli] cg ‘charcoal’ SA <šul-li> ‘charbon de bois’. Cf. šalmi. < *sal- ‘gray’ (IEW:879). The original may be a verb *sel- ‘to burn’. *[summi] [P x-] lw? ‘hand’ EL šummi <šu-mi-> CA <šu-u-ni> . Prepositional use as ‘with, on behalf of’ 6 < Sumerian SU ‘hand’ (?). *[suni] [P x-] cg? ‘soul [?]’ EL šuni <šu-(ú)-ni>. < *dheuH- ‘smoke; breath’ (IEW:261) *[sur-] cg ‘to kill (a small animal)’ CA <šu-ú-r-> < *ser(-gh)- ‘to kill, cut’ or better *swer- ‘to cut, pierce’ (IEW:1050). *[suram-] cg ‘to hurry (?)’ EL šuram- <šu-ra-a-ma->. < *ser- ‘to move quickly, to flow’ (IEW:909-910). *[surr-] cg ‘to go, walk’ CA <šu-úr-r->. *[suw] cg ‘day’ CA <šu-(u)-ú>. < *dyew ‘daylight’ (IEW:183). Cf. Teššub, širi. Letter/Phoneme *t Dental stops are represented by #š- instead of #t- word-initially when followed by *i/y or *u/w. *[tab-] cg ‘to melt (a metal)’ CA <ta-b/w->. CA <ta-wa-aš-t->. < *dhabh- ‘to strike, melt (metal)’ (IEW:233). *[tabilija] cg ‘molten’ CA <ta-bi-li-ya>. *[tab(a)li] [P -3] cg ‘metal-melter; smith’ CA <tab-li>. *[tabränni] cg ‘metal-melter’ CA <tab-re-e-en6-ni>. *[tad-] ‘to love’ EL tad- <ta-a-ta-> UG [t d]. *[ta(:)darask-] ‘love’ EL tadaraški <ta-a-ta-ra-aš-ka-e>. *[tadugari] ‘friendship’ EL tadugari <ta-a-du-ka-a-ri>. With -ugar- dual suffix. *[tagi] cg ‘beautiful, luminous’ EL tagi <ta-a-ki> UG [t g]. SA ‘lumière’. < *dhağh- ‘beautiful, fine, good’. *[tagul-] cg ‘to become beautiful’ EL tagul- <ta-ku-li->.
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Cf. abi ‘before’, edi ‘toward’, egi ‘in’, buri ‘in front of’.

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[taγi] [P > ?] cg? ‘man’ [as opposed to ašti ‘woman’] EL tahe <da-a-xe>, SA <ta-a-e> ‘homme’. Cf. Greek doulos < *dohelos ‘slave’. *[tal-] ‘to remove, take away; to purify (from a sin)’ CA <tal->. *[talawuzi] cg ‘grand, sovereign’ CA <ta/da-la-a-wu-ú-ši>. < *del- ‘long’ (IEW:196-198). *[táli] cg ‘tree, wood’ EL tali <da-a-li->. < *dhal- ‘to bloom; to be leafy, lush’ (IEW:234). *[talmast-] cg ‘to celebrate, to magnify’ CA <ta-al-ma-aš-t->. *[talmi] cg ‘great, big’ EL talmi <ta-al-mi> UG [t l m] SA <ta-la-am-me> ‘grand’. < *dol- ‘long’ (IEW:). *[taluγli] ‘eunuch’ DI taluγli. Wilhem (2004:100): ‘servant’. *[tam-] ‘new’ CA <tam-; ta-am->. *[tamri] ‘nine, 9’ Cf. niš. *[tami-] cg? ‘flea’ SA <ta-me> ‘flea’. < *dei-ğ(h)- ‘stinging insect, tick’ (IEW:187) with another suffix (?) or *dheH1- ‘to prick’ (IEW:243-244). *[tan-] cg ‘to do’ [√t_ˀ_n-] EL tan <ta-a-n> UG [t n]. UR <tanu> < *dheH1.1- ‘to put, to do’ (IEW:235). *[taps-] cg ‘low’ EL tapš- <ta-ap-šu>. < *tap- ‘to press down, to bring down’ (IEW:1056). *[tapsuγ-] cg ‘to cut down; to overthrow’ EL tapšuh-. A rather strange phonetic structure but possibly inherited. *[tari] cg? ‘fire’ CA <ta-(a)-ri>. < Possibly *ters- ‘dry’ (IEW:1078): Lat. torreō ‘to burn, to dry, to roast’. *[tarman] cg ‘(water) spring’ EL tarmani <tar-ma-an->. UR <tar(a)manele> < *dr-eHø- (> *drā-); *dr-ew-; *dr-em- ‘to run > flow’(IEW:204-206). *[tarzuwáni] ‘mankind’ EL taršuwani <tar-šu-wa-a-ni> UG [t r ḏ w n]. UR <taršuani> *[tasp-] cg ‘to hit, bruise, break’ CA <ta-aš-p>, also <tap-š->. < *dhabh- ‘to strike, melt (metal)’ (IEW:233). *[tázi] [P x-] cg ‘gift (?)’ EL taše <da-a-še>. UR <taše> < *deH3- ‘to give’ (IEW:223-226). Updated version (as of August 2010) 36

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[tazmizu] ‘another name of Suwaliyat or Ninurta’ EL tašmišu <da-aš-mi-šu>. *[tazul-] cg ‘to give, grant’ CA <ta-šu-l->. *[ti-] cg ‘to speak’ DI tii. Cf. tiwe ‘word’. < *dheH1.1- ‘to say, to speak’. *[ti(ˀ)a] cg ‘many’ EL tea <te-a/ya->. Derivative: CA <ti-i-ti-wa-a-te> ‘as much as’. UR <ṭeae> < *tew(H)- ‘to swell; totality’ (IEW:1080-85). *[ti(ˀ)una] cg ‘in high numbers, many’ EL teuna <te-u-u-na>. Adv teunae. *[tibúsxi] cg? ‘order, command’ EL tebušhi <te-bu-(u)-uš-hi>. Possibly a derivative of tiwi. *[teγ-] cg? ‘to grow, increase’ CA <te-h->. CA <te-hé-eš-t->. Cf. tea, teuna. *[tiγan-] cg? ‘to show’ EL tihan- <ti-i-ha-ni>. Unclear relationship with *deik- ‘to point at, show’ with irregular spirantization. *[tijari] ‘spindle’ EL tiyari <ti-ya-ri>. *[til-] cg? ‘to destroy’ CA <ti-l->. CA <ti-lu-lu-u-uš-t->. Cf. *dhel- ‘to gash, to wound, to slay’ (IEW:247). *[tili] cg? ‘tax’ CA <te-li>. < *deH2-i- ‘to divide, apportion’ (IEW:175). *[timerri] cg ‘black’ CA <ti-me-er-re-e>. < *dhem- ‘dim, dark’ (IEW:247-248). *[tisan] cg ‘very much’ EL tiššan. *[tisub] cg ‘Teššub’ EL Teššub <Te-eš-šu-ub> UG (Nom) [t ṯ b] UG (Gen) Teššub-bi [t ṯ p]. UR <teeišebaa> Assyrian <te-és-su-ub> < *dey(w)-sewbh- ‘day-storm’. *[tewi] [P -x] cg ‘word’ EL tiwe <ti-we-e->. UR <tine> ‘name’ *[tiwi] [P -x] cg ‘thing’ EL tiwe <ti-we-e->. < *dheH1.1- ‘to do’ (IEW:235). *[tiza] lw ‘heart’ EL tiša <ti-ša>. UR <tišnu>. Hatti šagi. Aberrant phonetics. < Sumerian TI- ‘rib, (side)’ and -SA(G) ‘heart’. *[tizaγi] ‘elder’ EL težaγi UG [t z ġ]. UR <teš> Updated version (as of August 2010) 37

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[tizuγi] ‘leader, chief’ EL tešuhi <te-šu-hi> UG [t ḏ γ]. *[tudigi] ‘heap of refuse’ CA <du-ú-ti-ki>. *[tumni] cg? ‘four’ EL tumni- <du-um-ni>. Cf. *kwətwer ‘four’ (IEW:642) with initial cluster simplification *kwtw- > tu- (?). *[tumwa] cg ‘under’ CA <tu-u-um-wa>. < *de- (IEW181). Cf. Latin de. *[tun-] cg ‘to win, to overpower’ CA <du-ú-n->. < *deu- ‘to do, perform’ (IEW:218). *[tunust-] ‘to cover, to plaster with’ CA <tu-nu-u-uš-t->. *[tupi-] cg ‘strong’ EL tuppi <tup-pu->. UR <ṭubar> < *deu- ‘to do, perform’ (IEW:218). *[tur-] cg ‘to go down’ CA <du-ú-r->. < *dher- ‘to go down, to fall down’. *[túri-] cg ‘inferior’ EL turi <du-ú-ri> UG [t r]. *[turubi] ‘enemy’ EL tur(u)bi <du-(u)-ru-b-i>. *[turuxi] cg ‘male, masculine’ EL turuhhi <du-(u)-ru-uh-hi> UG [t r h] . < *terH2.2- ‘to be strong, powerful; to control’ (IEW:1074-1075). *[turzi] cg? ‘lung’ SA <tu-ur-še-(na)>. < *dher-: Greek τράχηλος ‘neck, throat’, τραχήλια ‘offal’; θώρᾱξ, -ᾱκος ‘breastplate’. *[tuw-] cg? ‘clean’ DI tuw. UR <tu(w)ae>. < *deu- ‘to be good, fit’ (IEW:218-219). *[tuwal-] cg ‘to strike, beat (?)’ EL tuwal- <tu-wa-la->. < *dew- ‘to hit, to strike’ (IEW:203). Letter/Phoneme *u *[u-jit-] ‘to be hungry’ CA <ú-et-t->. This formation looks like a future of a base *[u-]. Cf. ulan-. *[ub-] cg? ‘to kill, slaughter (a big animal)’ EL ubu. CA <ú-w->. Cf. Germanic *wepnam ‘weapon’. *[ubi] ‘barley’ CA <ú-bi>. Updated version (as of August 2010) 38

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[ˀubi] cg? ‘stupid, insane’ CA <u-be/we>. Translates Hittite marlant- ‘dumb, stupid, foolish’. < *webh- ‘to go astray, to be confused’ (IEW:1114-1115). *[u(g)ri] cg ‘foot’ EL ugri <ug-ri> ‘leg of a table’. UR <kuri>7 < *H2er- ‘to assemble’ → ‘joint’ (IEW:55). *[ugul-] ‘to fear (?)’ or maybe better ‘to kneel’ EL ugul- <ú-ku-la>. CA <ú-ku-ul-ga-r-> ‘to kneel’. *[uγi] ‘pig’ EL uhi <ú-hi>. *[uja] cg ‘not’ DI uya UR <úi> Cf. b, u, bur, ukk-. *[ulan-] ‘to eat’ CA <ú-la-a-an->. < *H2el- ‘to nourish’ (IEW:26). *[uli] cg ‘other’ EL uli <u-u-li>. Variants ulwi, ulbi. UR <uli> < *H2.2el- ‘other’ (IEW:24-26). *[ˀulli-] cg ‘to destroy’ EL ull- <u-ul-li->. < *wel-H2.2- ‘to strike, to wound’ (IEW:1144-1145). *[ˀulmi] cg ‘weapon’ CA <u-ul-mi>. *[ˀululi-] cg ‘to die’ EL ullul <ul-lu-li>. *[ˀúmi:ni] [P x-] ‘country’ EL umini <(u)-u-mi-ni / um-mi-ni> UG [† m n]. *[Øun-] cg ‘to come’ EL un- <ú-(ú)-na> UG [† n]. UR <ul, nu-n-> < *wen-dh- / *wen-gh- ‘to go, wander’ (IEW:1148 & 1514). *[undu] cg ‘then, when’ EL undu <(u-)un-du>. < *H1.1endh-. Cf. adi. *[Øur-] cg ‘to take place, happen’ EL ur- <ú-ru>. < *wer- ‘to turn; to become; etc.’ (IEW:1152-1159). *[(w)ur-] cg? ‘to desire, promise (?)’ EL wur- <ú-ú-r->. Never confused with *bur- ‘to see’. < *wer- ‘to say, to speak, to tell’ (IEW: 1162-1163). *[urb-] ‘to kill, sacrifice’ DI urb- UR <urb->. *[urγ-] cg ‘true, faithful’ EL urhi <u-ur-hi/ha>. Derivative: DI ur(u)hzi ‘right, conform’. < *wer-H2.2- ‘true, right, proper’ (IEW:1165-1166).

7

This probably is to be read *ukri.

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[urγubdi-] cg ‘truth ; to trust, believe’ EL urhupti <u-ur-hu-ub-du->. Contraction of urhu-badi*[urmi] lw ‘liver’ SA <ur-mi> ‘foie’. Translates Akkadian kabattu. < Sumerian ur ‘liver’. *[urudγi] wd ‘copper’ EL urudhi <u-ru-ud-hi>. < Sumerian urudu ‘copper’ and *H1reu-dh- ‘red’ *[Øuruwana] lw ‘Varuna’ EL uruwana <ú-ru-wa-na->. The borrowing sounded like *[Ruwana]. *[uruni] cg ‘back(ward)’ EL urunni <u-ru-un-ni>. < *H3er-s- ‘ass, back’ (IEW:340). *[uruntalli] cg ‘posterior’ EL uruntalli. *[(u)sxuni] ‘silver’ EL ušhuni <uš-hu-(u)-ni>. Cf. išuḫni. *[uzrianni] lw? ‘heir, prince’ DI ušrianne. < possibly Indo-Iranian. Cf. Sanskrit uccair- ‘high, above’. *[usta-i] cg ‘hero’ EL uštay <uš-ta-an-ni, uš-ta-e>. With Elidable -i. < *wes- ‘good, brave, noble’ (IEW:1174-1175). *[utxuru] lw ‘side’ EL uthuru <ut-hu-ru>. Adverbial formation with -u. Cf. Akkadian idu ‘side’, itē ‘alongside , adjacent to , next to’. *[udzi] lw ‘flesh’ EL uzi <u-zi> < Sumerian UZU ‘flesh’. Letter/Phoneme *w Many words historically attested with <#w-> can be traced back to *b. Those listed here are not attested with any alternations. There is only one case of certain Hurrian #w- < *w. *[wali] cg? ‘worm (?)’ EL wali. < *wel- ‘to turn, roll’ (IEW:1140-1144). Cf. Tocharian A (Pl.) walyi, B yel ‘worm’. *[barini] cg ‘baker’ CA <wa-ri-ni> < *bher-ğ- ‘to boil, roast, fry’ (IEW:132-3 & 137) *[bariz-] cg ‘to go to, to be headed to’ CA <wa-ri-š->. Not attested with #p-. < *bhres- ‘to hurry, move fast’ (IEW:143). *[wudarini] cg ‘dishwasher’ CA <wu-ta-ri-ni>. < *wed- ‘water’ (IEW:78-81). Updated version (as of August 2010) 40

An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language *[wugugari] cg? ‘(two ?) finger(s)’ < *[bug-] ‘finger’ CA <wu-ku-ga-ri>. Catsanicos holds the form to be collective, but the -ugar- suffix is ‘dual’. < *bheH2ghu ‘arm’ (IEW:108) (?). NB: Wegner considers this form to be a verb: in that case, it is better compared with *bheug- ‘to bend’ (IEW:152). Letter/Phonemes *ž/ź and *dz These phonemes are not attested word-initially. Cf. [ts].

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language APPENDIX 1

Nouns with suffix -nni: - Mašrianni ‘Egypt’ - Mitanni 8 ~ √mith ‘to unite, pair, couple, meet (as friend or antagonist)’9 - Wašukkanni ‘the capital of the Mitanni Kingdom’10 - ašši(y)anni ‘kind of embroidery’ ~ Sanskrit sī́ vyati ‘to sew’ (with unexplained a-) - aššuššanni ‘horse-trainer’ ~ Sanskrit aśṷa ‘horse’ - aššuwanni 11 ~ Sanskrit aśva-nī ‘horse-riding’ - kadinni 12 ~ Sanskrit khādi ‘bracelet, bangle’ - maganni ~ Akkadian (?) or probably Sanskrit magha ‘gift’, - maninni ~ Sanskrit maṇi ‘necklace’ - maryanni 13 ~ Sanskrit marya ‘warrior, soldier’, - mištanni 14 ~ Sanskrit mīdha ‘financial compensation’, - ušrianni 15 ‘heir, prince’ ~ Sanskrit uccair- ‘high, above’, uccair-gotra ‘high family’ - imburtanni ‘name of a month’ ~ Akkadian imbaru ‘fog’ - kirkir(iy)anni ‘pine tree used for fumigation’ < Akkadian kirkiriyannu - šankunni ‘priest’ ~ Akkadian sangū ‘priest’ < Sumerian SANGA - zambahunni ‘butcher’ ~ Akkadian ṭabbiḫu ‘butcher’ - urbarinni ‘butcher’ ~ Hurrian *urb- ‘to kill, slaughter’

Nouns with suffix -uhli: - Akkadian e[ēdu ‘harvesting, harvest’ > Hurrian izaduhli ‘harvester’ - Akkadian ḫal[u ‘fortress, stronghold’ > Hurrian halzuhli ‘governor’ - Akkadian maṣṣāru ‘protection’ > Hurrian manzaduhli ‘protector’ - Akkadian pilakku, pilaqqu ‘spindle’ > Hurrian pilakuγ(u)li ‘spinner’ - Akkadian sagullu ‘herd’ > Hurrian zugulluhli ‘herdman (?)’

8 9

<Ma-i-te-ni> in Nuzi. Cf. Laroche (1981:171). Cf. Monnier-Williams: 816, 3. 10 This place name is a compound that seems to include Sanskrit vasu ‘excellent’ and a second unclear element. 11 Cited in Mayhofer (1966:18) but left untranslated in Laroche (1981:59). 12 Cited in Mayhofer (1966:18) but left untranslated in Laroche (1981:133). 13 Attested as <mar-ya-(an)-ni> or <ma-ri-ya-an-ni>. Cf. Laroche (1981:168). 14 It can be noted that this word is phonetically more archaic than Indo-Aryan as attested in India. 15 Cited by Diakonov but not in Laroche (1981).

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language APPENDIX 2 The following roots can be traced back to the common ancestor of Proto-Indo-European and Hurrian:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. *(H2)a- ‘derivative formant’ *(H2)a-bhros ‘strong, violent’ → ebri *(H)am(m)a- [nursery word] ‘mother, grandmother’ (IEW:36) → ammati *(H2)atta- [nursery word] ‘father’ (IEW:71) → attai *bh_(H) ‘without’ (IEW:112-113) → -bur-,- u-, -ukk-, ubadi-, uya *bh_dh- ‘to dig’ (IEW:113-4) → billi *bh_H1-(g)- ‘to warm, bake, fry’ (IEW:113) → bandarini *bh_H2.1- ‘to speak’ (IEW:105) → baši *bh_H2.2- ‘to shine’ (IEW:104-5) → bahri *bh_H2.2- ‘to strike’ (IEW:111-112) → bah*bh_H- ‘to build, house’ (IEW146-150) → ba-, burni, *bh_H2-g- ‘tree name: beech, oak’ (IEW107) → paeni *bhi ‘inside, near’ → -bi, agabi, ezabi *bh_n- ‘moutain’ → babani *bh_r- ‘to bear, to act as a servant’ → burami *bh_r- ‘board, bar’ (IEW:103, 138, 173-4) → abri *bh_r-ğ- ‘to boil, roast, fry’ (IEW:132-3 & 137) → barini *bh_r-ĝh- ‘(adj.) high, strong; (n.) mountain’ → buru, ebri *bher-(gh)- ‘to look at, after’ (IEW:145) → bur-, buri, burullini *bh_rgw- ‘angry’ (IEW:163) → bar*bh_rH1ĝ- ‘to be bright; dawn, east’ → buruhli *bhr_s- ‘to hurry, move fast’ (IEW:143) → wariš*bh_s- ‘to rub, pulverize; sand’ (IEW:170) → sik-, silman*bhu [nursery word] ‘baby, child’ (IEW:91-92; 128-132) → butki *bh_wdh- ‘to make aware of’ → pudank*d_ ‘to, downward’ → tumwa *diH- ‘time’ (IEW:175) → šeri *d_H3- ‘to give’ → taše *d_H(y)- ‘to divide, apportion’ (IEW:175) → tili *d_l- ‘long’ (IEW:196-198) → talmi, talawuši *d_r- ‘to run, to flow’ → tarmani *du-s ‘bad’ (IEW:227) → šube *d_w- ‘to hit, to strike’ → tuwal*d_w- ‘to do, perform’ (IEW:218) → tun-, tupi *d_w- ‘to be or become fit, pure; to purify, to bless’ → tuw*d_w- ‘two’ (IEW:228) → šini, šinarbi, šinurhi *dw_gh- ‘twig’ → šagare *dw_l- ‘war’ → šalli *d_yk- ‘finger, to show’ (IEW:188) → šukki, tihan*d_yw- ‘day(light)’ (IEW:183-187) → Teššub, Ši-migi, širi, šuw *dhabh- ‘to strike, melt (metal)’ (IEW:233) → tab-, tabli, tabrenni, tašp*dh_ĝh- ‘beautiful, fine’ → tagi, tagul*dh_H1- ‘to say, to speak’ → tiwe, ti-

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language
44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. *dh_H1- ‘to do’ → tan-, adali, tiwe *dh_H1- ‘to prick’ (IEW:243-244) → tami *dhiH1- ‘to breast-feed’ (IEW:) → zizzi, šiduri, šeni, *dhuH1- ‘to breast-feed’ (IEW:) → šali, *dh_igh- ‘to knead or paste clay’ (IEW:244) → šuhni *dhal- ‘to bloom; to be leafy, lush’ (IEW:234) → tali *dh_l- ‘to gash, to wound, to slay’ (IEW:247) → til*dh_m- ‘dark, dim’ → timeri *dh_r- ‘to go down, to fall down’ → turi, tur*dher-bh-/*dhor-bh-/*dh3-bh- ‘to strive, to toil; to afflict, to irk’ *dhw_s- ‘(domesticated) animal’ → šešwe *dh_yH- ‘to see’ (IEW:243) → ši *g_H2-u- ‘to rejoice’ (IEW:353) → kel*ğ_l- ‘to call out, to cry out’ *gal- ‘to be able’ (IEW:351) → kel*ĝ_n-(u)- ‘to kneel, knee’ (IEW:380) → kunz*ĝṛH-no- ‘grain’ (IEW:391) → karubi *gw_dh- ‘to strike, to beat, to smash’ *gw_l- ‘to call out, to cry out’ → kul*gw_r- ‘to swallow’ (IEW:474) → kurumati *gw_t- ‘to speak’ (IEW:480-481) → [irregular] kad*gh_ ‘deictic particle’ (IEW:417) → a-ga-bi, igi *gh_bh- ‘to give’ (IEW:407) → ki(b)-, kiban*ghr_H1- ‘to grow’ (IEW:454) → kir*gh_rzda ‘barley’ (IEW:446) → kadi *gh_s-or- ‘hand’ (IEW:447) → kir-, kireti *H1e- ‘P1Sg, me’ (IEW:291) → išaš, *H2.1_- ‘but, and’ → ai *H1_bh-i ‘fore, front’ (IEW:787) → abi, awi *H1_d- ‘to eat’ (IEW:287) → azuhi*H2.2_d- ‘to cut, kill’ → had*H3_d- ‘to hate’ (IEW:773) → ad-irha *H1_-dh_- ‘now, then, so’ → adi *H1i-dh-i ‘yonder, over there’ (IEW:281) → id *H2_ĝ- ‘to drive, to lead’ → ag*H2_g-w- ‘(vb.) to cut into, to hew; (n.) ax’ → agul*H2.1_H-i-(dh)- ‘to burn’ (IEW:11) → ahari *H(3)_H- ‘to speak’ (IEW:781) → hil*(H)l_H- ‘to sing, praise’ (IEW:683) → halmi *H1i- ‘deictic’ → inu, inna, istani, id *H_in- ‘without; away from, apart from’ → hinz*H1_is- ‘anger’ (IEW:299) → hisuh *H1_l- ‘that over there, that yonder’ (IEW:24-26) → -lla, alaše, alumni, *H2.1_l- ‘to nourish’ (IEW:26) → eli, ulan*H2.1_l- ‘other’ → uli, ulbi *H2.1_l- ‘to shout aloud, to cry out’ → al-, alilan-, elami, *H2.1_l- ‘to wander, move about’ → al*H2.1_l- ‘overcoat’ → alali

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language
92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. *H2.2_l-t- ‘to grow’ (IEW:26-27) → hildi, *H2.1_m- ‘to burn, be hot’ (IEW:35) → am*H_-n_- ‘that, yonder’ (IEW:319-321) → anami, andi, anni and -ni, -nna, *H2.2_n- ‘to bear (a child), to beget’ → han*H2.2_n- ‘without; away from, apart from’ (IEW:318) → henz*H1_ndh- ‘here, there; thereupon, then; when’ → *H1.2_n-nu ‘now’ (IEW:770) → hinni, *H2.1_n(n) ‘old woman’ (IEW:36) → allai *H1_p- ‘to cook’ (IEW:325) → ephi *H1_r- ‘(large) bird’ (IEW:325) → eradi, eribuški *H2.1_r- ‘to distribute, to allot’ (IEW:61) → ar*H2.1_r- ‘point, tip, peak’ (IEW:63) → arni *H2.1_r- ‘to assemble’ → ‘joint’ (IEW:55) → uri *H1_rdh- ‘dwelling place’ → ardi *H1_r-s- ‘to move quickly’ (IEW:336-337) → arul-, aruzul*H3_r-s- ‘ass, back’ (IEW:340) → uruni, uruntalli *H_s- ‘to perceive’ → haš*H1_s- ‘harvest time’ (IEW:343) → tsazul*H1_s- ‘blood’ (IEW:343) → zurgi *H2.1_s- ‘to sit, to be seated’ (IEW:342-343) → ašš*H2.2_s- ‘to burn, glow’ (IEW:68) → hešmi *Hos-p- (> *os-p-) ‘aspen, poplar’ → ašuhi *H2.1_st- ‘woman’ → asti *-H2ter- ‘family word formative’ → ši-duri *H1_u-s- ‘to burn’ (IEW:347) → hiuri, hummi *H2_w-i- ‘sheep’ (IEW:784) → hawurni *H2.1_w- ‘that, other’ (IEW:73-75) → abi *H2.2_w- ‘away, off’ (IEW:72-73) → hapan-, hapšar*H2.2_w- ‘to shine, to be bright’ (IEW:86-87) → hawurni *H2.2_w- ‘to spend the night, sleep’ (IEW:72) → hurri *H2.2_w- ‘to weave, to bind, attach’ (IEW:75-76) → huš*H2.2_w-g- ‘to increase’ (IEW:84) → hud*H1_y- ‘to go’ → izuri, itt*H2.2_y- ‘to give, take’ (IEW:10-11) → ha(i)*H2.2_y- ‘one’ (IEW:286) → heyari *H2.2_y- ‘copper’ (IEW:15) → hiyari *H2.2_y-w- ‘age, lifetime; for ever’ (IEW:17) → hiri, hišna*H3_zd- ‘branch’ (IEW:785-786) → ašdiwelde *(H3)_m- ‘bitter’ (IEW:777-8) → malaši *(H3)l_ig- ‘poor, few’ (IEW:667) → nigali *k_ ‘deictic, this’ (IEW:609) → ak(k)i *kad- ‘to fall’ (IEW:516) → kadih-, kud*k_l- ‘(vb.) to lift, to raise, to elevate; (n.) hill’ → kil*k_l- ‘to strike, to wound, to injure’ (IEW:545-6) → kalgi *kap- ‘to seize, capture’ (IEW:527) → kebli *k_r-H2- ‘uppermost part (of anything)’ (IEW:574-577) → kirhi *k_wdh- ‘to cover, to hide, to conceal’ (IEW:952) → kuzuš*kw_l- ‘to bring to an end’ → kul-

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language
140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. *kw_n- ‘holy’ (IEW:630) → kundari, Kušuh *kw_r- ‘time’ (IEW:641-642) → guru *kwətwer ‘four’ (IEW:642) → [initial cluster simplication] tu-mni *l_gh ‘to lie, lay’ (IEW:658) → [irregular] nahh*l_H1- ‘to let go’ (IEW:666) → nakk*l_H2.2- ‘gain, reward’ (IEW:655) → nihari, nešše *l_H2-iwo ‘left (side)’ (IEW:652) → nariya *l_ibh- ‘liver’ (IEW:670) → nibašuri *me (conjunctive particle) → -ma *mo (demonstrative pronoun stem) ‘this, that’ → -mma, ma, man*mad- ‘to help, to support, to care for, to nourish’ → mazeri *m_d- ‘to measure, to estimate, to reckon’ (IEW:705-706) → mad-, madi, *magh- ‘to be able’ (IEW:695) → magunni, mugni, Šimigi *m_l- ‘to rub, to crush, to grind’ (IEW:716-19) → malladi *m_n- ‘to stay, to remain’ → man*n_ ‘that, yonder’ → inna, inu(me), -ni, -nna *nana [babytalk word] ‘mother, aunt’ (IEW:754) → nera *n_H2- ‘to be useful, help’ (IEW:754) → niri *n_k- ‘to tie, to bind, to fasten together’ → nekri *nant- ‘to dare’ (IEW:755) → nan*n_r- ‘to move quickly or rapidly’ → nirušae *n_s- ‘to go after, to seek’ (IEW:766-767) → [unvoiced medial] nešše *n_u-d- ‘to make use of’(IEW768) → nulmi *n_w- ‘to discern, to discover, to get to know’ (IEW:768-769) → nui *n_w-os ‘new’ (IEW318) → naihi, naw-, nawni *n_wṃ ‘nine, 9’ (IEW318) → niš *nu ‘now’ → hinnu *p_H3- ‘to drink’ (IEW:839) → pusih *p_kw-, *k_kw- ‘to cook’ (IEW:798) → kakari *p_l- ‘to flow’ (IEW:798-801) → pala *p_nt- ‘to tread go’ (IEW:808) → pind*pn_u- ‘to breathe’ (IEW:838) → wuhhi, punhi *p_r- ‘(vb.) to harm, to endanger; (n.) harm, danger’ → parili *p_r-, *pr_H2- ‘front, first’ (IEW:810) → pahi *p_t- ‘to go to or towards; to go against; to go back’ (IEW:842) → pas-, pasihi, pitt*s_H1- ‘long (period of time)’ (IEW891) → šawala *s_H2.2- ‘well alive, in good health’ → šehurni, šuhuri *s-k_r- ‘leather’ (IEW:938-947) → karkarni *s_kw ‘to say’ (IEW:897) → išikun*sal- ‘gray’ (IEW:879) < *‘to burn’ → šalmi, šalmulušt-, šulli *s_l- ‘human settlement’ (IEW:898) → šeli, šali *s_l(H)- ‘to listen, to understand’ → salh*s_ptṃ (IEW:909) → šindi *s_r- ‘to move quickly, to flow’ (IEW:909-910) → šuram-, šurr*s_r- ‘to split, to rip apart, to tear asunder’ (IEW:911) → šašari, šur*s_r- ‘to arrange in order’ (IEW:911) → šir-, širi *s_r- ‘to tell, to narrate’ → širat*s_H1- ‘to sow, to plant’ → šišihe

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language
188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220. 221. *so ‘this, that’ → ezabi *st_l- ‘to stand’ (IEW:1019) → zillikuhli *s-t_m- ‘to cut, chop’ (IEW:1062-3) → tsamm*s_w- ‘to wet, to flow’ (IEW:912-913) → šiye, šiwe *s_w- ‘to swell, to expand’ → šauši *s_wbh- ‘(vb.) to storm, to rage; (n.) fury, storm’ (IEW:914-5) → Teššub *s(w)_ks ‘six’ (IEW1044) → šeši *sw_r- ‘to cut, pierce’ (IEW:1050) → šauri, šur*s_y-b-, *s_y-kw- ‘to flow, to drip’ (IEW:893) → šiba *syuH- ‘to sew’ (IEW:915) → sull*t-ū ‘P2Sg’ (IEW:1097) → *-b, -u-, šini *ten-/*ton-/*t‚- ‘to stretch, to extend’ *tap- ‘to press down, to bring down’ (IEW:1056) → tapš*t_rH2- ‘to be strong, powerful; to control’ (IEW:1074-1075) → turuhhi *t_r-s- ‘dry; to burn’ (IEW:1078) → tari *t_w-(H)- (> *tū-) ‘to swell; totality’ (IEW:1080) → šui, šuga, tea, teuna, tiššan, *w_(-s)- 2nd person personal pronoun stem dual and plural → *-b, -u-, *w_b- ‘to kill, weapon’ → ub*w_bh- ‘to go astray, to be confused’ (IEW:1114-1115) → ubi *w_d- ‘water’ (IEW:78-81) → wudarini *w_l- ‘to turn, to roll, to revolve’ → wali *w_l-H2- ‘to strike, to wound’ (IEW:1144-1145) → ull-, ululi, ulmi *w_n-dh- ‘to wend, to turn around, to return’ (IEW:1148 & 1514) → un*w_r- ‘to turn; to become; etc.’ (IEW:1152-1159) → ur*w_r- ‘to say, to speak, to tell’ (IEW: 1162-1163) → (w)ur*w_r-H2.2- ‘true, right, proper’ (IEW:1165-1166) → urhi*w_s- ‘good, brave, noble’ (IEW:1174-1175) → uštai *yo- ‘who, which’ (IEW:281) → iya *y_g- ‘holy, sacred’ (IEW:501) → itku(l-), itkalzi, *y_H1gw- ‘(muscular) force, energy’ (IEW:503) → ehebš*y_H2.2-k- ‘to heal’ (IEW:503) → eheli *y_m_n ‘right hand’ → eman *y_s- ‘earth, ground’ → eše *y_w-n- ‘young’ (IEW:510) → inni

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language APPENDIX 3 Pairs of deictics: Demonstratives (Declinable pronouns): e-za-bi < *so ‘this one’ a-ga-bi < *gho ‘the other one’ -tta < *to ‘that one there’ -mma < *mo ‘this one here’ uli ‘other’ (Adj.) Interrogatives: a-bi, a-wi < *bho ‘who?’ (unattested) < *ko ‘which one?’ (unattested) < *ko ‘what?’ Relatives (normally followed by a verb or a verbal stem): i-yo ‘who, which (relative)’ a- ‘that which, who’ inume ‘as, like’ anam(mi) ‘thus’ ai ‘if’ Anaphorics: -lla ‘(anaphoric)’ < *(H1-)-lo a-n-ni ‘close anaphoric’, -na, nni ‘(anaphoric) Article’ < *(H1-)-no a-dí ‘thus’, a-n-di ‘distant anaphoric’, < *H1.1o-dho- ‘then’

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Hurrian language APPENDIX 4 Untransparent sound laws Examples of cluster simplications with -pC-: PIE *septṃ > šindi ‘seven’ PIE *bhes- ‘to rub, pulverize; sand’ (IEW:170) > silman- ‘to break, destroy’ Akkadian suluppu > tzilumba ‘date’ Mitanni Aryan sapta (borrowing) > šatta Examples of cluster simplications with -kC-: PIE *s(w)eks > šiši ‘six’ PIE *kwətwer > tu-mni ‘four’ Affricates originating in a sequence *-Hs-: *[xidzúγ] cg? ‘to anger, to vex’ < *H1eis-: reduplication *H1iH1s- > *hidz- (?). *[pudziγ-] cg? ‘(tr.) to dip, soak into’ < *peH3-: *peH3-s- > *pudz- (?). Spirantization of *H1g > -h-: *[buruγli-] cg ‘east (or less probably south)’ < *bhreH1ğ- ‘to be bright’ *[eγew-s-] cg ‘to contract (a muscle)’ < *yeH1gw- ‘(muscular) force, energy’ Irregular spirantization with no apparent cause: *[nax-] cg? ‘to sit, to lie’ < *legh- ‘to lie, lay’ *[suγni] [P -3] cg? ‘wall’ < *dheigh- ‘to knead or paste clay’ *[tiγan-] cg? ‘to show’ < *deik- ‘to point at, show’ Spirantization of initial dental stops followed by -u/w and -i/y: *[sagari] cg? ‘sprout, bud’ < Cf. Germanic *twig(g)a ‘branch, fork’ < *dwegh*[sali] or *[ɬa(:)li] ‘daughter’ < *dh_H1- ‘to breast-feed’: *dhuH1-ali (?) > *š(w)ali *[salli] cg ‘rampage’ < Cf. Latin (arch.) duellum ‘war’. *[seni] [P x-] cg ‘brother’ < *dhiH1- ‘to breast-feed’ *[si] cg ‘eye, look’ < *dheiH- ‘to see’ *[siduri] cg ‘young woman’ < *dhiH1- ‘to breast-feed’ *[simegi] cg ‘Sun-god’ < *dyew-magh-i > *Ši-migi ‘Master of daylight’, a variant of *dyew-pH2ter. *[sini] cg ‘two’ < *dwi-ni ‘two’ (IEW:228). *[sini] cg ‘P2 Sg. (?)’ < *t-u- (IEW:1097) *[siri] cg ‘day’ < *diH- (IEW:175). Cf. Eng. time, tide. *[seswi] cg ‘kid’ < *dhwes- ‘(domesticated) animal’ *[suˀi] cg ‘all’ < *teu-(H)- ‘totality’; *teutā ‘tribe’ *[subi] cg ‘bad, angry’ < *du-s ‘bad’ *[suga] ‘together with’ < *teu-(H)- ‘totality’; *teutā ‘tribe’ *[suni] [P x-] cg? ‘soul [?]’ < *dhuH- ‘smoke; breath’ *[suw] cg ‘day’ < *dyew- ‘daylight’ *[suγni] [P -3] cg? ‘wall’ < *dheigh- ‘to knead or paste clay’: dhoigh- > *dūg- > šug*[suki] cg ‘once’ < *deik- ‘finger, to show’. *doik- > *dūk > šuk-

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