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And finally to this
Thus after reading and understanding the whole project we hope that all will understand what is exactly “GROUP DYNAMICS”
“The GROUP DYNAMICS” can bring synergy, or tear things apart” - Margaret Bau
Group dynamics is such a vast topic that to understand it one must understand the core of it. Following contents may make it easy for all of us to understand “GROUP DYNAMICS”:
What is Sociology?? What is a Group?? Criteria for Group Different types of Group Four stages of Group Development by “BRUCE TUCKMAN” What is a Team?? What makes a Team? Teamwork and Business Why do team fails? What is GROUP DYNAMICS?? Introduction Key theorists Group development Group size Risky shift Group think Social support Growth = Challenge + Support Group norms
Group mix Group games & activities What are different GROUP DYNAMICS games?? Group problem solving activities Role play for groups Practical application of Foundation of Human Skills in a Group. Case study Conclusion Bibliography
To know about Group Dynamics we first have to study the basic idea of it and to start with it we shall explain What is SOCIOLOGY? In simple words Sociology can be defined as “The study and classification of of human societies”. Sociologists study society and socila behaviour by examining the groups and socila institutuions people form as well as social, religious, political and business organizations. Basically Sociology and Sociologists studies the behaviour and social interaction among groups, trace their origin and growth and analyze the influence of group activities on the group members. Group behaviour refers to the situation where people interact in side small groups, i.e. to reach or not a consensus and act in a cordinated way.
What is a GROUP?
A GROUP is usually defined as a collection of humans or animals who share certain characteristics, interact with one another, accept expectations or obligations as member of the group, and share a common identity. “Two or more people who share a common definition ans eveluation of themselves and behave in accordance with such a definition”. “A collection of people who inetract with one another, accpet rights and obligations as members and who share a common identity”.
CRITERIA FOR A GROUP INCLUDE: - Formal social structure - Face-to-face interaction - Two or more person - Common fate - Common goals - Interdependence - Self definition as group member
- Recognition by others
TYPES OF GROUP: - PRIMARY GROUPS: - These are small groups with
intimate, kin-based relationships: families, for example. They commonly last for years. They are small and display face-to-face interaction. - SECONDARY GROUPS: - These are large groups whose relationships are formal and institutional. They may last for years but some may disband after a short lifetime. The formation of primary group happens within the secondary group. - REFERANCE GROUPS: - These are groups to which individual does not have real membership, but to which he conceptually relates him/herself and from which he might accept goals and values as a part of his/her self identity. In today‟s World, groups are formed on the basis of ideologies. Such groups are categorized into Three main categories: CONSERVATIVE: - These are hostile to social change and generally include religious groups or different sects.
MODERATE: - These groups can be changed into other groups since they have no strict ideology of bringing a change or conserving the existing values or norms. LIBRAL GROUPS: - These groups in the society bring social change and progress but have always been suppressed by Conservative Groups. Thus after learning so mush about a Group the most technical definition of Group can be given as suggested by Muzafer Sherif – “A social unit consisting of number of individuals interacting with each other with respect to: common motives and goals an accepted division of labor, i.e. roles established status (social rank, dominance) relationships accepted norms and values with reference to matters relevant to group development of accepted sanctions (praise and punishment) if and when norms are respected or violated”. Group is formed by the people and each and every individual have different view and ideas. Keeping this in mind a renowned Sociologist “BRUCE TUCKMAN” gave a model of Four Stages of Group Development.
Tuckman’s model state that ideal group decision making process should occur in four stages:
Stage 1: Forming
Individual behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others, and avoid controversy or conflict. Serious issues and feelings are avoided, and people focus on being busy with routines, such as team organization, who does what, when to meet, etc. But individuals are also gathering information and impressions - about each other, and about the scope of the task and how to approach it. This is a comfortable stage to be in, but the avoidance of conflict and threat means that not much actually gets done. Thus FORMING can be defined as pretending to get on or get along with others.
Stage 2: Storming
Individuals in the group can only remain nice to each other for so long, as important issues start to be addressed. Some people's patience will break early, and minor confrontations will arise that are quickly dealt with or glossed over. These may relate to the work of the group itself, or to roles and responsibilities within the group. Some will observe that it's good to be getting into the real issues, whilst
others will wish to remain in the comfort and security of stage 1. Depending on the culture of the organisation and individuals, the conflict will be more or less suppressed, but it'll be there, under the surface. To deal with the conflict, individuals may feel they are winning or losing battles, and will look for structural clarity and rules to prevent the conflict persisting. Thus STORMING can be defined as letting down politeness barrier and trying to get down to the issues even if tempers flare up.
Stage 3: Norming
As Stage 2 evolves, the "rules of engagement" for the group become established, and the scope of the group‟s tasks or responsibilities is clear and agreed. Having had their arguments, they now understand each other better, and can appreciate each other's skills and experience. Individuals listen to each other, appreciate and support each other, and are prepared to change pre-conceived views: they feel they're part of a cohesive, effective group. However, individuals have had to work hard to attain this stage, and may resist any pressure to change - especially from the outside - for fear that the group will break up, or revert to a storm.
Thus NORMING can be defined as getting used to each other and developing trust and productivity among each other.
Stage 4: Performing
Not all groups reach this stage, characterized by a state of interdependence and flexibility. Everyone knows each other well enough to be able to work together, and trusts each other enough to allow independent activity. Roles and responsibilities change according to need in an almost seamless way. Group identity, loyalty and morale are all high, and everyone is equally task-orientated and people-orientated. This high degree of comfort means that all the energy of the group can be directed towards the task(s) in hand. Thus PERFORMING can be defined as working in a group to a common goal on a highly efficient and cooperative basis. Ten years after first describing the four stages, Bruce Tuckman revisited his original work and described another, final, stage:
Stage 5: Adjourning
This is about completion and disengagement, both from the tasks and the group members. Individuals will be proud of having achieved much and glad to have been part of such an enjoyable group. They need to recognize what they've done, and consciously move on. Some authors describe stage 5 as "Deforming and Mourning", recognizing the sense of loss felt by group members.
Thus many work groups live in the comfort of Norming, and are fearful of moving back into Storming, or forward into Performing. This will govern their behavior towards each other, and especially their reaction to change.
WHAT IS A TEAM?
A “TEAM” comprises any group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. A Group in itself does not necessarily constitute
A team comprises any group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team. There are however many components that make up a team like manager and agents. Thus teams of sports players can form (and reform) to practice their craft. Transport logistics executives can select teams of horses, dogs or oxen for the purpose of conveying goods. What Makes a Good Team?
Knowledgeable people from all relevant departments Between 6 and 10 members A clear, documented purpose An open, pleasant environment
Well planned and structured meetings The support of superiors When setting up a team, the most important ingredient is the people. If the team is to function effectively, all the necessary skills and experience should be present and the people should have the authority to act on their own. When a team starts working, it will need time and facilities to start their development and agree how they are going to operate. The purpose of the team must be clearly stated and written down in an initiation document or manual.
Team Work and Business
Teams should have clear responsibilities and authority to make decisions alone. Teams should be given time to develop together into a productive unit. Well managed teams are more likely to produce the correct answer. Teams that are well supported and trusted will produce the best results.
Why do Teams Fail?
Teams fail when they are not given authority Teams fail when they do not understand how to use their combined abilities Teams fail because of vested interests Teams fail when they do not understand team working
EXAMPLE Take Big Brother, they are a group of 12 people who will be with each other for a few months during the weeks, they will have to nominate a person to leave the Big Brother house, the aim is to be the last two people in the house so the public votes who's going to win £70000, whist playing the game they have to work with each other to clean, cook etc, they haven't got a leader so everything can go pear shaped, and they will go behind peoples back to win the money. Collins Dictionary 1995 'number of people or things regarded as a unit' What is a team? Take a football team they have to work together for 90mins on the pitch, there aim is to produce as many goals as possible.
What is GROUP DYNAMICS?
Human beings exhibit some characteristic behavior patterns in groups. People involved in managing groups and group members themselves can benefit from studying theories and doing practical exercises which help them to better understand people's behavior in groups and group dynamics. When group patterns are combined with study of individual development, then group dynamics can also are applied to education and therapy (as is often the case in experiential, outdoor and adventure education). People may underestimate the importance of society and group memberships on their lives. Whilst people sometimes undertake solo journeys but by and large much of our experiences of life involves being engaged with others and groups. The nature of these groups can be quite varied, from a family going for a walk, to the crowd at a football game, to an internet discussion group, to a group of fellow workers. Given the diverse, yet common occurrence of groups, what is the nature and pattern of such group experiences? The
social dynamics which occur within groups over time vary from group to group, but also illustrate some commonalities. A classic example is the issue of what happens to groups over time? For example, Tuckman's (1965) Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing model of group development is commonly used to describe the evolving experience and organization of adventure-based groups. The term GROUP DYNAMICS implies that individual behavior may differ depending on individual‟s current or prospective connections to a sociological group. Group Dynamics is the area of social sciences that focuses on nature of the group.
KEY THEORISTS: Kurt Lewin (1943, 1948, 1951): He is commonly identified as the founder of the movement to study groups scientifically. He coined the term Group Dynamics to describe the way groups and individuals act and react to changing circumstances.
William Schutz (1958, 1966): He looked at interpersonal relations from the perspective of three dimensions: inclusion, control and affection. Conversely, a group may also devolve at an earlier stage if unable to resolve outstanding issues at a particular stage.
Wilfred Bion (1961): He studied Group Dynamics from a psychoanalytical perspective. Many of his finding were reported in his book, Experiences in Groups.
Bruce Tuckman (1965): - He proposed the Four Stage Group Development model called Tuckman’s Stages fro a group.
GROUP SIZE: Theory - 6 to 16 is roughly ideal A well-cited theory by Walsh and Golins (1976) includes the claim that a group size of 10 is ideal for Outward Bound programs - not too large so that individuals get lost, not so small that a group lacks dynamic diversity. It‟s more practical to consider an optimal range - say 6 to 16. Besides practicalities (e.g., enrolments and resources), the group size may be adjusted according to age, maturity, experience, program goals, experience of instructor, program difficulty, etc. It is important to realize that group dynamics take place regardless of group size and, ultimately, it is the dynamics rather than the actual number in a group which is most likely to affect psycho-social outcomes. Groups with sizes between about 6 and 16 are likely to experience similar processes and outcomes. This is also a common size for other intense group settings, e.g., group therapy.
Research - Group size doesn't matter - its the individual's quality of experience matters From research on approximately 3000 participants in Outward Bound and related programs in Australia, no consistent effects of group size on life effectiveness outcomes were identified. Group sizes in the study ranged between 5 and 26.
RISKY SHIFT: When people are in groups, they make decision about risk differently from when they are alone. In the group, they are likely to make riskier decisions, as the shared risk makes the individual risk less. They also may not want to let their compatriots down, and hence be risk-averse (this is sometimes called cautious shift). The overall tendency towards a shift in risk perception is also sometimes called choice shift. Myers and Bishop (1970) put highly prejudiced students together to discuss racial issues. They became even more prejudiced. The reverse happened with unprejudiced students, who became even more unprejudiced.
Entire football teams sometime get into aggressive or defensive moods as they either throw caution to the winds trying to score or desperately try to avoid being caught out.
Juries given weak evidence will become very lenient after discussion, whilst when given strong evidence they are likely to give harsh judgment. Show the other person how other people are making the same decision. Frame the risk as individually less. Make decisions on your own. Shared risk is still the same risk.
GROUP THINK: Groups sometimes fall into a style of thinking where the maintenance of the group‟s cohesion and togetherness becomes all-important and results in very bad decisionmaking. Janis (1972) defines it as "a way of deliberating that group members use when their desire for unanimity overrides their motivation to assess all available plans of action." The eight primary symptoms of groupthink are:
Illusions of invulnerability where the group think it is invincible and can do no wrong. Collective efforts to rationalize or discount warnings. Unquestioned belief in the moral correctness of the group. Stereotyped views of the out-group, often as too evil, weak or stupid to be worth bothering with. Self-censorship as people decide not to rock the boat. Pressure to conform.
A shared illusion of unanimity (everyone always agrees with everyone else). Protecting the group from contrary viewpoints, by selfappointed „mind-guards‟.
Groupthink happens most often when the group is already cohesive, is isolated from conflicting opinions and where the leader is open and directive. The lack of a formal decision process is also common. Problem-solving and task-oriented groups are particularly susceptible. Resulting decisions are often based on incomplete information and fail to consider alternatives and risks.
The most famous example of Groupthink is the presidential advisory group who almost led Kennedy into invading Cuba and potential nuclear war in the Bay of Pigs affair. The Challenger disaster was another effect where NASA officials disregarded engineer‟s concerns and decided to launch the shuttle. For an enjoyable example, watch the movie 'Twelve Angry Men', which is about blind agreement and dissent on a jury. The leader should avoid being too directive and be vigilant for groupthink effects. External opinions should be taken seriously or even having external people included in meetings. The group should be split into subgroups for reporting back and discussion. Individuals should be privately polled for personal opinions.
Social Support Helps People Grow: In psychological theory and research, it has been known for many years that social support is a key factor which determines people‟s level of physical and mental health. For example, in group and workplace settings socially supportive teams are more likely to reach their objectives. At the heart of this approach is the importance of deep valuing and active support of each individual. People who feel good about themselves generally are more productive and effective than those who don't feel good about themselves. This is consistent with a person-centerd approach to therapy: “As persons are accepted and prized, they tend to develop a more caring attitude towards themselves” (Rogers, 1980: 116). The person-centered or humanistic approach is based around respect for the dignity and individuality of each member. This believes in each person's value is seen as a critical ingredient for growth and development. Effective psychological change processes usually benefit from a humanistic orientation. Support alone, however, is not enough. For example, there has recently been criticism of parenting and schooling practices which artificially inflate children's self-esteem without giving the children real skills upon which to base
their self-esteem. Ideally, support should be paired with appropriately challenging experiences. The mix of social support and challenge can be a powerful formula for healing and growth. This may explain, for example, the impressive effects of outdoor education programs. Programs such as Outward Bound provide controlled exposure to challenging experiences and emphasize a warm and supportive group atmosphere. Social support helps people to take positive risks. However, when there are negative relations with others, people are inclined to adopt defensive or aggressive postures are at not able to create and engage in as many growth opportunities. Social support can also serve as a salve to pains encountered along the way. It gives people confidence in 'having a go' and testing their limits when they know they have a community of support. Social support is freely available. Create social support yourself - a smile, a compliment, a helping hand - and you start to create your own environment of support. Love really does make the world go around if we keep passing it around. Leaders can create social support by demonstrating a caring attitude towards each individual. In addition, the leader fosters social support amongst the group by providing sequential activities such as:
Early on, name games, get-to-know-you activities, and trust experiences Personal and interpersonal exploration activities, such as sharing life stories, diaries, etc. Interpersonal feedback and life review and life planning activities When the power of social support and challenge are really harnessed, a group can collectively achieve very significant, even transformational growth together.
Growth = Challenge + Support
Life and even non-life forms demonstrate remarkably simple principles. In order for a life-like pattern to flourish, it requires: challenge support Challenge sets a process in motion - it provides the motivation or energy for a response. Support helps to ensure successful adaptation. The challenges for a newly sprouted seed it to survive and thrive until its produced seed. It needs support in the form of light and nutrients. The challenge and the support allow it to succeed. Without the challenge (the motivation) or support (the help), the plant would wither. In humans, support alone creates laziness. Challenge alone can be harmful. Together, challenge and support can create a myriad of adventurous growth experiences. Forms of human support can be depicted using Maslow's hierarchy of needs. As one's more basic needs are met, one's higher needs can be pursued. Thus, genuine support should be matched with people's real needs. Research Evidence about the Role of Challenge + Support In a study of 41 adult Outward Bound participants, it was found that the amount of social support strongly predicted changes in participants‟ „psychological resilience‟ (Neill &
Dias, 2001). Resilience refers to an individuals‟ capacity to survive and thrive in difficult circumstances. In this study, there were four measures of social support
overall group support instructor support support from the most supportive group member, and support from the least supportive group member.
Interestingly, it was the support received from the least supportive person that best predicted gains in resilience. This seems to mean that disruptive, negative individuals may be seriously limiting the potential for other group members‟ learning and development. These research findings support the need for a humanistic approach and suggest the need for leaders to deal proactively with negative group members who may retard the potential growth of other group members. Early intervention, involving feedback and support to individuals providing low or negative support, as well as to those individuals who are perceiving that they are receiving low support, is recommended.
GROUP NORMS: Think of the circumstances under which we come together in groups: the middle-management team at the plant, the outdoor expedition group, the church finance committee, passengers on a bus, a class in emergency procedures, a social gathering, a jury. Most of us have experienced these kinds of groups. And most of us have experienced the discomfort that comes from not knowing what the 'ground rules' are when we enter a new group, as well as the comfort of knowing them, or the frustration of trying to live with 'rules' which, though unspoken, seem to prevent us from being or doing what we really want to be or do. These usually unspoken and unexamined 'rules,' which determine what is and what is not acceptable behavior in the group, are not really rules at all: they are behavioral norms. The outdoor leader for example, may have a rule (stated and known to all) that the day will start at 6:15 a.m. Anyone watching the group, however, will note that the day usually starts between 7:00 and 7:15 a.m., without anyone's taking exception to it. A new member of the group must somehow learn this norm. In another instant, a person who swears like a trooper at work may use much more decorous language when meeting with a youth group, though the group has never discussed the issue nor established a 'rule' about it. A norm, then, is an operational entity. It comes into being as a result of what the group is and does. Over a period of time, for example, as a group forms, the members somehow come to know that it is acceptable to do something ('Frank doesn't interrupt anybody'). Since this usually happens without the group's conscious awareness, norms
can develop which block and hinder the group from doing what it really wants to do. For this reason it is often useful for a group to identify important norms, judge whether they are facilitating or blocking, and then decide how to go about developing new ones if the old will not do.
Facilitating and Hindering Norms Facilitating Norms Collaborative behavior Dealing with the hereand-now Acceptance of my own and other's feelings Respect for the individual Describing other persons' behaviour Recognizing that behaviour has consequences
Hindering or Blocking Norms
Competitive behaviour Dealing with the here-and-
then Censoring and/or denying own feelings; criticizing or evaulating others' Insistence upon conformity to the group Inferring the motivation behind other persons' behaviour Insistence that a person "should" or "should not" behave in a particular way
GROUP MIX: Group homogeneity versus heterogeneity? e.g., what is the effect of having groups consisting of people from one ethnicity compared to groups which are multi-ethnic? Is it better to create groups with diverse (heterogeneous) or narrow (homogenous) membership? Group Mix is needed to be understood very nicely because without knowing Group Mix we can not know how effectively and properly a selected group can perform the assigned task and achieve the goal efficiently. Speaking about Group homogeneity versus heterogeneity every individual has his/her own perception about certain task. It is not necessary that views of two people must match. Even view points of two siblings don‟t match to a greater extent. Talking about ethnicity every individual is influenced by the atmosphere in which he/she live and thus they have different ethnicity. Thus different individuals look at the same task in different manner. Group Dynamics thus deals with how effectively and efficiently a group tries to handle the task assigned to it for which the leader has to deal with homogeneous as well as heterogeneous type of membership.
GROUP GAMES & ACTIVITIES: Descriptions of Group Games for Fun Fun chasing game with suspense, laughter and exercise. Giant (arms up, roars) beats elf (hands to ears); elf beats wizard (waves wand & "kazaam"); wizard zaps giant. Energizing 10 min. group activity. Adds suspense, physical exercise, and fun. There are runners, catchers, and a winker. Creates wicked dizziness. Put a 6ft stick in the middle of a circle. Challenge: Holding stick vertically on end of chin, looking at the top, spin around 20 times, then throw the stick to the ground and jump over it. Its almost impossible! Hilarious, physically engaging, strategic group game. Create a tight circle of chairs (1 each). One person stands in middle, leaving a vacant chair. The person in the middle tries to sit in the "vacant chair" but other people keep switching into the vacant chair, making the gap move. Fun, physically demanding, competitive team activity. Several teams pull against each other, requiring communication and tactics as well as strength to outmanoeuvre and win.
Giants, Wizards & Elves
Each person places his head on another person's tummy, so that everyone is connected. The 1st person says "Ha", then the 2nd person "Ha-ha" and so on. The goal is to get all the way through the group without anyone laughing; its infectious if someone starts laughing. In threes, each puts in one hand. Join hands with grip as per a 2-way thumb wrestle. Try to pin the other two members thumbs for victory. Victors can then go into competition etc. if you want a grand winner. Groups of three. Two are free - fox and hunter. If fox gets on end of train, train becomes fox. If hunter catches fox, they swap. In a circle, each person says own name & shows his/her hobby by pantomime. In a circle, everybody swaps to opposite side - Return to old place backwards - Go to opposite side blind. 1. In pairs in a small space (e.g., rope circle) - Try to catch partner - If caught, switch chaser. 2. Catch partner by sight using binoculars made from hands. Everybody is blind & normal – if normal people meet each other they have to make a sound – but one person will be a vampire (chosen by leader) who doesn‟t speak. If you meet a vampire, become a vampire. If two vampires meet, they become normal.
3-way Thumb Wrestle
Trains, Fox & Hunter Hobby by Pantomime Circle Dance
In pairs, face to face. Alternate counting 1 - 2 - 3 (keep going) then replace saying...1 with a clap...2 with clapping legs...3 with a jump Groups of 5 to 8 players – the ending player has scarf like tail – the head of dragon has to catch tail of the other dragon – the dragons can‟t break Two lines – play paper-scissors-stone – if person wins, moves up line, if person loses, swap into opposite line (remember some winners in that line will be moving up). The line will keep moving.
DIFFERENT GROUP DYNAMICS GAMES: Dancing Dramaturgy Group problem solving activities Ice-breaker games Large group games Leadership games Psycho drama Role playing games Team building games Trust building games Win-win games
GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING ACTIVITES
There are a number of exercises that propose a problem that the group must solve. Some of these simply benefit from the diversity of perspectives and background knowledge inherent in groups to find the answer more quickly (Trivia, Wuzzles) while another approach is to give each individual some information and the collective information is needed to solve the problem or challenge. These can be simple or truly elegant situations. Many, like ZinObelisk, can be found for free on various websites and in books designed for use by trainers. Some of these free programs come with adequate support instructions while others are less complete. Many are readily adaptable to different situations and desired outcomes. Some companies market ready-to-play board games that are good for large groups. An example is Performance Management Company, which sells games like "The Search for The Lost Dutchman's Gold Mine." These types of programs often give teams resources, provides a structured environment for problem solving, and rewards collaboration (rather than competition). You can expect that these for-sale products will be bundled with instructor's guides, templates for play and other facilitation and instructional resources. Many of these team building kinds of events are available. A good place to search is under the general keywords of "teambuilding exercises"
Roleplay for Groups
This roleplay exercise allows people to become aware of roles they may play in groups. People often assume roles in specific groups that are different from their normal roles because of how they want or need to be perceived. Often, they are playing a role but not aware of it. Some roles are healthy, some are not. This exercise helps create awareness of role characteristics. This exercise can be modified for use in about any kind of group. This exercise is often done after a group has been together for a period of time so that roles in the group have emerged. You announce to the group that you will need some of them to play some roles that are often found in groups. State that you need eight (six to ten) volunteers to roleplay and they will draw their roles randomly out of a hat (basket). Each role is described and each will have one or two goals that demonstrate some characteristics of the role. In your introduction, make it sound like fun because it is in most situations. Role players will sit in a circle facing each other in the middle of the room while the rest of the group becomes observers. Their task will be to determine each role. “We will do this for 15 -20 minutes. The observers will then tell what they observed and then the role players will tell what it was like to play the role.” Before you start, ask the role players if any of them have a role they do not what to play. Try to exchange it with another person or allow them to leave the group or quickly select another person or leave that role out. Some people
may develop psychological blocks for certain roles and it would not be good for them to play it. Designate one person as a leader. Help facilitate that person in getting the group started. You can actually start it yourself by saying something like: “Glad to have such a find group of people here today to have some fun. It‟s time to start your roles. John, why don‟t you start us off.” If John has a problem getting the group going, step in and help only the minimum, then step out of the circle. You will know when to stop the role play because after awhile (10 –20 minutes) they will usually start getting silly, usually laughing at themselves. If not, just step into the circle and say, “I think we have developed enough of the roles to talk about them.” Start your debrief of the role play. Ask observers what roles they saw? Then move to the role players. You can ask them a number of questions about playing their role, like: Was your role familiar to you? Was it hard to play? Did you like the role? How did the role make you feel? Etc. Following the last debrief, you will need to go to the center of the circle and address each role player to defuse any residual feeling they may have about playing the role. About half the people may get a role they have played. You need to tell them they are no longer playing the role before they leave the circle and ask if any are having a problem with this? A few may and you will need to process this with them so they can let go of the role.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF FOUNDATION OF HUMAN SKILLS
Leadership, motivation, attitudes, values, ability to learn, listening, teamwork, etc. are the skills required by every social animal today in order to be successful and satisfied. But everybody does not equally possess these skills. Someone may have power and potential but may not be able to motivate others. Someone may be a really good leader but may not have the ability to work well in a team. It is said that skills are innate. But research has proved that these skills can be learnt and imbibed and used in our dayto-day life. It is for this reason that people have written such great books on these attributes. Today a manager‟s job is not just restricted to taking major decisions. It is his responsibility to delegate right job to the right person, supervise his sub-ordinates, create a good environment to work in, carry out various administrative work and most important of all being futuristic. He has to understand and study the human psychology and behavior in various situations and act accordingly. It is for this reason, we being future managers; have to study FOUNDATION OF HUMAN SKILLS in order to understand ourselves as well as others in a better way. The theory covered by this subject is not just for studying but also for relating them practically. In order to understand this in a better manner let us take a real life example. This happened when I was in 9th grade. We were going for our N.C.C. camp. Nobody ever thought that our class which was well known for its mischievous
activities would do so well when it came to teamwork. While we were in the bus, our supervisor, Mrs. Chakravarti, well known for being hotheaded woman, didn‟t allow us to sing and play during the trip. Her principle was „NO NOISE, NO VOICE‟. We got so frustrated with that provocative woman that finally we decided that no matter what happens, we will not only enjoy but involve her in enjoyment during our 3-day camp and make it a memorable trip for her. It was declared that the class getting the maximum marks would get a certificate from N.C.C. for being the best class of the year. All of us had a desire to win that certificate. This decision motivated us so much that for the first time our attitude towards every classmate changed and we started working as a group. Our scout leaders were in-charge of taking care of all the activities. We won in debates, elocution, theory, signs n symbols and other curricular activities. Then came the doom day when we were to be tested on marching. This was our last test and we had to give our best shot. But because we were unable to hear our teacher properly, we interpreted instructions in the wrong manner and marched wrongly. It was just because of this that we lost the title to be the best class amongst four divisions. That was really depressing. But all of us had achieved the real award; we learnt the value of working as a team and adjusting according to different behaviors. It was this attitude of ours‟ which made our class teacher proud. Even our N.C.C. supervisor was happy after seeing the efforts we had put in. The above example highlights various skills like teamwork, motivation, leadership, etc. and also tells about various behaviors of individuals. This is also common in organizations and world at large. What is important to learn
is that we should adapt to the environment and improve our skills as far as possible.
Much of the work on groups and teams was originally done in the 1940's and 1950's by two researchers called “Sherif & Sherif”. In their most important work they took two street gangs off the streets of New York City and gave them a summer vacation at a resort in the up state New York. One group was favored while the other one was subtly discriminated against so it appeared as if the group was always second best. As an example, the one gang was given accommodations close to the meal hall while the other group slept over half a mile away. The meals were on a first-come first-serve basis which meant that the groups further away were already operating on a disadvantage. In addition, both groups were given small housekeeping tasks which had to be done before they could go to meals. The people inspecting the two gangs were given instructions to speed on the first group while slowing on the second. The first gang always beat the second to the meal hall and had first choice of the meals. As you probably suspected, there was not enough tasty food to go around and the meals the second gang received were repetitive and not very appetizing. When the two gangs competed in games with each other, the first gang was always judged the winner. Over the course of the first week “Sherif & Sherif” noticed the morale, cohesion, and performance of the first gang increased while
that of the second gang went down dramatically. Tensions rose between the two gangs as a result of various incidents. One night, the first gang pelted the house the second gang lived in with unripe apples until all the windows were broken. Fights broke out between the gangs, and even within the second gang. Matters reached a head when one gang member from the second gang pulled a switchblade knife on a member of the first gang. The initial stage of the experiment ended at this point. For the follow up to the first part of the experiment, “Sherif & Sherif “decided to attempt to get the two gangs to operate together not only peacefully, but as one group. They changed the nature of the games from group competitions to tasks which required more members than were in either of the two gangs. Preferential treatment of the first gang was eliminated and the boys from both gangs were treated equally. The speed at which former antagonisms were forgotten and the two gangs merged resources surprised “Sherif & Sherif”. Sherif & Sherif Summations: The availability of resources and rewards has an impact on the morale, group unity and productivity. Recognition and effort impact group development. Productivity increased and maintains group effectiveness
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